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# Problem 3-1

A concrete cylinder having a diameter of 150 mm. and gauge length of 300 mm is tested in
compression. The results of the test are reported in the table as load versus contraction. Draw the
stress-strain diagram using scales of 10 mm = 2 MPa and 10 mm = 0.1(10-3) mm/mm. From the
diagram, determine approximately the modulus of elasticity.
(kN) (mm)
P := δ :=
0.0 0.0000
Given: d := 150 L := 300
25.0 0.0150
3
Solution: ⎛ π⎞ 2
A := ⎜ ⋅ d * σ :=
10 P
ε :=
δ 47.5 0.0300
⎝ 4⎠ A L 82.5 0.0500
102.5 0.0650
127.5 0.0850
σ=P/A ε=δ/L
(MPa) (mm/mm) 150.0 0.1000
172.5 0.1125
⎛ 0.00 ⎞ ⎛ 0.000000 ⎞
⎜ ⎜ 192.5 0.1250
⎜ 1.41 ⎟ ⎜ 0.000050 ⎟ 232.5 0.1550
⎜ 2.69 ⎟ ⎜ 0.000100 ⎟ 250.0 0.1750
⎜ 4.67 ⎟ ⎜ 0.000167 ⎟ 265.0 0.1875
⎜ ⎟ ⎜ ⎟
⎜ 5.80 ⎟ ⎜ 0.000217 ⎟ Regression x := min ( ε ) , 0.00005 .. max ( ε )
⎜ 7.22 ⎟ ⎜ 0.000283 ⎟ curve: Coeff := loess ( ε , σ , 1.5 )
σ=⎜ ⎟ ε =⎜ ⎟
⎜ 8.49 ⎟ ⎜ 0.000333 ⎟ Y ( x) := interp ( Coeff , ε , σ , x)
⎜ 9.76 ⎟ ⎜ 0.000375 ⎟
⎜ 10.89 ⎟ ⎜ 0.000417 ⎟ 16
⎜ ⎟ ⎜ ⎟
⎜ 13.16 ⎟ ⎜ 0.000517 ⎟
⎜ 14.15 ⎟ ⎜ 0.000583 ⎟ 14
⎜ ⎜
⎝ 15.00 ⎠ ⎝ 0.000625 ⎠ 12

10
Modulus of Elasticity: σ
From the stress-strain diagram, 8
Y( x )
mm
∆ε := ( 0.0003 − 0) 6
mm *
∆σ := ( 8.0 − 0)MPa *
4
∆σ
E approx :=
∆ε 2

## E approx = 26.67 GPa Ans

0 1 .10
4 .
2 10 3 .10 4 .10 5 .10 6 .10 7 .10
4 4 4 4 4 4

ε ,x
Problem 3-2

Data taken from a stress-strain test for a ceramic are given in the table. The curve is linear between the
origin and the first point. Plot the diagram, and determine the modulus of elasticity and the modulus of
resilience.

Unit used: ( 6)
MJ := 10 J σ=P/A ε=δ/L
(MPa) (mm/mm)
Solution: σ := ε :=
Regression curve: 0.0 0.0000
232.4 0.0006
x := min ( ε ) , 0.00005 .. max ( ε ) 318.5 0.0010
Coeff := loess ( ε , σ , 0.9 ) 345.8 0.0014
360.5 0.0018
Y ( x) := interp ( Coeff , ε , σ , x)
373.8 0.0022

## From the stress-strain diagram,

mm 360
∆ε := ( 0.0006 − 0)
mm
∆σ := ( 232.4 − 0)MPa 320
∆σ
E approx :=
∆ε 280

## E approx = 387.3 GPa Ans

240

σ
200
Modulus of Resilience: Y( x)
The modulus of resilience is equal to the area
under the initial linear portion of the curve. 160

mm
∆ε := ( 0.0006 − 0) 120
mm

3 kN
∆σ := ( 232.4 − 0)10 80
2
m
1
ur := ⋅ ∆ε ⋅ ∆σ
2 40
MJ
ur = 0.0697 Ans
3
m
5 .10
4
0 0.001 0.0015 0.002 0.0025
ε,x
Problem 3-3

Data taken from a stress-strain test for a ceramic are given in the table. The curve is linear between the
origin and the first point. Plot the diagram, and determine approximately the modulus of toughness. The
rupture stress is σr = 373.8 MPa.

Unit used: ( 6)
MJ := 10 J
σ=P/A
(MPA)
ε=δ/L
(mm/mm)
σ := ε :=
0.0 0.0000
Solution:
Regression curve: 232.4 0.0006
318.5 0.0010
x := min ( ε ) , 0.00005 .. max ( ε )
345.8 0.0014
Coeff := loess ( ε , σ , 0.9 ) 360.5 0.0018

Y ( x) := interp ( Coeff , ε , σ , x)
373.8 0.0022

400
Modulus of Resilience:
The modulus of resilience is equal 360
to the area under the curve.

1
A1 := ⋅ ( 232.4 ) ⋅ ( 0.0004 + 0.0010 ) 320
2

## A2 := 318.5 ⋅ ( 0.0022 − 0.0010 ) 280

1
A3 := ⋅ ( 373.8 − 318.5 ) ⋅ ( 0.0022 − 0.0010 ) 240
2
σ
200
Y( x )
1
A4 := ⋅ ( 318.5 − 232.4 ) ⋅ ( 0.0010 − 0.0006 ) 160
2

120
Atotal := A1 + A2 + A3 + A4
6 J
ut := Atotal⋅ 10 ⋅ 80
3 *
m

MJ
ut = 0.595 Ans 40
3*
m

5 .10
4
0 0.001 0.0015 0.002 0.0025
ε ,x
Problem 3-4

A tension test was performed on a steel specimen having an original diameter of 13 mm and gauge
length of 50 mm. The data is listed in the table. Plot the stress-strain diagram and determine
approximately the modulus of elasticity, the yield stress, the ultimate stress, and the rupture stress. Use
a scale of 10 mm = 209 MPa and 10 mm = 0.05 mm/mm. Redraw the elastic region, using the same
stress scale but a strain scale of 10 mm = 0.001 mm/mm.
(kN) (mm)
Given: d := 12.5* L := 50* P := δ :=
0.0 0.0000
3
Solution: ⎛ π⎞ 2
A := ⎜ ⋅ d * σ :=
10 ⋅ P δ
ε := *
7.5 0.0125
⎝ 4⎠ A * L 23.0 0.0375
σ=P/A ε=δ/L 40.0 0.0625
(MPa) (mm/mm.) 55.0 0.0875
⎛ 0.00 ⎞ ⎛ 0.00000 ⎞ 59.0 0.1250
⎜ 61.12 ⎜ 0.00025 59.0 0.2000
⎜ ⎟ ⎜ ⎟ 60.0 0.5000
⎜ 187.42 ⎟ ⎜ 0.00075 ⎟ 83.0 1.0000
⎜ 325.95 ⎟ ⎜ 0.00125 ⎟
⎜ ⎟ ⎜ ⎟ 100.0 2.5000
⎜ 448.18 ⎟ ⎜ 0.00175 ⎟ 107.5 7.0000
⎜ 480.78 ⎟ ⎜ 0.00250 ⎟ 97.5 10.0000
⎜ ⎟ ⎜
σ = 480.78 * ε = 0.00400 *
⎟ 92.5 11.5000
⎜ ⎟ ⎜ ⎟ Curve Fit:
⎜ 488.92 ⎟ ⎜ 0.01000 ⎟
⎜ 676.34 ⎟ ⎜ 0.02000 ⎟ ⎛ x ⎞
⎜ ⎟ ⎜ ⎟ ⎜ 0.3
⎜ 814.87 ⎟ ⎜ 0.05000 ⎟ Use: F ( x) := ⎜ x ⎟ Fit := linfit ( ε , σ , F)
⎜ 875.99 ⎟ ⎜ 0.14000 ⎟ ⎜ 0.6
⎜ 794.50 ⎟ ⎜ 0.20000 ⎟ ⎝x ⎠ ⎛ −4189.696 ⎞
⎜ ⎜ ⎜
Fit = 2285.571
⎝ 753.76 ⎠ ⎝ 0.23000 ⎠ ⎜
⎝ 596.538 ⎠
x := min ( ε ) , 0.00005 .. max ( ε )

Y ( x) := F ( x) ⋅ Fit

1000 1000

800 800

600 σ 600
σ
400 Y( x ) 400

200 200

0 0.001 0.002 0.003 0.004 0.005 0 0.05 0.1 0.15 0.2 0.25
ε ε,x

## Modulus of Elasticity: From the stress-strain diagram,

From the stress-strain diagram,
mm σ Y = 448MPa Ans
∆ε := ( 0.00125 − 0)
mm * σ ult = 890MPa Ans
∆σ := ( 326 − 0)MPa
*
σ R = 753.8MPa Ans
∆σ
Eapprox :=
∆ε *

## Eapprox = 260.8 GPa Ans

*
Problem 3-5

The stress-strain diagram for a steel alloy having an original diameter of 12mm and a gauge length of
50 mm is given in the figure. Determine approximately the modulus of elasticity for the material, the
load on the specimen that causes yielding, and the ultimate load the specimen will support.

## Given: d := 12mm L := 50mm

Solution: ⎛ π ⎞ ⋅ d2
A := ⎜
⎝ 4⎠

Modulus of Elasticity:
From the stress-strain diagram,
mm
∆ε := ( 0.001 − 0)
mm

∆σ := ( 290 − 0)MPa

∆σ
E :=
∆ε *

## From the stress-strain diagram, σ Y := 290MPa

PY := σ Y ⋅ A

PY = 32.80 kN Ans

## From th stress-strain diagram, σ u := 550MPa

Pu := σ u ⋅ A

Pu = 62.20 kN Ans
Problem 3-6

The stress-strain diagram for a steel alloy having an original diameter of 12 mm and a gauge length of
50 mm is given in the figure. If the specimen is loaded until it is stressed to 500MPa, determine the
approximate amount of elastic recovery and the increase in the gauge length after it is unloaded.

## Given: d := 12mm L := 50mm

σ max := 500MPa

Solution:
⎛ π ⎞ ⋅ d2
A := ⎜
⎝ 4⎠
Modulus of Elasticity:
From the stress-strain diagram,
mm
∆ε := ( 0.001 − 0)
mm

∆σ := ( 290 − 0)MPa

∆σ
E :=
∆ε *

## E = 290 GPa* Ans

σ max mm
Elastic Recovery: rRe := rRe = 0.00172
E mm

## AmountRe := rRe ⋅ ( L) AmountRe = 0.08621 mm Ans

mm
From the stress-strain diagram, ε max := 0.08
mm
Permanent set: (Permanent elongation)

mm
rps := ε max − rRe rps = 0.07828
mm
Amountps := rps⋅ ( L) Amountps = 3.91379 mm Ans
Problem 3-7

The stress-strain diagram for a steel alloy having an original diameter of 12 mm and a gauge length of
50 mm is given in the figure. Determine approximately the modulus of resilience and the modulus of
toughness for the material.

Unit used: ( 6)
MJ := 10 J

## Given: d := 12mm L := 50mm

Solution:
Modulus of Resilience:
The modulus of resilience is equal to the area
under the initial linear portion of the curve.
mm
∆ε := ( 0.001 − 0)
mm

∆σ := ( 290 − 0)MPa

1
ur := ⋅ ∆ε ⋅ ∆σ
2

## ur = 0.145 MPa Ans

Modulus of Toughness:
The modulus of toughness is equal to the area under the curve, and could be approximated by
counting the number of sqaures. the total number of squares is:
n := 33
mm
∆ε sq := ( 0.04 )
mm

∆σ sq := 100MPa

( )(
ut := n⋅ ∆ε sq ⋅ ∆σ sq )
ut = 132 MPa Ans
Problem 3-8

The stress-strain diagram for a steel bar is shown in the figure. Determine approximately the modulus
of elasticity, the proportional limit, the ultimate stress, and the modulus of resilience. If the bar is
loaded until it is stressed to 450 MPa, determine the amount of elastic strain recovery and the
permanent set or strain in the bar when it is unloaded.
3
Unit used: kJ := 10 J
Given: σ max := 450MPa
Solution:
Modulus of Elasticity:
From th stress-strain diagram,
mm
∆ε := ( 0.0015 − 0)
mm

∆σ := ( 325 − 0) ⋅ MPa
∆σ
E :=
∆ε

## E = 216.67 GPa Ans

Modulus of Resilience:
The modulus of resilience is equal to the area under the
initial linear portion of the curve.
mm
∆ε := ( 0.0015 − 0)
mm

∆σ := ( 325 − 0) ⋅ MPa
1
ur := ⋅ ∆ε ⋅ ∆σ
2
kJ
ur = 243.75 Ans
3
m

σ max mm
Elastic Recovery: rRe := rRe = 0.00208 Ans
E mm

mm
From th stress-strain diagram, ε max := 0.0750
mm
Permanent set: (Permanent elongation)

mm
rps := ε max − rRe rps = 0.07292 Ans
mm
Problem 3-9

The σ-ε diagram for elastic fibers that make up human skin and muscle is shown. Determine the
modulus of elasticity of the fibers and estimate their modulus of toughness and modulus of resilience.

Modulus of Elasticity:
From the stress-strain diagram,
mm
∆ε := ( 2.00 − 0)
mm
∆σ := ( 77 − 0)MPa

∆σ
E := E = 38.5 MPa Ans
∆ε

Modulus of Resilience:
The modulus of resilience is equal to the area under the initial linear portion of the curve.

mm
∆ε := ( 2.00 − 0)
mm
∆σ := ( 77 − 0)MPa
1
ur := ⋅ ∆ε ⋅ ∆σ
2

## ur = 77.00 MPa Ans

Modulus of Toughness:
The modulus of toughness is equal to the area under the curve. ε 0 := 0 ε 1 := 2.00 ε 2 := 2.25
σ 0 := 0 σ 1 := 77MPa σ 2 := 385MPa
A1 := ur
( )(
A2 := 0.5 σ 1 + σ 2 ⋅ ε 2 − ε 1 )
ut := A1 + A2

## ut = 134.75 MPa Ans

Problem 3-10

An A-36 steel bar has a length of 1250 mm and cross-sectional area of 430 mm2. Determine the length
of the bar if it is subjected to an axial tension of 25 kN. The material has linear-elastic behavior.

2
Given: A := 430mm L 0 := 1250mm P := 25kN

σ Y := 250MPa E st := 200GPa

Solution:

Normal Stress:
P
σ := σ = 58.140 MPa [less than yield stress σy]
A
Hence Hook's law is still valid.

Normal Strain:
σ − 6 mm
ε := ε = 290.6977 × 10
E st mm

Thus,

δL := ε ⋅ L0 δL = 0.36337 mm

L := L 0 + δL L = 1250.363 mm Ans
Problem 3-11

The stress-strain diagram for polyethylene, which is used to sheath coaxial cables, is determined from
testing a specimen that has a gauge length of 250 mm. If a load P on the specimen develops a strain of
ε = 0.024 mm/mm, determine the approximate length of the specimen, measured between the gauge
points, when the load is removed. Assume the specimen recovers elastically.

Given: L 0 := 250mm
Solution:
Modulus of Elasticity:
From th stress-strain diagram,
mm
∆ε := ( 0.004 − 0)
mm

∆σ := ( 14.0 − 0) ⋅ MPa
∆σ
E :=
∆ε

E = 3500.00 MPa

mm
Elastic Recovery: From the stress-strain diagram, ε max := 0.024 σ max := 26MPa
mm
σ max mm
rRe := rRe = 0.00743
E mm

Permanent set:
mm
rps := ε max − rRe rps = 0.01657
mm

Permanent elongation:

∆L := rps⋅ L0 ∆L = 4.14286 mm

L := L 0 + ∆L L = 254.143 mm Ans
Problem 3-12

Fiberglass has a stress-strain diagram as shown. If a 50-mm-diameter bar of length 2 m made from
this material is subjected to an axial tensile load of 60 kN, determine its elongation.

Given: L 0 := 2m d := 50mm

## P := 60kN unit := 1Pa

Solution:
⎛ π ⎞ ⋅ d2
A := ⎜
⎝ 4⎠
P 6
σ := σ = 30.558 × 10 Pa
A
σ
σ' = 300( 10 ) ⋅ ε
6 0.5 σ' :=
Given: unit

⎡⎢ σ' 2 ⎤⎥
ε :=
⎢ 9( 1016)⎥
⎣ ⎦

mm
ε = 0.010375
mm

( )
∆L := ε ⋅ L 0 ∆L = 20.75 mm Ans
Problem 3-13

The change in weight of an airplane is determined from reading the strain gauge A mounted in the
plane's aluminum wheel strut. Before the plane is loaded, the strain gauge reading in a strut is ε1 =
0.00100 mm/mm, whereas after loading ε2 = 0.00243 mm/mm. Determine the change in the force on
the strut if the cross-sectional area of the strut is 2200 mm2. E al = 70 GPa.

2
Given: A := 2200mm E al := 70⋅ GPa

mm mm
ε 1 := 0.00100 ε 2 := 0.00243
mm mm
Solution:

## Normal Force: Applying equation σ = P / A .

P1 := A⋅ σ 1 P1 = 154.00 kN

P2 := A⋅ σ 2 P2 = 374.22 kN
Thus,

∆P := P2 − P1 ∆P = 220.22 kN Ans
Problem 3-14

A specimen is originally 300 mm long, has a diameter of 12 mm, and is subjected to a force of 2.5 kN.
When the force is increased to 9 kN, the specimen elongates 22.5 mm. Determine the modulus of
elasticity for the material if it remains elastic.

## Given: d := 12mm L 0 := 300mm

P1 := 2.5kN P2 := 9kN ∆L := 22.5mm

Solution: ⎛ π ⎞ ⋅ d2
A := ⎜
⎝ 4⎠
Normal Force: Applying equation σ = P / A .
P1
σ 1 := σ 1 = 22.105 MPa
A
P2
σ 2 := σ 2 = 79.577 MPa
A
Thus,

∆σ := σ 2 − σ 1 ∆σ = 57.473 MPa

∆L
∆ε :=
L0

∆σ
E := E = 766.3 MPa Ans
∆ε
Problem 3-15

A structural member in a nuclear reactor is made from a zirconium alloy. If an axial load of 20 kN is to
be supported by the member, determine its required cross-sectional area. Use a factor of safety of 3
with respect to yielding. What is the load on the member if it is 1-m long and its elongation is 0.5 mm?
E zr = 100 GPa, σY = 400 MPa. The material has elastic behavior.

## E zr := 100⋅ GPa σ Y := 400⋅ MPa FoS := 3

Solution:
σY
σ allow := σ allow = 133.33 MPa
FoS
P 2
Areq := Areq = 150 mm Ans
σ allow

A := Areq
∆L mm
ε := ε = 0.0005
L0 mm

σ := E zr⋅ ε σ = 50 MPa

P := σ ⋅ A P = 7.5 kN Ans
Problem 3-16

The pole is supported by a pin at C and an A-36 steel guy wire AB. If the wire has a diameter of 5 mm,
determine how much it stretches when a horizontal force of 15 kN acts on the pole.

## Given: P := 15kN E st := 200⋅ GPa

a := 1.2m b := 1m

d := 5mm θ := 30deg

Solution:
⎛ π ⎞ ⋅ d2
A := ⎜ L := a + b
⎝ 4⎠
Support Reactions:

ΣΜB=0; Cx⋅ ( L) + P⋅ ( b) = 0
b
Cx := −P⋅
L
Cx = −6.82 kN

+ ΣF x=0; Cx + P + Bx = 0

Bx := −Cx − P
−Bx
FAB := FAB = 16.36 kN
Bx = −8.18 kN sin ( θ )

L
L AB := L AB = 2.54 m
cos ( θ )
FAB
σ AB := σ AB = 833.393 MPa
A
σ AB mm
ε AB := ε AB = 0.0041670
E st mm

## δ AB := ε AB⋅ LAB δ AB = 10.586 mm Ans

Problem 3-17

By adding plasticizers to polyvinyl chloride, it is possible to reduce its stiffness. The stress-strain
diagrams for three types of this material showing this effect are given below. Specify the type that
should be used in the manufacture of a rod having a length of 125 mm and a diameter of 50 mm, that
is required to support at least an axial load of 100 kN and also be able to stretch at most 6 mm.

## Given: d := 50mm L 0 := 125mm

P := 100kN δL := 6mm

Solution:
⎛ π ⎞ ⋅ d2
A := ⎜
⎝ 4⎠

Normal Stress:
P
σ := σ = 50.930 MPa
A

Normal Strain:
δL mm
ε := ε = 0.048000
L0 mm

## From the stress-strain diagram,the copolymer will satisfy both

stress and strain requirements. Ans
Problem 3-18

The steel wires AB and AC support the 200-kg mass. If the allowable axial stress for the wires is σallow
= 130 MPa, determine the required diameter of each wire. Also, what is the new length of wire AB
after the load is applied? Take the unstretched length of AB to be 750 mm. E st = 200 GPa.
m
Given: g := 9.81 m := 200kg
2
s
4 3
θ := 60deg v := h :=
5 5
L 0 := 750mm

## E st := 200GPa σ allow := 130MPa

Solution: W := m⋅ g

## Initial guess: FAC := 1N FAB := 2N

Given
+ ΣF x=0; −FAB⋅ cos ( θ ) + FAC⋅ ( h) = 0 [1]

## ⎛⎜ FAC ⎞ ⎛⎜ FAC ⎞ ⎛ 1066.75 ⎞

Solving [1] and [2]: := Find ( FAC , FAB)
⎜ FAB ⎜ FAB
=⎜ N
⎝ ⎠ ⎝ ⎠ ⎝ 1280.10 ⎠
Wire AB : ⎛π⎞
FAB = σ allow⋅ ⎜ ⋅ dAB
2
4 ⎝ ⎠
4 ⎛ FAB ⎞
dAB := ⋅⎜ dAB = 3.54 mm Ans
π ⎝ σ allow ⎠
Wire AC:
⎛π⎞
FAC = σ allow⋅ ⎜ ⋅ dAC
2
4 ⎝ ⎠
4 ⎛ FAC ⎞
dAC := ⋅⎜ dAC = 3.23 mm Ans
π ⎝ σ allow ⎠

## Stress-strain Relationship: Applying Hook's law σ = E ε .

σ allow mm
ε AB := ε AB = 0.000650
E st mm

Thus, (
L AB := L0⋅ 1 + ε AB ) L AB = 750.487 mm Ans
Problem 3-19

The two bars are made of polystyrene, which has the stress-strain diagram shown. If the
cross-sectional area of bar AB is 950 mm2 and BC is 2500 mm2, determine the largest force P that can
be supported before any member ruptures. Assume that buckling does not occur.
Given: a := 1.2m b := 0.9m
2 2
AAB := 950mm ABC := 2500mm

Solution:
2 2 a b
c := a +b h := v :=
c c

## Solving Eqs.[1] and [2]:

5
FAB = P [1a]
3
4
FBC = P [2a]
3
Assume tension failure of BC:

## From the stress-strain diagram, σ R_t := 35MPa

( )(
FBC := ABC ⋅ σ R_t ) FBC = 87.50 kN

## From Eq.[2a], P := 0.75 ⋅ FBC P = 65.63 kN

Pcase_1 := P
Assume compression failure of AB:

## From the stress-strain diagram, σ R_c := 175MPa

( )(
FAB := AAB ⋅ σ R_c ) FAB = 166.25 kN

Pcase_2 := P

## Chosoe the smallest value: (

P := min Pcase_1 , Pcase_2 ) P = 65.63 kN Ans
Problem 3-20

The two bars are made of polystyrene, which has the stress-strain diagram shown. Determine the
cross-sectional area of each bar so that the bars rupture simultaneously when the load P = 15 kN.
Assume that buckling does not occur.

## Given: a := 1.2m b := 0.9m P := 15kN

Solution:
2 2 a b
c := a +b h := v :=
c c

## Solving Eqs.[1] and [2]:

5
FAB := P FAB = 25.00 kN
3
4
FBC := P FBC = 20.00 kN
3

## From the stress-strain diagram, σ R_t := 35MPa

⎛ FBC ⎞ 2
ABC := ⎜ ABC = 571.43 mm Ans
⎝ σ R_t ⎠

## From the stress-strain diagram, σ R_c := 175MPa

⎛ FAB ⎞ 2
AAB := ⎜ AAB = 142.86 mm Ans
⎝ σ R_c ⎠
Problem 3-21

The stress-strain diagram for a polyester resin is given in the figure. If the rigid beam is supported by a
strut AB and post CD, both made from this material, and subjected to a load of P = 80 kN, determine
the angle of tilt of the beam when the load is applied. The diameter of the strut is 40 mm and the
diameter of the post is 80 mm.

Given: P := 80kN
L AB := 2m L CD := 0.5m L AC := 1.5m

## dAB := 40mm dCD := 80mm

Solution:
P P
Support Reactions: Ay := Cy :=
2 2

FAB := Ay FCD := Cy

⎛ π ⎞⋅ d 2 ⎛ π ⎞⋅ d 2
AreaAB := ⎜ AreaCD := ⎜
⎝ 4 ⎠ AB ⎝ 4 ⎠ CD
32.2MPa
From the stress-strain diagram, E :=
0.01
E = 3220.00 MPa

FAB
σ AB := σ AB = 31.831 MPa
AreaAB
σ AB mm
ε AB := ε AB = 0.0098854
E mm

## δ AB := ε AB⋅ LAB δ AB = 19.771 mm

FCD
σ CD := σ CD = 7.958 MPa
AreaCD
σ CD mm
ε CD := ε CD = 0.0024714
E mm

## δ CD := ε CD⋅ LCD δ CD = 1.236 mm

δ AB − δ CD
Angle of tilt α: tan ( α ) :=
L AC

⎛ δ AB − δ CD ⎞
α := atan ⎜ α = 0.708 deg Ans
⎝ LAC

Problem 3-22

The stress-strain diagram for a polyester resin is given in the figure. If the rigid beam is supported by a
strut AB and post CD made from this material, determine the largest load P that can be applied to the
beam before it ruptures. The diameter of the strut is 12 mm and the diameter of the post is 40 mm.

Given:
L AB := 2m L CD := 0.5m L AC := 1.5m

## dAB := 12mm dCD := 40mm

Solution:
P P
Support Reactions: Ay = Cy =
2 2

FAB = Ay FCD = Cy

⎛ π ⎞⋅ d 2 ⎛ π ⎞⋅ d 2
AreaAB := ⎜ AreaCD := ⎜
⎝ 4 ⎠ AB ⎝ 4 ⎠ CD
For rupture of strut AB:
From the stress-strain diagram, σ R_t := 50.0MPa

( )
FAB = AreaAB⋅ σ R_t

P := 2AreaAB⋅ ( σ R_t)

P = 11.31 kN Ans
(Controls!)

## For rupture of post CD:

From the stress-strain diagram, σ R_c := 95.0MPa

( )
FCD = AreaCD⋅ σ R_c

P := 2AreaCD⋅ ( σ R_c)

P = 238.76 kN
Problem 3-23

The beam is supported by a pin at C and an A-36 steel guy wire AB. If the wire has a diameter of 5
mm, determine how much it stretches when a distributed load of w = 1.5 kN/m acts on the pipe. The
material remains elastic.

kN
Given: L := 3m w := 1.5
m
dAB := 5mm θ := 30deg

E st := 200⋅ GPa
Solution:
Support Reactions:

## ΣΜC=0; FAB⋅ sin ( θ ) ⋅ ( L ) − w⋅ ( L ) ⋅ ( 0.5 ⋅ L) = 0

w⋅ L
FAB :=
2 sin ( θ )

⎛ π ⎞⋅ d 2 L
AreaAB := ⎜ L AB :=
⎝ 4 ⎠ AB cos ( θ )

FAB
σ AB := σ AB = 229.183 MPa
AreaAB
σ AB mm
ε AB := ε AB = 0.0011459
E st mm

## δ AB := ε AB⋅ LAB δ AB = 3.970 mm Ans

Problem 3-24

The beam is supported by a pin at C and an A-36 steel guy wire AB. If the wire has a diameter of 5
mm, determine the distributed load w if the end B is displaced 18 mm downward.

## dAB := 5mm θ B := 30deg

E st := 200⋅ GPa
Solution:
Consider triangle BB'C:
( )
L ⋅ sin θ C = δBy

⎛ δBy ⎞
θ C := asin ⎜
⎝ L ⎠
Consider triangle AB'C:
θ' C := 90deg + θ C ( )
L AC := L⋅ tan θ B

L'AB :=
2 2
( )
L AC + L − 2⋅ L AC ⋅ L ⋅ cos θ' C ( )
L'AB = 3.4731 m

L
⎛π⎞ L AB :=
( )
2
AreaAB := ⎜ ⋅ dAB cos θ B
⎝ 4⎠
δ AB := L'AB − L AB δ AB = 8.9883 mm

δ AB mm
ε AB := ε AB = 0.0025947
LAB mm

## σ AB := ε AB⋅ E st σ AB = 518.942 MPa

(
FAB := σ AB⋅ AreaAB ) FAB = 10.19 kN

Support Reactions:

ΣΜC=0; ( )
FAB⋅ sin θ B ⋅ ( L) − w⋅ ( L) ⋅ ( 0.5 ⋅ L ) = 0

⎛ 2 sin ( θ B) ⎞ kN
w := ⎜ ⋅F w = 3.40 Ans
⎝ L ⎠ AB m
Problem 3-25

Direct tension indicators are sometimes used instead of torque wrenches to insure that a bolt has a
prescribed tension when used for connections. If a nut on the bolt is tightened so that the six heads of
the indicator that were originally 3 mm high are crushed 0.3 mm, leaving a contact area on each head
of 1.5 mm2, determine the tension in the bolt shank. The material has the stressstrain diagram shown.

2
Area := 1.5mm

## number := 6 unit := 1MPa

Solution:
Stress-strain Relationship:
δh mm
ε := ε = 0.1000
h mm

## From the stress-strain diagram, σ − 450 ε − 0.0015

=
600 − 450 0.3 − 0.0015

⎡ ⎛ ε − 0.0015 ⎞⎤ ⋅ unit
σ := ⎢450 + ( 600 − 450) ⎜ ⎥
⎣ ⎝ 0.3 − 0.0015 ⎠⎦
σ = 499.50 MPa

P = 0.749 kN

## Thus, the tension in the bolt is T := ( number) ⋅ P

T = 4.50 kN Ans
Problem 3-26

The acrylic plastic rod is 200 mm long and 15 mm in diameter. If an axial load of 300 N is applied to it,
determine the change in its length and the change in its diameter. E p = 2.70 GPa, νp = 0.4.

Given: P := 300N
L := 200mm d := 15mm

## E P := 2.70 ⋅ GPa ν := 0.4

Solution:
⎛ π ⎞ ⋅ d2
A := ⎜
⎝ 4⎠
P
σ := σ = 1.698 MPa
A
σ mm
ε long := ε long = 0.0006288
EP mm

## δ := ε long⋅ L δ = 0.126 mm Ans

mm
ε lat := −ν ⋅ ε long ε lat = −0.0002515
mm

## ∆d := ε lat⋅ ( d) ∆d = −0.003773 mm Ans

Problem 3-27

The block is made of titanium Ti-6A1-4V and is subjected to a compression of 1.5 mm along the y
axis, and its shape is given a tilt of θ = 89.7°.Determine εy, εx, and γxy .

## Given: L x := 125mm L y := 100mm

δ y := −1.5 mm θ := 89.7deg

ν := 0.36

Solution:

Normal Strain:
δy mm
ε y := ε y = −0.01500 Ans
Ly mm

Poisson's Ratio: The lateral and longitudinal strain can be related using Poisson's ratio.

( )
mm
ε x := −ν ⋅ ε y ε x = 0.00540 Ans
mm

Shear Strain:

## β := 180deg − θ β = 90.30 deg

π
Thus, γ xy := −β γ xy = −0.00524 rad Ans
2
Problem 3-28

A short cylindrical block of bronze C86100, having an original diameter of 38 mm and a length of 75
mm, is placed in a compression machine and squeezed until its length becomes 74.5 mm. Deterinme
the new diameter of the block.

## Given: L := 75mm L' := 74.5mm

d := 38mm ν := 0.34

Solution:
⎛ π ⎞ ⋅ d2
A := ⎜
⎝ 4⎠
L' − L mm
ε long := ε long = −0.0066667
L mm
mm
ε lat := −ν ⋅ ε long ε lat = 0.0022667
mm

∆d := ε lat⋅ ( d) ∆d = 0.086133 mm

## d' := d + ∆d d' = 38.0861 mm Ans

Problem 3-29

The elastic portion of the stress-strain diagram for a steel alloy is shown in the figure. The specimen
from which it was obtained had an original diameter of 13 mm and a gauge length of 50 mm. When the
applied load on the specimen is 50 kN, the diameter is 12.99265 mm. Determine Poisson's ratio for the
material.

## Given: d := 13mm d' := 12.99265mm

L := 50mm P := 50kN

Solution:
Normal Stress:

⎛ π ⎞ ⋅ d2
A := ⎜
⎝ 4⎠
P
σ := σ = 376.698 MPa
A

400MPa
E := E = 200 GPa
0.002

## Applying Hook's law σ = E ε .

σ mm
ε long := ε long = 0.0018835
E mm
d' − d mm
ε lat := ε lat = −0.0005654
d mm

Poisson's Ratio: The lateral and longitudinal strain can be related using Poisson's ratio.

−ε lat
ν := ν = 0.30018 Ans
ε long
Problem 3-30

The elastic portion of the stress-strain diagram for a steel alloy is shown in the figure. The specimen
from which it was obtained had an original diameter of 13 mm and a gauge length of 50 mm. If a load
of P = 20 kN is applied to the specimen, determine its diameter and gauge length. Take ν = 0.4.

Given:
L := 50mm d := 13mm

P := 20kN ν := 0.4

Solution:
Normal Stress:

⎛ π ⎞ ⋅ d2
A := ⎜
⎝ 4⎠
P
σ := σ = 150.679 MPa
A

400MPa
E := E = 200 GPa
0.002

## Applying Hook's law σ = E ε .

σ mm
ε long := ε long = 0.0007534
E mm
Thus,

δL := ε long⋅ ( L ) δL = 0.037670 mm

## L' := L + δL L' = 50.0377 mm Ans

Poisson's Ratio: The lateral and longitudinal strain can be related using Poisson's ratio.

( )
mm
ε lat := −ν ⋅ ε long ε lat = −0.00030136
mm

∆d := ε lat⋅ ( d) ∆d = −0.003918 mm

## d' := d + ∆d d' = 12.99608 mm Ans

Problem 3-31

The shear stress-strain diagram for a steel alloy is shown in the figure. If a bolt having a diameter of 6
mm is made of this material and used in the lap joint, determine the modulus of elasticity E and the
force P required to cause the material to yield. Take ν = 0.3.

Given:
d := 6mm ν := 0.3

Solution:

Modulus of Rigidity:

## From the stress-strain diagram,

350MPa
G := G = 87500 MPa
0.004

E
Modulus of Elasticity: G=
2⋅ ( 1 + ν )

E := 2G⋅ ( 1 + ν )

## E = 227500 MPa Ans

Yielding Stress:
From the stress-strain diagram, τ Y := 350MPa

⎛ π ⎞ ⋅ d2 P
A := ⎜ τY =
⎝ 4⎠ A

( )
P := τ Y ⋅ A P = 9.896 kN Ans
Problem 3-32

The brake pads for a bicycle tire are made of rubber. If a frictional force of 50 N is applied to each
side of the tires, determine the average shear strain in the rubber. Each pad has cross-sectional
dimensions of 20 mm and 50 mm. Gr = 0.20 MPa.

## Given: a := 20mm b := 50mm

V := 50N G := 0.20MPa

Solution:
2
A := a⋅ b A = 1000.00 mm

## Average Shear Stress:

The shear force is V.

V
τ := τ = 0.050 MPa
A

## Applying Hooke's law for shear: τ = G⋅ γ

τ
γ := γ = 0.250 rad Ans
G
Problem 3-33

The plug has a diameter of 30 mm and fits within a rigid sleeve having an inner diameter of 32 mm.
Both the plug and the sleeve are 50 mm long. Determine the axial pressure p that must be applied to the
top of the plug to cause it to contact the sides of the sleeve. Also, how far must the plug be
compressed downward in order to do this? The plug is made from a material for which E = 5 MPa, ν
= 0.45.

Given:
d := 30mm d' := 32mm L := 50mm

E := 5MPa ν := 0.45

Solution:

d' − d mm
ε lat := ε lat = 0.0666667
d mm

−ε lat −ε lat mm
ν= ε long := ε long = −0.14815
ε long ν mm

## Applying Hook's law σ = E ε .

(
p := E ⋅ ε long ) p = −0.741 MPa Ans

(
δL := ε long ⋅ L ) δL = −7.41 mm Ans
Problem 3-34

The rubber block is subjected to an elongation of 0.75 mm. along the x axis, and its vertical faces are
given a tilt so that θ = 89.3°. Deterinme the strains εx, εy and γxy . Take νr = 0.5.

## Given: L x := 100mm L y := 75mm

δ x := 0.75mm θ := 89.3deg

ν := 0.5

Solution:

Normal Strain:
δx mm
ε x := ε x = 0.00750 Ans
Lx mm

Poisson's Ratio: The lateral and longitudinal strain can be related using Poisson's ratio.

mm
ε y := −ν ⋅ ε x ε y = −0.00375 Ans
mm

Shear Strain:

θ = 89.30 deg

π
Thus, γ xy := −θ γ xy = 0.01222 rad Ans
2
Problem 3-35

The elastic portion of the tension stress-strain diagram for an aluinmum alloy is shown in the figure.
The specimen used for the test has a gauge length of 50 mm. and a diameter of 12.5 mm. When the
applied load is 45 kN, the new diameter of the specimen is 12.48375 mm. Compute shear modulus Gal
for the aluinmum.

## Given: d := 12.5mm d' := 12.48375mm

L := 50mm P := 45kN

Solution:
Normal Stress:

⎛ π ⎞ ⋅ d2
A := ⎜
⎝ 4⎠
P
σ := σ = 366.693 MPa
A

## Normal Strain: From the stress-strain diagram, the modulus of elasticity is

500MPa
E := E = 81433.22 MPa
0.00614

## Applying Hook's law σ = E ε .

σ mm
ε long := ε long = 0.0045030
E mm
d' − d mm
ε lat := ε lat = −0.0013000
d mm

Poisson's Ratio: The lateral and longitudinal strain can be related using Poisson's ratio.

−ε lat
ν := ν = 0.28870
ε long

E
G := G = 31.60 GPa Ans
2⋅ ( 1 + ν )
Problem 3-36

The elastic portion of the tension stress-strain diagram for an aluinmum alloy is shown in the figure. The
specimen used for the test has a gauge length of 50 mm and a diameter of 12.5 mm. If the applied load is
50 kN deterinme the new diameter of the specimen. The shear modulus is Gal = 28 GPa.

## P := 50kN G := 28⋅ GPa

Solution:
Normal Stress:

⎛ π ⎞ ⋅ d2
A := ⎜
⎝ 4⎠
P
σ := σ = 407.44 MPa
A

## Normal Strain: From the stress-strain diagram, the modulus of elasticity is

500MPa
E := E = 81433.22 MPa
0.00614

## Applying Hook's law σ = E ε .

σ mm
ε long := ε long = 0.0050033
E mm

E
Poisson's Ratio: G=
2⋅ ( 1 + ν )

⎛ E ⎞−1
Thus, ν := ⎜ ν = 0.454
⎝ 2⋅ G ⎠
The lateral and longitudinal strain can be related using Poisson's ratio.

( )
mm
ε lat := −ν ⋅ ε long ε lat = −0.00227233
mm

∆d := ε lat⋅ ( d) ∆d = −0.028404 mm

## d' := d + ∆d d' = 12.4716 mm Ans

Problem 3-37

The head H is connected to the cylinder of a compressor using six steel bolts. If the clamping force in
each bolt is 4 kN, deterinme the normal strain in the bolts. Each bolt has a diameter of 5 mm. If σY =
280 MPa and Est = 200 GPa, what is the strain in each bolt when the nut is unscrewed so that the
clamping force is released?

## P := 4kN E := 200⋅ GPa

Solution:
Normal Stress:

⎛ π ⎞ ⋅ d2
A := ⎜
⎝ 4⎠
P
σ := σ = 203.7183 MPa ( < σY = 280 MPa )
A

## Normal Strain: Since σ < σ Y, Hook's law is still valid.

σ mm
ε := ε = 0.0010186 Ans
E mm

If the nut is unscrewed, the load is zero. Therefore, the strain ε = 0. Ans
Problem 3-38

The rigid pipe is supported by a pin at C and an A-36 steel guy wire AB. If the wire has a diameter of 5
mm., determine how much it stretches when a load of P = 1.5 kN acts on the pipe. The material
remains elastic.

## Given: P := 1.5kN E st := 200⋅ GPa

L BC := 2.4m d := 5mm
θ := 60deg

Solution:

Support Reactions:

ΣΜC=0; ( ) (
−FAB⋅ cos ( θ ) ⋅ L AB + P⋅ LAB = 0 )
P
FAB := FAB = 3 kN
cos ( θ )

Normal Stress:
⎛ π ⎞ ⋅ d2
Area := ⎜
⎝ 4⎠
FAB
σ AB := σ AB = 152.789 MPa
Area

L BC
Normal Strain: L AB := L AB = 2.771 m
sin ( θ )

## Applying Hook's law σ = E ε .

σ AB mm
ε AB := ε AB = 0.0007639
E st mm

Thus, (
δLAB := ε AB⋅ L AB )
δLAB = 2.1171 mm Ans
Problem 3-39

The rigid pipe is supported by a pin at C and an A-36 guy wire AB. If the wire has a diameter of 5
mm., determine the load P if the end B is displaced 2.5 mm. to the right. E st = 200 GPa.

## θ := 60deg δBx := 2.5mm

E st := 200⋅ GPa

Solution:
Consider triangle BB'C:
( )
L ⋅ sin θ C = δBx

⎛ δBx ⎞
θ C := asin ⎜
⎝ L ⎠

L AC := L⋅ cot ( θ )
Consider triangle AB'C:
θ' C := 90deg + θ C

L'AB :=
2 2
( )
L AC + L − 2⋅ L AC ⋅ L ⋅ cos θ' C ( )
L'AB = 2.7725 m

Normal Strain: L
L AB :=
sin ( θ )

L'AB − LAB mm
ε AB := ε AB = 0.0004510
L AB mm

Normal Stress: ⎛ π ⎞ ⋅ d2
Area := ⎜
⎝ 4⎠
Applying Hook's law σ = E ε .
σ AB := ε AB⋅ E st σ AB = 90.191 MPa

## Thus, FAB := σ AB⋅ ( Area) FAB = 1.771 kN

Support Reactions:

## P := FAB⋅ cos ( θ ) P = 0.885 kN Ans

Problem 3-40

While undergoing a tension test, a copper-alloy specimen having a gauge length of 50 mm. is subjected
to a strain of 0.40 mm./mm. when the stress is 490 MPa. If σY = 315 MPa when εY = 0.0025
mm./mm., determine the distance between the gauge points when the load is released.

mm
Given: L 0 := 50mm ε 1 := 0.40 σ 1 := 490⋅ MPa
mm
mm
ε Y := 0.0025 σ Y := 315MPa
mm
Solution:

Modulus of Elasticity: σY
E :=
εY

E = 126.00 GPa

Elastic Recovery:
σ1 mm
rRe := rRe = 0.0038889
E mm

Permanent set:
mm
rps := ε 1 − rRe rps = 0.39611
mm

Permanent elongation:

∆L := rps⋅ L0 ∆L = 19.806 mm

L := L 0 + ∆L L = 69.806 mm Ans
Problem 3-41

The 8-mm-diameter bolt is made of an aluminum alloy. It fits through a magnesium sleeve that has an
inner diameter of 12 mm and an outer diameter of 20 mm. If the original lengths of the bolt and sleeve
are 80 mm and 50 mm, respectively, determine the strains in the sleeve and the bolt if the nut on the
bolt is tightened so that the tension in the bolt is 8 kN. Assume the material at A is rigid. E al = 70 GPa,
E mg = 45 GPa.

## P := 8kN E al := 70GPa E mg := 45GPa

Solution:

⎛ π ⎞⋅ d 2 ⎛ π ⎞ ⋅ ⎛ d 2 − d 2⎞
Ab := ⎜ As := ⎜ ⎝ s_o s_i ⎠
⎝ 4⎠ b ⎝ 4⎠

Normal Stress:
P
σ b := σ b = 159.15 MPa
Ab

P
σ s := σ s = 39.79 MPa
As

Normal Strain:
σb mm
ε b := ε b = 0.002274 Ans
Eal mm

σs mm
ε s := ε s = 0.000884 Ans
Emg mm
Problem 3-42

A tension test was performed on a steel specimen having an original diameter of 12.5mm and a gauge
length of 50 mm. The data is listed in the table. Plot the stress-strain diagram and determine
approximately the modulus of elasticity, the ultimate stress, and the rupture stress. Use a scale of 20
mm = 50 MPa and 20 mm = 0.05 mm/mm. Redraw the linear-elastic region, using the same stress
scale but a strain scale of 20 mm = 0.001 mm/mm.
(kN) (mm)
Given: d := 12.5* L := 50* P := δ :=
0.0 0.0000
3
Solution: ⎛ π⎞ 2
A := ⎜ ⋅ d * σ :=
P⋅ 10 δ
ε := *
11.1 0.0175
⎝ 4⎠ A * L 31.9 0.0600
37.8 0.1020
σ=P/A ε=δ/L
(MPa) (mm/mm) 40.9 0.1650
43.6 0.2490
⎛⎜ 0.0000 ⎞ ⎛⎜ 0.000000 ⎞
53.4 1.0160
⎜ 90.4509 ⎟ ⎜ 0.000350 ⎟ 62.3 3.0480
⎜ 259.9446 ⎟ ⎜ 0.001200 ⎟ 64.5 6.3500
⎜ ⎟ ⎜ ⎟ Use
⎜ 308.0221 ⎟ ⎜ 0.002040 ⎟ ⎛ x ⎞
62.3 8.8900
⎜ 333.2832 ⎟ ⎜ 0.003300 ⎟ ⎜ 0.3 58.8 11.9380
⎜ ⎟ ⎜
σ = 355.2848 * ε = 0.004980 *
⎟ F ( x) := ⎜ x ⎟
⎜ ⎟ ⎜ ⎟ ⎜ 0.6 Fit := linfit ( ε , σ , F)
⎜ 435.1423 ⎟ ⎜ 0.020320 ⎟ ⎝x ⎠
⎛ 107.325 ⎞
⎜ 507.6661 ⎟ ⎜ 0.060960 ⎟ ⎜
⎜ ⎟ ⎜ ⎟ Fit = 2123.113

⎜ 525.5933 ⎟ ⎜ 0.127000 ⎟ ⎝ −2190.474 ⎠
⎜ 507.6661 ⎟ ⎜ 0.177800 ⎟
x := min ( ε ) , 0.005 .. max ( ε )
⎜ 479.1455 ⎜ 0.238760
⎝ ⎠ ⎝ ⎠ Y ( x) := F ( x) ⋅ Fit

550 550
500 500
450 450
400 400
350 350
300 σ 300
σ
250 Y( x ) 250
200 200
150 150
100 100
50 50

0 0.001 0.002 0.003 0.004 0.005 0 0.05 0.1 0.15 0.2 0.25
ε ε ,x
Modulus of Elasticity: From th stress-strain diagram,
From th stress-strain diagram,
σ ult = 530MPa Ans
mm
∆ε := ( 0.0005 − 0)
mm * σ R = 479MPa Ans
∆σ := ( 125 − 0)MPa *

∆σ
E approx :=
∆ε *

## E approx = 250 GPa* Ans

Problem 3-43

A tension test was performed on a steel specimen having an original diameter of 12.5 mm and a gauge
length of 50 mm. Using the data listed in the table, plot the stress-strain diagram and determine
approximately the modulus of toughness. Use a scale of 20 mm = 50 MPa and 20 mm = 0.05 mm/mm.

(kN) (mm)
Given: d := 12.5* L := 50* P := δ :=
0.0 0.0000
3
Solution: ⎛π⎞ 2
A := ⎜ ⋅ d * σ :=
P⋅ 10 δ
ε := *
11.1 0.0175
⎝ 4⎠ A * L 31.9 0.0600
37.8 0.1020
σ=P/A ε=δ/L
(MPa) (mm/mm) 40.9 0.1650
43.6 0.2490
⎛⎜ 0.0000 ⎞ ⎛⎜ 0.000000 ⎞
53.4 1.0160
⎜ 90.4509 ⎟ ⎜ 0.000350 ⎟ 62.3 3.0480
⎜ 259.9446 ⎟ ⎜ 0.001200 ⎟ 64.5 6.3500
⎜ ⎟ ⎜ ⎟ Use
⎜ 308.0221 ⎟ ⎜ 0.002040 ⎟ ⎛ x ⎞
62.3 8.8900
⎜ 333.2832 ⎟ ⎜ 0.003300 ⎟ ⎜ 0.3 58.8 11.9380
⎜ ⎟ ⎜
σ = 355.2848 * ε = 0.004980 *
⎟ F ( x) := ⎜ x ⎟
⎜ ⎟ ⎜ ⎟ ⎜ 0.6 Fit := linfit ( ε , σ , F)
⎜ 435.1423 ⎟ ⎜ 0.020320 ⎟ ⎝x ⎠
⎛ 107.325 ⎞
⎜ 507.6661 ⎟ ⎜ 0.060960 ⎟ ⎜
⎜ ⎟ ⎜ ⎟ Fit = 2123.113

⎜ 525.5933 ⎟ ⎜ 0.127000 ⎟ ⎝ −2190.474 ⎠
⎜ 507.6661 ⎟ ⎜ 0.177800 ⎟
x := min ( ε ) , 0.005 .. max ( ε )
⎜ 479.1455 ⎜ 0.238760
⎝ ⎠ ⎝ ⎠ Y ( x) := F ( x) ⋅ Fit

## The modulus of toughness is equal to the area under the 500

curve, and could be approximated by counting the 450
number of sqaures. the total number of squares is:
400
n := 188.5 350
mm σ
∆ε sq := ( 0.025 ) 300
mm
Y( x ) 250
∆σ sq := 25MPa 200
150
( )(
ut := n⋅ ∆ε sq ⋅ ∆σ sq ) 100
50
ut = 117.81 MPa Ans
0 0.05 0.1 0.15 0.2 0.25
ε ,x
Problem 3-44

An 8-mm-diameter brass rod has a modulus of elasticity of E br = 100 GPa. If it is 3 m long and
subjected to an axial load of 2 kN, determine its elongation. What is its elongation under the same load
if its diameter is 6 mm?

Given: P := 2kN
L := 3m d1 := 8mm d2 := 6mm

E br := 100⋅ GPa

Solution:
⎛ π ⎞⋅ d 2
Case 1: A1 := ⎜
⎝ 4⎠ 1
P
σ 1 := σ 1 = 39.789 MPa
A1
σ1 mm
ε 1 := ε 1 = 0.0003979
Ebr mm

δ 1 := ε 1⋅ L δ 1 = 1.194 mm Ans

⎛ π ⎞⋅ d 2
Case 2: A2 := ⎜
⎝ 4⎠ 2
P
σ 2 := σ 2 = 70.736 MPa
A2
σ2 mm
ε 2 := ε 2 = 0.0007074
Ebr mm

δ 2 := ε 2⋅ L δ 2 = 2.122 mm Ans