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DANIEL GUILLOT

Docteur de l’Université de Paris


Professeur certifié d’anglais
SUSAN GUILLOT
B.A. (Hons) - Teaching dip.
Professeur certifié d’anglais

WORDS
AND TOPICS
CONVERSATIONS
ET VOCABULAIRE ANGLAIS

Illustration : Eugène COLL1LIELX

PÉDAGOGIE MODERNE
Introduction

Pourquoi ce livre?
Tout d’abord parce que nous aurions aimé alors que nous étions élèves (puis étudiants)
apprendre le vocabulaire anglais autrement que par le système des listes de mots. Nous
ressentions le besoin d’appréhender ce vocabulaire dans un contexte éclairant son
utilisation. Ne va-t-on pas maintenant jusqu’à dire que « les mots n’ont pas de sens mais
seulement des emplois »?
Aujourd’hui en tant que professeurs, nous sommes confrontés quotidiennement à la
difficulté de faire parler les élèves. Le commentaire de texte qui a son utilité et ne saurait
être négligé, lasse vite les jeunes s’il est l’exercice unique de la classe d’anglais. En outre
le vocabulaire que l’on trouve dans les morceaux choisis est souvent peu en rapport
avec la langue parlée de tous les jours.
Reste donc la possibilité d’alterner explications de textes et débats. Mais, lors des
débats, il arrive fréquemment que les élèves ou bien ont des idées mais ignorent les mots
qui conviendraient pour les exprimer, ou bien possèdent un vocabulaire suffisant
(appris par exemple dans un vocabulaire traditionnel) mais sont à court d’arguments.
Ce sont ces difficultés de l’apprentissage de la langue et de l’animation de la classe
qui nous ont amenés à composer cet ouvrage.

A qui s’adresse "Words and Topics”?

Deux utilisations, individuelle gu collective, du livre sont possibles. Conçu pour les
élèves du second cycle. “Words and Topics” s’adresse aussi aux étudiants qui voudront
réviser des notions lexicales essentielles, aux adultes soucieux de se recvder et
d’acquérir un vocabulaire immédiatement utilisable.

Contenu du livre
“Words and Topics” est composé de trois éléments qui alternent : des conversations.
des arguments, des listes de vocabulaire de référence.
Les 30 conversations : elles sont destinées à apporter sur des sujets modernes à la fois
des points de vue variés et les mots pour les exprimer. Mots et tournures idiomatiques
apparaissent en gras dans le texte et sont traduits dans la marge. Le lecteur peut donc
apprendre le vocabulaire dans son contexte.
Les 30 arguments exposent brièvement le pour et le contre sur des sujets d'actualité
ou les opinions contradictoires sur des questions de civilisation. Le langage utilisé,
proche du style journalistique, apporte un vocabulaire légèrement différent et amorce
le passage à l’écrit. Comme pour les conversations le vocabulaire, en gras dans le texte,
est traduit dans la marge.

5
Un ou plusieurs sujets complémentaires sont proposés en fin d'ouvrage pour chaque
conversation ou argument. Les mots importants de l’anglais parlé reviennent fréquem­
ment au fil des pages, ce qui amène le lecteur à les connaître rapidement. Aussi les
traductions en marge seront-elles de moins en moins nécessaires.
Trente conversations ont été enregistrées sur cassettes et complètent ainsi ce livre.
Le vocabulaire de référence : trente-six conversations ou arguments sont suivis de
listes de mots de référence. Il est en effet impossible d’épuiser le vocabulaire d’un sujet
au cours d’une seule conversation. Ces listes permettent d’apprendre les mots utiles
(mais non indispensables) qui ne figurent pas dans les conversations ou arguments.
Elles sont très complètes mais ne sauraient être exhaustives : un livre de vocabulaire
n’est pas un dictionnaire. Les mots courants ont été privilégiés par rapport aux mots
plus spécialisés dont le nombre retenu n’est toutefois pas négligeable. Les termes les
plus simples ont généralement été omis mais tous les mots marqués * nous semblent
particulièrement importants et doivent absolument être connus.
Les annexes :
— Une liste de verbes irréguliers apporte en cas d’hésitation sur cette question
épineuse, une possibilité de vérification rapide.
— Une liste de cent sujets complémentaires, avec référence des conversations ou
arguments proches, constitue un outil pratique pour revenir sans lassitude sur les sujets
traités dans l’ouvrage.
— Un index bilingue des mots clefs (ou idées importantes) permet au lecteur de
retrouver facilement conversation, argument, ou liste de vocabulaire. Idées et mots
lui seront ainsi restitués sans perte de temps.
Les symboles : les symboles utilisés sont répertoriés p. 283.
La phonétique : nous avons renoncé pour l’ensemble de l’ouvrage à la transcription
phonétique. Ce parti pris résulte de l’expérience; rares sont les élèves capables de lire
l’alphabet phonétique (qui n’est d’ailleurs plus enseigné depuis des années).
Les enregistrements proposés sur cassettes devraient donner satisfaction, d’une
manière beaucoup plus vivante et efficace, à ceux qui veulent prononcer correctement
les mots qu’ils apprennent.

Comment utiliser “Words and Topics”


Utilisation individuelle
Nous conseillons de lire quatre fois chaque conversation ou argument. Dans un
premier temps le lecteur s’efforcera‘ de comprendre le sens général sans se laisser
arrêter par les difficultés. Dans un deuxième temps il devra vérifier soigneusement le
sens des mots en gras en se référant aux traductions en marge (elles correspondent
toujours au sens dans le contexte proposé).
La mémorisation interviendra à la troisième lecture, la quatrième étant une simple
révision.
Les lecteurs qui disposent de cassettes pourront remplacer la première et la quatrième
lecture par l’audition de l’enregistrement. Il nous semble essentiel de mémoriser le mot
et son contexte afin de bien connaître l’emploi du vocabulaire.

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Les listes de mots pourront être apprises de façon traditionnelle, mais il n’y aurait
aucun profit à ce que cet apprentissage précède ou remplace le travail proposé ci-dessus.
Une révision des conversations et arguments concernés est suggérée après l’étude
d'une liste.
Utilisation en classe
Le professeur désireux d’animer sa classe par une conversation choisie dans le livre
(ou proche d’un sujet proposé) demandera à ses élèves de travailler auparavant sur le
sujet selon la méthode indiquée plus haut; ainsi les interlocuteurs connaîtront, avant
d’engager le débat, le vocabulaire nécessaire pour exprimer leurs idées. Nous avons
volontairement évité d’épuiser tout ce qui pouvait être dit sur un sujet donné afin de
permettre aux élèves d’ajouter leurs propres arguments ou d’étoffer les idées abordées.
Cent sujets complémentaires ont ètè prévus pour faire parler les élèves sur des sujets
voisins mais non traités. En outre grâce à l’index, le professeur disposera d’autres sujets
dont le vocabulaire se trouve dans “Words and Topics”.
"Words and Topics" peut être utilisé en classe comme n’importe quel autre manuel
(explication des nombreuses structures grammaticales qui apparaissent dans le livre ;
commentaire sous forme d’explication de texte des conversations et arguments;
expression personnelle sur les opinions contradictoires exposées; élargissements
culturels intéressants à partir des arguments ayant trait à la civilisation britannique ou
américaine).
Lors du passage à l’écrit “Words and Topics” sera un modèle précieux pour les
constructions de phrases et essais.
Enfin, le professeur qui disposera des cassettes pourra non seulement faire travailler
la prononciation mais intégrer les réactions de sa classe aux conversations enregistrées,
en alternant par exemple audition et réaction des élèves. Ce qui donnera lieu à une
véritable conversation triangulaire : enregistrement-élèves-professeur.
Nous remercions par avance tous les lecteurs et collègues qui voudront bien nous
faire part de leurs suggestions et remarques.

Daniel et Susan Guillot

7
On trouvera la table des matières page 279,
l’index détaillé page 271, la signification des
symboles utilisés page 283, la liste des sujets
complémentaires page 263 et la liste des verbes
irréguliers page 267.

Acknowledgments
Remerciements

Nos remerciements vont à nos We wish to thank all of our French


collègues français qui nous ont colleagues who encouraged us to
encouragés à écrire ce livre ainsi write this book as well as our
qu’à nos amis anglais, irlandais et English, Irish and American friends
américains sans qui les conversations who made the conversations possible.
n’auraient pas été possibles. Notre We would also like to thank our
reconnaissance va aussi à nos élèves pupils who kindly accepted for
qui ont si gentiment accepté de several years to test the material in
travailler pendant plusieurs années this book.
avec le matériel pédagogique de
ce livre.
Nous ne pouvons donner ici les We cannot possibly list the names of
noms de tous ceux qui nous ont aidés all those who helped us, but we do want
mais nous tenons à mentionner to mention Dorothy Cauthery and
Dorothy Cauthery et Linda O’Toole Linda O’Toole who read our proofs
qui ont relu nos épreuves ainsi que and Katherine Louis, Howard Gar­
Katherine Louis, Howard Garnett, nett, Don Linnell whose suggestions
Don Linnell dont les suggestions were extremely valuable to us.
nous ont été précieuses.
Il va sans dire que les opinions
exprimées dans cet ouvrage ne sont
pas forcément les nôtres. Certaines Suffice it to say that the opinions
des idées manquent parfois de in this book are not necessarily ours.
nuances ce qui est souvent le cas Some of the ideas expressed are
lorsuue les jeunes parlent. Nous sometimes blunt, as is often the case
avons cependant préféré restituer when young people converse. We
leurs paroles telles que nous les preferred to keep their words as they
avons entendues. were said.
l.C
Women’s Lib
La libération de la femme (le MLF)

(Between 3 American girls, Kate, who is 20, and


qui fait son droit who is reading law, Tracy, 19, who is studying the
qui prépare son doctorat history of art, and Mary-Lou, 23, who is a *
post-
graduate student in sociology; Mary-Luu also
dirige heads the local Women’s Lib group.)

qu'est-ce qui t’arrive tracy - What’s the matter with you, Kate? You
look furious.
déprimée rate - No, I just feel down in the dumps, that’s all.
TRACY - Why?
une dispute kate - I’ve just had a row with my boy-friend. In
je l'ai laissé tomber fact, I’ve dropped him.
mary-loii - Is that all? That’s nothing to get
depressed about.
épouvantable kate - I know, but he was awful, he’s such a male
macho ► il n’arrêtait pas de dire chauvinistic pig - he kept saying a woman's place is
in the house.
cela dépend de tracy - It depends on what he means by “house”.
elle était candidate à la députation (U.S.) Do you remember Bella Abzug’s slogan when she
was running for the House of Representatives?
kate - No, what did she say?
assez astucieux tracy - It was pretty clever - it ran : “A woman’s
place is in the house - the House of Representatives”.
kate - That’s not bad - was she elected?
tracy - Of course.
cependant m.-lou - That was in New York City, though. I
libération de la femme don’t think a Women’s Lib campaign would have
centre des USA had much success in the Middle West.
» toujours kate - Do they still consider the world as a man's
là-bas world out there?
je crains bien que oui m.-lou - I’m afraid they do - and they’re not the
only ones in the world. We still have a long way to
chemin go along the path of equality!
je vais vous faire tressaillir kate - I’m going to startle you, but I don't really
l'intérêt see the point in being equal to men.
folle tracy - But you’re crazy! We must all unite to show
men that we are not inferior creatures just good
cuisine/la lessive enough to clean the house, do the cooking,/the
élever des gosses/pour couronner washing, / bring up the kids and be mistresses
*
to
top it all.
kate -1 entirely agree on this, but I don't think all
men pee women like that.
m.-lou - So you say. They all have a superiority
nous considèrent avec condescendance complex and look down on us. When they first

9
sa poitrine look at a woman they look at her face, her bosom,
her legs, they never consider her personality, her
intelligence.
nous nous plaignons toutes kate - This is partly true, but we all complain
grossiers about the men’s attitudes. We find them rough,
dans la maison tactless, we say that they don’t do muchearound
the house, but whose fault is it, if not their own
poupées mothers’? It’s the mother who buys dolls for little
» affronter/travaux ménagers girls and teaches them to cope with household
chores.
tracy - That argument’s a bit simple and soon
ne prévaudra pas will not prevail, thanks to the action of “Women’s
Lib” associations.
quels sont vos projets kate - But what are you up to, exactly?
M.-Lou - We want to abolish all discrimination. Is
juste/
* exclues it fair that women should be banned from some
gagner types of work or should earn less for the same job
manque as a man? And don’t tell me women miss work
enceintes/quand elles sont indis­ more often because they’re pregnant or’when they
posées/pure et simple have their periods. That’s sheer invention.
kate - Oh, I agree with you entirely when you say
salaires we should have the same wages - and even if we are
* congé on maternity leave we’re still working for the good
complètement of the nation! - but where I utterly disagree is
impliquez when you imply we could do the same jobs as the
men. We’re not nearly so strong, physically
speaking, but I certainly think we are more
resistant than men.
► voilà tracy - There you are - and even the arguments
faux that women are not so strong physically are false.
Look at Russia for instance - the women do exactly
the same jobs as the men and I can assure you that
une femme/responsable de when a female is in charge of a group of male
elle ne mâche pas ses mots workers she doesn’t mince her words if something
goes wrong.
le Saint Cyr U.S. M.-Lou - And at West Point girls are accepted now
soumises/entraînement and submitted to the same training as the boys.
on a beaucoup progressé tracy - You see, Kate, we’ve come a long way. It’s
~ on leur refusait le droit de vote not so long ago that women’were even denied the
right to vote.
kate - Wasn’t that awful! Just imagine a college
like Vassar where all the female teachers belonged
to the elite of the nation and could not vote,
tandis que/concierge/à peine whereas the janitor who could hardly read and
avait le droit write was entitled to vote...
tracy - We simply have to refuse these inferior
conditions of ours...
kate - But what can be done?
assez M.-Lou - It’s fairly simple. You’ve got to realize that
men treat you as an inferior being and then you
agir can't help acting. The other day I was speaking to a
(I) ( e mot peut s'orthographier de deux façons : to realize - to realise.

10
environ vingt/je les ai encouragées group of twenty-odd young mothers and I urged
griefs them to express their grievances against their
en moins de husbands. Well, within a quarter of an hour they
were all crying on realizing how unhappy they
were!
tracy - We also have to force men to realize what
it’s like to be a woman.
kate - What do you mean?
siffler une fille tracy - Well, men find it very funny to whistle at a
— lui pincer les fesses girl and pinch her bottom - why shouldn't we do
the same to them?

m.-lou - That’s exactly what happened on


Women’s Lib day last year.
kate - Oh, that was ridiculous. Do you think any
decent man was convinced because a few hundred
se sont débarrassées de leur soutien- lesbians stripped off their bras in Times Square?
gorge/le langage même m.-lou - You’re using the very language the men
use - which shows how alienated you are.
kate - There’s one thing I don’t agree with in what
* réclamez you say. You claim the right to work, but most of
préféreraient the women I know who have to work would rather
stay at home and not work.
problime/mérite m.-lou - This is an important issue which deserves
to be analysed. First of all, the women who express
souhaitent a desire to work wish simply to leave their homes
non rétribuées where they feel they are their husbands’ unpaid
bonnes à tout faire maids. It’s a question of decency for them. As for
the others, it’s normal they should want to stop
» puisque working since being a wife and mother and
having a profession means two jobs, two lives, at
the same time.
guerre tracy - Yes, when a husband goes off to war he’s
hautement greatly esteemed - he’s a sort of hero, but the wife
~ effrayante who remains alone with the kids has an appalling /

II
► somme amount of work to do without any moral support.
► trouve cela normal Everybody takes it for granted, because a woman’s
work has never been recognized for its real value
by society. What she’s asked to do is sometimes
inhuman - no man would agree to do it.
bon sens kate - There’s a lot of common sense in what you
say, and being a woman myself 1 can only
souscrire/» agace subscribe to your views, but what annoys me in
foncièrement your movement is that it’s basically aggressive
towards men.
» monstres m.-lou - We have to be, men are such beasts.
kate - That’s where I don’t agree, you are really
going too far. They have to be educated, that’s all.
de toute façon Anyway, I don’t think we are either superior,
equal or inferior, we’re complementary and
basically different, that’s all.
m.-lou - But look! Women can do most things
men do. The contrary is not true. Have you ever
repriser/recoudre seen a man darning his socks, sewing on a button,
tricoter/couches knitting, changing a baby’s nappies or even
cooking?
malgré kate - In spite of what you say, I maintain my
position modérée middle of the road position. Sure, the man must
try to help a lot in the house and treat his wife on
terms of equality...
tracy - When you think that there are millions of
battues women who are beaten by their husbands and who
osent/de peur/se moquer d’elles never dare mention it for fear people might%ake
fun of them.
Irlandaise m.-lou - Do you remember that Irish girl who told
alcoolique/bon à rien us her sister was married to a drunken / ne’er-do-
la violait well who raped her when he was drunk, she had
ten children and he never gave her any money.
prêtre tracy - Yes, and the priest to whom she confessed
malheur/prier her misery told her to pray so that she wouldn’t
be an object of temptation to her husband.
m.-lou - Can such an attitude be tolerated?
me rappelle/féministe kate - This reminds me of the suffragette who said
“She” when speaking of God.
tracy - Why not? Why should “God” be
masculine?
je m’en vais kate - Anyway, I’m off now.
si tôt/où ça? m.-lou - So soon - / where to?
rendez-vous kate - I’ve got a date with my boy-friend.
~ vous étiez fâchés tracy - But I thought you’d fallen out?
encore kate - Oh no! I still love him.
m.-lou - Kate! You’re another one lost for the cause.
ne nous laisse pas tomber tracy - Don’t let the side down.
suppose m-Lou - Too late - I expect we’ll have to revise
all our arguments now.
voir vocabulaire />. !4, 30, 84, 86. Sujets complémentaires, voir p. 263.

12
2.A
Parents and children: a problem of understanding
Les relations entre parents et enfants : un problème de compréhension

PARENTS’ REMARKS
TO THEIR CHILDREN
là/vous conseiller 1. You sometimes complain that we are never
around to listen to your problems and advise you.
That may be true, but do you yourselves consider
tenez-vous compte all our own problems and worries? Do you make
réprimandés allowances for our having been told off by the boss
peur/d’être licencié at the office, for our money problems, for our fear
*being
of made redundant?
► partie 2. You want us to give you a share in our lives,
êtres humains which is only normal, but we are also human beings
and we have a right to be on our own, to live as a
couple and go out with our friends.
reprochez 3. You grudge us all sorts of things, but don’t
you realize how lucky you are to be able to do.so?
It would have been unthinkable for our own
generation to criticize our parents or reproach
them for anything.
garder à l’esprit 4. Can’t you bear in mind that when we seem so
sévères strict and stern, it is for your own good and that if
laissons we let you do all you want, we would simply be
abdicating our role as parents, and you would
à bon droit/adultes rightfully disapprove of that when you are^rown-
ups.
nous vous énervons 5. We know we get on your nerves when we try
to make you work hard at school and when we try
prévoir to foresee a bright future for you. But what if we
had no ambition for our own children? Would it
doués/ gieher be normal to let gifted kids waste all their qualities
un peu/paresseux simply because they are a bit / lazy.

CHILDREN’S REMARKS
TO THEIR PARENTS
1. You never seem to have time for us. You come
back late from work and very tired too. You
usually order us to bed, or, if you condescend to
talk to us, it is simply to find out about our school
notes marks. But what makes us happy or unhappy does
not interest you.

13
2. When you do allow us to talk, you quickly lose
à exposer patience and find us slow in expounding our ideas,
or even silly. But on the contrary, when your
longueur friends talk at any great length, you always find
palpitant that thrilling.
3. You have no respect for our opinions when
they are different from yours. You consider our
futiles/fous/ méprisez arguments shallow or even crazy and you despise
what we deeply believe. If we were grown-ups, you
would try to understand why we think differently
and perhaps have some kind of sympathy for our
theories. But you expect us to think in the same
way as you because we are your children.
4. You keep insisting on our working hard at
► très bien school. Fair enough. But we have no reason to
work like adults. We are young and want to enjoy
jeunesse/rats de bibliothèque our youth. We don’t want to be eternafbook-
devant nous worms at our age. We have our whole lives^ihead
of us to become part of the system. Please let us
respirer breathe a bit of fresh air while we still can!
on se demande 5. From your reactions one wonders if you were
ever young yourselves. Y ou tend to treat us as if we
êtres were strange beings. You keep repeating: “I
wouldn’t have done this or that at your age”. But
do you really remember what you were like and
didn’t your own parents complain about you as
you do about us?
Sujets complémentaires, voir p. 263.

Family and relatives


La famille - les proches

1. Immediate family: •nephew: neveu


•relations/relatives/next of kin:
Famille proche
la famille/les parents
ancestors: ancêtres •to be related to: être apparenté à
*forefathers: aïeux
•great-grandparents: arrière-grands-parents 2. In-laws and relations through
*grandparents: grands-parents
grandmother (grandma): grand-mère
marriage: Belle-famille et parents
grandfather (grandpa): grand-père par alliance
•son: fils •mother-in-law: belle-mère
•daughter: fille father-in-law: beau-père
•aunt: tante son-in-law: gendre
•uncle: oncle daughter-in-law: bru
•niece: nièce brother-in-law: beau-frère

14
sister-in-law: belle-sœur 4. Family relationships and quarrels
*the in-laws. la belle-famille
Relations et querelles de famille
a cousin through marriage;
un cousin par alliance *to introduce someone to someone else:
*stepmother; belle-mère (2e mariage) présenter quelqu'un à quelqu'un d'autre
stepfather: beau-père (2e mariage) family squabbles: querelles de famille
*
*to quarrel/
to argue/to have words/
3. God-parents and adoption: to exchange words: se quereller
*a
*an argument/ row/a quarrel/
Parrains et adoption
a dispute: une querelle
godmother: marraine *to shout: crier/hurler
godfather: parrain *to
*to weep/ cry: pleurer
god-daughter: filleule ♦to sob: sangloter
godson: filleul *severe/strict/stern: sévère
an adopted child: un enfant adopté *to come of age: devenir majeur
foster parents: parents nourriciers to frown upon: désapprouver
foster children: des enfants placés en nourrice
guardian: tuteur

C
3.
Are we going to be the slaves of computers?
Allons-nous devenir les esclaves des ordinateurs?

(A conversation between Kerry, Pete and Ted, all


âgés d’un peu plus de trente ans in their early thirties. )
ted - The telephone company has offered me one of
(que) l’on branche those family computers you plug into your tele­
être dans le vent phone line. I do want to be with it but I really
si cela vaut la peine wonder if it is worthwhile.
conseil kerry - If you want my advice, don’t accept. It
costs a lot of money.
location pete - Why do you say that? There’s no rent, it’s
entirely free.
kerry - It may be free but many of the services it
offers are expensive. Don’t forget you pay accor­
ding to the time you use it, exactly as with the tele­
tripler phone. You might very well double or treble your
► facture telephone bill.
gratuits ted - But I thought directory enquiries were ’free
of charge.
kerry - Not entirely. You have to pay after the
first two minutes.
pete - But it rarely takes more than two minutes
to find a telephone number.
ted - Anyway, I don't mind paying if the services
are good.

15
justement kerry - That’s the point. You can quite easily live
without this kind of service.
les ordinateurs font gagner du temps pete - Computers are time savers though. Just
faire la queue think how long you used to have to queue up to
réserver buy a train ticket. Now you can book by computer.
Isn’t it said that time is money?
persuadé kerry - I am still not convinced that a family needs
a computer. Not at the moment anyway.
tu n’es plus dans le coup pete - ’You are out of touch. In fact, you have
the same hostile attitude as 19th century workers
had towards new machines.
kerry - You may be right, but you must admit the
chômage use of computers leads to more unemployment.
pete - Not necessarily, as more specialized workers
will be needed to build and programme.
► c’est bien de cela qu’il s’agit ted - You’ve hit the nail on the head. People will
have to be highly specialized to build computers
and even to use them.
pete - Not necessarily to use them. Have you
noticed how children use them easily? They like
the creative aspect of computers. They find
solutions by creating instead of learning as we used
to. Computers will replace the classics to develop
human intelligence.
kerry - Yes, and people being sure of computer
memory won’t rely on their own. They’ll become
the slaves of computers.
je ne suis pas d’accord pete - I don’t agree with that. But you can’t begin
ce que sera notre avenir/imaginez to imagine what our future will be like. Just fancy
► introduire all the details and information you can feed into a
computer.
« Le meilleur des Mondes » kerry - It’s “Brave New World” come true.
pete - Anyway, you can’t deny the fantastic 'leap
bon en avant forward that computers represent for firms, if not
for individuals.
kerry - This remains to be seen.
pete - But Kerry, you know as well as I do that
travail de secrétariat/permettre these machines simplify office work and enable
scientists to make new discoveries which would have
» s’il n’y avait pas eu needed years of work if it had not been for compu­
ters. Do you think that NASA could solve all
navettes spatiales the problems of the space shuttles without its
mémoires computers? They have fantastic memories, it’s
amplifiée man’s memory magnified. I must say I am
fascinated.
ted - I know that some calculations which would
have taken days become a matter of minutes with
computers.
j'ose affirmer pete -1 dare say that there is practically no limit to
what computers can do. Do you know that they
are used by building companies? From the archi-

16
► tirer tect’s original plan the computer can derive new
plans according to a new type of environment, the
et ainsi de suite/centrale (électrique) cost of building, and so on. In a power plant, it's a
computer which controls the working of the machi­
dotnaine/mode nes. Even in the field of fashion a computer will
► patron de robe draw a new dress pattern in a few minutes from
données a small amount of data you give it; it will modify
forme the shape of the collar, the number of pockets...
Moreover the computer draws in three dimensions.
► réussi Well you know all that they managed to do at
Silicon Valley.
ted - Don’t you think, though, that the computer
is only complete if it is accompanied by a robot?
pete- That’s right, a computer thinks and a robot
acts.
kerry - But a computer is not intelligent, it’s just a
memory. It does what you ask it to do, it repeats
ce que vous lui avez appris what you taught it.
je suis d’accord pete - I agree, but it works quickly and saves you
recherche all sorts of manipulations, research in books, and
de plus/tandis que so on. Moreover it can’t be wrong, whereas man
can always make a mistake.
► que se passe-t-il alors? kerry - What then if there is a mistake in its pro­
gramme? This mistake will be repeated over and
over again.
m’intrigue ted - That’s something which puzzles me a little.
Don’t you think that some decisions might be taken
fournie on wrong information provided by the computer?
qui a conçu After all, the man who devised the programme is
only human. In two or three centuries people may
étaient causées par discover that some catastrophes were due to
mistakes made by computers.
moyens de vérifier pete - Certainly, but there are many ways to check
► si on prend la peine de les exécuter the programmes. If you bother to work them out
yourself, and if you find the same result as that
of the computer you may be sure the programme is
correct.
néanmoins kerry - Nevertheless, we are going to have to bear
dictature the dictatorship of a few hundred people who invent
the programmes, as we can’t live without them.
Ted - That’s frightening, the world might be
divided into those who feed the computers and
those who use them.
j’ajouterais même kerry - I would even add a third category: those
who don’t know how to use them.
ted - And when you think of the time it takes to
on peut se demander où se trouve le progrès make a programme *you may wonder where the
progress lies.
pete - I don't agree. You're forgetting that a pro­
gramme which takes a long time to establish will
be used thousands of times, each time saving

17
► énormément an awfiil lot of energy, time, money and even
lives, when these programmes are used in hospitals
for instance.
et vous acceptez bien volontiers kerry - And you’re quite willing to accept all the
empiétements encroachments on your private life?
pete - How do you mean?
kerry - Well, you know that with your private
computers and those of the administration, the
police or any organized body may get to know your
habitudes revenues - legal or not - your habits, what you
buy, where you go on holiday, and so on.
► garanties pete - Some safeguards have already been invented.
ted - What I find more frightening than that, is
that it is apparently child’s play to discover the
code of a programme, get into it and modify the
data.
kerry -1 don’t quite understand.
ted - Well, just imagine if somebody discovers the
= EDF code of the computers used by the electricity board,
he will be able to receive all the data from those
computers on his own computer and what is more,
give his own messages through his own computer.
If he finds that Kerry Moran has to pay £ 60 for
her January electricity bill, he would be able to
change it to £ 200. Incredible isn’t it?
pete - You’re right. Millions of dollars are lost
by the banks in America every year because of these
► pirates hackers. It’s easy work to discover a secret code,
faille that’s the only flaw I see in the system.
ted - I read somewhere that children are very
good at breaking secret codes.
pete - Probably because they are patient enough
assez astucieux and pretty brainy. Also they consider it as a game.
aborder Things are easiers to tackle when it’s a game.
kerry - That’s the story of the film “War Games”
isn’t it? It might lead to a catastrophe.
heureusement pete - Well, fortunately enough “War Games” is
still only fiction.
un malade ted - I’m afraid not. A patient died recently because
the data on the computer had been changed by
s’amuser children who just wanted to have some fun. As a
médicament result the patient was given the wrong medicine.
un moyen d’empêcher kerry - Isn’t there a way of preventing that?
efficace ted - There are many ways, but none is really
► engager *efficient. The best one seems to be for a company
*to hire one of those hackers to invent combina­
tions against other hackers.
kerry - You mean that then one is sure to have
eliminated at least one hacker.
ted - Quite. But what about the operators in a firm
who deliberately put a key (a number for instance)

18
in the code. Each morning they cancel the key
licenciée which blocks the computer, but if they are sacked
nobody else can use it.
kbrry - But 1 don't understand how the American
banks lose money because of hackers. 1 quite
understand thut a hacker could change somebody’s
compte en banque biography or bank account on a secret police
doMier file, but how can money leave (he bank?
run - Well, a man who knows what sort of pro­
gramme a bank uses could go to a cassette seller's
pretending his cassette bused on this programme
ne marche par doesn’t work. A technician will try the cassette
«ecret in perfect secrecy, but to do so he will have to type
the secret code of the programme. All that he can
say is that the cassette doesn’t work but he has
printed the secret code on it. It is then easy for
the hacker to introduce into the programme a
taux/contrefaire fake bank account, forge a credit card and get
money either from the bank itself or from cash
machinai à billet
* machines.
khrry - That situation would almost be funny if
it were not so full of dangers for private individuals.
nier petf - You can’t deny though that computers arc
utlle/nulalble more useful than harmful!
Voir vocabulaire p. 12.1 Autres sujets p. 263

4.
A
Should the birthrate be raised?
Faut-il élever le taux de la natalité?
S
pour FOR
baliM/préoccupant 1. The drop in the birthrate is a very worrying
problem, not only for our highly industrialized
» d’Europe orientale western world, but also for the eastern countries.
touchées All the nations hit by this phenomenon have one
angoisse anxiety in common. If there arc not enough babies
pensions de retralte/retraités born today, who will pay the pensions of ourretlred
people tomorrow?
2. The decline in the number of births is going to
have very important economic consequences.
a sphères d'éctlvltés Many spheres will be severely hit. The teaching
profession, of course, but ulso dozens of industrial
foumlturss pour firms which specialize in catering for babies,
children and teenagers. For instance, the bnby-

19
industrie du jouet food industry, clothing, the toy industry, children’s
moins books and so on. Fewer children always means
chômage more unemployment. In the long run too, who
will consume the sophisticated products of our
société de consommation affluent society?
3. What will life be like in one generation when
the majority of people will be over forty or fifty?
personnes âgées/dépassera The number of elderly people / will outweigh the
équilibrée number of young ones. Will this be a balanced
society? Can such a society retain all its vitality?
juste 4. It does not seem fair that some couples should
have only one or two children when it is
reconnu acknowledged that to maintain the population at
niveau a fair level, all families should number at least
three children. Take for instance the mother of
one or even two children; she enjoys a better
niveau de vie standard of living than a mother who has more,
donc and she often keeps on working. Therefore she
compter sur can rely on a good retirement pension later on. On
the contrary, the mother of three or more children
se consacrer often has to stop working to devote herself to her
elle atteint family. She cannot rely on a pension when^he
reaches retirement age, but her children will be
paying other people’s pensions. Is that fair?
5. History has shown us that all the ancient
diminuer civilizations whose birthrate started decreasing
were societies on the decline. They simply lost
their enthusiasm in every field of human activity.
de nos jours/tout à fait Nowadays it is quite understandable that small,
over-populated countries like Britain or Germany
should be satisfied to see their birthrate decline.
expliquer But it is hard to account for the same feeling in
peu peuplés large, thinly populated countries such as France or
the U.S.A. Does it mean that the joy of giving life
is tending to disappear?
There is no doubt that people who decide to have
foi children are people who have faith in the future,
» qui refusent people who are unwilling to give up and who want
to build a better world along with their young ones.

contre AGAINST
1. Most western nations suffer from
unemployment. If the population decreases,
de toute évidence obviously there will be work for everybody. A
decline in the birthrate is the only solution to the
problem of unemployment.

20
2. With a smaller population there will be no
crise du logement/non plus housing shortage / either. When you consider that
so many people have trouble finding a decent
house to live in, your only conclusion can be that
surpeuplées our towns are much too overcrowded.
3. In large families (such as you still find in
Ireland, for instance), the parents are necessarily
(ont) du mal à/donner hard put to / provide their children with a decent
éducation up-bringing. Their standard of living is much
lower than that of a smaller family, even if the
father has a good job. Both the parents and the
children are unsatisfied with life.
4. If there are fewer children, the State will have
allocations familiales fewer family allowances to pay out. Both Social
santé Security and National Health expenditure will be
freinée/plus riche curbed. So the whole Nation will be better-off.
5. There are too many people on our planet.
Wherever one goes, whether it be to the mountains,
banlieues to the sea, in the towns, in the suburbs, the whole
grouille earth is swarming with people. Can they be happy
in such conditions? And why have children - in
order to impose on them a future which already
effraie/mondiale frightens us? What with the prospects of a*world-
wide economic crisis, a possible atomic conflict,
pollution of land, sea and air, how can people be
égoïstes selfish enough to want to impose all that on future
generations?
voir vocabulaire p. 14. Sujets complémentaires, voir p. 263.

5.
C
Should art be avant-garde?
L’art devrait-il être d’avant-garde?

(A discussion about art between three friends all


aucun aged 40, but none of them is a specialist.)
à peine henry - I could hardly believe it the other day
exposition when I went to visit the Modern Art exhibition at
bibliothèque/faire la queue the local library: I was expecting to queue up for
an hour or so before getting in, when in fact there
was hardly anybody there.
thomas - It’s true that our contemporaries do not
particularly favour the avant-garde in the arts.
je suis d'accord/ont toujours eu tendance sam - I agree, people have always tended to prefer

21
► mobilier/authentique imitations of 18th century furniture to genuine
► mobilier de style « design » design styled furniture.
thomas - Yes, and in the same way cubist style
tableaux paintings still puzzle a good many amateurs.
henry - You find the same thing with music, too.
remarqué / bizarrement thomas - Yes, have you noticed that funnily enough
modern music is called “concrete music”, whereas
modem painting is called “abstract painting”?
henry - Well, modern music is often considered
insupportable unbearable.
thomas - Yes, people obviously prefer Mozart and
Beethoven to Mahler.
henry - I have no intention of contradicting you,
on but Mahler is certainly not what one would call
concrete.
sam - He has even become a classic.
à la mode henry - And he is very fashionable, too.
thomas - Well perhaps my example was not a good
one, but the fact remains that modern art is often
méprisé/» il est de mauvais goût looked down on, maybe because *it is lacking in
taste.
sam - Well, that may be right when you look at what
modem architecture has produced since the last
war. All over the world you find that every build­
laid ing is the same type of ugly cube and this makes
ennuyeux modem architecture boring, doesn’t it?
néanmoins henry - Nevertheless, we cannot possibly live in
pour toujours the past for ever. Mozart and Michaelangelo were
men of genius, and no doubt can still be regarded
as such, but they were modem in their day. Take
for instance Tchaikovsky, who is a great classic
de nos jours/tiède nowadays. He received a lukewarm welcome from
his contemporaries. The impressionists who are
now considered as exquisite masters were all
refused entry at the Paris “Salon d’Automne”
dans les années 1860 in the 1860’s.
Tu as raison thomas - You’re right. As I see it, the problem
of the avant-garde in the arts is that one has a hard
time deciding what is good and what is not. The
de toute évidence avant-garde obviously includes the classics of
► de choses sans intérêt tomorrow, but also a lot of rubbish which will not
» prendre la peine/» ce qui mérite last. So why should one bother to find out *what is
worth keeping or not, when it’s so easy to adrrqre
chefs-d’œuvre the huge quantity of famous ancient masterpieces?
vue à court terme sam - Well, that is a shortsighted view which doesn't
give much hope to good young artists. When they
reconnus aren’t acknowledged, they very often produce less,
» ne serait-ce que if only for financial reasons.
henry - Yes, even artists have a right to eat every
day!

22
sam -1 couldn’t agree with you more! If the public
doesn’t want modern art, these promising young
artists will either do something else or decide to
mécènes/» ce qui paint in a style which pleases their patrons, which
to me is a great pity.
thomas - But do patrons still exist nowadays? I
l'État think the only patron nowadays is the State.
ajouter sam - One could add that young artists may find
their inspiration in the confirmed talents of the old.
henry - Yes, but then they will be in a dilemma.
d'un côté You’re right on this particular point. *On the one
doivent hand, they probably owe a lot to their predecessors,
for no one can pretend to create anything entirely
de l’autre (côté) new, and on the other hand, an imitation of the
past would still be an imitation, and would not
bring anything new to the world of art.
sam - Of course, just imagine what life would be like
if the style of Louis XIV were repeated year after
year. We do not speak, we do not eat and dress,
ne voyageons pas do not travel, in the same way as our ancestors did.
So why shouldn’t our arts be different?
henry - I think that even if the avant-garde in the
précaution /mérite arts is considered with caution, it deserves respect,
car/» porte for it bears the promise of the future.
thomas - Even if this view of yours were true the
problem of educating our contemporaries’ taste
would remain.
nourris sam - Yes, how can people who have been fed on
classical values appreciate different ones?
henry - And how can people educated in modern
values appreciate classical ones?
thomas - In any case, I doubt if we’ll discover a
Et si on prenait un verre pour nous aider à solution today, gentlemen. *What if we had a drink
réfléchir à la question to help us think the question over?
Voir vocabulaire p. 170

Divorce
Le divorce

1. Is there any reason why a person should have


to spend his or her whole life with someone he or
she no longer loves? It is quite logical to divorce
somebody you do not love. Why should one have
to live a miserable life?

23
2. Divorce is exactly the opposite of hypocrisy.
autrefois/ne s’entendaient pas Formerly couples who did not get on would be
époux tempted to lead a double life, each of the spouses
grâce à having a lover. Now, thanks to easy divorce
hypocrite/comportement/est terminé procedures, this hypocritical / behaviour / is over.
3. It is very rare that one should love the same
>même person for ever. The very idea of having to spend
effrayant one's life with the very same person is frightening.
un certain temps If after any length of time one realises that one
no longer loves one’s husband (or wife), or that one
loves somebody else, then there is no reason why
one should not ask for a divorce.
mal vue 4. Free union is still frowned upon in many
donc countries. Therefore young couples have very
si/> sont faits little chance of knowing whether they are meant
to live together. If divorce did not exist, life would
pur enfer be sheer hell in many cases.
5. Is it not better for the children of broken
families to live with one of the parents after the
supporter/ disputes divorce, rather than bearing the rows and
assister/ véritables/ bagarres sometimes witnessing / actual / fights which could
» traumatiser upset them for life? The children in such a case are
as miserable as their parents.

contre AGAINST
habitudes/ d’antan 1. We find the habits of Arabic princes of old
rather barbaric in being able to repudiate any one
of their wives in the harem, but is not present day
quick and easy divorce a modern way of repudiating
a woman (or man)?
2. In some cases either the husband or the wife
► affective still loves his (her) partner and his (her) emotional
life is broken by a divorce.
égoïstes 3. Divorced couples are selfish, they never think
projet de loi/proposé of their children. Once a bill was issued, but never
► accepté/enfants mineurs passed, forbidding couples who had children under
sensé/puisque age to get a divorce. This was very sound,/since
► devoir/élever the most important task for parents is to rear and
educate their children, thus giving them „a
équilibrée/enfance
balanced / childhood.
anormal 4. As a matter of fact,divorce is abnormal. Most
primitive societies insisted, and still do, on
fidélité faithfulness in married life. Even animal societies,
loups like the wolves, are based on faithfulness. Are we
not superior to primitive people or animals? Most
divorcés divorcees will not agree, but there is little doubt

24
that too many divorces lead to the destruction of
occidentale the family unit, which is the basis of our western
society.
surtout 5. Divorce is especially easy for men. A divorced
assez man can re-marry fairly quickly. Are things as easy
as that for the “abandoned” wife, who always has
lutter/élever to struggle / to bring up two or more children on
pension alimentaire/à contre cœur the allowance given (sometimes reluctantly) by the
ancien former husband? And is it easy for the mother of
de l’épouser young children to persuade a man to marry her and
les siens bring up children who are not his?
voir vocabulaire p. 14, 30, 84, 86. Sujets complémentaires, voir p. 263.

7.C
The police in question
La police en question

causerie/étudiants en droit (A talk given to Exeter University law students by


étudiant ayant déjà sa licence a French post-graduate student )

police = pluriel/se lamente The police are always bemoaning their


unpopularity, but whose fault is it? It’s a fact that
dans l’ensemble on the whole the population has little or no esteem
parierais for its police. I would even bet that everyone has
parents among his friends or relatives a person who has,
brutalisé/en civil at one time or another, been bullied by *
plain
clothes or uniformed policemen without having
délit/l’ennui committed any offence. The trouble with our

25
ils ont tendance police is that they tend to consider everyone as a
» parole/ne vaut rien contre potential criminal. Our word ^s worth nothing
pire against a police-officer’s. What is worse, we even
get the impression that the police themselves go
» de mal unpunished when they’ve done something wrong.
une affaire/commissaire I remember a case in which a chief inspector had
falsified the evidence in order to condemn a
découvert/condamné suspect. He was found out and sentenced to two
avec sursis years imprisonment, but with
* a suspended
execution of the sentence. And what about that
renversé other case, when a man had been run over by a car
trottoir/pendant que and was lying unconscious on the pavement / while
affairés the police were busy measuring the street
en longueur et en largeur lengthwise and breadthwise, and keeping the
ambulance waiting. A famous actor who happened
to be standing there asked why the man wasn’t
immédiatement/dispute/s’ensuivit taken to hospital at once. An argument / arose
and the next thing the actor knew was that he was
► fourgon/passé à tabac being taken into the police van and beaten up.
celui-ci/fïnalement And it was the latter who was eventually /
poursuivi prosecuted for insulting the police! It’s certainly
true that a policeman’s job is at the same time
difficile arduous and dangerous, but the police would be
~ (inspirerait) confiance admired and trusted much more if they were just
citoyens/
* au-dessus/lois ordinary citizens who are not beyond the laws of
their own country.
Ministre de l’intérieur If I were the Home Secretary I think I would be
very strict with my police, and very demanding
of them, and would certainly never try to find
excuses for them. I would also insist on their being
courtois/au moins/flic courteous, / at least. How can you respect a copper
~ qui vous enguirlande/sans mâcher who tells you off / in no uncertain terms? His job
ses mots/avant tout is above all to protect, to punish if necessary, never
manifestation to insult people. I once saw a demonstration in
London which, to my mind, symbolises what the
comportement/foule behaviour of the police should be. A big crowd had
s’était rassemblée gathered in Trafalgar Square to protest against the
Grèce/ Royaume-U ni visit of Queen Frederika of Greece to the U.K. A
cordon frail row of policemen was holding back the crowd
manifestant when suddenly a demonstrator and an officer
en vinrent aux mains started having an argument and came to blows.
Anywhere else this incident would have been the
bagarre générale starting point of a pitched battle. Here on the
contrary, a second demonstrator calmly took hold
* l’entraîna of his comrade and dragged him away while a
policeman did the same thing fqr his colleague
and the incident was closed.
qui me frappe/évident Something which strikes me too is the obvious /
*
manque/ préparation lack of training of our police. Have you ever

26
policiers (U.S.) noticed that American troopers, for example,
patrol one at a time during the day and only two
et pourtant by two at night? And yet they never feel insecure.
The reason is that their training is highly scientific.
armes They know an awful lot about weapons and
shooting techniques. For example, they know at
what angle they should be standing from a car
afin qu’on ne leur tire pas dessus when they stop it in order not to be shot at. They
mettre les menottes/» qui fait du are also trained to arrest and handcuff a riotous /
scandale/ivrogne drunk in a few seconds without anyone else’s help.
Why is it that in my country the police would
never dream of going to arrest someone if they
were fewer than five or six? Obviously because they
are not sure of themselves.
To conclude, the police of my country will gain
quand ib décideront my admiration and respect^when they make up
their minds to treat people courteously and accept
the normal punishment if they themselves commit
an offence, and also when their chiefs decide to
» faire face train them to be efficient enough to handle a
situation without relying on that old saying
~ l’union fait la force “there’s safety in numbers”.
Sujets complémentaires, voir p. 263.

Police
La police

the police are coming: la police arrive “stop thief !”: “au voleur” !
♦the police station: le poste de police to take into custody:
the central police station: incarcérer (provisoirement)
le commissariat central •a fine: une amende
the constabulary: la gendarmerie •to search: chercher/fouiller
the chief constable: le chef de la police •to hide: se cacher
*a constable: un gendarme to seek (arch.): rechercher
a trooper (U.S.): un policier to raid a district: procéder à une rafle
the deputy sheriff (U.S.): le shérif adjoint to raid a house: perquisitionner
*a police inspector: un inspecteur to trace the offenders: retrouver les coupables
the chief inspector: le commissaire to chase: poursuivre
a plain clothes detective: un policier en civil •fingerprints: des empreintes
*a police officer: un agent •a clue: un indice
•“excuse me, officer”...: “pardon M. l’agent”... an informer: un indicateur
a cop (U.S.)/a bobby (G.B.): un flic a person who could help the police in
the mounted police: la police montée their investigations: un suspect
the squad: la brigade a post-mortem: une autopsie
the beat: la ronde police notice “no parking”: par ordre
•handcuffs: les menottes de police “stationnement interdit"
a whistle: un sifflet sign-posts: pancartes
to intervene: intervenir “trespassers will be prosecuted":
•to arrest: arrêter les contrevenants seront poursuivis
to stop: arrêter pour quelques minutes “no trespassing”: entrée interdite

27
*a demonstration: une manifestation spent cartridges: des douilles
a sit-in demonstration: a flick-knife: un couteau à cran d'arrêt
une manifestation non violente to slash: taillader
the demonstrators were chanting to writhe: se tordre de douleur
“down with the Shah": les manifestants *I’ve been robbed (to rob): on m’a volé
scandaient “A bas le Shah". *my money has been stolen (to steal):
*a riot: une émeute mon argent a été volé
the riot-police: arles C.R.S. *a ticket (U.S.): une contravention
“steel-helmeted riot-police clubbed away *to get booked: avoir un P.V.
the demonstrators": des CRS portant des an identity card: une carte d'identité
casques d'acier dispersèrent les manifestants *a passport: un passeport
à coups de matraques an immigration officer: un inspecteur
a Black Maria: le panier à salade de la police des frontières
tear-gas: gaz lacrimogène to avenge: venger
a club: une matraque a revenge: une revanche
a truncheon: un bâton de police to yield: se rendre
to stun: assommer/étourdir to be abducted: être enlevé, kidnappé
to flee: s’enfuir the parents paid $2 millions to ransom their
a flight: une fuite daughter: les parents payèrent $2 millions
*to break into a house: entrer par effraction pour obtenir la libération de leur fille
*to be caught red-handed: être pris la main to be double-crossed: se faire avoir
dans le sac a highwayman (arch.): un bandit de grand
“hands-up”: “haut les mains” chemin
*a gun: un revolver stand and deliver (arch.): la bourse ou la vie
a shotgun: un fusil

8.A
Justice
La justice

étudiant en droit (The point of view of a law student.)

If I had to define briefly what my idea of justice


is, 1 would say, without any hesitation, that it is the
» ultime utmost expression of human progress. Can a
society exist without any kind of justice?
assurément Obviously not. As soon as a human group starts to
établit organize itself, it sets up rules which are then
imposed by a member or members of that group.
tribus/le plus âgé In primitive tribes it would probably be the eldest
il arrive que (le juge) member. The "judge" usually happens to be a
person who is both esteemed and respected by his
occidental group, in the western world, that is. 1 have in mind
one particular example, that of the American “Far
West” at the time of the Conquest of the West. It is

28
sans loi a clear example of the transformation of a lawless
society into a more elaborate one. The main
trait feature of justice in such small groups is that the
code is simple and administered by someone
known to all. But this is no longer the case in our
modern, more sophisticated type of society. To
begin with, the legal code has become so
gagnent leur vie complicated that some people even *earn their
conseillant livings by advising people on it. (I am alluding
avocats/notaires to barristers and solicitors of course.). For most
mineurs/délits offences, and for petty / offences at least, the judge
formé is a professional, who is trained and paid to
administer justice. He is not known to everyone,
which implies that he is not necessarily respected
malgré/» robe/jugé in spite of his ermine gown. When one is tried by a
jury, which is the most democratic way of judging a
manque/la bonne raison crime, the consensus is lacking for the very reason
that only certain categories of private citizens can
be members of a jury. (Theoretically anyone can
be a juryman, but in practice very few actually
permet come from the lower classes.) This enables some
affirmer people to claim that we are under the authority
of a bourgeois system of justice. 1 suppose that
lois they mean that the laws are made for and by
members of the bourgeoisie. It is true that
endurci it can be shocking to see a hardened criminal get
tandis que only 10 years for a serious offence, whereas a
délinquant first-time petty offender can get as much as 5 years.
It would seem that some hardened criminals are
treated with certain consideration...
se demande/occidentale In fact one sometimes wonders why western society
supporter continues to put up with its professional criminals,
souteneurs pimps and prostitutes. Part of the responsibility
repose lies in the hands of the police, because they need a
informateurs/retrouver la piste certain number of informers in order to
* track
down criminals, but magistrates also share part of
the responsibility because they are not strict
amnistient enough, or they pardon a criminal too soon.
d'un autre côté/tant que On the other hand, there is no doubt that^is long
délits as there are men there will be crimes, but is it not
devoir the duty of judges and juries to protect society and
also to educate it? All this, of course, is easier said
than done. The press a few years ago in England
souleva aroused public indignation by publishing the story
coupable of a man found guilty of poisoning two of his
camarades de travail/^ casier Judiciaire workmates. In his records it was discovered that
he had already poisoned his whole family nine
years before, had been imprisoned and then legally
reprieved. This is a flagrant example of the non­
reliché
protection of society. The problem is: can we let
criminals out of prison at the risk of seeing them

29
les enfermer repeat their offences, or do we have *
to lock them
up to the end of their days, knowing full well that a
libérés number of them would lead a decent life if freed
after serving their sentences?
tâche A magistrate’s task is certainly not an easy one;
especially as some offenders who return to crime
after being freed do so not because they are not
afraid of prison, but simply because they have no
ancien/bagnard work. Who wants to employ a former / convict?
peur Then if the same man takes fright while breaking
tire sur in and shoots at the police, public opinion will
indulgente accuse the law of having been too lenient, without
realising that all this is a social problem which goes
au-delà far beyond the simple administration of justice.
► cependant There are two points, though, on which our
justice can be criticized. First, it is slow to operate.
Of course, it can be a good thing not to judge too
hâtivement/à chaud speedily, / in the heat of the moment. But what
effet préventif/potentiek deterrent is there for would-be criminals when a
malfaiteur/ procès wrong-doer waits two or three years for trial after
forfait his misdemeanour? The second criticism concerns
élargir le fossé legal language, which can only widen the gap
between magistrates and ordinary citizens, instead
le combler of bridging it. When he is accused of an offence
the man in the street would certainly appreciate
au moins being able to understand at least what is being said.
Sujets complémentaires, voir p. 263.

Justice and crime


La justice et les délits

1. Crimes and offences : Les délits *manslaughter: homicide involontaire


*an offence/*a crime/a breach of the peace : *murder: meurtre
un délit arson: incendie volontaire
to indict: inculper hijacking: détournement (d'avion...)
*a threat: une menace bribery (of witness): corruption (de témoin)
♦to break the law/to infringe the law: to sue somebody: poursuivre quelqu'un en
contrevenir à la loi justice
*to threaten/to menace: menacer a dispute: un litige
libel: une calomnie contempt of Court: refus de comparaître
to slander: calomnier a trespasser: un contrevenant
to abuse: insulter a vagrant: un vagabond
♦a theft: un vol *a burglar: un cambrioleur
a petty theft: un larcin *a thief/ *a robber : un voleur
an assault: voie de fait a hooligan: un voyou

30
a smuggler: un contrebandier *the defendant: l'accusé
to smuggle: faire de la contrebande the Counsel: le défenseur
juvenile delinquency: délinquence juvénile the (witness) box: la barre
an accomplice: un complice le banc (des témoins)
to forge: falsifier the dock: le box des accusés
a forgerer: un faux-monnayeur to swear: jurer
to blackmail: faire chanter to be sworn in: prêter serment
to commit perjury: faire un faux témoignage *a witness: un témoin
*shoplifting: vol à l'étalage *a trial: un procès
she killed him in self-defence: to be tried: être jugé
elle l'a tué en état de légitime défense in absentia: par contumace
self-defence: la légitime défense in camera: à huis-clos
*to plead guilty/not guilty:
2. The law: La loi plaider coupable/non coupable
a juror: un juré
*law: la loi/le droit *thejury: le jury
law-abiding: respectueux des lois the foreman of the jury : le porte-parole du jury
a warrant: un mandat d'arrêt *to be found guilty: être déclaré coupable
a search-warrant: un mandat de perquisition *to be acquitted: être acquitté
the (wax) seals: les scellés (de cire) *to convict: condamner
a deed: un acte, document légal ♦evidence: preuve
to be prosecuted: être poursuivi par la justice
3. The working of court: to cross examine: interroger
Fonctionnement du tribunal contradictoirement
the responsibility rests with him:
la responsabilité lui incombe
*a Court: une Cour de justice
a tribunal: un tribunal
4. Penalties: Les peines
the assizes: les assises a penalty: une peine
an industrial tribunal: to be sentenced: être condamné
un conseil de prudhommes a reprieve: le sursis
petty sessions: tribunal correctionnel a pardon: la grâce
appeal: l'appel a whip: un fouet
grand jury (U.S.): conseil de citoyens faisant thongs of leather: des lanières de cuir
office de juge d’instruction a cat o’nine tails: chat à neuf queues
the Bench: la magistrature to be sentenced to 3 years:
*a lawyer: un homme de loi être condamné à 3 ans de prison
the Bar: le Barreau to be sentenced to life imprisonment:
a barrister: un avocat être condamné à la prison à vie
a solicitor: un avocat - avoué - notaire ♦to lock up: enfermer
a clerk: un greffier to be taken into custody:
a magistrate: un magistrat être mis en détention provisoire
a Justice of the Peace (a J-P): un juge de paix to be remanded in custody: être garde à vue
an attorney: un avoué - homme de loi to be liable to a fine: risquer une amende
the Attorney General (U.S.): le Ministre to be fined: être condamné à une amende
de la justice to expel: expulser
the prosecutor: le procureur to transport: déporter
Mr. Justice so and so: M. le Juge untel to resent: s'offenser de quelque chose

31
9.C
The prison system
Le système pénitentiaire

(An extract of a talk given to London University


étudiants en cours de licence undergraduates by a member of a study group on
delinquency.)

► on How can you satisfy public opinion when you


responsable are in charge of prison administration? If the
sordides prisons are squalid and their occupants appear to
be suffering, public opinion cries out that it's a
honte/encourage disgrace and urges the authorities to reform the
► dès que/appliquées prison system. Once the reforms are applied,
public opinion says things have gone too far; that
prisons are too modern, and prison life not
repressive enough. It’s true that it’s sometimes
shocking to read in the papers that well-known
gangsters responsible for numerous crimes are
en permission/» par conséquent able to go on leave regularly and hence continue
louches their shady activities...
attendu But what must really be expected of ajjrison?
but/enfermer For most people the purpose of prison is io lock
personnages/les empêcher de up dangerous characters and prevent them from
but continuing their work. This aim is of course
en vérité insufficient in the eyes of the criminologist. Indeed
privé de liberté the real punishment is to be deprived of freedom,
but at the same time an important work of
voilà le hic re-education is to be expected. *And there’s the
ni les locaux ni rub. Most prisons have neither the premises nor
personnel the staff to be able to transform minor delinquents
gens into honest folk.
plutôt It’s the opposite that takes places, rather.
Promiscuity is such that young minor delinquents
côtoient/ endurcis rub shoulders with / hardened criminals who teach
» trucs/métier them all the tricks of the trade. Of course, on the
other hand, prisons should not be the next best thing
to a four star hotel. It’s quite scandalous to read
» bénéficient de that some celebrated criminals enjoy the comfort
cellules of a “suite” of several cells and the privilege of a
poste de télé T.V. set, meals cooked specially for them in the
canteen and other prisoners continually at their
à leurs ordres/l’enfer sur terre- beck and call... But if prison life is like’hell on
earth, the victims will be young delinquents who
will be marked for the rest of their lives. The ideal
solution would be for these young delinquents

32
to be put in special prisons, where those whose
terminée education had never been completed could be
ronvenablement/enseignés/apprendre properly / taught and where all of them could learn
a trade which would be useful once they were
Ubérés/drogués/emprisonnés released. / Drug addicts should also be jailed in
malades special places. They’re sick more than anything
else, and need therapy rather than a strict
penitentiary regime. A third category of prisons
moyennes/longues would be reserved for medium and long-term /
peines/dans celles-ci sentences. Discipline would be stricter in the latter
précédents and if the two previous types of delinquents could

assez/ prés/famille be placed fairly / close to their relatives to facilitate


their reintegration into “normal” life, the third
group could be placed in provincial security
afin que/évasions prisons, so that / break-outs would be rare enough
citoyens for ordinary citizens to feel protected.

gardiens
In every case, the training of prison wardens
* affaire
would have to be an extremely serious matter.
surveillance
They should not only be used for supervising and
preventing prisoners from escaping, fighting or
committing suicide, but also for teaching and
understanding those they are in charge of.
They would also have to give up receiving tips
renoncer/ pourboires
from prisoners for bringing in and taking out items
articles
which should not normally be brought in or taken
out, such as letters, alcohol, books, etc. Their
status would change for the better and their
ainsi influence on the prisoners would therefore/
augmenterait increase. Of course they would have to be better
paid and this is what probably makes the whole

33
en profondeur/pure et simple idea of a reform in depth / sheer utopia. There
will never be sufficient money to spend on prisons.
évident And yet it is obvious that the problem should not
remain a secondary priority.
Sujets complémentaires, voir p. 263.

Prison
La prison

to be sent to prison: être mis en prison solitary confinement: le mitard


*a jail/a gaol: une prison *life imprisonment: prison à vie
to be behind bars: être derrière les barreaux *in custody: en préventive
to do time: faire de la prison to be remanded in custody: être gardé"-j vue
a prison warden: gardien de prison to break out of prison: s’évader
to watch: surveiller to escape: s’échapper
to be on duty: être de service a file: une lime
*a cell: une cellule a police van: un fourgon cellulaire
a padded cell: une cellule capitonnée the exercise yard: la cour de la prison
a pris oner/an inmate: un prisonnier to go on hunger strike: faire la grève de la faim
*a convict: un bagnard a social worker: une assistante sociale
*to serve a 2 years term/sentence: a chaplain: un aumônier
purger une peine de 2 ans a borstal/a remand home: une maison de
hard labour: travaux forcés redressement

10.C
An eye for an eye?
Œil pour œil...

(Norman and. Leslie, both aged 20, are students at


London University.)
norman - Ah, I can see you’re signing the petition
to bring back capital punishment in Britain.
te rends-tu compte Are you aware that even France, one of the last
(avait) conservé countries which retained the death penalty has
abolished it?
Leslie - Sure, but thirty four American states or
more have reintroduced it. I think it was a bad
» au départ mistake to abolish it here in England in the first place.
n. - Do you really think so?
l. - Well look at the crimes of all sorts that are
méritent committed every day. Criminals deserve more
peines de prûon/travaux forcés than prison terms or even hard-labour.

34
n. - What change would capital punishment bring
► criminels about? Would you send all the offenders to the
échafaud scaffold?
l. - No, of course not. But to me the only real
effet préventif deterrent is a terrible punishment, and it can only
la mort be death.
chiffres n. - Have you ever read the figures concerning
taux/encore crime rates when capital punishment still existed?
l. -1 know exactly what you’re going to say - in the
siède/pendus eighteenth century people could be hanged if they
dérobaient/miche de pain stole a loaf of bread, and yet bread was stolen
every day.
n. -1 won’t go back as far as the eighteenth century
but twenty years ago, when a good many
avaient lieu/meurtres executions took place, there were as many murders
if not more than now.
► de si nombreuses l. - I don’t think there were all that many
executions then.
n. - Would you just care to have a look at the
statistics; in fact the “crime passionnel” which in
France only brought ten or fifteen years
imprisonment could send you to the scaffold in
England. .
I remember reading about the case of a woman
tué/amant who was hanged because she had killed her lover.
Europe/délit/coupable On the continent for a similar offence the culprit
would only have got seven years.
l. - Well, there are also some countries where a
mari/femme husband who kills his wife gets only a couple of
► normal months. Do you find that right?
tandis que/peine n. - Of course not, but while one penalty was too
démente/dure lenient the other one was too harsh, too cruel.
puisque/rites l. - Since you are quoting examples, let me quote
one too. You know that our policemen are
autrefois/abattait/flic unarmed. So formerly anyone who shot a bobby
was almost automatically hanged, and
consequently very few bobbies were killed.
n. - So?
l. - Well just after the death penalty was suppressed
three policemen were killed.
condamnés à la prison à vie à la place n. - But weren’t the culprits ‘sentenced to life
imprisonment instead? Don’t you think that
spending one’s life in prison is a harsh enough
► peine punishment?
► seul l. - No, because everyone knows that not a single
murderer spends the rest of his life in prison even
if he’s sentenced to life imprisonment. For good
conduite/^ obtenir une commutation behaviour one can be reprieved after ten years.
n. - Don’t forget that if a culprit is sentenced to
► alors qn’(il est)/encore a long term in prison while/still young he will
prison spend the best years of his life in jail.

35
On top of that I find it quite normal that a criminal
libéré/»- racheté/le mal should be freed if he has made up for/the wrong he
bagnard has done. I was reading about a convict who had
gracié first been sentenced to death and then pardoned.
His life term was eventually reduced to a twelve
prison year term and now he’s out of jail, a successful
homme d’affaires/qui plus est businessman and what is more, a highly respected
member of the community.
l. - I have also read about similar cases of people
» une fois (que) who repeated their offence once they were let out
of prison.
n. - That is certainly a risk, but I am sure there are
arrivent à more people who manage to readjust to a normal
après avoir purgé life after serving their term in jail than people who
► délits commit new offences.
l. - But society has to be protected!
dépend de/attribuez n. - It all depends on the role you allot to capital
► éventuels punishment. Is it to dissuade would-be offenders
débarrasser or to rid society of criminals?
à vrai dire/les deux l. - Actually I think it’s both. In fact there is also a
question of moral justice.
revanche n. - You mean revenge. That takes us back to the
“an eye for an eye”, “a tooth for a tooth” times,
don’t you think?
affectionne/laisse-moi te rappeler l. - No, but as you’re so fond of examples * Iet me
avaient torturé... remind you of that couple who had tortured
jusqu’à ce que mort s’ensuive several people to death a few years ago.
effroyable affaire n. - Shocking business, I remember.
l. - Well, if anyone deserved capital punishment,
heureusement they did. But fortunately for them it had just been
abolished and they were sentenced to life
imprisonment.
n.-Well...
l. - And you know what? The jury found it
souhait necessary to express the wish that they would
libérés not be freed before having served fifteen years.
raisonnable / abominable Is it a fair punishment for such a ghastly crime?
évidemment/malades n. - But these people were- obviously mentally ill.
They should have been put in an asylum.
l. - Well, they were found responsible for their acts
by the psychologists. And at the same time the
types/vol fellows who committed the great train robbery
condamnés/bien que were sentenced to the same penalty although they
hadn’t killed anyone.
tu oses n. - I don’t know how you dare make judgements
► à la place for the judges and proclaim what is right and
preuves wrong. They have evidence that you don’t know
about.
plaident l. - Even those who plead for the abolition of
capital punishment say that it should be replaced
by twenty or thirty years in prison.

36
n. - You can't possibly keep someone in prison lot
► Je suis entièrement d'nccurd thirty years, and at the same time I subscribe to
what a famous philosopher said, that “death is a
scandal”.
i. - What did he mean?
aurait pu se révéler n. - That someone who is executed ’might have
turned out a decent fellow later on.

j -P

endurci i. - Or a hardened criminal.


n. - Do you remember Caryl Chessmann? He was
condamnation/entre-temp s executed thirteen years after the sentence./’in
between, he had written two books. Do you think
it was the same man who was executed?
je te l'accorde i.. - It was a terrible case, I grant you that. The
mistake was to have waited so long before
executing him.
n. - But that simply proved that his personality had
entièrement utterly changed.
i. - Yes, but what about his crime? It must have
affreux been dreadful, all the same. People like you arc
always speaking of (he murderers and your
companion sympathy goes out to them, but you never once
speak of the victims, of the horror of what has been
done.
n. - What horrifies me about capital punishment
is that if a man is found innocent after his execution
vraiment it's too late to do anything about it. this has actually

37
► de plus happened several times. And besides don’t you
think that an execution is horrible?
la pendaison l. - Hanging and the guillotine are quick and
indolore painless.
c’est toi qui le dis n. - So you say. But even if it’s true, all that
quant à la fusillade precedes it is dreadful. It has been proved that
douloureuse the electric chair is very painful and the gas
chamber, which was used for Caryl Chessmann
effroyable by the way, is equally appalling.
l. - How?
bourreau/bouton n. - Well, the executioner presses a knob which
libère frees two little capsules, which in their turn fall into
bain an acid bath and the reaction liberates the gas. It
takes about thirty seconds for the gas to take effect.
As the prisoner can hear the noise made by the
capsules when they fall in the acid bath he knows
he has thirty seconds to live...
► puisque l. - I don’t see what difference that makes, since
he knows he’s condemned.
ajoute n. - It simply adds to the torture. And then he tries
respirer/aGn de not to breathe/in order to live a few more seconds
- it’s simply barbaric.
l. - Now there is a more modern way of executing
uiortelles/piqûres people, with lethal/injections which have been
introduced in the USA.
n. - Wouldn’t it be better in the first place to
prevent people from commiting murders through
toxicomanie/le chômage education by fighting drug-addiction, •unemploy­
ment, etc.?
efficace l. - In my opinion this will never really be efficient.
► sujet/ne manque pas I see we can’t agree on the matter but don’t fail to
salut! let me know if you change your mind. So long!

Capital punishment
La peine de mort

1. The death sentence: 2. Means of execution:


La peine de mort L’exécution
*the death sentence/penalty: la peine de mort the electric chair: la chaise électrique
•to abolish capital punishment: abolir the gas chamber: la chambre à gaz
la peine capitale the guillotine: la guillotine
abolition: abolition - suppression the rope: la corde
(de la peine capitale) the scaffold: l’échafaud
*abolitionists: les partisans de l’abolition the gallows: le gibet - la potence
♦to be sentenced to death : être condamné à mort the stake: le bûcher
the condemned cell: la cellule *to be executed: être exécuté
des condamnés à mort the executioner: le bourreau

38
the executioner’s assistants: les aides 3. Mercy and reprieve:
*to be shot: être fusillé Grâce et sursis
to blindfold: mettre un bandeau sur les yeux
*a firing party/squad: un peloton d'exécution to appeal for mercy: signer un recours en grâce
to shoot/to fire point blank: tirer the Court of Appeal: la Cour d'appel
à bout portant to hear an appeal: juger un appel
to be hanged: être pendu to reject an appeal: repousser un appel
the hangman: le bourreau the Home Secretary (I): le Ministre de
to be garroted: subir le supplice du garrot l’intérieur
to be beheaded: être décapité *to be pardoned: être grâcié
to be guillotined: être guillotiné a pardon: une grâce
to be electrocuted: passer sur la chaise a delay: un délai
électrique *a reprieve/a stay of execution: un sursis
to be burnt (at the stake): être brûlé (vif)
to be strangled: être étranglé
to be stoned: être lapidé
to be crucified: être crucifié

Death
La mort

*to die: mourir *to be cremated: être incinéré


to pass away: trépasser the ashes: les cendres
*he is dead/he has died: il est mort an urn: une urne funéraire
*he died of cancer: il est mort du cancer *to be buried: être enterré
*he died in 1970: il est mort en 1970 *a coffin: un cercueil
*death: la mort a bier/a casket (U.S.): une bière
*the dead person/the deceased: le mort/ the lid: le couvercle
le défunt a shroud: un linceul
*the corpse/the body: le cadavre/le corps *a churchyard/a graveyard: un cimetière
the quick and the dead: les vivants et les morts (près d’une église)
the late King of England: feu le roi *a cemetery: un cimetière (municipal)
d'Angleterre a tomb/a grave: une tombe
the wake/the vigil: la veille (du défunt) a tombstone: une pierre tombale
a post mortem/autopsy (U.S.): une autopsie a vault: un caveau
a funeral parlour (U.S.): une entreprise a hearse: un corbillard
de pompes funèbres a wreath: une couronne mortuaire
a mortician (U.S.): un embaumeur *“no flowers by request”: “ni fleurs ni
*an undertaker/a funeral director: couronnes”
un entrepreneur de pompes funèbres to be in mourning: être en deuil
to be embalmed: être embaumé *deepest sympathy: sincères condoléances
a mortuary: une morgue
•the funeral (2): les funérailles condolence: condoléances
*a burial: un enterrement sympathetic: compatissant
a State funeral (2): des funérailles nationales *a will/a testament: un testament

(1) Home Secretary - la grâce d’un condamné dépendait de lui en Angleterre avant la suppression de la peine
capitale.
(2) Mot invariable.

39
11. A
The originality of the British constitution and of the judicial system
L’originalité de la Constitution britannique et du système judiciaire

THE BRITISH CONSTITUTION


principale 1. Its main originality is that it simply does not
imprimé exist. There is no single printed document which
defines the constitution, as in France or the
constituée de U.S.A. The British constitution is made up of a
Grande Charte few documents such as Magna Carta, the Bill of
Droits Rights, the Petition of Rights, but mostly of an
enormous number of traditions. For instance, it is
the Prime Minister who is the real decision maker,
titre but his title was never mentioned in legal
documents for 150 years. The monarch has no real
political power, but this is not written anywhere -
it is simply a tradition.
parlementaire 2. The British system of government is^iarlia-
étroitement mentary. The Parliament of Westminster closely
controls all the decisions of the government
projets de lois by the voting of bills and the Budget. But the
Prime Minister has, in between, quasi-dictatorial
» Chambre powers. He can dissolve the House, ask his
démissionner Ministers to resign, sign treaties, nominate
ambassadors and judges and even Anglican
archevêques archbishops...
3. The governmental system is highly centralised
as in France, that is, the WestminsterParliament
comtés decides everything and the counties have little
cependant autonomy. Yet local authorities enjoy much more
domaines power than in France, especially in matters such
as education. Schools depend nearly as much on
local authorities as on the Ministry of Education.
provinces entières/Pays de Galles Whole provinces like Wales, the Channel Islands,
Écosse the Isle of Man and especially Scotland have their
particularités/billets de banque own peculiarities. In Scotland the laws, the
*
bank-
notes, stamps and the educational system are
different from England, just to give a few
Écossais examples. As everyone knows, many Scots would
like to have eve^ greater autonomy.
4. The powers are theoretically separated, as in
vraies all true democracies, but all the members of the
government must be M.P.s, and the judges are
ainsi nominated by the government. Thus, there are
liens certain links between the executive power, the

40
les juges legislative and the judiciary. Nevertheless it would
be hard to find any of these powers trying to derive
an advantage from the situation.
convient 5. In fact this type of constitution suits the two-
injuste party system very well, which is rather unfair for
the minority parties. Smaller political groups, like
the Liberal Party, stand no chance of playing an
active role in politics because of the electoral
un tour (de scrutin) system based on one ballot. But the great majority
of the English are satisfied with this state of things.
*
» absence/ 1 marcher The constitution (or rather: the lack of it) can work
without any trouble only because the English as a
nation are particularly devoted to “fair play”. The
rights of the opposition are sacred, as well as the
contrepouvoir counterpower of the press.

THE ENGLISH JUDICIAL SYSTEM


► droit 1. It would be a mistake to speak of‘British” law,
for there is only “English” law. Scotland has a legal
îles Anglo-Normandes system apart, just like the Channel Islands, which
have theoretically retained capital punishment,
and the Isle of Man, where corporal punishment
encore is still legal.
2. The main characteristic of English law is that
arbitrary arrest is quite impossible. No one who is
en détention (provisoire) suspected of a crime can be detained in custody
without a magistrate’s decision, and one can
always claim the benefit of “habeas corpus”.
Unlike the French system, One is considered
coupable innocent until one is proved guilty. If you are
accused of a crime, you do not have to prove your
c’est i (la poiice)/preuve innocence, it is up to the police to give evidence of
culpabilité/condamner your guilt for the judges to convict you. If there
is no tangible proof of your guilt, even if the
» intime magistrates have a deep-seated conviction of it,
loi you cannot be convicted under English law.
3. A long tradition of the English system has
jugement been to ensure citizens of the right to trial by jury,
délits at least when serious offences have been committed.
This is highly democratic, and yet one has to be a
propriétaire/juré property owner to qualify as a juror.
4. The jury decides “guilty” or “not guilty” on
its own - there is no meeting with any magistrate
as in France. If the accused is found guilty, the
peine judge will decide on the penalty. If he is found not
guilty, he is immediately freed. The decision of the
jury must be a unanimous one. If the jurors
se tient cannot agree, a new trial is held with a new jury.

41
However, this has no longer been applied since the
abolition of the death penalty. The majority rule
now applies in these cases.
assistez 5. If you attend a trial in France you have the
impression that a verbal duel is going on between
procureur/avocat de la défense the prosecutor and the defence counsel. Each one
is facing the other to make his point for or against
à la barre the prisoner at the bar.
Palais de Justice (Londres) In England, for example at the “Old Bailey”, the
impression is different. The prosecutor and the
banc defence counsel sit on the same bench, wear the
perruque same type of wig and seem to be working together
vérité in order to bring the truth to light.
voir vocabulaire p. 30, 47. Sujets complémentaires, voir p. 263.

12.C
Political opinions
Opinions politiques

professeur d’université (A debate organised by a professor at the


la plupart des gens/qui y assistent University of Exeter - most people /\vho are
attending it are students.)

accueillir chairman - Ladies and gentlemen, I am pleased^o


welcome you all this evening to our debate. As you
but know, the purpose of our meeting is to try to
determine some of the political ideas represented
in this university. Of course, everyone will be
l’occasion given the chance to ask questions and even to
à condition que criticize the ideas expressed here, providing our
courtoisie traditional courtesy prevails. Miss Williams,
would you like to start, please?
miss williams - I’ve come here to express my
conviction that socialism is the political philosophy
of the future.
student - Do you belong to the Communist Party?
Miss will - No, I don’t belong to any party in'fact.
convaincue I’m simply convinced that economically speaking
socialism has more to offer than capitalism.
student - How do you define “socialism”?
pour commencer Miss will - Well, to start with, it’s the abolition of
moyens all private means of production.
plutôt/slmplifier 1 l’extrême student - That’s rather / over-simplifying things,
isn’t it?

42
que cela vous plaise ou pas Miss will - Well, whether you like it or not, it
constitutes the main difference between capitalism
and socialism.
Mr. jones - I think that Miss Williams is forgetting
implique/toute une that marxism also implies/a whole philosophy
ex plicatlon/flnalement of life, an explanation of the world and ultimately
dictature the dictatorship of the proletarian class.
vous ne pouvei ignorer Miss will - Mr. Jones! You can’t be unaware of the
sont favorables i fact that some socialist parties simply favour
ne visent pas nationalization and do not aim at imposing any
quelle qu’elle soit type of proletarian dictatorship whatsoever.
Mr. jones - I suppose Dr. Marx himself would have
referred to them as bourgeois reformist parties.
If that’s what you support, your type of socialism
lourde can be reduced to a heavy taxation of those who
gagnent earn over a certain amount.
les politiques d’imposition (sur le revenu) Miss will - The income-tax policies of some socialist
simplement governments are merely meant to reduce
Juste inequality. Do you find it right that some people
should earn twenty times as much as others?
Mr. jones - Miss Williams, you tend to forget that
préconisez in the type of socialist regime which you advocate,
restent the rich remain rich and the poor remain poor.
frappée It’s the middle class that is hit by taxation and
you know what happens then. In such cases, all
spirit of enterprise is lost.
Miss will. - In a minute Mr. Jones will be telling us
expériences that he prefers the more radical experiments of a
Chinese type, for instance.
les deux Mr. jones - I’m simply saying that both are equally
inefficient.
chairman - Mr. Jones! Could you give us your
arguments in favour of capitalism?
Mr. jones - Well, if we’re limiting ourselves to the
economic aspect (although I’d have liked to
le manque/llberté mention the lack of freedom in some socialist
regimes), capitalism favours any type of individual
enterprise. Anyone who wants to do so can start
prospérer/efllcace up his own business, and thrive, if he's efficient
enough.
Miss WILL. - And he’ll do well in it if he has money
*■ ouvriers/quant A to start with, and if he exploits his workers! As for
genre/travailleurs à la chaîne freedom, what kind of freedom is given to Assem­
bly line workers in the industries in your type of
system?
au molns/l’occasion Mr. jones - Well, at least they have the opportunity
cours du soir to study outside working hours, to follow%vening
afin d’améliorer courses, and so on, in order to better their situation
and do something else later on if they want to.
Miss will. - That doesn’t change the conditions of
chaîne those working on the line. Even a conservative

43
un jour politician once said that in a generation's time the
d'aujourd'hui conditions ofpresent day assembly line workers will
de nos jours be deplored as much as we deplore nowadays the
mines employment of children in the pits in the nineteenth
century.
nous devrions demander chairman - I think we ought to ask someone else to
express other ideas. Mr. Rogers, please !
à cent lieues de celles... Mr. Rogers- Well, my political ideas are%iles away
from those of Miss Williams and Mr. Jones. 1 am
here this evening to defend the monarchist
institution as opposed to the republican.
student - Don’t you think that the monarchy is a
dépassé/siècle terribly outdated concept in the 20th century?
pas le moins du monde Mr. Rogers - Not in the least. Here in England we
effectivement are actually proving that a monarch guarantees the
stability of our institutions.
que se passe-t-il si student - But in an absolute monarchy, what if the
monarch is incapable?
Mr. Rogers - The sovereign can be incapable, that’s
true, but when he dies his successor might be
tandis que/^imparfait better, whereas if the regime itself is inadequate
amélioration there will never be any hope of improvement.
student - But honestly, I can’t see any modern
où allons-nous? state accepting an absolute monarchy. * What are
we coming to?
néanmoins Mr. Rogers - Such states exist, nevertheless, and
even in a constitutional monarchy the influence of
the sovereign is great. For example, a Prime
en fonction Minister doesn’t usually stay in office more than a
chef d’État few years, whereas the sovereign is the *
Head of
State for a life-time.
par conséquent/beaucoup student - And therefore he has a good deal of
experience...
chairman - Thank you, Mr. Rogers. Now, let’s ask
quelques Miss Smith to say a few words.
tout à fait consciente Miss smith - I’m very well aware that my political
représente position is going to be unpopular. I stand for
fascism.
Miss will. - But are there any fascists in England?
» penseriez Miss smith - More than you would expect /-
surtout/ne partagent pas especially as all those who don’t share your own
» catalogués ideas, Mr. Jones, are usually labelled as “fascists”!
» étiquette student - What lies behind your political label?
Miss smith - To start with, I’d like to insist on the
ni... ni fact that we are neither revolutionary nor
conservative. We simply believe in authority. We
don’t believe in any type of parliament, but on the
audacieuse/politique other hand we would promote a bold social policy.
student - What would be the role of the army and
the police in your type of government?
Miss smith - It would be a privileged one, certainly.

44
piliers The armed forces would be one of the two pillars
of our regime.
student - What would be the other one?
Miss smith - The workers.
► vous voulu rire Miss will - You must be joking!
Miss smith - Don't think that the workers all vote
un bon nombre left. A good many of them vote for the
» la majorité Conservative Party and they form the bulk of
our militants.
student - What is your position concerning
Europe?

soutenons Miss smith - We strongly support Europe, but not


that of the Technocrats or the Capitalists. Our
Europe would be a non-conformist Europe, which
se serait débarrassée would have got rid of its old-fashioned bourgeois
la voie concepts, and which would have chosen the path
towards national socialism.
la prochaine étape Miss will - The next step would be Nazism...
Miss smith - That’s what you think.
student - Do you sympathize with Mr. Rogers’
ideas about the monarchy?
bien que Miss smith - Not in the least. Although he calls
himself a popular monarchist, wc find him very
reactionary.
student - What would be your policy concerning
immigrants?

45
renvoyés Miss smith - They would simply be sent back to
where they came from.
student - You criticize the Capitalist society, but
are you in favour of nationalization, like Miss
Williams?
Miss smith. - No, because we consider that nationa­
lèse lization harms businesses which are well
established.
me rend furieuse Miss will. - That sort of argument infuriates me. If
you’re really honest you must acknowledge the
success of nationalized enterprises.
Mr. JONES. - But are the workers necessarily happier
patron when their boss is the State?
Miss will. - No, but it’s only one step towards
socialism.
Miss smith - Miss Williams certainly knows that in
the U.S.A, the Post Office, which is only semi­
si bien que cela private, doesn’t work all that well, whereas the
telephone companies, which are entirely private,
► marchent work exceptionally well.
Miss will. - I don’t usually choose my examples
in the U.S.A., you know.
M. le Président student-Mr. Chairman, I’m greatly surprised to
note that neither the official ideas of the Conserva­
tive Party, the Labour Party, nor the Liberal Party
have been expressed here.
student-Nor those of the Communist Party...
chairman - The reason is that 1 decided it would
be more interesting to get to know the personal
ideas of individuals rather than those of different
political parties. That’s why I’ll ask Mr. Jones and
Miss Williams to close this debate by explaining
de droite ou de gauche what it means for them to be eithern-ight or left
wing.
implique Miss will. - To me, belonging to the left wing implies
a special view of life, an attitude of generosity
la pauvreté before suffering, poverty, inequality, injustice and
exploitation. We believe in democracy, liberty
and the free confrontation of ideas. We are open to
domaine all sorts of new experiences in the cultural field,
retenus we are not held back by traditions.
Mr. jones - I think that Miss Williams’ conclusion
m’a fourni/principal has provided my main argument. We don’t reject
croyons tradition, we trust it. We try to use it to build up a
better world. We respect the state and all
institutions, such as the Church, the Army, the
Police, Justice. We believe in discipline and order.
We think that Miss Williams and her friends should
believe in free enterprise and assume that man can
only improve his position by that means.

46
pure et simple All that Miss Williams’ reforms will bring is sheer
faillite bankruptcy, and then it’s the workers themselves
who will pay for it. In a word, we stand firmly
against Utopia as represented by Miss Williams.
Miss will. - If 1 may answer these rather personal
attacks in two words, 1 would point out that all
trouvent qu’il est normal (d’avoir) Conservatives take for granted such things as
social security, holidays with pay, and votes for
► obtenus women, which were achieved by left wing
governments.
chairman - Weil, ladies and gentlemen, I thank
you for your attention. In conclusion, I can
only hope that after this debate everyone here
present will try to understand and tolerate the
position of other parties. Good night.
Sujets complémentaires, voir p. 263.

Politics
La politique

1. The monarchy: La monarchie *a ballot: le vote/le scrutin


*The Sovereign: Le souverain un tour de scrutin
the heir apparent: l’héritier présomptif to vote by proxy: voter par procuration
the privy council: le conseil privé a proxy-vote: un vote par procuration
*the speech from the throne: le discours a postal vote: un vote par correspondance
du trône a deposit: une caution
*to summon: convoquer *to be elected: être élu (ou réélu)
an overwhelming majority: une majorité
2. Politics: La politique écrasante
to broaden one’s majority: élargir sa majorité
The mother country/the fatherland: la patrie *the aim: le but
a fellow countryman: un compatriote *the struggle: la lutte
*an alien/a foreigner: un étranger a pledge: une promesse
*a political regime: un régime politique
*politics: la politique (la science politique) 4. Political parties:
*a policy: une politique (économique, etc.)
*a politician: un homme politique
Les partis politiques
a statesman: un homme d’Etat *left/right wing parties: des partis de gauche/
de droite
3. Elections: Les élections *a middle-of-the-road party: un parti du centre
balance/equilibrium: l'équilibre
*a platform: un programme (électoral)
*a radical: un extrémiste
*a general election: une élection législative
*a leader: un chef de parti
a local election: une élection municipale
a by-election: une élection partielle
to launch a campaign: lancer une campagne
5. Parliament: Le parlement
to canvass: faire du porte à porte a maiden speech: le 1er discours à la Chambre
*a poster: une affiche a farewell speech: le discours d'adieu
*a constituency: une circonscription *to resign: démissionner
*polling-day : le jour du scrutin ""parliament: le parlement
a polling-station: un bureau de vote the upper/lower house: la chambre haute / basse
a polling-booth: un isoloir *the House of Lords/of Commons: la Chambre
a ballot-box: une urne des Lords/des Communes

47
*a sitting: une séance to sever diplomatic relations: rompre
the speaker: le président de la Chambre des relations diplomatiques
des Communes to recall an ambassador: rappeler un
the party whips: les présidents des groupes ambassadeur
(à l'assemblée) the credentials: les lettres de créance
*a bill: un projet de loi the nuncio: le nonce apostolique
*a law: une loi the Board of Trade: le ministère du commerce
the chairman of a select committee: the Department of Education: le ministère
le président d’une commission d’enquête de l’éducation
to preside over: présider the Postmaster General: le ministre des PTT
to participate in: participer à *the Chancellor of the Exchequer: le Chancelier
the parliamentary recess: la session parlementaire de l’Echiquier (ministre des finances)
budget day: jour de la discussion du budget an ombudsman: le médiateur
an uproar: un chahut tax: impôts
he didn’t mince his words: il n'a pas mâché *income tax: impôt sur le revenu
ses mots *VAT: TVA
to repeal: abroger *the civil service: l'administration
*to alter: modifier *a civil servant: un fonctionnaire
wishful thinking: un vœu pieux *to retire: prendre sa retraite
the drawbacks: les désavantages *a pension: une retraite (le montant)
everything was at a standstill: tout était bloqué *a dictatorship: une dictature
minute details: détails minutieux a coup d’état: un coup d'état
*to postpone: repousser - reporter censorship: la censure
to be at loggerheads with: être à couteaux *to topple/to overthrow: renverser
tirés avec... to get rid of: se débarrasser de...
to pull oneself together, se reprendre a puppet regime: un régime fantoche
straightforward:
*
frank/ franc Radio Kampala monitored in Lagos: Radio
outspoken: franc Kampala captée à Lagos
*a seat: un siège the odds are against him: tout est contre lui
*to sit: siéger to tackle a problem: s’occuper de/
*an M.P.: un député aborder un problème
the data: les données
6. The government: Le gouvernement *social unrest: le malaise social
*the Prime Minister: le Premier ministre we regret that the talks have been broken off
*a spokesman: un porte-parole and we urge their immediate resumption :
*the Cabinet: le gouvernement (1) nous regrettons la rupture des négociations et
the Foreign Secretary: le ministre des Affaires nous souhaitons qu’elles reprennent vite
étrangères (encourageons leur reprise incessante)
to bide time: gagner du temps

13.A
Should Britain have joined Europe?
La Grande-Bretagne a-t-elle eu raison d’entrer dans l’Europe?

NO!
quel dommage 1. What a pity Britain maintained her application
to join the Common Market after Prime Minister
tentative/repouaeée Mac Millan's attempt was rebuffed by General de
C.E.E. Gaulle in 1963! Now Britain is part of the E.E.C..
(I) Seulement les postes les plus importants. Leur nombre est variable - the Cabinet: les ministères très
importants - the government: tout le gouvernement.

48
which makes her a European country like any
other continental one. This is obviously against
English traditions. Britain has had the greatest
conduit colonial Empire ever, which has led her to be more
outre-mer interested in overseas problems than European
ones. The British Commonwealth has replaced the
British Empire. Our
* interest would be to support
Marché Commun the Commonwealth and not the Common Market.
2. The E.E.C. has nothing to give Britain but a
taux high rate of inflation, a standard indirect taxation
TVA/a s'envoler/avant tout (VAT) which makes our prices soar, and above all
agricultural problems which are almost impossible
résoudre/domaine to solve. It is in the field of agriculture that the
technocratic aberrations of the Common Market
dans toute leur splendeur/subventions can be seen at their best. Why give subsidies to
récoltes French farmers to destroy their crops and keep the
prices artificially high? We used to import our
laitiers dairy produce from New Zealand. It was of
excellent quality and cheap. We still are importing
the same products, but we now have to pay as if
Europe they were imported from the Continent, that is, at
gâchis a much higher price. What a waste!
3. Now that we belong to the E.E.C. our
► contenir immigration services will be hard put to check
main-d’œuvre the labour coming over from the Continent.
Especially as those Europeans who will want to
ouvriers spécialisés come over to England will be skilled workers who
could take the jobs of our own workers. Our
» aborder employment problems are hard enough to tackle
s’installer without letting foreign workers settle here. We
already have thousands of immigrants from the
Commonwealth who are British citizens and to
whom we must give priority.
liens 4. The links which are going to be established
between us and the other European countries
ne peuvent que/modifler are bound / to alter our life-style and our
tôt ou tard traditions. We will sooner or later try to imitate
them and lose our national identity. We have
already had a “referendum" on the question of
joining the E.E.C. This in itself was against our
début political traditions, and it's only a start! Many
suivront / ~en bien other changes will follow, and not necessarilyefor
the better!
~ assez naïfs S. Some people are simple-minded enough to
~ relancera hope that our new membership will boost our
exports to the European Community. But I’m
parier ready to bet that our industry will not take any
* C’est un Anglais qui parle.

49
► décision advantage of the move. Let the figures speak for
themselves: the E.E.C. represents a market of
tandis que 180 million consumers, while the Commonwealth
represents a market of over 300 million consumers.
nous devrions favoriser That is why we ought to favour the Commonwealth
before the Common Market.

YES!
1. The economic situation of Britain has been
thérapeutique such that a shock therapy was needed to provoke
a reaction. Joining the Common Market will be
défï/ont besoin the challenge our firms badly need. Now that
we will be competing with Germany and France
* critères we will have to respect the same standards. Our
rendement/amélioré industrial output will have to be increased as well
as our productivity. All these challenges will be
sains very healthy for our economy.
2. For the last twenty years a lot of English
people have been emigrating overseas, mainly to
America, Canada, Australia, New Zealand, South
Africa and Rhodesia. Most of the 200 thousand
people who left England every year were highly
chercheurs trained people: doctors, teachers,eresearch
ingénieurs workers, / engineers, technicians and skilled
workers. Very few ever come back. Of course they
have been replaced by coloured Commonwealth
ces derniers/non-spécialisés immigrants, but the latter are mostly unskilled.
se demander One can wonder why so many people left the
mother country. Probably, among other reasons,
manque/ occasions because of the lack of opportunity and the poor
economic situation. Well, now that we are in
s’amélioreront Europe the conditions will improve and many will
stay at home. If some do emigrate, they will
assez près simply go to the Continent which is close enough
for them to come back home easily if they want to.
la « fuite des cerveaux » Thus the “brain drain” will be stopped.
affirment 3. Those who claim that Britain should stand by
her ancient glory and still think in terms of the
nous avons retiré British Empire are unrealistic. Ever since*we
withdrew our forces based east of Suez in 1966,
we have been forced to admit that we could not
durer/seuls last long on our own. We could not possibly
maintain the fiction of a British Empire any longer.
We needed new allies. America is too far. Why not
try Europe? And the idea of being part of a new
block between the Russians and the Americans
attirante is quite appealing after all.

50
4. Some English people who have in their hearts
the nostalgia of the Empire, claim that the
Commonwealth is a much better market for our
produits finis finished goods than the Common Market. This
convaincant argument is not very convincing. To start with,
aucun/obligé none of the Commonwealth countries feel^bound
seul to buy our products. There is not a single treaty
force/qul plus est which compels them to do so. Moreover, if you
exclude the 40 or 50 million people living in the
riches wealthy Commonwealth states: Canada,
New Zealand and Australia, you find that most of
qui restent/plutdt the remaining countries are rather under­
developed. What good is it their being a populous
atteint market if they have not reached a standard of
acheter living high enough to purchase our products?
énorme Europe represents a huge market whose
pouvoir d’achat purchasing power is higher than the
Commonwealth’s.
5. There are times when one has to be pragmatic.
► question The European issue is one of them. All the
ont pris de l’extension Common Market countries have been booming
reculait while England was in recession. The virtues of the
Treaty of Rome do not have to be proved. Europe
reconnaître exists. It is a fact. So we must acknowledge it
douloureux and join, even if it is painful at the beginning for
different reasons. It is certainly much better to
be in, and try to direct operations to the best of our
interests, than to be out, and have to face it as
obtenir a rival. We should be able to derive from it more
donnons than we yield. It’s a risk we have to run, but we
have to take the chance given to us. It would be
saisir silly not to seize it.
voir vocabulaire p. 47. Sujets complémentaires, voir p. 263.

__________________ 14.C
An interview about Nixon and Kennedy
Une interview au sujet de Nixon et Kennedy

haut placé (A French journalist is interviewing a high-ranking


Republican Party member in the U.S.A.)

» membre du parti républicain interviewer - Mr. Griffith, you’re a Republican


farmer and you’re from Massachusetts, which is a
forteresie Democratic stronghold. How do you feel about
being an exception?

51
Mr. griffith - Well, I’m not such an exception.
un certain nombre There are quite a few Republicans in the North
des U.S.A./bien que/minuscule East of the States. / Although we are a tiny
minority, we do not really feel isolated, if that’s
ce que vous voulez dire what you mean.
► à l'aise iNT. - Wouldn’t you feel more at home in the
centre-ouest des U.S.A. Midwest where most farmers are Republicans like
you?
Mr. g. - I think the idea that the Midwest is simply
région/tout à fait/erronée a Protestant and Republican area is quite / false.
You find a good many Catholics out there and
députés there are even several Democratic Representatives.
Massachusetts But I feel perfectly at home here in Mass, and my
qui se trouve être wife, who happens to be a Democrat, even more
so!
iNT. - Your wife a Democrat? Don’t you ever have
► disputes words?
Mr. g. - You know, here in the U.S. people are very
tolerant. They have to be. If you chose your
selon friends according to their race, religion or political
vous finiriez opinion, you would end up by having very few
friends.
iNT. - May I ask which party your daughter
soutient supports?
Mr. g. - She’s also a Republican - in fact she’s more
of a Republican than I am. Take “Watergate”, for
coupable instance. Personally I considered Nixon guilty,
~ dépassés but his faults were so outweighed by his merits
lui reprocher that I felt I could not begrudge him anything...
► fervente Well my daughter is such a staunch Republican
that it never even entered her head that Nixon
could be guilty.
iNT. - But he admitted it himself.
Mr. g. - But even after that, she still could not believe
he was guilty of anything.
iNT. - Do you think Nixon will be condemned by
American history?
il a mauvaise presse Mr. g. - He certainly is in bad repute at the moment,
encore/liées but he’s still alive, and the passions linked to the
pas encore/
* apaisées Watergate affair have not yet / worn off. But I’m
assez/reconnaitre pretty sure that history will acknowledge his
merits.
iNT. - Were his merits as great as those of John
F. Kennedy?
j’ose dire Mr. g. - Much greater even. I daresay Kennedy is a
► vous faire bondir myth. I know I’m going to startle you, and it’s hard
mourut to say, but for me Kennedy died at the right time.
abattu Had he not been shot, he would never have been
the hero he is now.
iNT. - You seem to approve of his assassination.

52
► lout à fait Mr - Don’t get me wrong... I highly disapprove
of it. It gave me a terrible shock, like most
impartial Americans. But the time has come to have a fair
elle est loin de valoir look at his Presidency, ana I don’t find it a patch
réalisations on Nixon’s, as far as its achievements are
concerned.
int. - What did Nixon do, then?
à l'intérieur Mr. g. - His achievements at home were enormous.
confiance He restored confidence after the Johnson
administration had led the country up a pseudo­
voie socialist path which everybody rejected.

pour combattre/pauvreté in i . - Johnson did a lot to fight / poverty in


cependant America, though.
je vous l’accorde Mr. g. - I’ll grant you that. But you mustn’t forget
occasions that America is a land of opportunity, where
everyone who wants to work can do. Anyone who
has some kind of talent and who is hardworking
par-dessus le marché into the bargain, has every chance of succeeding.
difficilement You Europeans hardly believe in the “self-made
celui-ci/épine dorsale man”, but the latter is the backbone of American
society.
à l’étranger int. - What about Nixon’s achievements abroad?
Mr. g. - Enormous. He brought the Vietnam war
to an end without sacrificing any of our vital
interests and without turning our backs on our
il rétablit/liens allies out there. Also he resumed the links with
coupés communist China which had been severed two
decades before.
int. - Wasn’t that the work of Henry Kissinger,
rather?
minimiser Mr. g. -1 do not want to belittle the merits of “dear
Henry”, but to start with, it was Nixon who
ministre nominated him Secretary of State and Dr.

53
Kissinger could not have done much without the
soutien President’s backing.
vous estimez int. - Well now, could you please tell us why^you
échec hold Kennedy’s presidency to be a failure?
sa politique Mr. g. - Sure, his policy was a complete failure. He
spoke a lot, made wonderful speeches, exposed
justes very sound and generous ideas, but he was
incapable/de les appliquer unable / to carry them out.
pouvoir int. - He had a charismatic power that Nixon never
had,though.
d’accord Mr. G. - Right, but he could have used it to impose
his reformes.
il accomplit int. - Do you honestly think he achieved so little?
prenez la peine Mr. g. - Well, if you simply care to have a look at the
press during the days leading up to his
assassination, you’ll find that he was being
à l’intérieur highly criticized, even within his own party. His
à l’égard policy towards the Soviet Union was such that he
was suspected of wanting to sell our security to the
Reds...
il tint tête à int. - And yet he stood up to Kruschev at the time
of the Cuban Missiles.
dépourvu Mr. g. - I never said he was totally devoid of good
homme d’État points. He had some of the qualities a statesman
needs, but not all. He could think up an idea every
de la mettre en application minute but found it hard to bring it into being.
int. - In your eyes he had no merits at all.
partial Mr. g. - To tell you the truth, I’m a bit biased in my
judgement. I never did like Kennedy. He was too
much of a play-boy, too successful, his origins did
rêve not correspond to the “American dream’’. He
riche was too wealthy for one thing. Did you know that
chèque he got a million dollar check on his 21st birthday?
He was not a self-made man.
int. - But his father was.
Mr. g. - One could say a lot about the way his
father made his money...
vous faites allusion/impliqué int. - I suppose you’re alluding to his being involved
contrebande d’alcool in the bootlegging business during prohibition.
Mr. g. - Yes, and old Joseph Kennedy was pro­
dans les années 40/qui plus est German in the forties./ Moreover John’s private
life left a lot to be desired too.
int. - You mean he would probably have divorced
Jacky had he not been elected. But that was his
beaucoup own private business. Lots of Americans are
divorced.
Mr. g. - Sure, but I consider that a president should
► au-dessus be beyond criticism.
int. - Like Nixon, for example...
arrêtez de me taquiner/sans reproche Mr. g. - Stop getting at me. Nixon had a straight

54
family life. Nevertheless, I wish to be fair to
prévoir Kennedy. His greatest merit was to foresee, before
any politician of his time, that the world was
changing, that new political and sociological
phénomène
* phenomena had transformed it more in twenty
years than in the century before. He was the first
comprendre to realise that a new approach was necessary.
int. - But what had made the world change so
rapidement swiftly?
assez Mr. g. - Oh, it’s rather simple. At home, television
and educational ways had radically changed the
American mentality. Abroad, the independence
accordée granted to dozens of new nations had changed the
équilibre balance of world power, but the main fact was that
abîme there was a gap between the old generation of
politicians and the new generation, who lived
complètement and thought in an utterly different way. You know
what? Another man realised the same thing at the
le pape Jean XXIII same time, and that was Pope John.
convoqua int. - When the latter summoned the Vatican
Council.
a méthodes Mr. g. - Precisely, he knew the old ways would not
do any longer.
en avance int. - So Kennedy was ahead of his time...
Mr. g. - Certainly, but the trouble with the President
of the U.S.A, is that we do not expect him to be
Messie a philosopher, or a prophet, or a Messiah, we
expect him to be a man of action.
int. - Kennedy was very active though.
Mr. g. - Only on problems which did not interest the
il voulait à tout prix “Silent Majority”. He was bent on fighting
encourager poverty, on fostering Black emancipation, on
sous-développés helping underdeveloped countries. All these
slmple/de la politique things were mere / “politics” to us, and when he did
act, it was a disaster.
à l’esprit int. - What events do you have in mind?
engagement Mr. g. - The Bay of Pigs in Cuba, the involvement
in Vietnam. That’s something few Democrats
care to discuss, but it was Kennedy who sent the
first troops to Vietnam, and you know how much it
cost us later.
mal/conseillé int. - Perhaps he was wrongly / advised.
tâche Mr. G. - Well, it’s the President’s first task to select
his brains-trust carefully.
int. - There’s a final question I would like to ask
you. Who in your opinion assassinated Kennedy?
vous ne croyex pas Mr. g. -1 can imagine that as a Frenchman you *do
rapport not trust the conclusions of the Warren Report,
unique which found Lee Harvey Oswald to be the sole
en fait assassin. Well, as a matter of fact, more and more

55
Americans are coming to believe in the theory of a
complot plot.
ini - Is this something new?
Mr. g. - Absolutely. Just a few years ago no one
would have questioned the conclusions of the
Warren Report.
iNT. - What is your own personal point of view?
Mr. g. - Well, I’m almost certain that Oswald did not
seul act alone in Dallas.
iNT. - Do you consider him innocent?
tira Mr. g. - No, I think he did fire on the President, but
balle his was not the bullet which killed him. He was
malin not smart enough for that. He was only a
bouc émissaire scapegoat whose sole purpose was to attract public
pendant que attention while the real killers could get away.
comment expliquez-vous INT. - How do you account for the fact that so little
of the affair has come to light after such a long
minutieuse minute investigation?
d’un côté Mr. g. - Well, on the one hand a good many of the
private detectives who were used were not serious
de l’autre côté enough. On the other hand, many mysterious
se produisirent/témoins deaths occurred among the key witnesses; strange
meurtres accidents, suicides, murders.
iNT. - Some people say that only a very powerful
police fédérale organization such as the Mafia, the F.B.I. or the
contre-espionnage C.I.A. could have kept the public in the dark for
such a long time.
Mr. g. - What is sure, is that only very few people
autrement were actually involved in the plot, otherwise there
fuite would have been a leakage a long time ago. It
is certainly not impossible that members of the
F.B.I. or the C.I.A. had a hand in the plot, or at
► ~ fermèrent les yeux least knew about it and condoned it.
iNT. - But who wanted to kill Kennedy? 1 believe
that in fact he was strongly menaced.
menacé Mr. G -Yes, indeed, he was threatened by all sorts of
people, from the extreme Right to the extreme
Left. The Southern Racists, some businessmen,
union leaders, mafiosi and Communists all had a
de se débarrasser de lui grudge against him and had good reason * to be rid
of him, including some C.I.A. agents who could
not accept his peace policy towards the U.S.S.R.
iNT. - But who benefited the most from his death?
Mr. g. - It’s hard to tell. Maybe the Mafia. But so
poussé un soupir de soulagement many people must have breathed a sigh of relief
that I sometimes wonder if they did not all join
in the plot!
iNT. - Well, in saying that, 1 think you are paying a
great compliment to J.F. Kennedy. If so many
le haïssaient people hated him, isn’t it because he had great
projets/dérangeaient/groupes de pression schemes which upset a number of lobbies?

56
un piège Mr. g. - If this is a trap, I shan't fall in it. I have
already given you my opinion concerning
porter Kennedy. Let history cast its judgement in one or
two generations’ time.

voir vocabulaire p. 47. Sujets complémentaires, voir p. 263.

15.A
The Middle class
La classe moyenne

FOR
pour
1. The Middle Class has always been the
épine dorsale backbone of the economic success of England. It
was the Middle Class which emigrated to the four
créa points of the world and set up the British Empire.
grâce à At home it was thanks to the Middle Class that the
bond/en avant economy made its great leap / forward. Why?
Simply because the Middle Class is a class of
transition. Its members often come originally from
the proletariat even if this origin is distant, and
atteindre/haute bourgeoisie aspire to reach the Upper Class. The M iddle Class
méritante is hard-working, enthusiastic and deserving.
2. The Middle Class is hard-working, but also
very ambitious. This ambition should not be
frustrée/» puisque thwarted,/since it is the motor of progress. If
people had no ambition no one would try to give
mérite the best of himself and the merit of many people
soupçonné would not even be suspected. It is said that the
chef d'œuvre French author L.F. Céline wrote his masterpiece
“Journey to the end of the night”, simply because
un appartement he needed to buy a flat.
3. The Middle Class is the guarantee of the
ne favorise pas stability of a regime. It does not favour revolution,
priver de which could only deprive it of its few privileges
acquis/» grâce â acquired / through hard work. The countries
which have no Middle Class, like most
underdeveloped countries, are very unstable
politically.
4. One of the virtues of the Middle Class is its
deep civic sense. It is probably the only class which
assurer/» plus prometteur is ready to accept sacrifices to ensure/a brighter
future. Of course the Middle Class is essentially
brillant optimistic and always expects a bright future. It is

57
là encore also very patriotic and democratic. Here again the
soutien Middle Class is the best support one can find for a
democratic regime. Since it is an educated class it
will never accept oppression, either political or
cultural.
5. Experience has shown that when the Middle
tend à Class tends to disappear, and this has been the
► à cause de/lourds case in England since the war through / heavy /
impôts sur le revenu/s’estompe income tax, the spirit of enterprise also fades away.
There is absolutely no doubt that if the U.S;A. is'
» plan so successful on the economic plane, it is because
80% of the population belongs to the Middle Class.
absorbée par The Upper Class tends to be engrossed in its own
prolétariat routine and the Lower Class has to put all its energy
lutte/survie into a struggle for survival rather than progression.

AGAINST
contre
1. The Middle Class is a snobbish class, extremely
étroite d’esprit/complètement/égoïste narrow-minded and puritan and utterly/selfish.
envie/méprise It envies the rich and despises the poor and does
not feel at home in its middle-of-the-road position.
2. It is a very conservative class, which aspires
alliée to political power and is the ally of the rich, whom
it protects on the economic plane. Not only is it
hostile to any kind of reform, having very little
partager social conscience, but also refuses to share its
pouvoir power with the proletarian forces.
3. As a class it is not a rampart against revolution,
but on the contrary hastens the process which leads
» intransigeantes up to revolution because of its tough social
accorder attitudes. It never agrees to grant anything and
les moins favorisés obliges the underprivileged to take what they
grèves legitimately need through strikes and
demonstrations and even through revolution
empirent when things worsen. The Middle Class is
travail à la chaîne composed of people who consider assembly line
supportable work as something quite bearable, but were these
not the same people who found it quite normal for
usines children to be working in mines and factories in the
nineteenth century?

singer 4. All that these people can do is to ape the Upper


il leur manque Class, but they lack a certain style and this makes
haïssable/ressentent (durement) them hateful to the poor, who resent their attitude,
délicieuse which is not counterbalanced by the delightful
courtesy of the aristocrat, and is ridiculous in the
celui-ci eyes of the latter who only considers them to be
“nouveaux riches”.

58
mot-def 5. Success is the key-word for the Middle Class
Inculte which is the most uncultured category of people
ils se prosternent one can imagine. They prostrate themselves before
success and would sacrifice all their family life to
it. Their children, other people, nature -all have to
s’aplatir grovel in front of them.

voir vocabulaire p. 47, 86. Sujets complémentaires, voir p. 263.

16.A
Red power
La contestation indienne

vers la fin des années 1970 (An article written in the late 1970's by a sociology
student.)

My first contact with Indians was in July 1970.


The captain of the boat which takes people for
excursions trips round the sinister island of Alcatraz in San
» avec de multiples détails Francisco Bay was describing in minute detail the
famous history of the prison. But nothing was said
a qui s’étalaient about the slogans splashed all over the prison
walls. Local Red Indians had taken over the
l’ancienne former prison and proclaimed the “First Indian
en dépit Republic”. In spite of the support of film star
Jane Fonda, the operation, which set out to be
échec mainly psychological, was a failure. Public opinion
seemed unconcerned. The incident was ignored by
the press. The American conscience was clear.
émission A few weeks later I was watching a programme
about the Indians on the Sacramento T.V.
réseau network. The programme, which had been
conceived and paid for by a group of Sioux
intelligemment intellectuals, was excellent, their arguments cleverly
exposés/émouvantes put forward, the interviews moving and the
speakers convincing. But an American friend of
mine, watching with me, had only sarcasm for
l’ensemble the whole thing. This attitude surprised me on the
lutté part of a man who had struggled all his life for race
égalité equality. “The Indians are not realistic”, he
affirmait claimed. “They want to go back to the Stone Age.
une honte I agree that life on the reservations is a disgrace but
what makes them stay? They are free to leave and
mix with the white population, and they would

59
niveau de vie find dignity and a decent standard of living”. “How
would they retain their identity?” - “by forming
Juifs ghettos like the Blacks and the Jews!” That evening
compris I realised that the Indian problem was America's
talon Achilles heel, most of all because they refused the
American way of life.
un bon nombre In 1970 a good many young Indians already
► leurs frères disapproved of their own kinsfolk, who dance for
tourists at the Grand Canyon. From then on an
important minority was starting to refuse Indian
peu nombreux folklore and passivity. These objectors were few
and far between in Colorado where the Indians
nombreux are numerous and accepted for their “local colour”.
Not so in the reservations of New Mexico,
however, where the Indian Hospital, covered with
rouillée/tôle ondulée/pauvreté rusty / corrugated iron symbolizes the poverty of its
habitants inhabitants.
loi At this period, Congress passed a law in favour
revenus of low-income families, more precisely incomes
of less than three thousand dollars a year - the
seuil de la pauvreté famous “poverty line”. Strangely enough, all
Indians living on reservations were excluded from
the act, because they were already exempt from
impôts/fournitures taxes (but, on the other hand, the supplies bought
magasins by Indians in State controlled stores on reservations
cost 20 per cent more than in ordinary
moyen supermarkets). In October 1970, the average
atteint/~ hauteurs vertigineuses income of an Indian family had reached the dizzy
heights of 1,500 dollars a year!
» virent/augmentation The years which followed witnessed the increase
effusions de sang of different incidents and even bloodshed. But
émue American public opinion, far from being moved,
blamed the Indians without trying to understand.
metteurs en scène It is true that Hollywood directors changed their
points of view concerning the Indians (gone was
au grand cœur the age of the big-hearted Fenimore Cooper type
Indian who never realised that he was in fact
► passait white!) Television, completely impartial,* was
procès (civils) broadcasting reports on law suits brought against
individuals and organizations who had exploited
en vain Indians. But to no avail. The white American,
who had always brandished the flame of equal
rights before every example of oppression.
~ se voilait la face screened his face. But was the American conscience
beginning to be moved?
This is the opinion of George CLAP, a person
Aigle rouge worth meeting. His real name is “Red Eagle”, and 1
chanceu x / conversation was lucky enough to have a chat with him in July

60
d'emblée 1975. Straight off he declared that he spoke two
foreign languages: French and... English! Born on a
tribu de I’Est des U.S.A. reservation, of an Irish father and Mohawk mother,
he had long lived in Canada (The Indians can cross
souhaitent the border when they wish, without a passport).
tribu He was one of the rare children of his tribe to be
educated in a “white” school. After getting his
diplôme d'ingénieur degree in engineering he was taken on by the
► toujours “Mobil” Company where he still works.
His rise to social success cannot be denied. He
confortable/maison individuelle/banlieue lives in a cosy / detached house in the suburbs of
Rochester. He has never been able to identify
cependant himself with the American society, though. As the
descendant of a Mohawk chief he suffers for his
désespoir people consumed by despair on the reservations.
Does he feel less of an Indian because his father
was Irish? He explained that wasn’t the case,
nés because by Indian law all those born of an Indian
peau mother belong to her race. His white skin? “Didn’t
you know”, he explained, “that a good many
ont la peau blanche Indians living in the North-East ^are white­
skinned? Indeed, to such an extent that some of the
au teint basané darkskinned actors playing Indian parts in wes­
réellement terns are not actually Indians but Italians! My
voisin neighbour, a Black, was very flattered when I invi­
ted him home because he thought I was white?Ever
~ depuis le moment où since he learnt I was an Indian he's been terribly
disappointed. Snobbery is not only a white
prerogative...”

But Red Eagle did more than tell me stories.


comprit When he realised how disastrous life could be for
concitoyens/parqués his fellow-men - (“You are rounded up back there
on boit pour oublier like animals, and you
* drink yourself into
forgetting”) - he took it on himself to reunite all
those of his brothers who, having left the reserva­
tion were cut off from all Indian traditions. The
concept of the “traditional Indian” is recent, he
explained. A “traditional Indian” makes it a point
de ne pas avoir honte of honour not to be ashamed of his culture, his
language, his religion, his way of life. The problem
is being able to come together without returning
ainsi/jouer le jeu des Blancs to the reservation and thus /^laying into the white
man’s hands.
* donc/grand/terrain Hence Red Eagle bought a large/area of land
between Clyde and Lyons in the north of New York
State. With the help of fellow Indians he has
stand de tir planted tepees and installed a shooting range (for
arcs/flèches/ateliers bows and arrows) and pottery workshops.

61
► se réunissent Several dozen Indians gather at this meeting place
every week-end and during the holidays. The
young discover the Indian culture and language.
aveugles “But we are not blind enough to refuse the whole
of white civilization”, Red Eagle claims, “we use
glacières ice-boxes, and drive cars. What is essential for
us is to make use of the white civilization without
submitting entirely to it.
cela nous est égal que nos enfants We don’t mind our kids drinking coca-cola, you’ve
alcool got to admit it’s better than alcohol! But by
teaching them how to make different objects, how
au cœur de l’hiver to live in tents even in the depths of winter, how
jeu to use a bow and arrow (as a game, then, later, as
chasseur a hunter) we develop in them qualities which only
the Indians possess. When they reach the age of
acquiring our mentality, which is its own
“philosophy of life”, they will be saved for their
race”.
At that moment in the conversation some white
ralentirent motorists slowed down and insulted him from the
road. Red Eagle only smiled: “God sent his son
among white men and white men killed him. He
taught them charity and this is the result... When
les pauvres a white man goes out to help the poor it’s for his
* il s’arrange pour que own benefit. He manages to get his name well up
bienfaiteurs on the list of benefactors. But when an Indian
brings food to the tent of another who needs it, he
visage comes at night and masks his face. White
méchants Americans are on the whole wicked, and they have
» sans les Indiens proved it. If it wasn’t for the Indians, the first
immigrants would never have survived the first
nourrirent three winters. The Indians helped and fed them,
showed them how to survive, to make a fire during
tempête a storm. Then the Whites killed the Indians out of
méchanceté/richesse wickedness, out of a desire for wealth, for more and
► puissance bigger territories, a desire for power. Who began
“scalping” first? It was the Whites to prove they had
récompense killed an Indian and get the reward offered.
You’ve seen the films “Soldier Blue” and “Little
pire Big Man”? In fact the reality was even worse. We
se demander can wonder who was the most barbarous, the
Indian or the white man. These white men who
dépossédés have deprived us of our land, massacred us and
parqués then penned us up in the reservations, what have
they built? Nothing, if not the most disgraceful
society which ever existed. e
ont élaboré/je vous le concède They drew up the American Constitution, I’ll grant
appliquée you that, but they’ve never carried it out. There’s
no equality in America. If you’re arrested for
conduite en état d’ivresse/délit drunken driving, which is a serious offence, just

62
get a good lawyer, pay him well, and he’ll get the
chef d’accusation reason for your charge changed. It’s current
practice”.
Ignorent The inhabitants of Lyons and Clyd Are unaware
ne les empêche pas de of these arguments, which does’not prevent them
expérience from condemning Red Eagle’s experiment/
sans appel outright. He wanted to build a traditional
habitation dwelling (long-house) but was refused his building
craignant/troubles permit, the local authorities fearing / disturbances.
Wounded Knee *is a drama which has inspired
policier fear. A state trooper claimed that it was not Red
Eagle himself who was to be blamed, but his
sortes experiment. It was said that similar kinds of camps
fondés/comtés had been founded in other counties, the Indians
tirant had got aggressive, firing at motorists, it seemed
that a little girl had been killed... Others fear that
impôts Red Eagle would refuse to pay taxes, “under the
possédaient/la terre pretext that his ancestors owned/the land, he’s
going to refuse to pay local taxes.”
“In any case, I feel optimistic”, Red Eagle
me harceler concluded: “Let the white Americans pester me as
much as they like. They’ll never prevent their
de s’écrouler civilization from collapsing. Their immorality,
tromper/tandis que (An Indian would never deceive his wife, whereas
this sort of thing is current among the whites.),
goût/drogues their taste for alcohol, pornographic films, drugs,
all these things contribute to undermining a
cela dépend de nous/se tenir prêts society. It’s up to us Indians to stand by to take
A prendre la relève over and show our oppressors that we are more
generous than they ever were”.
voir vocabulaire p. 47, 224. Sujets complémentaires, voir p. 263.
* Petite localité du Dakota où eurent lieu d'importants troubles en 1973.

17.
A
Is England the sick man of Europe?
L’Angleterre : homme malade de l’Europe?

YES!
au début des années 60 1. When in the early 60’s a Frenchman crossed
la Manche the English Channel he felt he was arriving in a
état state which was progressing by leaps and bounds.
chômage Unemployment was very low, houses very
niveau de vle/élevé comfortable, and the standard of living / high
compared to continental countries. But things

63
devaient changer/rapidement were to change / swiftly. As early as 1966 the
Banquiers suisses “Gnomes of Zurich” no longer seemed to have
confiance/livre sterling/plongea confidence in the pound and Britain plunged into
épouvantable the longest and most dismal crisis of its history.
assez 2. Economically speaking, things were pretty
firent faillite bad. Many firms went, bankrupt and
'unemployment rose a long time before the world
crise mondiale/devait frapper crisis / was to hit Europe. The standard of living
tomba/radicalement/inflation à dropped / drastically because of a * double-digit
deux chiffres inflation figure. It was the time when Britain had
retirer/ainsi to withdraw its forces east of Suez, thus
témoignage abandoning the last testimony of an ancient glory.
Ian Smith’s Rhodesia stood up to the mother
country in proclaiming its unilateral independence
and the economic sanctions decided on by the
government in London hit Britain itself more than
sécessionniste/Islande the breakaway colony. Even little Iceland defied
guerre de la morue Britain in the “Cod War”.
3. The reasons for this collapse are numerous, but
those observers who know Britain well will agree
that one of them is that the English do not work
hard enough. Millions of working hours are lost,
coupures what with tea and coffee breaks and unofficial
grèves/syndicats/compressions de strikes. The Trade Unions fear redundancy so
personnel/pléthore d’employés much that they impose over-staffing and low
productivity so that there will be work for
everyone.
l’État-Providence/travailliste 4. The Welfare State, which has been the Labour
Party’s official doctrine since the war, has cost
impôt sur le revenu Britain a fortune. Income tax is one of the highest
in Europe, and if it is true that the lower classes are
plus à l’aise/riches better off and the wealthy not so wealthy, on the
épine dorsale other hand, the middle class, the backbone of the
nation’s prosperity, has been sacrificed in order
► remettre/celle-ci to try to set things right again. But the latter does
not see why it should make any effort to put the
nation back on its feet again.
volonté 5. A good example of Britain losing its *
will-
power is that the British car industry, which used
une des plus faibles to be one of the strongest in the world, is now%ie
se reposer of the weakest. It would be a mistake to rely too
pétrole/remettre l’économie à flot much on North Sea oil and gas^o set the economy
to rights. They will cost more and more to extract
ou i peu près and the reserves will only last twenty years or so.
Moreover, the younger generations do not seem
se préoccuper to care too much about this state of things. They
retardent have no confidence in the future and put off as
réellement long as possible the day when they must actually

64
work. Thousands arc even turning to ecological
Huilage activities, such as pottery and weaving, which is
lain very pleasant and healthy, but cannot help a
relever country to lift its head again. The economic crisis
seems to be coupled with a moral crisis.

NO!
1. The odds arc against those who don’t believe
that Britain, having been a great nation in the past,
can still make up for lost ground. But there are
nombreux numerous examples in the past which show how
pragmatique pragmatic the English are. Not so long after the
war they rebuilt 10 million homes and got their
industry working again. No doubt when they
realize how low they have fallen they will want to
■’élever see how high they can rise again.
en avance 2. The English have always been ahead of their
elide time. In the nineteenth century they built up the
first industrial and capitalist society at the time
when countries were still mainly agricultural.
Perhaps once again, in refusing to sacrifice their
private lives to long working hours, they are ahead
une fois de plue of us once more and already in the middle of a
société de lolelra/envisageons “leisure society”, which we foresee in one or two
generations' time.
3. It would be a mistake to think that the
au-deli/reprlee financial situation is beyond all possible recovery.
Let us take one example. The pound, which had
monnaie been the weakest European currency for fifteen
» sensiblement years, recovered noticeably in the late 1970's on
bourses (de valeurs) all the European stock exchanges, including
Zurich.
formidable/coup de chance 4. Britain has had a tremendous / stroke of luck
in finding oil in the North. Sea. Oil and gas,
although extracted in hostile conditions, will make
the British independent in energy for many years.
*
ainsi/ obtenir They will even be able to export gas and thus/ draw
foreign currency and this will help their balance of
payments.
sage S. Britain has made a wise choice in joining the
Common Market, too. At the beginning the
assister i British will probably witness a drop in their
le tempe paeeera standard of living, but as time goes by the
competition with other European countries will
manquer be such that they cannot fall to accept the
défi challenge, and this will stimulate their economy.

65
► âpre/concurrent
C.E.E.

voir vocabulaire p. 47. Sujets complémentaires, voir p. 263.

18.
C
Apartheid
La ségrégation en Afrique du Sud

(Two Australian students, Andrew and his fiancée


Ruth, are discussing the question of apartheid in
South Africa with Jakob, a student in Pretoria.
» étudient philosophie, Politique, They are all reading PPE at Oxford University.)
Économie

vous vous attendez probablement à ce que jakob - As I’m from South Africa,•you probably
expect me to defend apartheid. Perhaps I'll
soutiens surprise you when I say I don’t support it.
en effet Andrew - Indeed, you do surprise me. I was always
» vous souteniez under the impression that you sided with the racist
politique policy of your country.
► il est vrai/quelque peu jak. - No, the point is that I feel somewhat the
same as professor Chris Barnard the famous
cœur/ chirurgien heart / surgeon when he wrote his book.
vérité ruth - You mean “The Truth about South
Africa”?
œuvre jak. - Yes, it’s the work of a man who doesn’t
► écœuré de support apartheid but who is fed up with all the
mensonges lies about South Africa.
ruth - You feel the same way?
jak. - Entirely. When I’m in my country I keep
► honte telling everyone that apartheid is a disgrace, but
here in Europe I simply can’t accept all that is said
about South Africa.
» si tu donnais and. - Well, what about giving us some facts? It’s
natural we should know only what our press tells
us about your country.
volontiers jak. - Willingly! So to start with, I must admit that
*
Sud Africain d'origine hollandaise/par- as an Afrikaner I might well be biased against the
tial English-speaking South Africans.
► juste ruth - Oh! I’m sure you’ll be very fair.
hollandais jak. - The first point is that when the Dutch/
colons/i peu près Colonists came to South Africa roughly three
siècles centuries ago there were no Black Africans living
there.

66
and. • When did they arrive?
jaik - Some time Inter - and much later stBk * the
English arrived.
ruth - 1 think a number of French Huguenots
emigrated there as welt.
mi. - Indeed, you stilt find a lot of French names in
South Africa.
► établi and. - How did1 apartheid come about * then?
je n'ai pas l’intention/conférence jak - I don’t intend to give a lecture on our
en bref history, but in short the Zulus and the Bantus were
hollandais d'Afrique du Sud (19e siècle) not on such bad terms with the Boers in the
Transvaal and the Orange Free State, but when
more Africans were encouraged by the English to
équilibre immigrate to work in the mines, the balance
se déplacer started to shift.
ruth - In what way?
taux jak - The reproduction rate of the Blacks being
much higher than that of the Whites, the Blacks
surpassèrent en nombre/ceux-ci soon outnumbered the Whites, and the latter
mal à l'aise started feeling uneasy.
and - So what happened!?

jak - Well, it was decided to separate the two


communities. “Apartheid” is an Afrikaner word
implique which implies the separate development of the two
races.
cette mesure/» prise ruth - But this move was also, certainly made to
resteraient make sure that the Whites would always remain
in a dominating position.
but jak - No, not exactly. The ultimate goal of
apartheid is to give their independence to some
regions which we call the Bantustans. One already

67
exists, it’s the “Transkei”, in which the Blacks
jouissent/autonomie interne enjoy / self-government.
néanmoins and. - Nevertheless, the Blacks who work in
Johannesburg, Capetown, Bloemfontain and
other towns don’t enjoy the right to vote.
jak. - That’s right, they don’t, but they’ll be able to
vote in the Bantustan where they came from.
rien si ce n’est/pure et simple ruth - That seems to be nothing but/sheer
puisque hypocrisy, since a majority of Blacks have never
been on their Bantustan, and even if they had, they
would not vote in a country where they have never
racines lived and where they have no roots.
sans aucun doute jak. - Undoubtedly we consider those Blacks who
régions/étrangers live in the white areas as aliens, but they're not
obliged to be there.
► comment feriez-vous ruth - How would you manage if they were not
there?
jak. - How would they manage if they all decided
to go back to the Bantustans? These reservations
have no industry.
ruth - They could create one, and their agriculture
assez/prospère is quite / thriving.
nourris and. - But all those Africans could not be fed, as
the reserve represents 16% of the South African
tandis que territory, whereas the Black population represents
* de la population totale 70% of the whole population.
» chiffres ruth - What are the exact figures?
(dont) deux tiers jak. - There are 5 million Whites, two thirds of
► souche whom are of Afrikaner stock, 18 million Blacks,
► surtout mainly Zulus and Bantus, 3 million half-breed (we
métis call them coloureds) and nearly one million
Indians.
and. - You mean Hindus?
jak. - Yes, Indians from India if you prefer. But I’d
critique like to anticipate one criticism, which will probably
be that the Blacks who live in predominantly
» peu enviables white areas live in dismal conditions.
ruth - Which is true.
jak. - Not exactly. It’s true they can’t vote, it’s true
that there is a complete and humiliating
niveau de vie segregation, but their standard of living is the
highest of all Black Africans.
and. - It’s much lower than that of the Whites,
cependant though.
*
je te l'accorde/ misérables jak. - I’ll grant you that. But if they were scybadly
off, why would so many Blacks from other African
countries come and work in South Africa?
nier/citoyens de 2e catégorie ruth - You can’t deny they are second rate citizens
though.
capacité d’atteindre jak. - They are when they don’t have the *ability to
niveau reach a higher level, but you find many Blacks who

68
commerçants/avocats are doctors, tradesmen, / lawyers and who have
a decent standard of living.
and That may be true, but the Blacks in general
t’améliorer don't get sufficient chance to improve, socially
speaking I mean.
réussi jak. - How have some of them managed then?
n'es-tu-pas d’accord (pour dire) ru th - But don't you agree that this Black middle
ressentir class must resent segregation and the fact that they
droits are denied all political rights?
honte jak. - 1 entirely agree with you. It’s a real shame.
» moyen de sortir But I can't see any possible way out of that
situation.
and. - Well, I'd like to speak of possible solutions.
jak. - The Bantustans are a possible solution.
sont en projet Thirteen of them are planned.
ruth - But this will give political rights to only a
small minority.
mettre fin é toute forme and. - The only solution is to abolish any kind of
segregation immediately and give all the Blacks
the right to vote.
jak. - On a one man one vote basis?
and. - Yes, of course.
complètement jak. - That’s a solution which appears utterly/
irréaliste/j'en ai bien peur unrealistic to us. I’m afraid.
and. - May we know why?
jak. - For a good number of reasons. First of all,
aptes the Black leaders are not fit to lead the country,
vies secondly our lives would be in danger, if an
prenait le pouvoir irresponsible government came into office.
ruth - You mean a Marxist type government?
jak. - Not necessarily, but the recent history of
nous a enseigné Africa has taught us that minorities were often
menacées/prenait le pouvoir threatened when the majority came into power
favorables A and we're not exactly in favour of a collective
suicide.
ruth - But you could leave the country.
jak. - Where could we go? Even the English South
difficilement Africans could hardly go back to England as their
patrie mother country is already over-populated and
souffre/crise suffering from a real economic crisis as well. As for
nulle part the Afrikaners they couldn’t go anywhere. They lost
complete contact with Holland many years ago. In
langue fact the Afrikaner tongue is now different from
le hollandais Dutch.
éclate and. - But if a civil war breaks out as a result of
abandonner your refusal to negotiate and to give up some of
finalement your privileges, you will eventually be forced to
leave.
jak. - Don’t think nothing is changing in South
rencontres sportives
Africa - multi-racial sporting events have already

69
taken place and some Black leaders are received
leur serrent ta main by our ministers who publicly^hake hands with
them...
goutte ruth - That’s a drop in the ocean...
néanmoins jak. - But it’s very important nevertheless, in the
context in which we live. That sort of thing would
have been inconceivable fifteen years ago. We’re
► nettement/à notre allure definitely changing our attitude, but%t our own
pace.
escargot ruth - And it’s such a snail's pace that it won’t be
empêcher/bain de sang able to do anything to prevent an eventuandood-
bath...
voir vocabulaire p. 47, 224. Sujets complémentaires, voir p. 263.

A
19.
S Nationalization
Les nationalisations

le pour THE PROS


entreprises 1. All industrial concerns should be nationalized,
for it is not normal that a few private individuals
should enjoy such enormous economic power and
clés control key industries such as armaments.
richesse 2. It is immoral that the fantastic wealth which
» tirent industrialists derive from the work of their often
poorly-paid employees and workers should be so
inégalement partagée/profite unequally shared and benefit only the happy few.
patrons/licencier 3. Factory-owners do not hesitate to lay off their
workers and seem unconcerned by the human
chômage aspects of unemployment, whereas they oil their
part have enormous personal fortunes which are
► dirigent/entreprises rarely menaced if they do not manage their firms
well.
capables 4. Why should the sons of able industrialists
hériter inherit their fathers’ firms? How can one be so sure
that they are as competent and hard-working?
preuve/méritent de What proof does one have that they deserve to head
diriger a firm?
5. Nationalized firms are extremely well managed
tiennent ta comparaison and bear comparison with big private concerns.
Take the Renault car factory for instance, or the
G.D.F.-E.D.F. French gas and electricity boards. Very few private
florissantes enterprises are as well managed and as thriving.

70
le contre THE CONS
1. It is untrue to say that the great industrialists
can do everything they want to. They are often
eontrecarrés/Comeil d’administration held in check by a board of directors who represent
actionnaires the shareholders.
usines 2. Very few plants are still entirely family-owned
► dirigées and run, and in most cases the founders or their
actions descendants have only a minority of the shares.
The greatest number of shares lies in the hands of
shareholders, who have only a few shares each.
3. When a firm is badly run, the banks which
la soutlennent/lalsser ta place support it can oblige the owner to give way to
someone more competent than himself.
digne de confiance 4. Service is much more reliable in a private firm,
car/alnsi for the owners do not want to lose clients and thus
bénéfices see their profits decline. When a firm is nationali­
clients zed the customers find no one to complain to, for
responsable no one feels responsible.
chantiers navals 5. Why is it that the nationalized British
*ship-
yards have always lost a lot of money, whereas the
vont très fort Japanese private ones are booming? Why is it that
acier the nationalization of British Railways or the steel
déçut/effraya industry disappointed or scared a lot of people?
Why is it that in the U.S.A, the private telephone
companies can give you a new line within a few
tandis que days at most after your application, whereas a letter
can take five days to go from New York City to
Il suffit de dlre/courrler Chicago? Suffice it to say that the U.S. mail service
is semi-nationalized
Sujets complémentaires, voir p. 263.

The banking system


Le système bancaire

1. Currency: La monnaie 2. Keeping an account:


*the currency: la monnaie (d'un pays)
Tenue d’un compte
*a bank note: un billet (de banque) *a savings-bank: une caisse d’épargne
*coins: des pièces *to save: épargner
*small change: la petite monnaie *a bank: une banque
legal tender: la monnaie légale *an account: un compte (bancaire)
a sum: une somme a safe: un coffre
a billion: un milliard *a cheque-book: un chéquier
an Ingot: un lingot *to draw a cheque: tirer un chèque
the rate of exchange: le taux de change *to cash a cheque: encaisser un chèque

71
his cheque bounced: son chèque était 4. Stocks and shares:
sans provision Obligations et actions
to overdraw: tirer à découvert
*to be in the red: être à découvert a fraud: une tromperie/une escroquerie
*a credit card: une carte de crédit to refund/to reimburse: rembourser
a bank statement: un état bancaire a bond: une obligation
*a receipt: un reçu a share: une action
the stock exchange: la Bourse
3. Borrowing money: shareholders: les actionnaires
red tape: la bureaucratie
Emprunter a stockbroker: un agent de change
*the amount: le montant the bearer: le porteur
a mortgage: une hypothèque *an insurance company: une compagnie
a loan: un prêt d’assurance
*to borrow: emprunter a premium: une prime
an IOU: une traite
soaring inflation: une inflation galopante
double digit inflation: une inflation
à 2 chiffres
*a debt: une dette

The postal system


Les services postaux

1. Postal service to collect: lever (le courrier)


and telecommunications: ♦the collection: la levée
to deliver: distribuer (le courrier)
Les services postaux *the delivery: la distribution
et les télécommunications the sorting office: ie centre de tri
to sort something (out): trier quelque chose
to forward: faire suivre
to wire/to cable: télégraphier
to telex: prévenir par télex
*the post office: le bureau de poste
the GPO: la poste centrale
♦a pillar box: une boite à lettres
(Grande Bretagne) 2. Telephone services:
*the mail: le courrier Le téléphone
poste restante: la poste restante
♦c/o (care of): aux bons soins de ♦to phone: téléphoner
♦a postal order: un mandat ♦to give a ring: donner un coup de fil
a registered letter: une lettre recommandée ♦to call: appeler
an express letter: une lettre exprès ♦the telephone directory: l'annuaire
♦a postcard: une carte postale ♦a telephone booth/a telephone box:
♦to seal: cacheter (une lettre) une cabine téléphonique
♦to stamp: timbrer/affranchir the telephone exchange: le central téléphonique
♦a book of stamps: un carnet de timbres the continental service/the international
*to stick: coller exchange: (le service pour) l’étranger
to cancel the stamps: oblitérer ♦to dial a number: faire un numéro
♦a parcel: un colis ♦to lift the receiver up: décrocher (le combiné)
free of payment: franco de port ♦to hang up: raccrocher
printed matter: les imprimés ♦hold the line/hang on : ne quittez pas

72
20.C
Religion - Sects and Hippies
La religion - Les sectes et les hippies

(A conversation between Maureen, an English-


speaking Canadian Catholic aged 28, and Pauline
libre-penseur aged 30. an English free-thinker.)

maureen - What a surprise I got the other day when


la secte du Révérend Moon watching a television programme about the Moo-
nie Sect. One of the girls who was interviewed used
to be a friend of mine when 1 was a student.
Pauline - What sort of girl was she?
elle ne pratiquait pas régulièrement m. - Well, from the religious point of view^he
wasn’t a regular church-goer. She was just an
ordinary Catholic.
p - But was there any sign in her personality of
à devenir membre what could have led her to join that sect?
gentille/profondément m. - She was a very kind person, probably deeply
unhappy because she felt she couldn’t change the
souri world, but she would certainly have smiled if we
prédit had foretold she would end up with Moon.
anciens p. - You’ve probably heard what some former
Moonies said recently when interviewed. It was at
a moment when they felt lonely and depressed that
they were persuaded to go to a Moonie meeting. I
think they would have reacted in the same way if
*
* rencontré/ soudé they had encountered any tight-knit group, whether
qu'il soit it be religious, political or social.
m. - That’s probably right, but we have to admit
that the young are more and more attracted by all
sorts of sects.
p. - Some of them, in fact, are very decent and not
► entourées (baignées) bathed in the same atmosphere of secrecy as the
Moon Sect.
m. - The fact remains that more people are joining
sects than let’s say twenty years ago. It seems that
le besoin/une croyance young people feel the urge for a belief of some kind,
p. - It’s funny that you should say that. I remember
une vingtaine discussing the problem of religion with a score of
students some years ago and many simply refused
l'idée même the very idea of religion.
dans son ensemble/démodé m. - No doubt religion at large appeared very%ut-
fin des années 60 dated in the late sixties.
de moins en moins p. - Even now there are fewer and fewer people
qui pratlquent/quelle que solt/croyance attending churches, whatever the creed.
m. - Yes, I remember in the early 60’s in England the

73
only churches which were being built were Catholic
temples Mormons churches and Mormon tabernacles.
p. - That’s quite normal. The Catholics are a small
minority in England and the Mormons were a new
sect.
m. - You mean a new sect for England, for they
were quite an old religion in the U.S.A.
p. - Yes, of course, the foundation of the Mormon
remonte sect dates back to the beginning of the nineteenth
ce que je veux dire century. But what I mean is that people are often
attracted by minority groups rather than by the
official Church.
» Considérez-vous m. - Do you reckon that the traditional Catholics in
d’Europe continentale/» connaissent/ France or other continental countries enjoy /%me
» une certaine kind of popularity because they are a minority?
p. - Yes, partly. In any case, some people didn’t
messe/ obligatoire like the Mass in Latin when it was compulsory,
follement enthousiastes but some others became madly keen on it when it
interdite was banned.
m. - This would explain why some Catholic
movements, such as the “Charismatic”, are enjoy­
ing a great success in America.
p. - Yes, because they’re different.
vous avez tendance à estimer m. - Well now, if I follow you all right’you tend to
assume that people join sects because they are
different.
p. - Well, it’s a bit more complicated than that.
Take for instance, an individual who is opposed to
proclamera/athée the Church. He’ll claim that he is an atheist, that
le clergé the Church is no use to anybody, that the clerics
avare/égoïste/mesquin are ignorant, stingy, / selfish, / mean, and I don’t
en affirmant know what else. He will conclude by asserting that
the Church has a bad influence on people, and
that it’s an outdated social body which has always
tried to explain the world instead of changing it.
où essayez-vous d’en venir? m. - Well, what are you trying to get at?
p. - The same man might very well be transformed
into a firm believer, if not a bigot, a few weeks later.
la foi m. - That’s the mystery of faith, 1 presume.
p. - Yes, it’s something you can’t explain. And on
avec entêtement the contrary he who stubbornly defended the
d’aasister aux services religieux Church might very well stop attending services /
complètement altogether.
je vois ce que vous voulez dire m. -1 see your point, but don’t you think that all
quelque peu those who join new sects are somewhat naïve?
dans un certain sens p. - In some ways they are. But they’re often sincere.
arrêté I know some who have given up smoking, drink­
jeûnent/comme des fous ing who even fast and work like mad, just because
leur demande/pour compenser their sect requires them to do so, to make up for
péchés/vraiment the sins of the world. Others do actually believe

74
that they are contributing to building a new world
rappricnés where governments will be abolished.
vérité m. - There is a lot of truth in what you say, but
what are these people, if they are not naive?
p. - All right, they are, just as the missionaries were
naive. Don’t you think St. Vincent de Paul was
galères/pour améliorer naive when he went on the galleys / to improve the
galériens/et pourtant^! donna life of the galley-slaves? / And yet /* he set an
l'exemple example.

► les plus inébranlables/ opposants m. - That’s true. Even the staunchest / opponents
of religion can’t blame it for shaping wonderful
people who have given all they have got to the
world. But they aren’t all like that... the Church
réussi has not managed to make everyone good and
charitable; that's what you were going to say,
isn’t it?
j'ajouterais p. - Yes, and I would add that the Church has not
even been able to make all its members happy.
m. - That’s a point I forgot to mention, but ail the
people who belong to a sect are happy, aren’t they?
► une soif (désirj/benheur p. - So it's more a craving for happiness than
anything else?
m. - In one way it is. But if they join a sect and not a
political organization it’s certainly because they
besoin have a spiritual need.
adorer p. - Do you mean that all men need to worship a
god?
m. -1 think that in our modern civilization there is a
need for God. We have become too materialistic,
trop mercantile too money-minded. The young are searching for
un but something to believe in, they need a goal in life

75
une récompense/ûn grand nombre d'entre without expecting a reward. In a word,* a good
eux many of them are ready to reject the world of theii
parents.
p. - Like the hippies then?
m. - Why not. There’s a lot to be said for some of
their beliefs.
p. - Such as?
société de consommation m. - Well, the refusal of the affluent society and
* désir their wish for a simpler life; life in groups, the
ancien égoïsme rejection of their former selfishness, their pacifism
and so on.
p. - In other words, Jesus Christ was a hippy...
m. - That’s an easy thing to say. But you must
admit that Christ for his time was different from
other people because of the life he led and the ideas
he preached. Perhaps he was actually some kind
of hippy or even a revolutionary.
p. - You started with a craving for a better world,
vous terminez for better spiritual values and you end up with
revolutionary ideas.
► simpliste m. - Your conclusion is a bit over-simplified but in
our society I do think that it’s a revolutionary idea
to want to be good and happy.
Sujets complémentaires, voir p. 263.

Religion
La religion

1. The Christian faith: puritan: puritain


La foi chrétienne *protestant: protestant
*anglican: anglican
*God: Dieu
High/Low church:
the Holy Ghost: le Saint Esprit
l'église Haute/ Basse (anglicane)
*the soul: l'âme
*hell: l’enfer
2. Other religions and non-believers:
*heaven: le paradis
the devil: le diable
Autres religions et non-croyants
♦to worship: adorer/célébrer le culte a goddess: une déesse
the Almighty: le Tout-puissant pagan/heathen: païen
the redeemer: le rédempteur Moslem: musulman
*faith: la foi the Koran: le Coran
*faithful: fidèle a mosque: une mosquée
*a Christian: un chrétien a Jew: un juif
Christianity: le christianisme Jewish: juif (adj.)
the apostles: les apôtres a synagogue: une synagogue
*the Bible: la Bible a rabbi: un rabbin
the Scriptures: l'écriture Sainte a convert: un converti
the gospel: l’évangile *an atheist: un athée
the old testament: l'ancien testament an agnostic: un agnostique
the dissenters: les dissidents a free-thinker: un libre-penseur

76
to tell one's beads/to tell one's rosary:
3. Churches and places of worship: égrener son chapelet
Eglises et lieux de culte ♦Mass: la messe
a shrine: une châsse/un sanctuaire *a hymn: un hymne... un chant religieux
a pilgrim/a pilgrimage: incense: l'encens
un pèlerin/un pèlerinage an altar-boy: un enfant de chœur
*the bells: les cloches (sert la messe)
the steeple: le clocher a choir-boy: un choriste (à l’église)
*the church tower: le clocher/la tour to hush: faire silence
*a stained glass window: un vitrail *to bless: bénir
the pews: les bancs (de l'église) the host: l'hostie
an offertory-box: un tronc (dans l'église) to sprinkle holy water: asperger d'eau bénite
the aisle: le bas-côté ♦bliss: la joie (religieuse)
the font: les fonts baptismaux lent: le carême
the station of the cross: le chemin de croix to fast: jeûner
the pulpit: la chaire *a church-goer: un pratiquant
the lich-gate: le porche (couvert) a church mouse: une grenouille de bénitier
dans le jardin d'une église to baptise: baptiser
*a christening: un baptême
4. Members of the Clergy:
Le clergé
6. Confession of sins:
the laity: les laïques La confession
lay: laïque (adj.)
*the rectory: le presbytère *the confession box: le confessionnal
*the Pope: le Pape the grate of the catch:
an orthodox priest: un pope la grille du confessionnal
a cleric: un clerc a mortal sin/a deadly sin: un péché mortel
*a priest: un prêtre (généralement catholique) a venal sin: un péché véniel
the verger: le bedeau ♦absolution: l'absolution
a vicar: un curé (généralement anglican) evil: le mal
a curate: un vicaire (généralement anglican) a fault: un défaut
a deacon: un diacre remorse: le remord
a canon: un chanoine I rattled ofT my sins in one breath:
* a parson/a minister: un pasteur je débitai tous mes péchés d’un seul coup
a preacher: un prédicateur resentful: rancunier
*a clergyman: un pasteur *selfish: égoïste
an archbishop: un archevêque vain: vaniteux
*a bishop: un évêque *greedy: gourmand
the bishop see: le siège épiscopal *wicked: méchant
the bishop's palace: l'évêché cowardly: lâche (adj.)
a diocese: un diocèse sly: sournois
*a parish: une paroisse to boast: se vanter
*a monk: un moine to deceive: tromper
*a monastery: un monastère *to swear: jurer
*a nun: une religieuse an oath: un juron; un serment
*an abbey: une abbaye *to lie: mentir
a cassock: une soutane a heresy: une hérésie
a (cardinal’s) biretta: une barrette (de cardinal) a curse: une malédiction
bless you: à vos souhaits
5. Church services and the practising
worshippers: 7. Satanism, black magic and
Services religieux et les fidèles witchcraft:
pratiquants Satanisme, magie noire et
*a prayer: une prière sorcellerie
*to pray: prier a fiend: un démon

77
*magic: la magie *to «tort: sursauter
* witchcraft: la sorcellerie *to startle: faire sursauter
to cast a speflc jeter un sort
*a ghost: un fantôme 8. The signs of the Zodiac:
Satan/Lucifer: Satan/Lucifer Les signes du Zodiaque
goose flesh: la chair de poule
a cauldron: un chaudron
Aquarius: Verseau
*to vanish: disparaître
Pisces: Poissons
Aries: Bélier
a magician: un magicien
a conjurer: un prestidigitateur
Taurus: Taureau
a wizard: un sorcier
Geranri: Gémeaux
*a witch: une sorcière
Cancer; Cancer
a witch-doctor: un sorcier (africain)
Leo: Lion
a medicine-man: un sorcier (peau-rouge)
Virgo: Vierge
Libra: Balance
a fairy: une fée
a magic wand: une baguette magique
Scorpio: Scorpion
a broom stick: un manche à balai
Sagittarius: Sagittaire
to be stunned: rester interdit
Capricorn: Capricorne
*to flee: s’enfuir

21.A
Charity
La charité

pour FOR
charitables/parfaites 1. Charity organizations may not be perfect but
they have at least one merit: they exist. If those
dans le besoin/comptaient sur/la bureau­ who are wi need / depended on state red tape to be
cratie helped, they might wait a very long time.
mettent un point d’honneur 2. Charities make a point of finding those who
ces derniers ne sollicitent pas need them, even if the latter do not apply for help.
venir en aide They are always ready to come to the assistance of
défavorisés the forgotten ones, to the wnderdogs, whose
détresse/soupçonnée distress would often not even be suspected.
3. Charities not only give money or other types
répandent de la bonne volonté of material help, they also spread a ikrt of good will
assistantes sociales among men. Which social workers would have
ceux qui sont dans le besoin the time to listen to and speak to the needy ones,
as benevolent charity workers do?
4. in the case of a catastrophe or other kind of
*
éloigné/ anormales tragedy in a remote country living in substandard
conditions, only the internationally organized
sur place charities can be on the spot rapidly. If the victims
had to wait for international help to be organized
at state level, it would take much longer.

78
grâce à/des collectes 5. Through their fund-raising campaigns, charity
ne peuvent manquer de/détresses organizations are bound to bring the distresses of
► attention our world to the public’s notice. This helps to
égoïstes/» conscients make people less selfish and more aware of other
souffrances people’s sufferings.

contre AGAINST
1. Charity organizations should not have to exist.
~ état-providence It is the job of the state, even if it is not a’welfare
» de s'attaquer aux/pauvreté/besoin ,/to
*
state tackle problems of poverty and need.
In fact these organizations are often a pretext for
some states not to do anything for their deprived
ones.
2. Charities sometimes do the wrong thing when
fournissent/d’une part they supply people with money or food. *On the
one hand it is humiliating to be helped in that way.
d’autre part/ce qu’il convient de faire on the other experience has proved thaAhe proper
gagner leur vie thing to do is to help people make their own living
and not give them all they need without any effort
on their part.
3. Charities are not always aware of what the
people they help really need. Sometimes people
dans le besoin/se plaignent/par consé­ are in need but do not complain, and therefore are
quent/les marchandises never helped, other times the stuff which is sent
régime/destinés does not correspond to the diet of those it is meant
blé/riz for. For instance, corn is sent to rice-eating
certains/se rappeler countries, or vice-versa. Some people may^rall to
mind that when American charities asked their
fournir benefactors to provide Biafra with food during the
1968 famine the poor Biafrans received... tons of
sauces toutes préparées/lntremets en ready-made sauces and cake-mixes which would
poudre simply have killed them had they eaten them.
gaspillé 4. A lot of money is wasted by the charities which
entretenir are forced to support their own bureaucracy.
malhonnêtes/on affirme Even if they are not dishonest, / it is claimed that
récoltés/» vraiment only 10% of the funds raised / actually reach the
people they are destined for.
en outre/permettent 5. Moreover, charity organizations allow people
bonne conscience who subscribe to them to have an easy conscience.
pièce de monnaie It is easier to sign a cheque or drop a coin in a
tronc collecting-box than actually try to help others
actively oneself.

voir vocabulaire p. 76. Sujets complémentaires, voir p. 263.

•welfare-state = état-providence, c’est-à-dire état adoptant de nombreuses mesures sociales.

79
22.C
What do teenagers think of love?
Que pensent les adolescents de l’amour?

animé/maison de jeunes (A lively debate in an English Youth Club between


adolescents/de temps en temps teenagers of different opinions. Now and then a
timely intervention from the chairman, the only adult,
helps to control the discussion.)

boy - It’s hard to say what love is. When we love,


we can’t explain what it is, simply because it’s a
sentiment feeling.
girl - When you love somebody, you don’t think of
yourself but of the other person. You just forget
beaucoup about yourself. You feel like giving a lot, and you
don’t expect anything from the loved one in return.
le principal girl - The main thing is to love. In fact it’s not
important to be loved.
c’est ridicule boy - That’s rubbish. If you love someone and if
► très you are not loved in return, you are most unhappy.
en fait/esclavage boy - As a matter of fact, love is a kind of slavery.
But it’s an accepted slavery, because it makes you
happy.
girl - Love is not a synonym for “possession”.
Someone who loves should not be possessive.
simplement boy - Love is merely a communication between
two persons who love each other and not somebody
else.
je suis d’accord girl - I agree, that’s why I think the two people
partager who love each other must share the same ideas.
ce qui me frappe boy - What strikes me is that when you love you
hait also hate.
chairman - That’s a surprising opinion - what do
you mean?
boy - If the person you love doesn’t share your
forcé opinions, you’re bound to hate him.
chairman - I don’t know, anyway everybody has a
particular way of loving somebody. You never
find two people who love in the same way.
je me demande/» fait girl - I wonder if love is only meant for people?
tout à fait/saisia chairman - I don't quite I catch what you mean.
girl - In other words you love things as much as
you love human beings?
ridicule/ affirmation boy - That’s a silly / statement. Everybody knows
that you “love" people and you “like” things.
artiste peintre girl - But an artist, for instance, can love
something.

80
giri - What seems important to me is that love
should never be idealized. If you love a person
déçu you can only be disappointed, because ideals do
not exist. So we have to be realistic and love the
person as he is and not as we'd like him to be.
je voue mets au défi boy - That’s correct, but I challenge you all to find
a definition of love. You can’t define a feeling.
girl -1 maintain that the importance is to be loved.
boy - And what if you never agree with the loved
person?

je le laisse tomber/je coupe girl - Then 1 stop loving him -1 drop him - /1 sever
person = masculin en anglais any kind of relations with him.
boy - That’s silly, if you love someone who is just
like you, it only means you want to love your
image. You are a narcissist then. I think love
implique implies an acceptance of the other; of his ideas, of
his personality.
chairman - From what i have experienced myself,
la vie vaut la peine d'être vécue love makes your life worth living, but it also leads
you to excessive feelings.
boy - Do you mean jealousy?
» perdent la tête chairman - Yes, some people almost lose their
minds when they're in love.
boy - I would like to go back to what was said
partager before. Somebody assumed you should share the
loved one’s opinions. I don't personally think that
► quelque chose i voir love has anything to do with opinions. You never
fall in love with somebody because he has the same
opinions as you. It's a secondary aspect.
tout d'abord/afflnité girl - Yes, I think love is first and foremost /\
relationship, then it's a game which develops into
love later on.
coup de foudre boy - And what about love at first sight?

81
girl - It doesn't exist.
boy - 1 would like to contradict you on this point. I
know a man who spoke only French and English
follement and who fell madly in love with a girl who spoke
le russe/le polonais only Russian and Polish! They got married
un seul without having exchanged a single word which
they could both understand. They have been
married for eighteen years and are very happy.
ni l'un ni l'autre And neither was disappointed when, after learning
each other's language, they could communicate
normally.
girl - That’s a very interesting case, but an
néanmoins exceptional one. Nevertheless, I don’t think that
qui se développe love is something which develops. You love or you
don’t love, that’s all.
boy - But to love someone really you must know
de vue him better than just by sight. Personality is more
aspects physiques important than mere looks.
fondé girl - Yes, it’s a pity love should often be founded
jolie/bel on physical beauty. A pretty girl, a handsome
raseurs man, can be terrible bores sometimes.
remarque boy - Mind you, you often find that the person you
belle/aveugle love is good-looking - “love is blind” you know...
boy - Yes, I think that when you love a girl just
because she’s pretty you’re just loving a thing...
boy - Of course, a girl is not a car; you first love the
thing and then the personality.
tu rêves boy - When you dream of your ideal girl, let’s call
her Marilyn Monroe or whatever, you just want
physical possession, and then when you discover
her personality after making love to her, you might
attirante find her less attractive.
chairman - Should physical love precede or follow
love?
car boy - I think it should come first, for sex is stronger
than other feelings.
boy - No, on the contrary I think it should be the
consecration of love. Pure love is not only physical
love. I, for myself, never think of sex when I love
someone. I can spend hours and just be satisfied
with the person’s presence.
boy - That’s an old-fashioned attitude. The woman
maîtresse you love should first be your mistress and after
your friend.
boy - Not at all. Love is unique. You don’t love
two persons in one.
boy - But physical and intellectual love are two
separate things. Also you don’t love your parents,
Dieu your fiancée, or God in the same way.
girl - Someone spoke of love at first sight. I
think myself it’s the realisation of something you

82
have been waiting for. In fact you often feel a
besoin/bien que/vralment craving for love although you don't actually have
anyone to love.
- How can you be sure you love somebody?
GIRL
cette personne te manque boy - You're sure to be in love when’you miss that
person when he's away.
éprla boy- When you are fond of a girl after making love
► to her, you cam be sure it’s true love.
pour toujours GIRL - But can you love somebody for ever?
boY - That’s the problem of marriage, isn’t it?
devrait être girl- Yes, one cam wonder if marriage ought to be
but the ultimate aim of love.
BOY - A lot of you ng people disap prove of marriage
- they prefer a free union.
désapprouvé boy - But that is generally frowned upon by society.
GIRL - Yes, like homosexuality.
boy - Marriage is the socialization of love. It's
imposed by society.
girl - But it’s normal that when two people love
each other, they should want to get married and
engagés have children and so prove that they are committed
to each other.
• boy - But a good many people get married just
► plan because it's easier on the administrative plane,
especially as far as their children are concerned.
girl - Thai’s correct, and it's a great pity and would
certainly explain why so many young couples get
divorced in their early married life.
bov - Anyway, it’s much better to divorce than lead
carrément a miserable life. Young people biurrtty refuse the
aînés hypocrisy of their elders, and I think they are right.
douloureuse girl - Nevertheless, a divorce is always a painful
experience for someone. I know a young lady who
was divorced by her husband when she was thirty
élever and left on her own to bring up two children. She
kept saying “Why did it happen to me?” Although
she had always been tolerant on these matters, she
found it hard to accept that such a thing could
happen to her.
boy - You said older people did not divorce as
easily as the younger generations, but in the case
of such broken couples the husband would often
amant have a mistress, or the wife a lover.
et pourtant tu peux supposer bov - And ye t you can assume that the husband still
loved his wife, bnt rarely his mistress.
girl - Why?
boy - Because you can't love two women at the
same time.
pure et simple ânerte bov - That’s utter nonsense. Of course a man can
love two women at the same time.
cependant giri. - It's more rare among women though, it

83
must be hard for a woman to love two men at the
same time.
aïeux boy - The main problem of our forefathers, or
avant le mariage simply our parents, was that pre-marital sex was
unheard of in their days.
évolué girl - Things have evolved, haven’t they?
boy - Physical and romantic love cannot be
separated. A boy and a girl might decide to make
love because they love each other. Marriage has
nothing to do with it.
chairman - There are still some young people who
disapprove of pre-marital sex.
boy - That’s their business. The problem depends
on each individual.
forcé girl - Yes, but no one should feel bound to make
parce que cela se fait love for the sake of it, because everybody does it.
That’s as bad as our grand-parents’ attitude.
je crains (d'avoir à) chairman - I’m afraid we must now finish off our
debate. Who would like to conclude?
boy - I would say that love must be complete. You
love the looks and the personality of the loved one.
You love to be with him or her and ultimately to
make love together.
Sujets complémentaires, voir p. 263.

Love - marriage - children - divorce


L’amour - le mariage - les enfants - le divorce

1. Falling in love: a kindred spirit: une âme sœur


Lorsque l’on tombe amoureux *friendship/friendliness : l'amitié
*to be fond of: aimer (d’amitié)
*to fancy a girl/a bird: avoir le béguin/
*to fall in love: tomber amoureux
d’une fille/d’une nana
honey (U.S.)/dearest/sweetheart/sweetie:
*love at first sight: le coup de foudre
mon petit chou (mots doux)
on the spur of the moment: d’un seul coup,
*darling: chéri
sans réfléchir/au pied levé
*to get on well together: s’entendre bien
*to be dazzled: être ébloui
to fish for compliments: chercher des
her face is not up to the standard of her legs:
compliments
son visage ne vaut pas ses jambes
his eyes were popping out: les yeux
lui sortaient de la tête
2. Getting engaged:
to wink: taire un clin d’œil Lorsque l’on se fiance
*to blush: rougir *to be in love: être amoureux
to giggle: avoir le fou rire *to propose: demander en mariage
to have plenty of scope: avoir un grand *to get engaged: se fiancer
choix (de filles) *to be engaged: être fiancé
to chat up: baratiner a fiancé(e): un(e) fiancé(e)
to court: courtiser an engagement party: des fiançailles (repas)
a courting couple: des amoureux an engagement ring: une bague de fiançailles

84
5. Childcare:
3. The wedding and marriage: Soins et éducation des enfants
Le mariage et la vie de couple kids: des gosses
*a bachelor: un vieux garçon *a pram: un landau
*a spinster: une vieille fille a bib: un bavoir
*single/married: célibataire/marié (adj.) nappies: des couches
a marriage agency: une agence matrimoniale a baby’s bottle/a feeding bottle: un biberon
to give one’s daughter in marriage: to bottle feed: nourrir au biberon
marier sa fille a rubber sheet: une alèze
*to marry/to get married: se marier to wean: sevrer
to marry Miss/Mr. X: épouser Melle/ M. lintel to go for a wee-wee: aller faire pipi
we were married by Father So and So: on all fours: à quatre pattes
c’est le Père Untel qui nous a mariés *to sit on somebody's lap: être assis
*a wedding (ceremony): un mariage sur les genoux de quelqu’un
(cérémonie + repas) to babble: gazouiller (bébé)
*the wedding rings: les alliances to scream: hurler
the wedding dress: la robe de mariée
the veil: le voile 6. Separation and divorce:
*the bride: la mariée Séparation et divorce
*the bridegroom: le marié to make someone jealous: rendre quelqu'un
the best man: le garçon d'honneur jaloux
the bridesmaid: la demoiselle d'honneur to deceive: tromper =/ to disappoint: décevoir
to get married at the registry office: a mistress: une maîtresse
se marier civilement (cérémonie religieuse a lover: un amant
exclue) to live in sin: vivre de façon
*husband/wife: mari/femme (épouse) illégitime (en union libre)
*to change one’s mind: changer d'avis free love/free union: l’union libre
pointless: qui n'a pas de sens she gave you a good taste of your own medicine :
*to make love: faire l'amour elle vous a rendu la monnaie de votre pièce
*to sleep with somebody: coucher avec quelqu'un a lack of understanding:
to elope: s’enfuir (pour se marier) un manque de compréhension
a virgin: lAie vierge *he gets on my nerves: il m’énerve
honeymoon: la lune de miel *to warn: prévenir to prevent: empêcher
the honeymoon trip: le voyage de noces to hinder: empêcher
a battered wife: une femme battue
4. Childbirth: *to part/to separate: se séparer
La naissance *to divorce someone: divorcer
*a housewife: une maîtresse de maison the decree nisi: la séparation de corps
never again: jamais plus
to be pregnant: être enceinte
she had a complicated labour: alimony: la pension alimentaire
to wave goodbye: dire au-revoir d'un signe
elle a eu un accouchement difficile child custody: garde de I'enfant
a caesarian: une césarienne
the labour ward: la salle de travail 7. Weighing up the pros and the cons:
(à la maternité) Lorsque l’on pèse le pour
a midwife: une sage-femme
*to give birth: donner naissance et le contre
♦to deliver a baby: accoucher *all things considered: toute réflexion faite
the umbilical cord/the navel string: *in other words: en d’autres termes
le cordon ombilical in every respect: à tous égards
a miscarriage: une fausse couche to tell the truth: à vrai dire
*an abortion: un avortement including: y compris
*an unmarried mother: une mère célibataire fortunately: par bonheur
*an illegitimate child/a natural child: if need be: le cas échéant
un enfant naturel to make matters worse: pour comble de malheur
*twins: des jumeaux *gradually: peu à peu
triplets: des triplés on the whole: à tout prendre
8. Prostitution and sexual deviation: a peepûq; Tom: un voyeur
Prostitution et déviations sexuelles impotent: impuissant
frigid: frigide
*a prostitute/a whore: une prostituée ♦a homosexual/a queer: un homosexuel
a pimp: un souteneur
a lesbian: une lesbienne
a brothel: une maison close
gay: homosexuel
a madame: une tenancière de maison close

Human qualities, attitudes and faults


Qualités, attitudes et défauts humains

1. Physical attributes: understanding: compréhensif


lenient: indulgent
Aspects physiques *helpful: serviable
qualities/attitudes: qualités/attitudes *decent: convenable
♦good-looking: bien de sa personne
*tiandsome: beau 4. Temperament and humour:
♦pretty : jolie Humeur et humour
♦beautiful: belle
lean: mince bold: audacieux
meek: humble
*nice: agréable
2. Intellectual qualities and assets:
*friemiiy: amical
Qualités intellectuelles et atouts pleasant: agréable
brainy: intelligent ♦kind: gentil
♦dever: astucieux ♦confident: confiant
bright: intelligent confidence: confiance
smart: malin *optimistic: optimiste
♦wise: sage ♦happy: heureux
wisdom: la sagesse * cheerful/good humoured: de bonne humeur
a man of genius: un génie warm-hearted: chaleureux
*broad-minded : large d'esprit
*open-minded: ouvert
5. External manner:
3. Dependability and understanding: Comportement visible
Confiance et compréhension courteous: courtois
* hard-working: travailleur *polite: poli
*lucky: chanceux ♦génial: sympathique
upright: droit urbane: poli
♦honest: honnête well brought-up/well-mannered: bien élevé
imperturbable/stolid: sûr/équilibré a wag: un boute en train
thoughtful: prévenant to feel at ease: se sentir à l'aise
sympathetic: compatissant to bubble over with vitality:
♦reliable: digne de confiance déborder de vitalité
uncompromising: intransigeant ♦contempt: mépris
watchful: vigilant *to despise: mépriser
even-tempered: d’humeur égaie snobbish: snob
thrifty: économe *foolish: imbécile/idiot
* generous: généreux a fool: un imbécile
‘careftri: prudent/soigneux ♦crazy: fou
liberal: généreux ♦silly: ridicule
unassuming: modeste stupid: stupide

86
harsh: dur/intraitable as proud as a peacock: fier comme Artaban
uncouth/ill-mannered : impoli/rustre pride: la fierté
“ill-tempered/grumpy/bad-tempered: prejudiced/“biased: plein de parti pris
de mauvaise humeur derogatory: qui abaisse
thoughtless: inconsidéré forlorn: maussade
irksome: irritable “sad: triste
•touchy: susceptible doleful: lugubre
pompous: qui fait 1'important “awkward/ill-at-ease/self-conscious:
“restless: agité mal à l’aise
envious: envieux “ugly: laid
eccentric: excentrique burly: costaud
“odd: bizarre/étrange “plain: quelconque/moche
“talkative: bavard peevish: grincheux
a chatter-box: un moulin à paroles spiteful: méchant
a gossip: une commère “shallow: futile
frantic: frénétique lukewarm; tiède/peu empressé
sarcastic/sneering: sarcastique “dishonest: malhonnête
sneer: sarcasme penniless: sans le sou
off-hand: désinvolte broke: fauché
he’s like a bull in a china shop: on dirait “stingy: avare
un éléphant dans un magasin de porcelaine “mean: mesquin
she looks as if butter wouldn’t melt in her mouth : a miser: un avare
on lui donnerait le Bon Dieu sans confession “stubborn: entêté
to be upset: être contrarié as stubborn as a mule: têtu comme une mule
to be cross: être en colère “lazy: paresseux
he’s not a patch on his brother: idle: oisif
il n’arrive pas à la cheville de son frère lavish: dispendieux
to take advantage of somebody: mercenary: intéressé/profiteur
profiter de quelqu'un “pessimistic: pessimiste
a gay dog: un joyeux luron quick-tempered: irascible
to ape: singer “boring: ennuyeux/rasoir
“to be cheesed off: être dégoûté a bore: un raseur
to jeopardize: mettre en danger ses intérêts impudent/cheeky: effronté
“to enjoy: apprécier/aimer “rude: impoli
to alarm: effrayer “selfish: égoïste
“to cope with: faire face/se débrouiller surly: bourru/maussade
to be bewildered: rester interdit sullen: maussade
an idiosyncrasy: une manie sentimental: sentimental (péjoratif)
to have worries: avoir des soucis “shy/timid: timide
“to smile: sourire weary: las/fatigué
*to burst out laughing: éclater de rire excited: énervé
boastful: vantard/hâbleur “exciting: palpitant
to boast/to show off: se vanter to be wound up: être remonté, énervé
a boaster: un vantard affected: maniéré
“conceited: prétentieux dubious: incrédule
“vain: vaniteux scornful: méprisant
“proud: fier despicable/contemptible: méprisable

87
23.A s
How do 18 * year-olds see their future?
Comment les jeunes de 18 ans envisagent-ils leur avenir?

me préoccupe/surtout 1. The future worries me / mainly because of the


si nous arrivions energy problem. Even if we managed to find new
sources of energy the clock can never be put back.
Things will never be as easy for us as they were for
preceding generations.
principal/après avoir passé ma licence 2. My main concern is finding a job \fter I
graduate from university. I have several friends
who were forced to take jobs for which they were
au chômage not qualified and some were even unemployed
before ever having worked!
m’effraye 3. The future frightens me too. I don’t want to
have children, because I'm not sure they will be
happy.
brillant 4. The future is not very bright and what makes
me pessimistic is that at our age we cannot change
façonné anything. Our future will have been shaped by
our parents and we have very little chance of
modifier/supporter altering things. We will have to bear the
mésaventures consequences of their mistakes and mishaps.
convaincu 5. I’m convinced that the main problem of the
coming generation will be that of pollution. The
preceding generations have caused so much
énormes pollution that tremendous efforts will have to be
made to repair what they have done, and even so
nous récolterons things will never be the same as before. We’ll reap
semé what they have sown.
6. What kind of society are we going to live in,
le milieu with all its violence, the underworld, crimes of all
sorts and delinquency?
7. The energy crisis might very well lead us to
faire la guerre/pétrole wage war against the oil-producing countries. The
richesse/menacée wealth of industrial countries is threatened. It is a
survie/bon marché question of survival for them to get cheap energy
~sc débarrasser and even to get rid of their potential industrial
concurrents/Extrême Orient rivals like the Far East countries. A war seems
vraisemblable more and more likely for these reasons and it
frightens me.
crainte/terre 8. My fear is that the earth as a whole is over-
nourrir populated. How will it be possible to feed three
* ("est parce qu’il s’agit d’un nom composé que l’adjectif old prend un s. (Les adjectifs sont normalement
invariables même lorsqu'ils sont employés comme noms).
88
milliard! billion inhabitants? And what can our future be in
occidental the western world where, on the contrary, the
diminue population is decreasing? If one day
underdeveloped countries decided to take what we
auet nombreux have by force, we wouldn't be numerous enough
to oppose them.
9. The way of life which is ours in Europe and
which is more and more influenced by the
American way of life, makes people feel very
solltalres/solitude lonely, especially in big towns. Loneliness to me
siècle will be the main problem of the end of the century.
People don’t care about each other, each
cela ne noua dérange pas individual considers himself an island and it
doesn't bother us if other people are lonely,
dans le beeoln/égoïite miserable or in need. We arc living in a selfish
world.
10. Our parents can't possibly understand our
angoisse problems and our anxiety. They have learnt to live
with the problems that their own generation
d'un autre côté created. We refuse to live with them, but^n the
other hand, we don’t know how to get rid of them.
qui plus est Moreover, we feel we can’t trust our own parents’
generation.
ennuyeuee/de nos Jours 11. Life is so boring / nowadays and will become
» déroulement more and more so. The pattern of a young man’s
établi/nalesance/passons des examens life is set up at his birth: we study, we take exams,
which are usually no use to anyone; we work, we
prenons notre retraite retire. There is no imagination left in that type of
lutter life. Perhaps we don't have to struggle hard
enough to enjoy it?
12. The problem of drugs will become a crucial
quMlion/en ont par-dessus la tête issue in the next few years. Young people’are
so fed-up, bored, anxious and lonely that they will
try to escape from life more and more with the
help of drugs. And you know how easy it is to get
Impllqué/mortel/processus involved in that deadly / process. You smoke
cigarettes because you are bored or because it’s the
thing to do, then you turn to herbs like Marijuana
and when you don't find those strong enough, you
► une évaslon/drogues durcs/on meurt try a trip on acids like LSD and one day you die of
concitoyens an overdose. What can we expect of our fellow-
simples countrymen if drugs have turned them into sheer /
déchets (humains) wretches and what opportunities will be left for
the others?
la mort 13. In our modern society death is a permanent
fléau companion. Cancer is a real plague and it's
recherche depressing to learn that the hundreds of research
Impuissante/ guérir laboratories working on it are helpless in curing

89
maladie that disease. If you don't die of cancer, you die of
crise cardiaque/congestion/ fébrile a heart attack or a stroke provoked by the hectic
life we live. And if you stay clear of these diseases
your life is in danger whenever you drive. The
► accident chances of being killed in a car crash have never
been so high. What I fear most is death, because to
néant me it’s nothingness. I envy the people who believe
in a life after death; they must be less anxious
about dying. Perhaps our problem is that we do
Dieu/néanmoins not believe firmly enough in God. / Nevertheless,
apprécier my fearing death leads me to enjoy every minute
of my life.
décevoir 14. I’m sorry to disappoint you all, but I am rather
► assez/contrairement optimistic, unlike all these people who have just
fardeau spoken. The future is not a burden for me. I have
foi/savants faith in science and am sure that scientists will solve
résoudront the problems of pollution. In England the blue sky
► dépolluées is reappearing in the smokeless zones, where you
amélioration would never have imagined any improvement. I
believe in solar energy: it is clean, cheap and
unlimited. In less than twenty years there will be
no more energy crisis. Cancer can be cured in one
case out of three now, which was unbelievable
victimes/ diminué twenty years ago. The number of road casualties
je vous l’accorde is being curbed. Drugs are a worrying problem, I
grant you, but alcoholism was also one (and still is
unfortunately) for the preceding generations. In
chanceux fact we have been too lucky. Unlike our parents
défaut we have never experienced war or depression and
our only fault is that we don’t realise how happy
repose we are. Anyway, the future lies in our own hands.
The world of tomorrow will be exactly what we
make of it.
voir vocabulaire p. 96. Sujets complémentaires, voir p. 263.

90
24.C
Wbat do teenager! think of happlneas7
Que pensent les adolescents du bonheur?

Auberge de Jeunesse/Pays des Lacs (One evening in a Youth hostel in the Lake
District, a group of young Londoners are
discussing happiness.)

Wendy - Before speaking of happiness, I think we


devrions/déflnir really ought to define it. If we cant
Dave - So what docs “happiness" mean for each
of us?
Frances - To me, happiness is the possibility of
souhaite living as I wish and in the same way as those I love.
charles - My definition will be different. I think
AqcMbn you are happy when you find a personal balance
in life.
edward - That's an interesting definition, but I
would like to complete it, if I may, by saying that a
personne : mascuMn en anglais person is happy when he/feels at ease with
n quelque sorte
sent à l'aise/e himself, as It were.
quant à moi susie - As for me, I think that happiness is to
accomplir/but achieve something, to attain a goal, face some kind
défi/résoudre of challenge, or if you prefer, resolve necessary
difficulties.
stuart - One is happy when one sees the positive
apprécie side of life, when one enjoys the present day
» s'attarder without dwelling on the day before or after.
toute prête cheryl - I have no precise ready-made definition,
but what I know is that I am happy when I make
other people happy.
Je suis d'accord avec toi/oserais roger - I agree with you, and I would even dare / to
ajouter add that happiness is possible only if you accept
others as they are and not as you would wish them
en contact to be, if you are In touch with the outside world,
pas égoiste in one word, if you are unselfish.
avant-dernière wendy - I'm the last but one to give my definition
humble and I feel very meek after listening to all your
Intellectuelles high-brow definitions. Let me simply say that
faire des progrès happiness can only be found if you try to improve,
qui plus est to progress, to find something better and moreover
but/dessein/surtout to have a goal, an aim in life, especially a political
or religious one.
have - I am the last one to propose something,
aren’t I?
pas le moindre Frances - Yes, “last, but not least”.
arrête de me taquiner/franchement dave - Stop teasing me. Quite frankly, I don't

91
know what happiness is. There may be several
types of happiness, even. Happiness can be
par exemple material, or spiritual, for instance.
si roger - I’d like Susie to tell me whether she needs
pour toujours to choose a goal for good, or if on the contrary she
but thinks her purpose can change.
tout à fait/simple susie - What I said was quite / plain, I thought.
I was not speaking of an ideal for the whole of
one’s life, I just said you need an ideal to be happy.
roger - Many people accept a state of
malheur/ provisoirement unhappiness / temporarily because they hope to
obtenir secure happiness later on. So 1 don’t think it’s
good to have an ideal, because you won’t
necessarily reach it and you’ll sacrifice today for
tomorrow and never be happy.
complètement/mal compris susie - You thoroughly / misunderstood me. 1
didn’t imagine that an ideal could be and should be
accompli fulfilled. What I mean is that working for an
ideal makes you happy.
égoïste roger - But that’s very selfish, isn’t it, because you
are only thinking of yourself... You consider
souscris you’re happy only if you subscribe to an ideology.
la plupart susie - There’s no contradiction at all, as most
ideologies tend to make you work for and with
other people.
charles - Most, but not all.
ce qui me frappe/cependant stuart - What strikes me,/though, is that most
people are unhappy and simply accept it.
un peu wendy - You’re going a bit far when you say most
people are unhappy, but I think that those who are,
comprennent accept it because they don’t realise how unhappy
they are. They are totally unconscious.
contraire cheryl - The reverse is true too of those who are
happy. When you are happy, you don’t think
of happiness. It’s later, when you are no longer
happy, that you say: “how happy I was in the good
old days...” How can you know you’re happy if
you have never been unhappy?
la fin des fins edward - Anyway, is the be-all and end-all of life
terre on this earth to be happy? Is it a need we naturally
contrainte have, or is it a constraint imposed by society, an
invention of man...
sourire Frances - You make me smile when you imply
“I-don’t-know-if-I’m-happy-because-I-don’t-know-
what-happiness-is”.
réellement/bien-être wendy - Yes, what is happiness actually? Is it’well-
being?
dave - First of all we have to admit that we are less
than nothing on this earth and not try to find
transcendant anything transcendental. Happiness is simply
*
rayon/ soleil the pleasure of feeling a ray of sunshine on your

92
peau skin, the presence of a loved-one, or even being
gratter/bras/démange able to scratch your arm when it itches, as Socrates
autrefois/Platon once remarked to Plato.
il a raison stuari - He’s right. 1 remember an occasion when
privés we had been deprived of sun from October to
June and on the first warm day 1 went down to the
piscine/m'allongeai/t>renals un swimming-pool and lay in the sun and as iVas
bain de soleil/étendu/serviette sunbathing, / stretched out on my towel, 1
baillai /sapristi yawned and thought to myself: “Gosh, that's
happiness for you”.

~ tu as mis le doigt sur l'essentiel CHf-RYi - I think you've hit the nail on the head
there.
wendy - So you’re happy when you get something
you were deprived of before?
stuart - 1 think there’s a danger in what you say.
» dis que/tu désirais ardemment Once you get what you were craving for, you are
not happy any more. You can very soon get
terribly unsatisfied.
chari.es - Your sunbathing example is not very
pertinent/simplement relevant to me. You are merely describing a joy,
and joy is not happiness. Joy is a precise pleasant
état d'esprit moment. Happiness is a state of mind.
mélancolique cheryi. - And what if one is melancholy by nature?
Charles - Your character can simply influence
your being happy or not. It doesn’t determine it.
stuart - Anyway happiness is life. If your life is
hard, you can't possibly be happy.
malade/mort dave - If you’re very ill,/death is the only
prospective happiness.

93
STUART- No» on the contrary, the hope of recovery
is happiness then.
je persiste i penser cheryl -1 still think happiness exists only because
unhappiness does.
Frances - So you are happy when others are
miserable?
roger -1 don’t think that’s at all what she means.
Please correct me if I’m wrong, but I understand
you meant that one can only be happy when one
auparavant has experienced unhappiness beforehand. He who
malade/guérit is sick discovers he is happy when he recovers.
wendy - It has been said before that happiness is
life, but how can you be happy if you live
in an oppressive state? Under a Communist
dictature dictatorship, for instance.
c’est ridicule stuart - That’s rubbish. I believe people who
orientale live in Eastern European countries can be very
happy, even more than we are.
vide dave - But can you be happy on an empty /
estomac stomach?
Frances - I know some very poor people who are
happy.
nourriture Dave - Even if they have no home, no food?
► prétends Frances - I don’t claim that all the poor people are
happy, but I knew an African who was almost
mourait de faim/et cependant starving / and yet, who was happy. It’s not a
question matter of money, but of personality.
edward - If it were a matter of money all the rich
would be happy and everybody knows that a lot of
riches wealthy people are miserable.
stuart - Yes, they have other problems. You
know the Red Indians were said to be happy
because money did not exist among them.
roger - So you mean we are unhappy because we
have money?
malheureux stuart -1 just mean I wouldn’t be unhappy without
money.
libre * sans dave- And I maintain that happiness is to live free
n’importe quoi of problems, whether they be money or whatever.
indigne wendy - That’s undignified for man. It’s the
“happiness” of the animal world. On the contrary,
I think it is psychologically dangerous to live a
sans problèmes problem-free existence. Everyone has problems,
même ■•/► cachés even though they may be tucked away in one’s
subconscient/qui plus est unconscious mind. / Moreover, if you are never
défié challenged by problems, you are never called on
to react and give the best of yourself.
cheryl - You will all say that 1 am repeating the
same argument, but to me it’s quite impossible to
speak of happiness without speaking of
misfortune...
voir vocabulaire p. 84, 86, 96. Sujets complémentaires, voir p. 263.
94
25.A
Some teenagers explain
what will make them choose one job rather than another
Des adolescents expliquent
ce qui les incitera à choisir une profession plutôt qu’une autre

1. You ought to choose a job you really like,


without taking any other consideration into
autrement account, otherwise you will be miserable for the
par conséquent rest of your days. Therefore, simply forget your
» acquis (culturel) social origins, your educational background, even
the money you can make. A job should be enjoyed
for itself.
doué 2. You should choose a job you are gifted for.
Too many people are tempted by several jobs, but
do not always select the one in which they are really
habile/vendeur skilled. Why be a salesman if, for instance, you
informaticien would make a better programmer? In fact it’s a
capacités good thing to have your abilities tested before
going into professional life.
3. The job you choose is not important in itself,
ce qui importe/salaire what matters is the wage. Everyone knows that
revenu your income determines your happiness in life.
You’d better choose a well-paid job.
4. The most important fact to consider when
choosing a job is the future it holds for you. If
la moindre/saturation there is the slightest chance of redundancy, you
deux fois should think twice about it. If the choice depends
entirely on you, why decide to be a sociologist or
acier work in the steel industry, where there is already
chômage/tandis que so much unemployment, / whereas there’s a
manque/mécaniciens/boulangers shortage of electricians, mechanics, / bakers...
même si 5. It’s important to choose a clean job even
*
though it may not be so well-paid. Manual work
will probably be better and better paid, but most
people will keep on considering it as inferior. It’s
employé better to be a white-collar worker, in a bank for
agence immobilière/plombier instance, or in an estate agency, than a plumber.
éboueurs/les mieux payés Even if refuse-collectors were to be the best-paid
workers in the future, this wouldn’t make their
work noble.
éviter 6. A young man or woman should avoid taking
a job which leads him or her to serve commerce or
industry and become a servant of capitalism.

95
Ecological jobs such as farming or forestry work,
are going to become the noble professions in the
future.
7. The most important single fact about choosing
fatigant a job is that it should not be tiring. Life is too short
pour qu’on s’épuise/ ► interminables to wear yourself out for hours on end on an office
bureau/tabouret/incapable/lemps de I stool and be unable to enjoy your *leisure time.
loisirs/professeurs d’Université Perhaps teachers and professors are the luckiest in
les plus chanceux that respect.
seul 8. Working on your own in an office must be
mortel deadly. And even when there are several people
ensemble working together in the same office there can’t be
much variety in the human contact. The best job
is the one that will lead you to meet many other
people.
qui en vaut la peine 9. The only kind of job really worth having is
when you work for a cause or for people. Being a
sténo-dactylo secretary or shorthand typist for a commercial firm
affreusement/ennuyeux is dreadfully / boring, but if you do the same job
for OXFAM or UNO or WHO ( 1) it’s passionately
on se consacre interesting, because you are devoting yourself to
morne/représentant (de commerce) other people. Compare the dreary life of a rep and
assistante sociale the joys of a social worker and you’ll understand
the difference.
10. I find life monotonous in the old country. A
occasion job can be a good opportunity of travelling both in
élargit Europe and round the world. Travel broadens the
l’esprit/à l’étranger mind, and even if you don’t go abroad, travel helps
you forget the routine of life.
Sujets complémentaires, voir p. 263.

Trades - jobs - shops - tools - products


Métiers - professions - boutiques - outils - marchandises

1. Earning one’s living: Gagner sa vie to make one’s own money: travailler à la tâche
Employers and employees: moonlighting (U.S.)/black labour (U.S.)/
Employeurs et employés fiddling: le travail au noir
Unemployment and strikes: *an employer: un patron/un employeur
to be self-employed: travailler à son compte
Chômage et grèves to hire: embaucher
*to make money: faire de l'argent (spéculer) adventurous: audacieux
*to win money: gagner de l’argent (au jeu) resourceful: plein de ressources
*to earn money: gagner de l’argent (salaire...) *industrious: travailleur

(I) OXFAM : Organisme anglais d’aide au Tiers-monde


UNO : ONU
WHO (World Health Organisation) : OMS

96
to ease: faciliter an artist: un artiste peintre
messy: désordre (adj.) a pop singer: un chanteur “pop”
*to fire/
*
to sack: congédier a model: un mannequin
to be made redundant: être mis en chômage
*to lay off: licencier (un employé) 3. Factory workers/unskilled/
♦to be unemployed: être au chômage semi-skilled/and skilled labour:
to be on the dole:
toucher le “chômage” (allocation) Ouvriers d’usine/manœuvres/
to dismiss: démettre (de ses fonctions) O.S./techniciens
to resign: démissionner *a factory worker: un ouvrier d’usine
to quit (U.S.): quitter/démissionner the foreman: le contre-maître
*it’s my day off: c’est mon jour de congé a workshop: un atelier
♦to work part time: travailler à mi-temps *a tool: un outil
a calling: une vocation a machine fitter: un ajusteur
♦a union: un syndicat a metal turner: un tourneur
♦a strike: une grève cast-iron: la fonte
a blackleg: un “jaune” steel: l'acier
a picket: un piquet (de grève) a blast furnace: un haut fourneau
♦the wage: le salaire (d’un ouvrier) to melt: fondre
♦the salary: le salaire (d'un employé) skill: l'habileté
♦an increase: une augmentation ♦a skilled worker: un ouvrier spécialisé
an unskilled worker: un manœuvre
2. White collar workers and a technician: un technicien
a dustman: un balayeur
professionals: Secteur tertiaire et a refuse-collector: un éboueur
professions libérales ♦a painter: un peintre (en bâtiment)
a white collar worker: putty: le mastic
un employé du secteur tertiaire ♦a plumber: un plombier
a shorthand typist: une sténo-dactylo ♦a leakage: une fuite
♦a typewriter: une machine à écrire ♦an electrician: un électricien
♦a civil servant: un fonctionnaire a shortcircuit: un court-circuit
an accountant: un comptable ♦a switch: un interrupteur
a teacher: un professeur (de lycée) a switchboard: un standard
a medical doctor: un médecin ♦a bricklayer/a mason: un maçon
a sociologist: un sociologue a trowel: une truelle
an anthropologist: un anthropologue a paperhanger/an upholsterer: un tapissier
a translator: un traducteur interior decorator: décorateur
to translate: traduire a plumb line: un fil à plomb
an interpreter: un interprète a water level: un niveau à eau
♦an engineer: un ingénieur scaffolding: échaffaudage
a résumé (U.S.): un curriculum-vitae to furnish: meubler
a travel agent: un agent de voyages ♦a mechanic: un mécanicien
a real estate agent: un agent immobilier a screw spanner: une clef anglaise
a show fiat: un appartement modèle ♦it works well: ça marche bien
a prestige apartment:
un appartement de standing 4. Farming and market gardening:
a journalist: un journaliste
a publisher: un éditeur Agriculteurs et maraîchers
a printer: un imprimeur ♦a farmer: un fermier
a salesman: un vendeur/un commis voyageur a farmhand: un ouvrier agricole
an agent: un représentant (de commerce) a scythe: une faux
♦an executive: un cadre supérieur a woodcutter: un bûcheron
♦a manager: un directeur an axe: une hache
a mortician (U.S.): un embaumeur ♦a gardener: un jardinier
an undertaker: un entrepreneur de pompes a nursery garden: une pépinière
funèbres a nursery gardener: un pépiniériste

97
5. Craftsmen: *a waiter/a waitress: un garçon/une serveuse
Artisans a barman/a barmaid: un barman/une barmai
*a publican/an innkeeper: un aubergiste
♦a craftsman: un artisan
an apprentice: un apprenti
a mate: un compagnon
7. Tradesmen and shopkeepers:
*a joiner: un menuisier Fournisseurs et commerçants
a carpenter: un charpentier a retailer: un détaillant
a chisel: un ciseau à bois a wholesale dealer: un grossiste
a plane: un rabot a pastry-cook: un pâtissier
♦to saw: scier a cake shop: une pâtisserie
sawdust: la sciure ♦a baker: un boulanger
chips: des copeaux *an off-licence: une boutique de spiritueux
*to screw: visser a wine-merchant: un marchand de vins
to glue (fast): coller (fort) a brewer: un brasseur
sandpaper: le papier de verre ♦a shopkeeper: un boutiquier
a cabinet maker: un ébéniste *a milkman: un laitier
a shoemaker: un bottier *a grocer: un épicier
a cobbler: un cordonnier *a greengrocer: un marchand de légumes
a cobbler's bench: un établi (de cordonnier) *a butcher: un boucher
*shoe-repairs: cordonnerie a pork-butcher: un charcutier
*shoe-polish: le cirage a fishmonger: un poissonnier
*leather: le cuir to gut a fish: vider un poisson
a blacksmith: un forgeron a bookseller: un libraire
to hammer: marteler *a book-shop: une librairie
an anvil: une enclume a stationer: un papetier
a goldsmith: un orfèvre *stationery: la papeterie
*a watchmaker: un horloger (les fournitures)
*a jeweller: un joaillier *a newsagent/a newsvendor: un marchand
an engraver: un graveur de journaux
a book-binder: un relieur
*a tailor: un tailleur *a laundry: une laverie
*to sew: coudre a dry-cleaner: un teinturier
*a sewing machine: une machine à coudre *dry-cleaning: nettoyage à sec
to hem: faire un ourlet *to iron: repasser
to mend: réparer starch: l'amidon
to darn: raccommoder hosiery: mercerie,
a pin: une épingle an ironmonger: un quincaillier
a needle: une aiguille a ship’s chandler: un marchand d'articles
a thimble: un dé à coudre pour bateaux
*to knit: tricoter hardware: la quincaillerie
*to match colours: marier des couleurs an item: un article (dans une boutique)
a weaver: un tisserand a flower shop: une boutique de fleurs
a loom: un métier à tisser a florist: un fleuriste
a flower show: des floralies
♦a shop-assistant: un vendeur (vendeuse)

6. Hotel keepers/publicans, etc.: 8. Hairdressers:


Hôteliers/cafetiers, etc. Coiffeurs
a hotel keeper: un hôtelier *a hairdresser: un coiffeur
a chambermaid: une femme de chambre a hair-dressing salon/a beauty parlour (U.S.):
a cook: un cuisinier salon de coiffure
a chef: un chef de cuisine to comb: peigner
to brush: brosser
to shave: raser

98
26. C
Boarding schools - co-education
Pensionnats - Mixité

figé d’environ 35 «isAgé (Two friends, Bob in his mid-thirties, and Jirrftn
d’environ 42-43 ans his early forties, are talking of the school system.)

jim - I’ve just finished a book by E.M. Forster in


critique âprement les pensionnats which he bitterly criticizes boarding-schools. As
interne you were a boarder yourself, I’d be interested to
know what you feel several years after...
bob - Well, it’s hard to answer your question. Tm
quite pleased to have experienced the boarding-
school system, although I often criticize it a lot.
principales critiques jim - What are your main criticisms, then?
principalement bob - Oh, they mainly concern the artificial world
which is necessarily created in a boarding-school.
manque jim - Do you mean the lack of contact with reality?
bob - Not exactly. I mean that we were in contact
compter sur with the realities of school, that is, we had tcArely
beaucoup on ourselves a great deal - no parents to tell us what
plutôt to do all the time. No, I mean rather that we were
une vie trop protégée cut off from the world, that we livetftoo sheltered a
life.
jim - A sort of children’s republic in miniature...
bob - Yes, that’s what I mean. There was of course
im large éventail d’âges puisque a wide age range since some very young kids were
boarders like us. But we hardly had any contact
avant tout/peu with them, and above all there were very few adults.
jim - So you mean it was an artificial society.
un peu/âgés bob - Yes. A bit as if you put elderly people all
together - the only problems they discuss are their
own elderly people’s problems. It was the same
with us. Most of the conversations we had were
► entre noue among ourselves - about the things which interested
us.
jim - Didn’t you have any serious conversations
with your teachers?
rarement bob - Oh yes, but too seldom. I don’t think that any
school can replace the cultural and educational
ambiance/quotidien atmosphere of a family. The daily contact and
je veux dire conversation with your parents, I mean.
jim - Of course in a boarding-school, education
» est destinée/peu de place is meant for a group; there’s very little room for the
individual and his problems.
» cependant bob - Precisely. That can be an advantage though,
moins égoïste as you tend to be less selfish, to think in terms of the

99
group and not of the individual. That's what i
liked too. You’re a more independent and
responsible person.
.11 m - Would you recommend a boarding-school
from the academic point of view?
ne pas pouvoir bob- I do think it's a serious handicap not to be able
to have discussions with your parents about the
programme (scolaire) curriculum - I mean about what you learn at
school. Apart from that, you are practically
obligé compelled to work hard in such a school, which
is not allways the c^se in a family.
jim - That’s what I was just thinking of. You seem
to have an idealistic view of the family. But
la vie n’est pas toujours rose in some families life is not always a bed of roses. The
parents can have their own problems, they quarrel,
se querellent there can be all sorts of material and psychological
» perturbent difficulties which disturb the child in his work as
well as in his mental development.
► mieux bob - Certainly. And one is better-off in a good
foyer désuni boarding-school than in a broken home. In fact a
bon nombre/foyers désunis fair proportion of boarders come from split homes,
ajoute which certainly adds to the problem.
jim - Why is that?
bob - Because they have their own problems in their
relations/ne favorise pas relationships with others, and this aoes not favour
une saine a healthy atmosphere. At least at the beginning.
est ressentie (négativement) *
jim - Would you say that the parents’ absence
is
resented?
bob - At the beginning among the younger ones,
la présence de la mère leur manque it is. They miss the presence of the mother and the
warm, loving family atmosphere. After a couple of
ils s’habituent years they get accustomed.
jim - There must be a cold atmosphere in these
schools, emotionally speaking, then.
dans un sens/on grandit bob - In one way, yes. it helps you wherTyou grow
sensible up, though. You’re less sentimental, less sensitive.
blessé You are not easily hurt.
classe/
* à la fois jim - Have you ever been in a form with both
externes boarders and day-boys?
plutôt embêtants bob - Yes, once. The day-boys areea bit of a
nuisance, I’d say.
jim - How’s that?
bob - Well, they don’t realize it, but we’re a bit
► débordants jealous of them. They arrive in the morning,efull
to the brim with their family activities...
amer
jim - And this makes you bitter?
évidemment, nous les internes formons
bob - Not really, but obviously we boarders form a
group of our own. We have secrets we don’t like
partager
the day-boys to share, about our own private life
in school, I mean.
intrus jim - They are intruders in your own world, if 1

100
understand rightly.
► remarque bien non - Il you like. They can be useful, mind you.
When you need something brought in from town,
lor instance.

► enfermé jim - Did you ever feel that you were too confined
prison - as in jail?
non - Sometimes - but rarely. J he time-table is
bien équilibré/&i ne s'ennuie well-organised, well-balanced. / You don’t really
pas vraiment get bored. You might miss your parents, and this
► rancunier makes you resentful for a day or two. The fact that
maussade you simply can’t go out makes you sulky too.
jim - What about your own son or daughter; would
you put them into a boarding-school?
faire face non - Well, as long as I could cope with their
affirmatif problems I'd keep them at home. I’m positive
about that.
jim - If we now consider day schools only, do you
favou r co-ed ucat ion ?

101
je me suis souvent demandé bob - I’ve often wondered about that. In fact the
► s’étendre tendency is for co-education to spread. But what
do you think?
au moins jim - I’m rather in favour of it myself. At least, I
can see more advantages than disadvantages.
bob - What advantages do you find?
frappé jim - Well, I was struck by one of your arguments
s’applique concerning boarding-schools and I think it applies
to co-education too.
bob - Which argument?
jim - That in which you said a boarding-school was
not a well-balanced world.
bob - You mean that an all-boys or an all-girls
déséquilibrée/je suppose? school is unbalanced, /1 take it?
* absolument pas jim - Yes, I can’t for the life of me see any reason
why girls and boys should be educated separately.
bob - Well, you must know the point of view of
Alexis Carrel. He said that co-education was a
mistake, because at the same age boys and girls
moi (psychologique) have a completely different ego.
jim - Yes, I have read something like that, but I
je ne suis pas d’accord disagree. Alexis Carrel wrote a long time ago.
Everything has changed since.
remarqué bob - One thing I’ve noticed, though, is that girls
réfléchies are more mature than boys of the same age.
jim - This is an advantage. The girls will help the
mûrir boys to mature. You also know that girls are more
travailleuses hard-working than boys, so there should be a
rivalité/qui plus est healthy rivalry between the two. Moreover, boys
brise-fer/alentour won’t be so destructive with girls around.
bob - In what way?
effaré jim - I have always been appalled by the state of
boys’ schools. They easily become dirty and
délabrées/on/> absence de soin dilapidated. / You don’t find such neglect in a girls’
mixte school, or in a co-ed school.
bob - But don’t you think that some sexual problems
► se poser/gosses can arise with older kids in a co-ed system?
jim - On the contrary, I think emotional and sexual
problems will arise only if boys and girls are
separated. If they are together a lot of problems
simply disappear and they have a healthier
► façon de voir les choses/complétement approach / altogether.
i tout prix. bob - So you are for co-ed at any cost?
jim - No, not at any cost. I’m absolutely convinced
that it can work only if the children are accustomed
to being together from an early age.
bob - You don’t believe in co-education starting in
les grandes classes the upper forms, for instance?
jim - No, in fact I don’t even call it co-education.
It's a bad mistake, that’s all.

102
I say, what about co-education in boarding-
schools?
bob -1 wouldn't go so far as that... But I don't think
y verraient un inconvénient the boarders would mind, though...
Sujets complémentaires, voir p. 263.

Education
L'éducation

1. Types of schools: to divide: diviser


to reckon: calculer
Les écoles a figure: un chiffre
kindergarten: le jardin d'enfants odd and even numbers: les nombres
an infant school: la maternelle impairs et pairs
an elementary/a primary school: a dictation: une dictée
une école élémentaire/primaire punctuation: la ponctuation
♦a grammar school: un lycée a comma: une virgule
a secondary modem school: un CEG
a colon: deux points
*a comprehensive school: a semi-colon: un point-virgule
une école regroupant CES, CEG, lycée a full-stop/period (U.S.): un point
a technical college: un collège technique chemistry: la chimie
*a public school: une grande école privée physics: la physique
a high school (U.S.): un lycée woodwork: le travail du bois
gym: la gymnastique
2. Staff and pupils: a tug of war: lutte à la corde de traction
Corps professoral et élèves *a period: une leçon (environ 45 mn)
the school board: le conseil d’établissement *the syllabus: le programme (d’un examen)
*the head/the principal: le directeur *a subject: une matière
the deputy-head: le sous-directeur
♦a teacher: un professeur
4. Language teaching:
a junior school teacher: un instituteur L’enseignement des langues
the lab-assistant: la laborantirte the language master: le professeur de langues
a prefect: un préfet (élève chargé de a language lab: un laboratoire de langues
la discipline) *a tape-recorder: un magnétophone
♦a pupil: un élève *a tape: une bande (magnétique)
a student (U.S.): un élève *a cassette: une cassette
*the lower/upper forms: earphones: des écouteurs
les petites/grandes classes a loudspeaker: un haut-parleur
the top form/the 6th form: la terminale a microphone: un micro
a PE teacher: un professeur *a record player: un électrophone
d’éducation physique "records: des disques
mother tongue: une langue maternelle
3. Subjects and teaching methods: she has a good command of English:
Matières et méthodes elle possède bien/elle maîtrise l'anglais
d’enseignement
*to teach: enseigner
5. School equipment:
*to learn: apprendre (élèves) Matériel scolaire
to learn to read: apprendre à lire a test-tube: une éprouvette
*to add up: additionner to rub something out: effacer quelque chose
to subtract: soustraire a duster: un chiffon

103
an eraser/a rubber: une gomme 7. Entrance and examinations:
a pair of compasses: un compas
a rough book: un cahier de brouillon Inscriptions et examens
*a pen: un stylo a grant: une bourse/une allocation d'études
a ruler: une règle a scholarship: une bourse obtenue par
*a biro/a ball-point pen: un stylo à bille concours
*a pencil: un crayon *to register/to enrol: s’inscrire
felt pens: des feutres *the fees: les droits (d'inscription)
crayons: des crayons de couleur *a means/a way: un moyen
a correspondence course: un cours par
correspondance
6. Discipline and standards: *to take an oral exam: passer un oral
Discipline et niveau a competitive exam: un concours
to fall into line: se mettre en rangs to swot: bûcher
to be absent: être absent the rough copy: le brouillon
to play truant: faire l'école buissonnière/ the teacher walks to and fro:
le professeur fait les cent pas
sécher
*to sit for an exam: passer un examen (écrit)
a row: un chahut
*to fail: échouer
a warning: un avertissement *to pass an exam: être reçu
a detention: une colle *to succeed: réussir
a report: un bulletin scolaire to qualify for: être apte à
*mature: mûr/qui a de la maturité praiseworthy: digne d’éloges
immature: qui manque de maturité
a dull pupil: un élève inintelligent
a dummy: un élève nul/un cancre 8. Further education:
to stammer: bégayer Enseignement universitaire
a slip of the tongue: un lapsus a college: un collège/une université
*to overcome: surmonter/vaincre a training-college: une Ecole Normale
*keen: assidu/enthousiaste *a professor: un professeur d’université
resourceful: plein de ressources *to lecture: faire un cours à l’université
self reliant: confiant a lecture: un cours/une conférence
*dejected: découragé a lecturer: un maître-assistant,
*to improve: (s’) améliorer un conférencier
to bully: bizuther/ martyriser a course: un cours (d'un an par ex.)
*to make a mistake: faire une faute *a student: un étudiant
*to be behind: avoir du retard/être an undergraduate: un étudiant non diplômé
en retard dans les études finals: la licence/les derniers examens
to have a backlog: avoir du travail en retard *to graduate: passer sa licence, son diplôme
*lazy: paresseux to read law: faire son droit
to be learned: être érudit a medical student: un étudiant en médecine
a man of all parts: un érudit, medical school (U.S.): la Faculté de Médecin
un homme complet

104
27.A
Traditional education in question
L'enseignement traditionnel en question

FOR TRADITIONAL EDUCATION


1. The role played by the school in a child's
suprême education is paramount. A school, and more
especially a boarding school, is a world in itself;
se comporter it is the place where children learn how to behave
in society. They have to assume responsibilities,
comportement and their reactions and behaviour prepare them
en bref for adult life. In short, school teaches children to
be sociable.
2. Only if the instruction is of good quality will
la suppression education be profitable. That is why*
he doing
erreur away of Latin and Greek is a mistake. People who
have learnt these two languages are not only more
cultured but also more intelligent than the others.
3. It’s a good thing that there should still be some
enseignement traditionnel kind of academic teaching in our schools. When
you have studied the great classics, you are well
vaut prepared for life. A knowledge of the classics
*is
worth several years experience of life.
convenable 4. A proper education should also teach you
enough foreign languages to be able to appreciate
foreign literature and compare it to the literature of
your own country.
» donne 5. An academic method of teaching also provides
a good knowledge of grammar. Students should
be able to speak very correctly and be able to write
in a choice style. This will be an extraordinary
avantage asset for them in life.

AGAINST TRADITIONAL EDUCATION


supprimer l’école/une nécessité 1. Deschooling our society has become a “must”.
School, and more especially an academic
utilité education, is no longer any use to anyone. The
est ce qui importe experience one can have of life itself*is what
matters. What is the good of learning classical
incapable/être sociable languages and being unable / to socialize? If a child
inintelligent/les langues mortes is naturally dull, / dead languages won’t make him
intelligent. He will simply be a dull child who
le Grec knows Latin and Greek.

105
absurde 2. It's nonsense to keep young people in school
up to the age of at least sixteen, then send them to
entreprendre university and expect them to undertake a
vie active responsible job in professional life without having
any direct experience of the outside world.
Every student should spend some time doing
travail de bureau/agricoie/à l’usine office work, / farming or factory work to have
some experience of different activities. This type
of experience will bring them a lot more than
instruction schooling and books.
quant à 3. As for foreign languages, they are of interest
only if they facilitate contacts between different
principal/but peoples. The main / purpose of learning a
language is not to be able to read literary works or
translate them, but to be able to communicate and
donc to understand another way of life. Therefore
language teaching as it is provided in schools,
démodé based on textual commentaries, is out of date. If
you try hard enough you can learn a language in a
few weeks.
bûcher 4. Why spend long hours at school swotting up
on great literary masterpieces which you cannot
pleinement/manque possibly appreciate fully because of your lack of
se révélera ennuyeuse experience? Studying passion in Shakespeareawill
tâche/à moins que prove a boring / task / unless you have
experienced passion yourself. It would be more
judicious to let students discover the classics
themselves at an older age and spend more time
on sport and concrete activities while at school.
beaucoup/insistance/
* est mise 5. In schools a good deal of emphasis/is laid
langage on good style and correct speech. The result is
that many students speak a language which seems
maniérée affected to a lot of people. Who decides that some
expressions are not correct, if a majority of people
use them? A language evolves all the time and this
tendance/ autrement is a normal trend, / otherwise we would still be
moyen âge speaking as we did in the Middle Ages. School
s’efforce teaching is too conservative and endeavours to put
échoue a halt to the evolution of a language. But it fails
simple/perte and is thus a sheer/waste of time.

voir vocabulaire p. 103. Sujets complémentaires, voir p. 263.

106
s 28.A
How would students like to learn foreign languages?
Comment les étudiants aimeraient-ils apprendre les langues étrangères?

moyen 1. The best way is to spend six weeks in a place


where you follow an intensive course in the
language, and are forced to speak the language you
are trying to learn. Some people say it takes years
to learn a language, but if you simply want to speak
it, six weeks are enough, as Ivan Iilitch proved
in his experimental school in Mexico.
enregistrements 2. The only thing to do is listen to tape-recordings
and repeat them, trying to imitate the accent and
intonation. Of course you may not understand all
acquérir that you are repeating, but how can you acquire a
autrement good accent otherwise?
démodé 3. This may seem old-fashioned, but I think that
traduisant it’s only by studying literary texts and translating
maîtrise them that you can acquire a good command of a
démodé language. It’s out of date to translate nowadays,
but how will you be able to translate a letter when
you are asked by your boss? And what poor
language you will speak if you do not try to imitate
d’origine native authors.
4. What is being done at school is of little or no
pays interest. It’s only when you go to the country
vous vous frottez itself that you come to grips with the realities of
par exemple life. For instance, during a foreign language class
racisme in France, you may speak of racialism in the
Midlands. But if you live in Clermont Ferrand,
the problems of the Midlands don’t mean anything
d’un autre côté/sur place to you. On the other hand, when you are *on the
spot you are more ready to speak of the problems
faire face which local people face every day.
A l’étranger 5. Going abroad a month every year helps, but
it isn’t enough. The solution is to go for a full year
une foie pour toutes/bien sûr once and for all /. Of course you will get a better
connaissance de base start if you have some kind of *
background
knowledge in the language, but in the end you’ll
quel que soit be able to speak like a native, or almost, whatever
niveau your, level when you arrived.
6. We should use audio-visual methods. They
légèrement seem to be slightly out of date nowadays, perhaps

107
because the material is very expensive and progress
seems slow. But no one speaks better than those
who learnt a language by these methods.
7. Before trying to speak a language, you must
first learn the grammar. Many people simply
► moderne forget about that. It does not seem very up-to-date
to use the right grammatical terms and many
■> valeur grammaticale students don’t know what part of speech the words
► dommage they are using are. I think it’s a great pity.
8. The question of how best to learn foreign
ridicule languages (in the plural) is a silly one. It ought to
quel que soit l'endroit be “how to learn English”. Wherever you go in this
on est forcé world you are bound to find someone who speaks
» prendre la peine English. If you are English-speaking, why bother
to learn other languages? If you are not, the best
way of learning English will probably be, well,
a good dose of all that has been suggested above.
voir vocabulaire p. 103. Sujets complémentaires, voir p. 263.

29.C
National service and the Army
Le service militaire et l’armée

ancien combattant de 14/18 (A conversation between Arthur, a World War I


cadre/l’épouse de ce dernier veteran, Peter a young executive, Celia, * the
latter’s wife, who are all on holiday in France, and
Jacques a French friend of theirs, who has just
appelé (sous les drapeaux) been called up.)

tu pars Arthur - So you’re off to the army! You must be


fier/> repose very proud that your country’s future lies in your
hands...
pas tellement emballé jacques - I’m not all that keen on going, you
know...
Arthur - Come on, young man, in twenty years’
time you’ll remember it as the best time of your life.
je ne veux pas me mêler (de vos affaires) peter - As an Englishman, I don’t want to interfere
vous décourager and put you off, but when I did my National
Service I felt exactly the same as you.
tu as changé d’avis celia - But, Peter, you changed your mind after,
didn’t you?
a fai haï peter - No, I’m afraid I never did. I hated every
seule (► la moindre) single minute of it.
Arthur - Oh, the British army you served can’t
be quite like the one I knew then. I’ll tell you what

108
(que) nous étions sous les drapeaux we did the last day *
we were serving with the
un garçon/un simple soldat colours. There was a fellow, an ordinary private
like us, who was a heavy sleeper - well we took his
couchette/la cour bunk down into the courtyard and put it near the
mât/l’avons bien bordé mast. We tucked him nicely up. You can imagine
caserne his surprise and that of all the barracks when he
clairon was woken up by the sound of the bugle a couple
of hours later. I’ve never laughed so much in all my
life!
jacques - This is what 1 fear, in fact, all these
farces practical jokes and humiliations. Did you
experience many, Peter?
peter - No, none at all, but the feeling 1 remember
* un indicible ennui is one of utter boredom.
jacques - Didn’t you have anything to do?
peter - Well, not much when you think of it. In
» tellement peur fact that’s the problem. You’re so concerned you
* une corvée might be given a duty you hate, that you make the
effectivement/durer one you’re actually doing last as long as possible.
fossé I remember having to clean out a ditch. At normal
vitesse speed it was an hour’s work. It took me a full day.
Arthur - But you weren’t enthusiastic enough,
that’s all!
peter - No, I don’t think it was as simple as that.
essayaient de ne rien faire Everybody was the same. In fact most people
*
were
gâchez trying not to do anything. So you waste most of
» à éviter your energy avoiding work and killing time.
jacques - What do you do then?
ridicules peter - All sorts of silly things - You play cards,
» lamentables (argot) listen to lousy programmes on the radio, smoke,
histoires salaces/des tas d’âneries tell dirty jokes, you read piles of rubbish in the
presse à sensation gutter press, you drink too. In short, a hard­
type/paresseux working chap ends up lazy, a non-smoker ends up
~ qui ne boit pas d’alcool smoking and a teetotaller ends up drinking...
amer celia - Come on, Peter, you’re bitter because you
tu as terminé/soldat de lre classe ended up a lance corporal instead of a
officier (breveté) commissioned officer.
visé/grade peter - Not at all, I never aimed at any rank. In fact
► suivre le peloton I even refused to train to become a sergeant.
néanmoins Arthur - Nonetheless, I can’t let you tell all these
mensonges/recrue/fais-moi confiance lies in front of a French army recruit. / Trust me,
Jacques, you’ll enjoy it.
peter - I’ve not been telling any lies, I’m afraid.
celia - Well, it was a long time ago in any case, and
in the British army things are not the same as here.
jacques - Do you think that the French army is
very different from the English army, and I’m
going to waste a year of my life?
» devoir Arthur - No, you’re doing your duty, that’s all.
gagner (sa vie) jacques - But I won’t be earning much and I’ve a

109
► entretenir/qui plus est wife and child to support. / What’s more, I’m
going to lose my qualifications.
Arthur - Not in the least. On the contrary you’ll
learn many things you don’t know. Some privates
acquièrent/très haute acquire a highly technical qualification in the
army.
» cependant peter - They’re a minority, though.
Arthur - Honestly, Peter, I can’t understand why
rouspètes you grumble about the army. There are a few
je te l’accorde disadvantages, I’ll grant you that, but there are so
many advantages.
peter - Such as?
Arthur - To start with, you learn to obey, which is
good for your character, then you do something
you’ve never done, which is military training and
passionnant it’s really thrilling. You also do a lot of sport and
maintiens other activities. And I also maintain that you can
acquire a professional qualification. I’ve even seen
chaps who couldn’t read or write and who learnt
to read and write in the army, others who learnt
nager to swim, to drive...
merveilleuse jacques - So it’s a wonderful experience?
désavantages Arthur - Well, of course there are some drawbacks.
monter la garde I never liked to be on guard duty for instance, or to
défilé train for hours for an hour’s parade, but it’s also
tous les milieux a very democratic corps where chaps from *
all
walks of life meet. It’s perhaps the only time that
coudoie the middle class rubs shoulders with the working
class.
nivellement celia - But it’s a kind of levelling-off from the
tandis que base whereas it should be the contrary.
ouvrier d’usine Arthur - There’s no reason why a young factory­
besoin/études plus poussées worker should not feel the urge for further study
copains through talking to his intellectual pals. That
► assez happens quite often.
peter - You know as well as I do that intellectuals
are not very popular in the army and, as they’re a
minority, they’re generally elected room leaders
tenir tête because they can face up to the lieutenant or the
captain and write other people’s letters. The
plus loin contact doesn’t go beyond that.
celia - You’re exaggerating as usual.
jacques - But why is it that National Service is not
reserved for volunteers? e
évidente/mon gars/tout d’abord Arthur - The answer is obvious,/my lad./To
start with, experience has shown that people who
volunteer are not highly qualified in general. The
ingénieurs army, on the contrary, needs young engineers,
ainsi/privée (de) teachers, scientists and would therefore be deprived
service militaire (obligatoire) of them if there were no conscription.

110
Celia - There hasn’t been any conscription in
Britain for many years and I don’t think the
pire British army is any the worse, at least no worse
than the French army.
Arthur - You can’t make comparisons between
France and England. Anyway, the second reason
» remonte is that it’s a French tradition which dates back
to the Revolution, that every man should serve
* période in the army for a certain length of time.

affirment/qu’ils préféreraient peter - But many officers claim they’d rather


plus enthousiastes command volunteers who would be keener than the
appelé ordinary conscript.
Jacques - I know that the danger of having an
augmenterait army coup would increase in that case.
peter - I’ve always wondered why the army should
renverser be tempted to topple a civilian government and
prendre le pouvoir seize power. They don’t have the qualifications
» nécessaires required.
a j’admets/se mêler celia - I agree that the army should not interfere
► refuser in politics, but you can’t deny officers the right
» intelligents to be as clever as some politicians.
de toute façon Jacques - Anyway, I don’t see why there should
démodé be any army now. It’s a completely outdated
concept.
Arthur - Don’t you want to protect your country
envahisseur from an invader?
» c’est bien le problème Jacques - There’s the rub, one’s country has to be

111
defended, but usually the army is trained to attack,
not to defend.
subtilité Arthur - That’s the subtlety of a pacifist. Just
imagine what would happen if there were no more
armies in Europe.
selon peter - But according to an article I read, the
army is not very efficient as far as its conscripts
» l'état major/compte (pas) sur are concerned. The staff don’t rely on them. They
armes rely rather on nuclear weapons.
Arthur - This might be right in the world which
unfortunately is ours, but it does not necessarily
condemn the principle of a national army. My
osera jamais personal conviction is that no one will ever dare
bombe atomique use the A-Bomb. Therefore, if there is a war, the
éventue1 would-be invader will use conventional weapons,
canons/ mitrailleuses tanks, guns, / machine-guns, etc. So we must be
ready to welcome him decently.
» Comment penses-tu jacques - But how do you expect to suppress the
l'idée même/munitions very idea of war if you keep armies and ammunition
all round the world? Disarmament has to be
started by one nation, the others will follow.
*pure celia - That’s sheer Utopia. The nation which
would have disarmed first would be too easy a
proie/guerre prey for the others. War is so much part of human
la course aux armements nature, you know. There will always be *an arms
race.
‘jusqu'à ce qu’ils fassent sauter jacques -... Until they blow up the whole planet...
toute la planète/cela m'est égal peter - Well, I don’t care, as long as it’s not in my
à bientôt life-time. See you soon... I hope.
Sujets complémentaires, voir p. 263.

War and the army


La guerre et l’armée

1. In days gone by: Autrefois


2. Men, ranks and services:
a coat of mail: une cotte de mailles Les hommes, les grades,
*a bow: un arc
*an arrow: une flèche les armes et services
a cross-bow: une arbalète the War Office: le ministère de la guerre
*a sword: une épée the War Secretary: le ministre de la guerre
a sabre: un sabre the staff college: l'école de guerre
a sheath: un fourreau the general staff: l'état-major
a cannon ball: un boulet de canon a commission: un brevet (d'officier)
the slits: les meurtrières the discharge: la libération/la fin du temps
*a stronghold: une forteresse dans l’armée
warlike: belliqueux to be called up: être appelé
troublesome: turbulent the army personnel: les hommes
a hand to hand fight: un combat corps à corps a foot soldier: un fantassin

112
a rifleman: un chasseur à pied it fires 300 rounds a minute:
a trooper: un cavalier elle tire 300 coups à la minute
a paratrooper: un parachutiste the trigger: la gâchette
a parachutist: parachutiste (sportif) the butt: la crosse
a sniper: un tireur caché the muzzle: la bouche (d'un canon)
*a guerilla: un guérillero a handgrenade: une grenade à main
*guerilla-warfare: la guerilla *shooting: le tir
a sentry: une sentinelle the rifle range: le stand de tir
*a scout: un éclaireur *a target: une cible
a gunner: un canonnier the kick: le recul
*the intelligence service: a mortar: un mortier
le service de renseignements *a shell: un obus
*a spy: un espion *a rocket: une fusée
an army corps: un corps d'armée a flare: une fusée éclairante
*to be fit for service: être bon pour le service *an armoured car: un blindé
*a rank: un grade *a tank: un char
a field-marshal: un maréchal a caterpillar track: une chenillette
a general: un général bullet-proof: pare-balles
a colonel: un colonel a mine: une mine
a lieutenant colonel: un lieutenant-colonel
a major: un commandant 4. In peace time:
a captain: un capitaine
a lieutenant: un lieutenant En temps de paix
a sub-lieutenant: un sous-lieutenant *the flag: le drapeau
an adjutant: un officier ( ~ capitaine) to hoist/to lower the flag:
an NCO: un sous-officier hisser/descendre les couleurs
1st W.O .: un adjudant-chef half-mast: en berne
2nd W.O.: un adjudant a parade: un défilé
a sergeant: un sergent *a brass band: une fanfare
a lance corporal: un lerc classe a bugle: un clairon
a private: un soldat *a drum: un tambour
the paymaster: l'officier payeur a garrison: une garnison
a badge: un insigne the barracks: la caserne
a stripe: un galon the billets: le logement chez l'habitant
a ranker: un officier sorti du rang a drill: un exercice
the rank and file: to fall in: former les rangs
les simples soldats (+ caporaux) *a leave: une permission

3. Weapons and equipment: 5. In war time:


Armes et équipements En temps de guerre
*a helmet: un casque *to invade: envahir
a mug: un quart to endure: résister/supporter
*the ammunition: les munitions *to stand: supporter Xto support: entretenir
*a weapon: une arme a hireling: un mercenaire
a bayonet: une baïonnette *hatred: la haine
*a gun: un canon/un fusil to hate: haïr
a gun-rack: un râtelier (à fusils) to supply: approvisionner
*a rifle: un fusil he received the full force of a shotgun blast:
a carbine: une carabine il reçut la décharge de plein fouet
a barrel: un canon (de fusil) to besiege: assiéger
to load a gun: charger un fusil a siege: un siège
a jammed gun: un fusil enrayé *to bomb: bombarder (d’un avion)
a cartridge: une cartouche *to shell: bombarder (à l’aide d’obus)
a bullet: une balle wreckage/debris: débris (d'un avion)/
*a machine-gun: une mitrailleuse décombres
*a sub-machine gun: une mitraillette the rear guard: l'arrière-garde

113
a trench: une tranchée to shoot down: abattre (un avion)
entrenched: retranché AA fire/the flack: la DCA
a ceasefire: un cessez-le-feu a blockade: un blocus
a curfew: un couvre-feu an airlift: un pont aérien
a civil war: une guerre civile kit: un équipement
*to collapse: s'effondrer
to surrender: se rendre 8. The senior service:
*to plunder/to loot: piller La marine de guerre
*to blow up a bridge: faire sauter un pont
*to burst out: éclater the Senior service/the Navy: la marine de
*to explode: exploser guerre (la royale)
*the fallout: les retombées atomiques a battleship: un cuirassé
a fallout shelter: un abri anti-atomique *a fleet: une flotte
*an admirai: un amiral
6. Casualties: a vice admirai: un vice-amiral
Les pertes a rear admiral: un contre-amiral
a commodore: un capitaine de vaisseau
a military surgeon: un médecin militaire a midshipman: un aspirant
*to be wounded: être blessé *a man-of-war: un navire de guerre
to be maimed: être mutilé a flagship: un vaisseau amiral
the army chaplain: l'aumônier *a submarine: un sous-marin
to be killed in action: a U-boat: un sous-marin allemand
tomber au champ d’honneur a torpedo: une torpille
*casualties: les pertes an aircraft carrier: un porte-avion
a plaque: une plaque commémorative
a cenotaph: un monument aux morts

7. The air force:


L’armée de fair
*the Air Force: l’aviation/l’armée de l’air
to break the sound barrier:
crever le mur du son

30.
A
The bomb
La bombe

pour FOR
1. The A-Bomb put an end to World War II
» largué earlier than expected. If the USA had not dropped
A-Bombs on Hiroshima and Nagasaki, the Japanese
faire la guerre would have gone on waging war with conventional
means for many more months and with many more
victims on both sides. Also the thousands of
British civilians detained in Japanese camps would
mauvais traitement/falm probably have died of ill-treatment and hunger.

114
2. It is because several countries, and not only
the greatest, possess H-Bombs, that we have
période enjoyed an era of relative peace since the last war.
homme d’Etat/osé No statesman has so far dared to take the risk of
starting off a new nuclear world war which might
complètement utterly destroy his country, although the reasons
for conflict have been numerous.
3. It is quite impossible for the countries which
y renoncer have atomic armaments to give them up, for there
will always be at least one power refusing to follow
pur et simple the others. It would be sheer political suicide for a
nation to renounce its nuclear armaments.
complètement/vérifier There is no possible way of thoroughly / checking
disarmament. No one can be one hundred per cent
► arme/dissimulé sure that an atomic device has not been-concealed
in some way or other.
4. Even if every nation possessing atomic
armes/s’en débarrasser weapons decided to get rid of them, it would be
impossible to destroy the existing stocks of nuclear
mettre en danger/espèce weapons without endangering the human species.

contre AGAINST
honteuse/que ce soit 1. The bomb is a disgraceful thing. Whether it
be an A or an H Bomb, it can kill off hundreds of
thousands of human beings at a time. Such a
moyen/interdit means of destruction should be banned, just as the
arbalète Church banned the crossbow in the Middle Ages.
2. Not only does the Bomb kill off many people
at a time and destroy whole built-up areas, but the
effets secondaires side-effects are terrible, too. There are still people
dying of cancer caused by radiation at Hiroshima.
soi-disant How can so-called civilized countries retain such
barbaric inventions?
3. It is said that nuclear weapons have prevented
néanmoins a major international conflict, but nonetheless war
éliminée at large has not been done away with. There have
beaucoup been lots of minor conflicts and civil wars, such as
Vietnam, Bangladesh, Biafra, Sudan, in which
millions of people have died. In fact, the Bomb
empêché has only prevented wars in industrialized countries.
Is it normal that so many people should.live in the
angoisse anxiety of a possible nuclear war? All men, in all
craint ages, have always feared their own death, but in the
twentieth century we all fear an atomic war which
would destroy life on our planet.

115
4. A good number of smaller states have nuclear
ils ne veulent pas devices now, which is only normal, as^hey are
unwilling to be dictated to by the so-called great
► puissances powers. But the danger of starting a nuclear war
ainsi/augmenté/>croire has thus / increased. How can we trust all the
statesmen who now have the power to start an
atomic conflict in their hands? How can we be sure
fou there is not a madman among them, who would
one day dare to place his hand on the nuclear
button?

voir vocabulaire p. 112. Sujets complémentaires, voir p. 263.

31.C
The tragedy of Northern Ireland
La tragédie de l’Irlande du Nord

(Dennis, an Englishman, and Hank, an American


friend of his, who both live in Paris, are discussing
the situation in Ireland.)

je parie hank - Well, Dennis, I bet you know more about


Ireland than anyone I know.
espèce de flatteur Dennis - You flatterer... I've only spent three weeks
là-bas over there recently.
sur place h -That’s what I mean. You’ve been on the spot, /
par conséquent therefore you could perhaps explain what all this
► tapage fuss over Ulster is about.
tu n'as pas saisi d. - You’ve got it wrong. I’ve never been to Ulster.
I spent all my holidays in the South, in the
Republic.
*je ne suis pas stupide au point h. - Thank goodness I’m not so stupid as not to
de ne pas savoir know that Ireland is separated into two parts - the
Republic in the South and Ulster in the North,
le pays tout entier which is a British province. But the whole country
en guerre is at war - isn't it?
relativement d. - Not at all - the Republic is fairly quiet. Of
course, there are a few incidents from time to
principalement time, mostly caused by the l.R.A.
que signifie (le sigle) l.R.A.? h. - What does l.R.A. stand -for?
d. - It means the “Irish Republican Army”. It’s a
secret organization which operates in the North.
qu’ils prétendent They have less popular support than they claim in
*ib font exploser une the South, so from time to time *
they explode a
bombe pour rappeler bomb to remind the Irish of the Republic that they
still exist.

116
h. - You say they have little support in the South,
si mes souvenirs sont exacts/doit but if 1 remember rightly, Ireland owes its
independence to this secret army.
D. - Oh, if you go back as far as the 1920’s you’re
probably right. In fact when the l.R.A. occupied
the centre of Dublin, the capital of Ireland, in
1916, they were almost unknown to the public and
► étaient d’accord few people sympathised with them.
la plupart h. - Why is it that most of the Irish followed them a
few years later then!
d. - Mainly because of the English. The repression
impitoyable of the 1916 movement was so cruel, so ruthless,
that the l.R.A. leaders became national martyrs
lutte and their struggle for the liberation of Ireland
became everyone’s struggle.
jusqu'à maintenant h. - Up to now I follow you very well. Ireland had
been occupied by the English for many years and
the Irish who were Celts and Catholics wanted
se débarrasser/propriétaires (terriens) to get rid of their English Protestant landlords.
épine d. - That’s it - and Ireland had always been a thorn
chair (une épine au pied) in the flesh of England. There had been many
dès le Moyen Age revolts, even way back in the Middle Ages, and the
pour movement in favour of Irish independence had
un stade critique reached an acute stage at the end of the nineteenth
century.
h. - So the l.R.A. was a nationalist movement like
those of the nineteenth century.
ils réussirent d. - Precisely. But unlike the others they succeeded
et gagnèrent (obtinrent) la liberté and won freedom for their country.
h. - What about Ulster, then? Why is it that the
whole Island did not become independent in 1923?
principalement d. - Mainly because there was (and still is) an
important Protestant Community in the North.
These Protestants had come from England and
Scotland one or two centuries before and
considered Ulster as their own country.
se rattacher à h. - So they refused to join in the Free State?
d. - Yes - Their slogan was “not an inch” - meaning
that they would not accept any compromise. This
encore attitude led to the partition which still exists now.
h. - What about the present-day troubles then? If
the South is Catholic and the North Protestant,
everybody should be living happily on their own
frontière side of the border.
d. - It’s not quite so simple. To start with many
Southern Irish think that Ireland should be united,
un assez grand nombre but the main problem is that there are quite a few
Catholics who live in the North.
h. - What percentage?
i peu près/ce chiffre augmente d. - Roughly 40% and this figure is increasing. In
fact what is now called “Ulster” is not really

117
se séparer “Ulster”. In 1923 the Protestants decidecAo part
from three counties in the Province of Ulster
because otherwise there would have been a
majority of Catholics living in Ulster.
h. - So what we call “Northern Ireland” is “Ulster”
moins minus three counties.
d. - Exactly - and the origin of the drama is that the
Protestants of the North treated the Catholic
sévèrement minority very harshly.
h. - Can you give me a few examples?
large d. - Well, for instance, Northern Ireland had a wide
autonomy. There was a government with its own
Prime Minister in Belfast, the capital of the North,
une Chambre des députés and a Parliament with a Senate and a
* Lower
députés House and also twelve MP’s, who were sent to the
English Parliament at Westminster.
h. - I can’t see anything wrong in one and a half
million people enjoying a wide autonomy.
Avaient d. - It would have been all right if the Catholics had
bénéficié des mêmes droits enjoyed the same rights as the Protestants, but they
hardly had the right to vote, as one had to be a
propriétaire (d’une maison) pour property-owner to qualify to vote.
avoir le droit h. - And the Catholics represented the poorer part
of the population, I suppose. But why do you keep
le passé (tense : temps) using the past tense?
d. - Oh - because the constitution, which was an
anachronism in the second half of the twentieth
century, was suspended a few years after the civil
war started. Now the province is administered
directly from London.
h. - When did the civil war start?
d. - Well, I remember that as early as 1966 there was
tension in Belfast; the Catholics wanted to
soulèvement commemorate the 1916 uprising in Dublin and
d’autre part on the other hand the Protestants and their Orange
loges lodges provoked them in their own districts, for
ségrégation par l’habitat there is nearly complete housing segregation there.
complètement But to answer your question more thoroughly, we
can date the beginning of the present-day troubles
to 1969.
véritable h. - Was it the actual beginning of an armed
resistance on the part of the Catholics?
d. - No, not at all. The Catholics wanted a lot of
manifestèrent reforms and demonstrated on the theme “one
man one vote”.
h. - And as the reforms did not come quickly
enough, the old I.R.A. reorganized itself?
se sépara en d. - Yes, more or less. In fact the I.R.A. split into
two groups - the “Provisionals” and the “Officials”
ceux-lè/ceux-ci - the former being much more violent than’the
firent entrer des armes en contrebande latter. The “provos”, as they are called Smuggled

118
in arms from the USA and other countries and
started a series of criminal outrages.
► exploser h. - That's the time when bombs started going off
everywhere.
d. - Yes, and soon after the arrival of the British
tireurs embusqués troops the l.R.A. snipers turned on the English
leur principale cible soldiers as their main target. Several hundreds
blessés have been killed and many more wounded.
h. - Have you any idea what the atmosphere is like
up there?

assez mauvaise d. - From what I’ve heard, it's pretty bad. In


Belfast armed soldiers can be seen everywhere.
murées/barbelés Streets are walled up, or barred by barbed wire
to separate the two communities. Ruins can be
des coups de feu seen everywhere and sometimes shots can be heard
mitraillette in the night, answered by sub-machine gun and
mitrailleuse even machine gun fire.
couvre-feu h. - Is there a curfew?
pas que je sache d. - Not that I know of, which doesn’t mean that
se sentent assez en sécurité people feel secure enough to go out at night, or
even during the day.
h. - Are there any extremes such as torture or
procès imprisonment without trial?
meurtres D. - Oh yes, of course - and also daily murders and
counter-terrorism on the part of some Protestant
organizations. Hundreds of people have been killed
since 1969.
h. - What does the man in the street think of the
situation?
sincèrement désirent d. - I think that most people genuinely crave for
peace. Catholic and Protestant women have
scandé demonstrated together recently and chanted peace

119
slogans. But at the same time the Catholics are
soi-disant always ready to answer the so-called army
(participer à une) émeute provocations and riot in the street.
h. - Are they real provocations?
d. - Not always, but when one is living in such a
violent climate one is always ready to throw bricks
~ C.R.S. or Molotov cocktails at the army or riot police.
dispersent les émeutiers à coups h. - Do the riot police club away the rioters?
de matraques/» risqué d. - Oh - no, that would be too hazardous on their
~ C.R.S. portant des casques d’acier part. In fact you don’t see the *
steel-helmeted
matraques/gaz lacrymogènes riot-police so often these days. Truncheons, /Tear
canons à eau gas and water guns are not sufficient any longer.
disperse les émeutiers h. - Who breaks up the riots, then?
des automitrailleuses légères d. - Mainly the army. They sencTlight-armoured
tirent des balles de caoutchouc/à bout *
point
cars which fire rubber bullets, sometimes
portant blank.
horrible h. - What an awful life! When I think that some
children have only known violence since they were
en vue born. Is there any solution in sight?
pas vraiment, j’en ai bien peur d. - Not really, I’m afraid. I’ve often thought an
accord agreement could be reached, but always in vain.
h. - Is the Republic trying to do something?
d. - Certainly, but the Dublin Government can’t do
empêcher la vague much; they’re too busy trying to prevent the wave
s’étendre of violence from spreading to the South and thank
jusqu’à maintenant goodness they’ve succeeded so far.

voir vocabulaire p. 112. Sujets complémentaires, voir p. 263.

32.
A
Nuclear energy
L’énergie nucléaire

pour FOR
pétrole/pénurie 1. There is an oil / shortage. This means that if
fournir oil-producing countries continue to supply the
puits growing demand, their wells will have run dry
dans moins within the next twenty years or so. That is why
pétrole brut the cost of a barrel of crude oil can only increase.
Other sources of energy have to be found. The
en voie de raréfaction/combustibles only one which can replace dwindling fossil fuels
(oil, gas, coal) is nuclear energy.
époque 2. We are living in an industrial era in which the
on recule rules are such that if you do not grow, you recede.

120
croissance/assurée How can growth be secured without energy to
faire marcher/usines/production run / plants? Or even to keep the output at its
niveau present level? Nuclear energy can help the passage
from fossil fuels to other sources of energy, such
coûteuse as solar energy, which is less costly. Also the
centrales nucléaires building of nuclear power plants will provide work
for thousands of people, which is always
appreciated in a time of recession.
visent 3. Nuclear power plants only aim at producing
principale electricity, which is the main form of energy
usines consumed by factories. This electricity is much
cheaper than that produced by oil power plants.
4. As we have begun to realise, it was a great
se fier mistake to rely too much on fossil fuels, and
especially on oil, whose quantities are limited. One
might object that the uranium needed in nuclear
manquera aussi reactors will also be lacking one day, but with the
répandue new technique of breeder reactors, widespread in
surtout/pertinent France mainly, this argument is not relevant, as
surgénérateur the breeder reactor produces more fuel than it
au départ consumes. At the outset you need uranium 235,
which is very rare, but fast-reacting neutrons
relfichés/fission released by the splitting of uranium 235 are used to
convert it into plutonium.
activistes écologistes 5. Eco-activists do not seem to realise that
nuclear energy is much cleaner than most other
charbon sources of energy. Coal and oil power plants
vapeurs released smoke and fumes, which polluted the
atmosphere. Before nuclear energy permitted
cheaper electricity, people burned coal in their
poêles/âtres stoves and hearths, which constituted a fantastic
source of pollution.

contre AGAINST
Commissariat à l’énergie atomique 1. One question which the Nuclear Power Board
never wants to answer is: what will they do with
déchets/entreposeront-ils radio-active nuclear waste? Where will they store
les jeter it? Dumping it into the sea, as is often done, is a
crime against the environment. Various tests
fosses made on containers dumped into deep sea pits
crevasses thirty years ago have shown that cracks had
container en béton/acier appeared in the concrete shell round the steel
ainsi containers, thus exposing them to corrosion. And
what will be made out of the plutonium produced
in large quantities by the breeder reactors? This
armes plutonium can best be used in nuclear weapons. All
this is not very reassuring!

121
ingénieurs 2. Nuclear engineers claim that all precautions
have been taken, but what if something unexpected
retombées were to happen? The aftermath of a nuclear
pires accident would be much worse than with ordinary
on coal or oil plants. When one learns that in France,
for instance, the Phénix reactor is submerged in a
au-dessus du sol container of liquid sodium above ground, /
tandis que/en dessous whereas in other countries it is below ground,
on a raison one is right to worry, even if engineers give
convincing reasons for the above-ground
technique. It is said that in a small experimental
centrale/fuite plant in the Soviet Union a leakage in the
robinefterie/amena/» retomber sur plumbing / led to the sodium showering the
alentour nearby countryside.
3. Why invest so much money in nuclear plants,
le moindre which frighten everyone because the slightest
defect would lead to a national catastrophe? Why
not invest more in solar energy, and wind energy,
or build more hydro-electric plants? If all the
chutes d’eau/torrents smaller waterfalls and mountain streams were
maîtrisés harnessed, the proportion of hydro-electricity
would prôbably double from 6% to 12%. Why not
» économiser try to conserve more energy too, and spend more
isoler money on insulating houses?
4. The consequences of nuclear plant accidents
on the local environment are really to be feared,
not to mention the possibility of a radiation
leakage. But one condition of the installation of a
nuclear plant is that it needs enormous quantities
refroidissement of water, which is used as a cooling agent. This
tirée water is drawn from rivers and then pumped back
change again, but at a higher temperature. This alters
radically the equilibrium of the river and tends
exterminer/à l’intérieur to kill off life within it.
5. Nuclear energy is said to be able to save
croissance/prévoir industrial growth. But why always foresee a
growth? When will this growth stop? Where will it
lead us to? If people led simpler lives they wouldn’t
need so many gadgets and would use less energy.
This would certainly be the end of a certain type of
civilization, and surely the end of industrial society
société de consommation as we know it. At least of our affluent society. But
par dtwus le marché people might very well feel happierinto
* the
bargain.
Sujets complémentaires, voir p. 263.

122
The sciences
La science

1. Mathematics: Les mathématiques *to experiment: procéder à une expérience


’gravity: la pesanteur
’mathematics: les mathématiques
*a magnifying glass: une loupe
arithmetic: l'arithmétique
*to focus a microscope: régler un microscope/
geometry: la géométrie
algebra: l'algèbre se concentrer (sur)
’a spark: une étincelle
’to draw a conclusion: tirer une conclusion
’chemistry: la chimie
*to solve: résoudre
*a chemist: un chimiste
a triangle: un triangle
’chemicals: des produits chimiques
a square: un carré
to analyse: analyser
a quadrilateral: un quadrilatère
the synthesis: la synthèse
a side: un côté
’to test: éprouver
a circle: un cercle
’to stir: agiter
a radius: un rayon
*a test-tube: une éprouvette
to extract a square root: extraire
une racine carrée
straight: droit 4. The elements: Les éléments
parallel: parallèle an atom: un atome
perpendicular: perpendiculaire an acid: un acide
vertical: vertical a base: une base
horizontal: horizontal a sait: un sel
a right angle: un angle droit hydrogen: l’hydrogène
an acute angle: un angle aigu oxygen: l'oxygène
an obtuse angle: un angle obtus carbon: le carbone
chlorine: le chlore
2. Astronomy: L'astronomie fluorine: le fluor
iodine: l'iode
astronomy: l’astronomie
phosphorus: le phosphore
an astronomer: un astronome
sulphur: le soufre
*the solar system: le système solaire
mercury: le mercure
*a planet: une planète
colourless: incolore
*the earth: la terre
’tasteless: insipide
a satellite: un satellite
inodorous: inodore
a constellation: une constellation
geology: la géologie
a meteor: un météore
a layer: une couche géologique
meteorology: la météorologie
*the stratosphere: la stratosphère
a leap year: une année bissextile 5. Botany: La botanique
a botanist: un botaniste
3. Physics and chemistry: to botanize: botaniser
La physique et la chimie a herbarium: un herbier

*physlcs: la physique
acoustics: l'acoustique
6. Economics: L'économie
optics: l'optique ’economics: l'économie
*a laboratory: un laboratoire an economist: un économiste
*an experiment: une expérience ’statistics: la statistique

123
33.C
Progress
Le progrès

groupe de travail dirigé par un pro­ (A tutorial al Oxford University. A don is


fesseur/professeur d’Université discussing progress with two of his students, Allan
and Jill.)

du 19e siècle don - Ralph Waldo Emerson, the great nineteenth


century American writer, did not believe in
progress. He thought that society changes, but
does not advance in any way.
Jill - Yes, he even said that for every thing which is
given, something is taken away.
allan - I know that theory too. He even went so
far as to compare the savage and the American and
affirma/celui-ci claimed that the latter had lost all his instincts and
il ne m’a pas du tout convaincu physical strength. But I’m afraicHie did not in the
least convince me.
Jill - As for me, I find this theory very accurate and
soi-disant lots of people refuse so-called “progress”.
leurs semblables don - You mean hippies and such like, I suppose.
Jill - Not only hippies. You probably know that
légumes thousands of people refuse to eat vegetables
engrais grown with artificial manure, or fruit treated with
produits chimiques/veau chemicals, or hormone-injected veal...
mercure allan - Or mercury-infected fish...
marginaux don - Such “outcasts” have always existed.
Autriche allan - What about the people of Austria who
centrale nucléaire voted against an atomic power plant project, or
the Norwegians who refused to join the Common
Market for fear their way of life would be
compromis jeopardized?
don - No man is an island. You cannot possibly
tout seul live on your own in the second half of the twentieth
complètement/société de consommation century and refuse altogether an affluent society,
industrialization, atomic energy and so on...
► en dehors Jill - I grant you it’s difficult to live apart from the
tendances/ ► toujours general trends, but you can still disapprove of
them. Look at the Red Indians, for instance - lots
of them refuse to live like the White Americans,
and who could blame them for it?
allan - I don’t agree with their attitude. They
reject modern society, but they are quite happy
de vivre aux crochets de l’Etat/allo- to live on welfare and get drunk on state
*
catlons allowances.

124
ils boivent pour oublier ni i - I'd say rather thafthey drink themselves into
le mal forgetting / the wrong that has been done to them.
contrairement Unlike you, 1 think they are a good example of a
nation being a victim of what we call “progress”.
don - In what way?
ils vivaient .hi i - Nobody can deny that they used to live in
perfect harmony with nature and that they had a
le bien et le mal highly developed sense of right and wrong. They
» aux dépens did not live off the land, they lived with it. Their
religion was based on high principles similar to
those you find in the Christian religion.
don - She’s right. Just consider what the white man
guerre/variole has brought them - confusion, war, small-pox and
maladies/désespoir other diseases - alcohol and despair.
.m i - You find the same thing happening in
Amazonia too. We don’t want to accept that some
people can be different. Suddenly we realize that
slips/soutiens-gorge the men have no pantsand the women no bras, and
baptisés/nous nous hfitons the children are not christened - so we hasten to
send them doctors and nurses and missionaries.
and their earthly paradise is finished...

ai.i.an - But how can you reject altogether what


Christianity has brought us? Do you really think
loi we should accept the Talion law-aneyeforaneye,
a tooth for a tooth? And what you are saying
horrible about doctors is awful. I suppose you’d rather
see these people die than have them vaccinated?
sorciers Jill - Their witch-doctors are often very efficient.
ai.i.an - Don’t make me laugh.
.in i - But I’m not joking. Explorers have been
surprised to find aged Africans who had been
trépanés trepanned. Don’t forget that these witch-doctors
were often wonderful psychologists too. Do you

125
somnifère really think it is progress to be given a sleeping-
pill, whereas a long conversation with your doctor
le tour would have done the trick?
don - But there do exist people called “psycho­
analysts” in our modern world...
Jill - Who are crazy themselves and who haven’t
» puisque invented anything, since confession has existed
parmi/siicles among the Catholics for centuries.
allan - So you would condemn what was done
by Dr. Albert Schweitzer.
Jill -1 admire him, of course, but I am convinced
contrebalancer/^ méfaits he only existed to counterbalance the evils of
colonisation.
à la mode
allan - It’s fashionable to condemn colonisation
honteux
because of a few shameful excesses. And what if
there had been no colonisation? How could the
rivaliser
African countries compete in our modern world?
le savoir
We brought them knowledge, techniques,
organization.
don - And we created artificial states which
tribus/ainsi
include rival hostile tribes, / thus leading inevitably
to civil wars.
seraient morts de faim allan - But without our help these people would
have starved.
Jill - I disagree with you. I am convinced Africa
could be self-sufficient if the people there lived
their traditional way of life.
me rappelle
don - All this reminds me of a programme I saw
» un jour once on television. It was about Ireland and one
politician who was interviewed said that although
bien que it was a poor country the inhabitants were no more
unhappy than in any other country. Well, the
commentator found it necessary to say: “can they
really be happy with such a small percentage of
postes de télévision cars, T.V. sets, hospitals, schools and so on!... as
une simple question if happiness were a mere matter of standard of
living!
allan - What you say is partly true. The higher the
standard of living is, the more work people have.
chômage You can’t pretend that unemployment is a good
thing.
Jill - But if you want us to talk about industry,
please tell me if you find that assembly-line-work is
travail i la chaîne a real progress for man?
don - Going back to Emerson’s savage, I do think
primitive people have more highly developed
instincts, more physical possibilities, than so-called
civilized people. I think, for instance, that a
citadin city-dweller could not survive long if he were
abandonné stranded in the African jungle.
allan - The opposite is true too.

126
don - Not really. I am thinking of those people
arriérées who lived in backward conditions on the island of
au large des côtes Tristan Da Cunha off the coast of South Africa.
Do you remember? They were flown to London
after a volcanic eruption had destroyed their
réussirent/s’adapter homes, and most of them managed / to adjust to
assez modern life pretty quickly.
allan - But I do not think that so-called “civilized”
men would lose all instincts of survival when
plunged into a hostile world. Look at those
chair survivors who ate human flesh in the Andes after
s’était écrasé their plane had crashed: that proves that civilized
people can adjust to highly hostile conditions.
don - Yes, and that’s also true of Amundsen, who
managed to survive while on his way to discover
the South Pole - because he ate his dogs.
Jill - And Scott died because he refused to eat his.
émoussés That proves that his instincts had been blunted
préjugés by the prejudices of a civilized man, just as those
survivors who refused to eat human flesh in the
faim Andes and died of hunger.
allan - But do you honestly think it’s a good thing
secte de Painsylvanie to live like the Amish in America, who have been
opposed to all technical progress since 1850? Is
that realistic? Don’t you think that the modern
une vie bien meilleure world has brought us a far better life, what with
soins better housing and medical care, and all those
esclavage gadgets which have put an end to the slavery of
women in the home?
jill - Certainly, but progress has also brought us
juvenile delinquency, drugs, alcoholism,
prostitution and a whole lot of other social
maladies diseases.
don - So Emerson could be right: for everything
that is given, something is taken away.
néanmoins/maux allan - Nevertheless, such ills as slavery have been
abolished almost everywhere in the world. Isn’t
that real progress?
jill - Was Hitler part of progress? Is the atomic
bomb progress?
allan -1 disapprove of the atomic bomb -everyone
knows that, but you must admit that we can now
do all sorts of things which would have been
► inouïes unheard of a generation ago.
jill - Oh yes, of course, we can watch television
► sortent until our eyes pop out of our heads, but we don’t
read any more.
Moyen Age don - Could we build the Cathedrals of the Middle
Ages?
allan - Of course we could.
maîtrisé don -1 doubt it very much. We have mastered the

127
béton armé use of ferro-concrete and other elaborate
techniques, but when you think that the
reposent foundations of Notre-Dame in Paris rest on a bed
mélangés/couches/argile of faggots mingled with layers of clay, when you
charpente care to look at the framework which supports the
Cathedral's bells, you can only say that techniques
have changed, that they are different, but can you
say that the modern ones are really better?
une question allan - Progress is not only a matter of advanced
j’ose affirmer techniques, it’s also a matter of conscience, and
*
l
daresay that all you have said in this past hour
shows that there has been progress in our
au moins/car/de toute évidence mentality, at least, / for you obviously would not
have questioned your social and cultural
environment one thousand years ago, or even a
preuve couple of centuries ago. You are the living proof
that progress is not an illusion.

voir vocabulaire p. 123. Sujets complémentaires, voir p. 263.

34.
A _____________________
Space conquest: a waste of time and money?
La conquête spatiale : une perte de temps et d’argent?

oui, c’est une perte d’argent FOR: Yes, it’s a waste of money

1. Every anniversary of the Apollo space mission


glissé/oubli has slipped into oblivion. Even for its tenth
anniversary scientific magazines gave it rather a
tiède lukewarm commentary... Is it because the
excitement caused by space conquest has
diminué dwindled, or simply because people never
se préoccupaient bothered much about it? As early as 1969, Black
Panther Leader Eldridge Cleaver described the
moon mission as “a circus to distract people’s
minds from the real problems which are here on
the ground”, and sociologist Amitai Etziani said:
course/douloureux “we are using the space race to escape our painful
terre problems on earth”.

2. The reasons for criticizing space conquest, or


nombreuses at least the Apollo programme, are numerous. To
somme start with, the amount of money spent on it was
400 000 fabulous. In 1965, 400,000 people were working
5,25 milliards for NASA, which had a budget of $ 5.25 billion. At
faim the same time people were dying of hunger all

128
► empêtrée round the world. Cancer research was plagued by
miséreux financial difficulties. Poverty-stricken Blacks and
► misérables Indians were living in substandard conditions. The
- américain moyen blanc Apollo mission itself looked very much like a*Was-
pish Middle American Victory. Armstrong, with his
blue eyes, represented the right side of America, not
privé (de biens matériels) that which was deprived.
lancement 3. The launching of rockets can only be
damaging for the upper atmosphere. The immense
► trous/sans cesse gaps which are repeatedly made in it are destroying
équilibre the balance of gases up there. The sun's radiations
tamisées are penetrating without being screened and no one
knows what the consequences will be.
principalement/question 4. Space conquest has mainly been a matter of
prestige for the USA. It did not want the Soviet
prendre de l’avance/domaine Union to steal a march in that field. Americans
quel que soit had to be the first to walk on the moon whatever
coût/compenser the cost, in order to make up for the humiliation
they had felt when the Russians launched the
vaisseau spatial occupé par un homme first Sputniks and the first manned space-craft.
But the same amount of prestige would surely have
combattant/à l’intérieur been attained in fighting poverty at home and
à l'étranger/gaspiller abroad, and letting the Soviet Union waste all that
money on its own.
vraie 5. The proper question to ask about the Apollo
programme and space conquest is: what good did
tiré it do the Americans? What did they derive from
* modifiée it? How was their daily life affected by it? What did
gagné the country gain?
non, ce n’est pas une perte d’argent AGAINST: No, it’s not a waste of money
1. Space conquest was a wonderful
exploit/» digne achievement, / worth that of the explorations
which took place in 1492. The people who
discovered America had the same kind of spirit.
audacieux/entreprenants They were bold and enterprising, just like the
Pioneers who came to America on the
attendre (à quoi) s’ “Mayflower”. They did not know what to expect,
► cela en vaudrait la peine but knew it would be rewarding to try it. If one
entreprenait always undertook a task simply because one were
sure of getting something in return, one would
» domaine not do much, especially in the realm of science.
découverte 2. You never know what a discovery will bring
recherche/ne peut manquer de/inutile you. Research / is bound to seem useless for a time,
but to take one example in the conquest of space,
rochers the moon rocks which were analysed have proved
très most useful in understanding how the earth and
solar systems were formed. This is not lucrative, of
précieuse course, but a valuable scientific discovery.

129
3. Some people only see the propaganda which
évidemment obviously lies behind space missions and their
évidents/rivalité obvious political aspects. But the rivalry
between the U.S.A, and the U.S.S.R. would have
domaines been expressed in other fields if it had not been
expressed in space. It is surely better that these
» lutter/paisible two countries should compete in this peaceful /
façon/champs de bataille way rather than on battlefields. Moreover, some
co-operation was achieved with Russia, which
valeur led to a joint mission, whose scientific value was
douteuse/geste de bonne volonté doubtful, but whose impact as a token of good will
for the cause of peace was understood by all.
4. The scientific interest of space conquest is
néanmoins nevertheless of the utmost importance. We have
since learnt how to live with dozens of satellites
which give innumerable services, communication
satellites and meteorological satellites for instance.
grâce à These satellites have been made possible thanks to
the research done for the Apollo missions, and
on les attendrait encore *
we
without space conquest would still be awaiting
them.
effets secondaires 5. Lots of side effects must be taken into account,
too. The research carried out by NASA finds
quotidiennes daily applications. For instance, the survival
équipements/destinés aux kits / designed for space men are used in other
alliages fields, new metal alloys were tested, and new
techniques were elaborated, like television
émissions broadcasting from the moon, which have made it
résoudre easier to solve other types of technical problems
on earth. Not to mention the enthusiasm of all
the nations of the world on realizing that man’s
rêve/s’était réalisé oldest dream / had come true.

voir vocabulaire p. 123. Sujets complémentaires, voir p. 263.

35. C
U.F.O.s. (Unidentified Flying Objects)
Les O.V.N.I. (Objets Volants Non Identifiés)

(George and Aubrey, two grammar school


teachers, are discussing the problem of U.F.O.s)

dit donc george - I say, have you heard about that


affirme/aoucoupe volante policeman who claims he saw a flying-saucer the
other night?

130
aubrf.y - Where was it?
parking g. - In the car-park just behind Marks and
éclatante Spencer's. He says he saw a bright red light above
the car-park and then realized he couldn't move.
en forme de cigare/engin spatial Two little men got out of a cigar-shaped Space­
craft, came right up to him and then suddenly
vaisseau turned back to their space vessel.
a. - Your story reminds me of one which I heard in
the U.S.A. A man claimed he had gone to a village
in Wisconsin where a miracle was supposed to take
place that night. Hundreds of people were
réunis/clalrlère/» attendant gathered in a clearing / expecting the Virgin Mary
» assez to appear. Our man arrived rather late and as he
inorme was approaching he noticed a huge flying-saucer
silhouettes/» en train de parked nearby and some small figures were *in the
pilerins process of kidnapping some pilgrims who were
» è l'écart Standing apart, and carrying them off to the space­
effrayi/prononcer craft. He said he was so scared he couldn't utter a
frappa/pileur sound. What struck him was the whiteness of
those visitors from outer space.
porté disparu g. - Was anyone reported missing the next day?
a. - No one can tell, for lots of pilgrims had come
from neighbouring states.
g. - What strikes me in these two stories is that they
took place at night.
témoins a. - You mean that the two witnesses were tired
and simply imagined what had happened?
g. - Exactly. And in the second example the man
toqué must have been a bit cracked to start with, going
into the middle of a forest in the hope of seeing the
Virgin Mary.
» cependant a. - 1 personally don’t believe in U.F.O.s and yet
some cases are mysterious.
g. - Of course, you know that the Americans have
» constitué/enquéter sur les soi-dlsantes set up a commission to inquire into so-called
flying-saucers.
a. - And what have they found?
folles g. - Oh, mostly different sorts of crazy allegations.
une foie Once, for instance, the same flying-saucer was
reported to the police by three different people.
The only trouble was that no two gave the same
témoignage evidence.
a. - Were the reports very different?
» tout i fait g. - Quite different. One said he had seen the object
» filer shoot over his head; another claimed there were
rayons all sorts of green rays coming out of it. The third
avion i réaction one claimed that a jet plane was pursuing it.
a. - And what was it, in fact?
énorme/forme approximativement g. - Simply that a huge balloon with a%hape
tiré roughly similar to a saucer was being dragged
avion de tourisme along by a “piper-cub” plane to a show where it

131
déployer des publicités was supposed to display adverts. A helicopter
was following it to keep an eye on it.
► se fier à des témoins oculaires a. - One can’t rely on eye-witnesses, can one?
g. - No, indeed not. I think that in many cases
people have too much imagination or are simply
the victims of an hallucination.
a. - A psychological examination of the witness
can often explain why he has “seen” a U.F.O.
g. - The commission I spoke about before reached
the conclusion that in 98% of the cases investigated,
a logical explanation could be found.
a. - And what about the remaining 2%?
g. - That’s where the mystery begins.
a. - Don’t you think that those U.F.O.s could be
» engins secret devices being tested by one country or
another?
g. - Possibly.
► une histoire a. - I remember a case. Some years ago a farmer
saw a U.F.O. in his field. He said some men came
joues out of it and kissed him on both cheeks. He said
it was a sort of cigar-shaped object supported by
béquilles four crutches. The next day the police found
empreintes imprints in the field which could have been made
by crutches.
» tu vois ! g. - There you are!
a. - Yes, but a few months later a new plane
prototype similar to that description was shown
meeting aérien at an air show.
g. - It’s often said though that there are many more
people who have seen U.F.O.s than are reported
in the press.
a. - Why don’t they say so?
sarcasmes g. - Generally because they fear public mockery.
» traumatisme/peur In some cases the shock and fear have been so
► ne veut jamais great that the person concerned is never willing to
speak about it.
» donc ton idée est que a. - So your point is that if so many people have
il y a forcément seen U.F.O.s there’s bound to be some truth in all
that.
g. - Yes, because I can’t imagine that so many secret
devices would be tested all round the world by any
particular nation.
l'équipage a. - Didn’t the crew of the “Concorde” take a photo
of a U.F.O.?
g. - Yes they did. But scientists immediately reacted
by saying that it was quite a normal meteorological
phénomène phenomenon.
► a affirmé a. - Public rumour had it that a crew of American
astronauts saw strange things up there but they
pour éviter une panique inutile were not allowed to report them’to avoid needless
panic.

132
G. - It’s a pity that such information should be
► minutieusement released and not thoroughly commented on.
a. - In fact a former president of the United States
must have believed in the existence of extra­
terrestrials since he sent them a message of friend­
ship in one of the American space ships.
g. - And the English Observatory at Jodrell Bank
picked up some interstellar sounds which could
~ l'espace lointain have been a message from outer space.
a. - Yes, but when the Director was challenged to
give the origin of these sounds he politely refused
to answer such a ridiculous question.
g. - Do you believe that other civilisations do
vraiment actually live on other planets?

a. - Why not? There is absolutely no reason to


think that we are the only living creatures in the
universe.
g. - In fact, if the same conditions existed on
another planet as on ours, there could be the same
Terre type of life there as here on Mother Earth.
a. - There could also be some other type of life on
planets which have different conditions from ours
and we might not be intelligent enough to
understand what it is.
sondes g. - In fact we keep sending soundings to Mars,
Venus, Jupiter. If there exists a civilisation up
there, why shouldn’t they do the same?
a. - Yes, why not?
g. - Something else which comes to mind is that
place in the Middle East where everything is
» brûlé scorched over an area of about one mile.
a. - What’s so special about that?

133
g. - Well, this spot had already been described
many centuries ago and it was already like that.
No one could imagine what had caused such
fusées/lancées destruction until the first rockets were launched
at Cape Kennedy. The resulting devastation was
the same.
a. - Very strange indeed.
g - I think I’m beginning to believe in U.F.O.s.
moi aussi a. - So am I. I say, what if I interviewed that
policeman who claimed he saw a U.F.O. behind
Marks and Spencer’s?
g. - Good idea - let’s go together.

voir vocabulaire p. 123. Sujets complémentaires, voir p. 263.

36.A
Are all mysteries so mysterious?
Les mystères sont-ils tous si mystérieux?

1. Somewhere in the Middle East, perhaps in


le Liban what is now called Lebanon, there exists a rocky
rocheux cirque which was already mentioned by ancient
intrigués writers who were puzzled by the aspect of the earth
a semblaient calcinés and rocks around.•'They looked as if they had been
explication scorched, and no explanation has been found to this
day. However, in the 1960’s it was discovered at
à Fendroit Cape Kennedy that the earth
on
* the spot where
fusées spatiales/lancées space rockets were launched had exactly the same
scorched appearance as the place in Lebanon.
Could another civilization long before ours have
rampe de lancement
used this place as a launching pad to send its
rockets up into space?
le plus étrange 2. One of the strangest passages in the Bible is the
pécheresses one that describes the destruction of the two sinful
afin de towns of Sodom and Gomorrha. In order to
escape this destruction, Lot and his wife were told
au-delà to go far beyond the mountains and hide under the
fortement conseillés earth. They were strongly advised not to look back
at the fire which would come from the sky and
détruire which would destroy the two cities. Lot's wife,
tentée however, was tempted to look back and was
colonne de sel immediately transformed into a “pillar of salt”.
► or/expériences Now all the experiments with A and H bombs have
principaux revealed three main dangers. The first is the
hieur/aveugler atomic glow which can blind you, the second is

134
souflle/détruit the blast which destroys everything for miles
around, and the last is radiation. The only way to
éviter/détourner avoid the glow is to avert one’s eyes, to avoid
s’abriter the blast you must hide underground or shelter
quant i behind hills or mountains. As for the radiation,
~ amoncellements de terre the only efficient protection is heaps of earth. It
has been discovered, too, that the victims of atomic
en quelque sorte blasts became mummified, as it were. Were
Sodom and Gomorrha destroyed by an atomic
explosion?
3. In the 19th century the “Marie Celeste”, a
à la dérive/sans équipage fishing boat, was found drifting / unmanned in the
un groupe d’abordage Atlantic Ocean by another boat. A boarding party
sent to inquire, found there was still warm food
cuisine de bateau in the plates in the galley, but no one on board.
équipage Where was the crew? A few hours later the “Marie
poche de brouillard Celeste” drifted into a patch of fog and when the
rencontré par hasard/rattrapa ship which had come upon her before caught up
découvrir with her again, it was only to discover that the
disparu comme par enchantement boarding-party, in its turn, had alsoilisappeared
into thin air...
élèves pilotes 4. Just after the last war a squadron oArainee
pilots was flying over the famous “Bermuda
► beau/vol Triangle”. The weather was fair and the flight,
led by an experienced instructor, a routine one.
Then the squadron simply disappeared leaving no
hydravion de sauvetage/décolla pour trace. A rescue hydroplane which took off to
survoler la région search the area a few hours later disappeared in its
avions turn. These are only two of a long list of aircraft
disparu and ships which have mysteriously vanished/
i l’intérieur within the famous “Bermuda Triangle”. One
proposée/perte theory put forward to explain the loss of these
aurait pu s’égarer aircraft is that the squadron^ould quite easily have
s’itre mépris (sur) gone astray after mistaking a group of islands it
point de repère used as a land-mark and going straight out to sea
au Heu de instead of turning back towards land. The
manqua de carburant/s'abima squadron then ran short of fuel and crashed into
the sea. The rescue plane which disappeared a few
archi-plein de bidons d’essence hours later was
*filled to the brim with spare petrol
cans for the search to continue as long as possible
without the plane having to come back to the
continent/pour refaire le plein mainland/to refuel. One theory is that someone on
négligemment board carelessly lit a cigarette which blew up the
fit sauter/chargement load of petrol... and the plane with it.
5. The group of British archaeologists who, at the
beginning of this century, discovered the entrance
of the Pharaohs’ tombs in the Egyptian pyramids
'ignoraient totalement le sort qui
•were quite unaware of the fate which awaited
les attendait/è propos them... The treasures they found, by the way,/

135
tout à fait prodigieux/!e fut un were quite fabulous, and as one said,* “It was a
spectacle à vous couper le souffle breath-taking sight”. The most valuable treasures
were carried away to the British Museum, where
la Malédiction des Pharaons they can still be seen. But the “Pharaoh’s curse” /
*devait les poursuivre jusqu’à leur was to pursue them back to their native country
pays natal where, one after the other, they all started to die
mysteriously. What was the “Pharaoh’s curse”?
dicton/affîrmait Simply an old Egyptian saying which stated that
those who violated the Pharaoh’s last sleep would
be punished.
► or Now in the 1950’s a geologist went exploring caves
grottes/afin de in Malawi (then Nyasaland) in order to estimate the
se faire une idée/chauve-souris quantity of bat excrement hidden in there. There
terre was a project to fertilize the soil of the area using
région/engrais bat excrement as natural manure. A few days later,
tomba malade the geologist was taken ill and died in exactly the
same conditions as the archaeologists who had
► or discovered the Pharaohs’ tombs. Now the pyramids
were also full of bat excrement and a reliable theory
► sérieuse is that the famous and mysterious “Pharaoh’s
* purement et simplement une maladie curse” was nothing less than a disease transmitted
by contact with the excrement of bats.
bateau fantôme 6. For nearly three months a “ghost ship” had
fait fuir/marins/rencontraient par frightened away all the sailors who came across it
hasard in the North Sea. Not only was there nobody on
vaisseau board the vessel, but strange noises could be heard
en moins de quelques semaines coming from it. Within a few weeks all the North
Sea sailors knew of the existence of a “ghost ship”
craignaient somewhere at sea, and feared it. Until a brave
captain who, when he came across it, decided he
► être intimidé/simple was not going to be put off by a mere ghost. With
loups de mer two or three hardy sea-dogs he went on board and
enfermé à clef found one survivor who had been locked up in the
* n’avait cessé de galley and who had kept on tapping on the wall for
almost three months, in the hope that someone
would come to rescue him.
7. As late as the eighteenth century there existed
a tradition of a mysterious “White Empire”
éloignée somewhere in a remote part of Africa near
Timbuctoo. After hearing reports about the
se mirent en route “White Empire”, many explorers set off to try to
discover it, but never did. It has now been proved
donnant lieu/croyance that the rumours giving rise to this belief had
found their origins in Ethiopia, which was a
royaume Christian kingdom and where the Coptic churches
Byzance were as magnificent as in Byzantium itself.
bien que Although the inhabitants were black, they had

136
traits Semitic features and it was this last aspect which
frappé les étrangers had struck foreigners and had been exaggerated
in the reports to the point that “Semitic” had
become “white”.
8. Several years ago, a small child who was visiting
her grandparents, suddenly became very nervous
opprimée/j>artout où elle and started feeling “oppressed”./Wherever she
allait went in the house strange noises could be heard
tinter and cups and glasses started to tinkle. The
consternés par grandparents, appalled at what was happening,
* faire venir un prêtre de la paroisse decided to call for a parish priest, believing their
possédée poor grand-daughter to be “possessed”. The
toute l’affaire priest, finding the whole business quite mysterious,
soupçonnant/plutôt que and suspecting a scientific explanation, rather than
a religious one, called in a friend who was a
physics teacher. He in his turn found that the
quantity of electricity in the child’s body was
baguette en cuivre higher than normal. Then he discovered aecopper
rod running all around the house under the eaves
cadre to hold the wooden frame together. He broke
tout à coup off the rod and all of a sudden the child felt
soulagée/ cessèrent relieved and the mysterious noises ceased. His
interne explanation was that the child’s inner electricity
niveau level being so high, it formed a magnetic circuit
l’ensemble produisant with the copper bar, the whole producing
d’où vibrations, and hence the noises. Two centuries
before the girl might very well have been accused of
sorcellerie witchcraft!

voir vocabulaire p. 123. Sujets complémentaires, voir p. 263.

37.C
French cuisine and English cooking
La cuisine française et le « manger » anglais

cadres supérieurs (Three young English executives, John, Harry and


cantine Steve, are having lunch at their works canteen with
secrétaire de direction Mrs. Clark, a management secretary, who is also a
cuisinière de talent “cordon bleu” cook.)

harry - I had always thought that we had very


good restaurants here in London, until the
guide culinaire inspectors of a famous French culinary guide book
were invited by a Sunday newspaper.

137
john - And what was their judgement?
harry - Well, in France they give one, two or three
étoiles stars to restaurants and in London they did not
seul/digne find a single restaurant worth even one star.
Mrs. cl. - Even the French restaurants in London
did not get a single star?
harry - That’s right.
john - I’m not surprised. I’ve always found that
surfaits French restaurants in England were overrated. I
une fois once took three friends to a French restaurant
dans le Nord/censé up North. It was supposed to be the best in the
région area.
déçu steve - And you were disappointed?
on nous conseilla john - More than disappointed. We were advised
pour nous ouvrir l'appétit to start with a bottle of a Loire Valley wine
*as an
appetizer and we really thought the rest would
be as good as the wine. I should explain that the
escargots/boite/gibier/insipide snails came out of a tin, the venison was tasteless,
fromage the cheese was good, but the dessert was terribly
unimaginative. I think it was an ice-cream. Then
vin de Bordeaux we invited the chef to have a glass of claret with us.
Mrs. cl. - Was he a pleasant person?
condescendant/imbu de sa personne john - No -very condescending and conceited. He
considered himself as one of the best chefs in
England.
harry - Was he French or English?
en vérité/patron john - Actually he was Italian, but his boss was
French.
steve - Did the boss work in the kitchen?
john - Yes, from time to time - but then there was
addition/la goutte d’eau the bill - that was really the last straw! I paid £ 25
for the four of us and we had only drunk three
bottles of wine. As it was nearly ten years ago it
deux fois plus cher/effarant would be twice as expensive now - shocking isn’t it?
► absolument steve - Indeed, it is. Let me tell you a different
gastronomical adventure. I went to an English
restaurant in the North too. Their speciality was
huitres/ils les faisaient bouillir/les oysters, but as they boiled them I preferred to*steer
éviter clear of them.
harry - Do you mean you’ve got that continental
cru/fruits de mer habit of eating raw/sea-food?
john - In a minute he’s going to admit he likes
cuisses de grenouille frog’s legs.
puis-je continuer? steve - May I proceed?
en train de vous faire marcher john - Sorry for interrupting - we were just pulling
your leg...
tortue/faux-filet steve - So I decided to have turtle soup, a sirloin
entremets steak with onions, some blue cheese and a sweet.
payer un pot Well, everything was perfect. I’m ready^to buy a
drink for anyone who could find such good meat
anywhere else.

138
cuite comme ty l’aimes Mrs. cl - Was it cooked to your liking?
steve - Near to perfection.
principal Mrs. cl. - That’s the main problem in England - We
» préparer/Qu’elle soit don’t know how to cook the meat, *whether it be
rôtie ou grillée/trop cuite/ ► saignante roasted or grilled. It’s either too well done or rare.
à point You never get it medium...
steve - And you know what, at the end of the meal
serveuse/pompette the waitress was so tipsy that she forgot she left
the cheese on the table - I nearly ate it all.

harry - What did you have for your dessert?


‘génoise cuite à la vapeur nappée steve - A steamed syrup pudding. You know how
de sirop/bourratif/léger filling it can be - Well, that one was very light
savoureux/finalement and tasty. Eventually I paid only £ 6 and that was
only four years ago.
john - What did you have to drink?
un Xérès doux steve - A sweet sherry to start with, half a bottle of
viande/café au lait Sauternes with the meat and a cup of white coffee
to finish with.
sucré harry - But Sauternes is a sweet white wine - it
doesn’t go with the meat. I never have Sauternes
Bourgogne with my meat, I always drink a red Burgundy.
ce que tu manques steve - But you don’t know what you’re missing!
le moindre Mrs. cl. -1 haven’t the slightest doubt that you had a
repas/ressemble plus à la^opote
* tasty meal - but that is more like “cooking” than
“cuisine”. Any chef should be able to cook a
steak correctly.

139
je suis d’accord/l’ennui john -1 agree and this seems to be the trouble with
» atteindre le niveau English cooking, we don't seem to be able *
to
graduate to the level of continental cuisine.
mattresses de maison harry - Some English housewives know how to
cependant cook a good meal, though.
singent john - Yes, but just as our English chefs ape the
French ones, our housewives imitate continental
cooking.
livres de cuisine Mrs. cl. - That’s right. A good many cookery
recettes books give French and Italian recipes.
harry - Is there such a thing as an English cuisine,
though?
steve - Well, you must admit our sweets are the
best in Europe. There’s nothing on the Continent
tarte aux pommes/crème like a good apple pie with fresh cream on it.
la pâtisserie john - We are good at pastry-making; I mean
pâtisseries (boutiques) ordinary housewives are, because our cake shops
» passablement mauvaises/boulangeries are pretty awful, almost as bad as our bakers’.
pain harry - Yes, French bread is so delicious, when I
ils se plaignent toujours think that they’re always complaining about it.
à part/tartes-maison Mrs. cl. - But apart from good home-made pies and
le coup cakes we don’t seem to have the knack of cooking;
fidèlement we know how to follow faithfully recipes someone
else has invented, but we don’t seem to be able to
*
plats/ajoutons/ des trucs invent new dishes, and we don’t add / stuff, I mean
porto/cognac/jus de viande (sauce) port or brandy for example, to our gravy.
steve - Well, it’s all the better for that. I like my
* avoir le goût gravy to taste of gravy and my port to taste of port.
I don’t like all those wine sauces.
Mrs. cl. - You must never have tasted a really good
habileté wine sauce then, because if it’s done with skill the
sauce doesn’t taste of wine. The wine should have
► goût evaporated and given a new, quite different flavour
to the sauce.
harry - What about English cuisine then, does it
exist or not?
► autrefois joan - I think it must have existed once. Did you
ever see the film “Tom Jones”? There is a scene in
personnages which two of the main characters are filmed eating
a most delicious meal. That was supposed to be in
the eighteenth century, of course. And there used
to exist a good many typically English dishes like
cygne roasted swan for instance.
harry - And then with the coming of Puritanism,
péché eating for the pleasure of it was considered as asin.
john - Exactly, people ate to live, they didn’t live to
eat, and good food was rarely heard of again in
England.
steve - You’re exaggerating. I don’t think people
eat so badly in England. Things have improved

140
since the war. And you find a lot of wine shops
de nos Jours nowadays too.
forcément Mrs. ci.. - Wine doesn’t necessarily mean good food.
harry - No. but it shows that people have more
money for such things. And more and more people
apprécient are enjoying Continental holidays too. They try
out new recipes when they get back. Y.ou also find
cookery books which have become best-sellers.
Mrs. ci.. - And English housewives really make an
effort and spend more time in the kitchen than
they used to. They remember the old proverb
cœur “The way to a man’s heart is through his stomach”.
But I admit you rarely find a chef who invents new
dishes as so many French chefs do.
tendance john - What do you think of the new trend in
France?
Mrs. ci.. - Oh yes, what they call the “new French
cuisine”. It’s interesting. It mainly proves that the
recherche French like research and invention.
harry - But is the “new cuisine” really very
different?
mode/toquade Mrs. cl. - It depends. It's a fashion, a craze, in my
opinion. They are trying out all sorts of different
tranches things. They give you slices of meat with cooked
cru oysters for example. They give you raw “foie gras”.
They also serve raw fish like the Japanese and
légumes/peu cuits vegetables are undercooked.
steve - Well, if 1 understand rightly, they don’t do
à proprement parler much actual cooking, do they? It should be easy
for us to do that too.
compliqué Mrs. ci. - It can be quite elaborate though, too. I feel
finalement that it will eventually disappear, like all fashions,
but it will have opened the way for wonderful new
abandonner inventions. Also it will have made people *give
up the old recipes which were too complicated and
épaissies/farine in which sauces were thickened with flour.
difficiles harry -1 know what you mean - they’re so hard to
digest!
► presque personne steve - But you know that hardly anyone seems
mal au foie/tandis que to suffer from liver trouble in England, whereas it
maladie seems to be a national disease in France!
ce n’est pas surprenant john - Well, that’s no wonder. We rarely eat sauces
and most of our meat and vegetable dishes are
bouillis boiled.
steve - That’s the French who say that! They also
gelée think we eat jelly all the time... But most
Continental people I've met love our English
gâteaux é thé breakfasts, our afternoon teas with scones and
pains au lalt/tartlnés de conflture/âes- buns/spread with jam and cream, our trifles/,
serts aux fruits/glaces ice-creams and, last but not least, our famous fish

141
frites/menthe and chips. Some even admit our mint sauce was
nicer than they expected.
Mrs. cl. - All that you mention is excellent in its way
► compose but it doesn’t make up a “cuisine”.
john - What consoles me is that American food is
even worse than ours.
» je ne te suis pas du tout hary - Oh, I completely disagree with you, I've
mais sur l'épi *
always enjoyed very good food in the U.S.A.
Corn
crêpes/érable on the cob, / pancakes with maple syrup are
divins heavenly.
Mrs. cl. - Perhaps, but what about all th^t mixing of
très peu pour moi pancakes, sausages and maple syruprThat’s not
my cup of tea...
john - I quite agree with Harry - The Americans
like good food and many housewives use family
recipes which are part of their European heritage,
qu’il soit Juif/Espagnol whether it be Jewish, Russian, Italian, Spanish /
etc. and so on.
Mrs. cl. - I think the only problem with American
food is their use of industrial sauces like ketchup,
ail/tuent garlic sauce and other such things which kill their
papilles gustatives taste buds at a very early age.
harry - That’s very true, and if we’re not careful
the same thing is going to happen here...
et si on passait john - What about spending a week-end at Dieppe
next month?
tu plaisantes steve - You must be kidding - all we need to do is to
qu’est-ce que tu en dis? invite ourselves to Mrs. Clark’s. How about that
John?
Sujets complémentaires, voir p. 263.

In the kitchen
Dans la cuisine

“cooking: cuisine (faire de la) to steam: cuire à la vapeur


a cook: un cuisinier *to boil: faire bouillir
a chef: un chef de cuisine *to pan-fry: poêler
*to cook: cuisiner tinned food (G.B.) canned food (U.S.):
‘jn electric/gas cooker: une cuisinière des conserves
électrique, à gaz a tin (G.B.)acan (U.S.): une boite (de conserves)
a pressure-cooker: upe cocotte-minute parsley: persil
*to bake: cuire au four (gâteaux) garlic: ail
baking-powder: levure chimique shallots: échalottes
yeast: du levain sage: sauge
*to rtew: étuver onions: oignons
to poach: pocher bay-leaf: laurier
to roast/to broil (U.S.): rôtir bitter: amer

142
sour: sur (aigre) cutlet-frills: papillottes
sweet/sugary: sucré mouldy: moisi
crisp: croustillant rotten: pourri
to stuff with: farcir de rice-pudding: gâteau de riz
whipped cream: crème fouettée semolina-pudding: gâteau de semoule
♦whipped butter: beurre manié cinnamon: cannelle
to whip: fouetter/battre nutmeg; muscade
a whisk: un fouet candied fruits: fruits confits
a beater: un fouet électrique glazed: glacé (au sucre)
lard: gras de porc coated: enrobé
*fat: gras *a bar of chocolate: une tablette de chocolat
powdered milk: lait en poudre *marmalade: confiture d’orange
to skim the milk: écrémer le lait jam: confiture
a mix: une préparation en poudre honey: miel
*home-made: fait maison maple-syrup: sirop d'érable
grated carrots: carottes râpées sugar-cane: canne à sucre
turnips: navets *a flavour: un parfum (de glace par exemple)
to whet: aiguiser *a smell: une odeur
a spit: une broche (métal) a sponge-cake: une génoise
a skewer: une brochette (métal) a fruit-cake: un cake
breadcrumbs: de la chapelure bite-sized pastries: des petits fours
*to chop: hâcher blended: mélangé
to shred: r&per a blender (U.S.): un mixer
to bone: désosser a melon: un melon
to thicken a sauce: lier une sauce a water melon: une pastèque
♦to simmer: mijoter a lettuce: une laitue
to sieve a sauce: passer frozen foods: produits surgelés
to knead: pétrir to deep freeze: surgeler
•to season: assaisonner/relever *a freezer: un congélateur
to brown in butter: faire revenir a shortage: un manque de...
to sear the meat: saisir la viande a stew: un ragoût
to sift flour: tamiser de la farine an egg-shell: une coquille d’œuf
a sieve: un tamis peelings: des pelures
a rolling-pin: un rouleau à p&tisserie scraps: rognures -déchets
a dish-towel: un torchon rubbish-bin: boite à ordures

At the dinner table


A table

1. At the dinner table: A table 2. Laying the table, cutlery and


crockery: Mettre la table,
* "dinner’s ready”: passez à table
my mouth Is watering: l'eau me vient & la coutellerie et vaisselle
bouche ♦to lay the table: mettre la table
♦to be asked for dinner/tea/high tea: to clear the table: débarrasser
être invité à diner a trolley: un chariot (pour débarrasser)
♦a meal: un repas ♦a table-cloth: une nappe
♦lunch: déjeuner an oil cloth: une toile cirée
supper: le souper/un en-cas (le soir) ♦a napkin: une serviette
♦a snack: un coupe-faim ♦a plate: une assiette
a host: un hôte (qui reçoit) a salad bowl: un saladier
a guest: un hôte (qui est reçu) a dish: Un plat

143
*a spoon: une cuillère *liver: du foie
a saucer: une soucoupe *ham: du jambon
*a cup: une tasse *a sausage: une saucisse
a ladle: une louche venison: du gibier/de la venaison
black pudding: du boudin
3. The condiments: Les condiments
spices: des épices 6. Serving poultry:
seasoning: l'assaisonnement Le service de la volaille
*oil: l’huile poultry: de la volaille
Vinegar: le vinaigre goose: de l’oie
*pepper: le poivre *chicken: du poulet
pepper mill: le moulin à poivre *duck: du canard
*salt: le sel the leg: la cuisse (du poulet)
the cruet: l'huilier the breast: le blanc (du poulet)
to sprinkle salt/sugar: saupoudrer du sel/ the wing: l’aile (du poulet)
du sucre *a slice: une tranche
4. Bread as an accompaniment: 7. The fish: Le poisson (cf. p. 165)
Le pain
*the fish: le poisson
*could you pass me a piece of toast, please? scallops: coquilles St Jacques
pourriez-vous me donner un toast, S.V.P.? smoked salmon: du saumon fumé
some toast: des toasts trout: de la truite
*the bread: le pain pike: du brochet
*slices of bread and butter: des tartines *cod: de la morue
beurrées eel: de l’anguille
margarine: de la margarine
a loaf: un pain 8. Vegetables:
rye bread: du pain de seigle Les légumes
brown bread: du pain bis
stale bread: du pain rassis Vegetables: les légumes
the crust: la croûte *mashed potatoes: de la purée
the crumbs: les miettes *chips: des frites
dough: la mie/la pâte *crisps: des chips
*will you have some more peas/beans ?:
5. The meat course: voulez-vous davantage de petits pois/
d’haricots ?
Le plat de viande broth: du bouillon
to carve the meat: découper la viande
*How would you like your meat done ? 9. Serving eggs:
Comment voulez-vous votre viande ? Le service des œufs
well-done: bien cuite
medium: à point *an omelette: une omelette
underdone: saignante poached eggs: des œufs pochés
rare: bleue scrambled eggs: des œufs brouillés
raw meat: de la viande crue *fried eggs: des œufs frits
*beef: du bœuf a soft-boiled egg: un œuf mollet
sirloin: faux-filet a hard-boiled egg: un œuf dur
T Bone (U.S.): entrecôte over-easy (U.S.): des œufs sur le plat
*mutton: du mouton the yolk: le jaune (d’œuf)
*lamb: de l’agneau the white: le blanc (d’œuf)
a leg of lamb: un gigot
*mint sauce: sauce à la menthe 10. The desserts: Les desserts
*pork: du porc *an ice-cream: une glace
*chop: une côtelette ♦a cake: un gâteau
*veai: du veau a waffle: une gaufre
*kidneys: des rognons pancakes: des crêpes/des galettes

144
crepes (U.S.): des crêpes (fines) *tough: dur/coriace
puff-pastry: de la pâte feuilletée * tender: tendre
*an apple-pie: une tarte aux pommes *to chew: mâcher
gingerbread: du pain d'épices eatable: mangeable
“this pudding is very filling": a helping: une portion
ce gâteau est très bourratif *to have a second helping: se resservir
♦custard: de la crème anglaise to eat out of a plate: manger dans une assiette
*cheese and biscuits: du fromage the clatter of knives and forks:
et des biscuits salés le bruit des couverts
*to lick: lécher
11. Tucking in: On attaque *greedy: gourmand
to starve: mourir de faim ♦a recipe: une recette
*I’m full (up): j'ai trop/assez mangé to belch/to burp: roter

Hotels and restaurants


Hôtels et restaurants

1. Types of accommodation: to do a room: faire une chambre


♦to make a bed: faire un lit
Modes d’hébergement ♦the rest-room: les toilettes
accommodation: logement the powder-room: les toilettes des dames
*a hotel: un hôtel ♦an English breakfast: un petit
an inn: une auberge déjeuner à l'anglaise
a boarding-house: une pension de famille a continental breakfast: un petit
♦full board: pension complète déjeuner à la française
half board: demi-pension “rooms must be vacated by 11 a.m.”: les
♦bed and breakfast: une chambre chez l'habitant chambres doivent être libérées avant 11 heures
room service: service à la chambre
2. Booking a room:
Réservation d’une chambre 4. On the menu: Au menu
the receptionist: le réceptionniste the menu: le menu/la carte
the reception desk: la réception an item: un plat (sur le menu)
♦to enquire: se renseigner the wine-list: la carte des vins
♦to book a room in advance: louer une chambre a four-course dinner: un repas à 4 plats
à l’avance the first course: le premier plat
a single room: une chambre simple appetizers: des amuse-gueule
(1 personne) an entrée: un hors-d'œuvre
a double room: une chambre double ♦the main course: le plat principal
attendance: le service ♦a sweet/a dessert: un dessert
♦the manager: le directeur today’s special: le plat du jour
to put up at a hotel: descendre dans un hôtel à la carte: au choix (à la carte)
to stay overnight: rester une nuit table d'hôte: sans choix (au menu)
♦to fill in a form: remplir une fiche
♦how much do you charge for a single room ?: 5. In the restaurant:
combien prenez-vous pour 1 personne ? Au restaurant
the wine-butler: le sommelier
3. At the hotel: A l’hôtel no service charge: service compris
a revolving-door: une porte tournante ♦a tip: un pourboire
the hall porter: le portier chef VAT: la TVA
♦luggage: les bagages the head waiter: le maître d’hôtel
the cashier: le caissier ♦a waiter: un garçon
a maid: une femme de chambre ♦a waitress: une serveuse

145
♦to order: commander ♦to check the bill: vérifier l'addition
♦to be short of...: manquer de... to complain: se plaindre
*to buy someone a drink: payer un pot à to overcharge: faire payer trop
quelqu’un a napkin/a serviette: une serviette
to pay for a round of beer: payer a doyley: un napperon en papier
une tournée de bières overrated: surfait
♦well-known: célèbre cutlery: les couverts
ill-kept: mal tenu silver plate: l’argenterie
♦can I have the bid please ?: a stuffy atmosphere: une ambiance étouffante
puis-je avoir l’addition, S.V.P. ?

Drinks
Les boissons

1. Drinking: La boisson a sugar-lump: un morceau de sucre


*a café: un café (I) herb-tea: tisane
a coffee-bar: cafeteria cocoa: cacao
a tea-room: salon de thé ♦coffee: café
♦a glass: un verre to grind: moudre
♦empty: vide coffee beans: grains de café
♦to fill up: remplir ♦a coffee pot: une cafetière
♦a pub: un débit de boissons ♦instant coffee: café soluble
a publican: un tenancier ♦white coffee: café au lait
to drink like a fish: boire comme un trou 3. Soft drinks and minerals:
♦to quench one’s thirst: se désaltérer
♦to get drunk: s’enivrer Boissons non-alcoolisées et sodas
to be intoxicated (U.S.): être ivre ♦soft drinks: boissons non-alcoolisées
♦to be tipsy/to be merry: être gai lemonade: limonade
to stagger: chanceler orange squash: orangeade
a hangover: la gueule de bois root-beer: boisson aux extraits de racines
sober: qui n’a pas bu fizzy water: eau pétillante
♦a teetotaler: qui ne boit jamais d’alcool
- a thermos flask: une bouteille thermos 4. Wines and fortified wines:
Vins et vins cuits
2. Hot drinks:
♦wine: vin
Boissons chaudes sweet wine: vin doux, sucré
♦tea: du thé dry wine: vin sec
tea leaves: feuilles de thé mulled wine: vin chaud
a tea bag: un sachet de thé vintage wine: vin millésimé
♦a tea pot: une théière sparkling wine: vin pétillant
the spout: le bec (de la théière) ♦home-made wine: boisson alcoolisée
a tea cosy: un couvre théière fabriquée chez soi
♦to brew tea: préparer le thé ♦sherry: Xérès (Xérès)
♦to boil a kettle: faire bouillir de l’eau sherry from the wood: sherry tiré du fût
to warm the tea pot: ébouillanter la théière port: porto
*to pour: verser cider: cidre
*a tea-cup: une tasse à thé ♦a bottle: une bouteille
♦a tea-spoon: une petite cuillère a cork: un bouchon
♦to stir: remuer ♦a corkscrew: un tire-bouchon
a milk-jug: un pot à lait to uncork: déboucher

( I ) On n'y sert pas de boissons alcoolisées.

146
5. Spirits and liqueurs: 6. Beer: La bière
Spiritueux et liqueurs a barrel: une barrique
liquor: une boisson alcoolisée a keg: un tonneau
a liqueur: une liqueur 'beer: bière
'spirits: spiritueux 'lager: bière de type Scandinave (blonde)
brandy: eau-de-vie *a pint of beer: un demi
Irish whiskey: whisky irlandais draught beer/beer from the tap: bière pression
Rye: whisky canadien 'mild: bière légèrement sucrée (brune)
Bourbon: whisky américain 'bitter: bière amère
'Scotch whisky: whisky écossais flat beer: bière éventée
*a brand: une marque hops: houblon
vodka on the rocks: vodka sur des glaçons barley: orge
potent: fort/alcoolisé a brewery: une brasserie

38.A
Parallel medicine
La médecine parallèle

pour FOR
1. In our modem world pollution is one of the
principaux main problems. What many people do not realize
is that modern medicine is a form of pollution too.
sulfamides/ empoisonnent/sang Antibiotics and sulphamides / poison your blood
sains and vaccines put germs into healthy young bodies.
sans aucun doute Undoubtedly the time has come to revise old
prejudices. A good many people are suspicious of
maux new forms of treating one’s ailments. But why is
largement it that homoeopathy is widely accepted in the
western hemisphere and that acupuncture, which
méfiance is regarded in America with a lot of mistrust, is the
official medicine in China? This should lead people
to think twice before claiming that only what the
ordonne doctor prescribes is correct.
améliorer 2. There is a way of improving certain ailments
which is not accepted by many doctors and which
is absolutely scientific. At the same time it is one of
the oldest therapies existing: it is treatment by
stations thermales/faire une cure water. A lot of people who go to spas/to drink
the waters and have treatment can testify that this
~ les a guéris method did the trick while chemical medicine did
not do anything.
se méfient 3. Some people still mistrust treatment by plants.
But you can find plants which treat every kind of
le plus sain/le plus sûr illness, and it’s the healthiest and safest treatment

147
you can imagine. Why should we consume
produits chimiques chemicals artificially prepared in laboratories
fourni when nature has provided us with all that we need?
grippe For instance when you have flu, why take vitamin
pilules/citrons pills when a couple of lemons will provide you
combattre/maladie with all the vitamins you need to fight the disease?
taureau/comes 4. Which doctor will take the bull by the horns
conseiller/alimentation and advise his patient to change his diet /
radicalement drastically rather than give him a mile-long
ordonnance/huile prescription? The oil and the sugar we consume,
to name only two products, are refined with
santé chemicals and are a real danger for our health.
pain/viande Even our bread is full of chemicals, our meat full
tout à fait of hormones, and it would be quite impossible to
colorants make a list of all the colouring matters, artificial
arômes/substances flavours and preservatives you find in the stuff you
maladies eat. Many illnesses are certainly caused or
aggravated by these additives.
5. The trouble is that when a doctor is
conseiller/radical courageous enough to advise such a drastic
jeûner “treatment” as dieting, he is generally considered
charlatan as a quack. Medical faculties only provide a very
à peine/s’occupent conventional form of teaching and barely/deal
with other forms of medicine. The result is that
guérisseurs healers, who often have no medical qualifications
poursuivis/Ordre des Médecins can be sued by the medical board, but courts of
justice cannot impose forms of medicine that
les malades patients refuse.

contre AGAINST
► prétendent/guéris 1. Some patients claim to have been cured by
healers who have never studied in a medical
faculty. There may be some exceptions, of course,
but if it were so easy to practise medicine, why
étudiants en médecine should medical students have to study from five
diplômés to seven years before qualifying? A doctor has
learned so many things a healer cannot possibly
know. In fact, the success of most healers (because
they do manage to cure some patients) is due to
psychological factors. You find the same thing
tribus/sorciers with the primitive tribes’ / witch-doctors. No
douleurs doubt a good proportion of pains have a mental
origin and unfortunately a lot of doctors are far
beaucoup trop affairés too busy to listen to their patients’ problems. This
occasion is a good opportunity for quacks and healers to
exercise their talents, but when there is a real
impuissants pathological case, they are quite powerless.

148
effets secondaires 2. It is easy to criticize the side-effects of modern
medicine and vaccines, but if penicillin, antibiotics
or sulphamides had not been discovered, millions
encore/sans importance of people would still be dying of trivial illnesses
simple/refroidissement and injuries. Do not forget that a mere/chill
would kill you in the eighteenth century and as
recently as World War 1, gangrene could not be
stopped. As far as vaccines are concerned too,
some individuals may be allergic to them and
éviter should avoid them, but in the nineteenth century
cauchemar tuberculosis was a nightmare for doctors and
grfice à/tuberculose patients. Thanks to the BCG vaccine, T.B. has
supprimée/variole been wiped out just like polio and smallpox.
3. Healers claim that doctors do not believe in
herbes médicinales the curative powers of herbs and plants. This is
tout à fait quite wrong. In fact, a lot of modern treatments
are entirely or partly composed of plants. The only
minuscules thing is that the quantities used are minute and
carefully controlled. This is not always the case
herboristes/quantités with herbalists who tend to give larger amounts of
nuisibles/efficaces herbs which can be harmful or not so efficient.
total 4. Many ecologists now believe in a radical
maux/ont raison change of diet to cure all our ills./ They are
*
en ce qui concerne probably right / as far as the quality of industrially
produced foods goes. But it is dangerous to go too
dangereux far. For instance, it can be hazardous for your
health to become a vegetarian all of a sudden, and
soi-disant the so-called health foods are outrageously
cher expensive. What doctors should certainly
prescribe more is for patients to eat less. It
certainly can do modern man no harm to go on a
diet for some time and practise sport: cycling or
néanmoins jogging. Nevertheless, very few patients have the
volonté/maigrir/trop gros will-power / to slim when they are overweight.
5. Another remedy which could be of great use in
recovering from such illnesses as thrombosis or
congestions cérébrales strokes, is total abstention. It is difficult to
alcool imagine what the ravages of alcohol are doing to
surmenée/tension (nerveuse) our over-worked population. Stress in modern
life is such that a number of people are drinking
médicament whisky as their everyday medicine, with ravaging
effects on the body. But you don’t need to be a
doctor or a healer to advise people to drink less.
It’s a matter of common sense. Unfortunately
however, our materialistic and scientific world
sécrété breeds a strong liking for complicated treatments.
ordonnance The longer your prescription is, the more respect
you have for your doctor and the quicker you think
guéri you will be cured.
Sujets complémentaires, voir p. 263.
149
The body
Le corps (humain)

1. Tissues, bones and the blood: ♦the cheeks: les joues


Les tissus, les os et le sang the complexion: le teint
♦a beard: la barbe
the skeleton: le squelette ♦a moustache: la moustache
the flesh: la chair the jaw: la mâchoire
♦the skin: la peau ♦the chin: Ip menton
a muscle: un muscle
a nerve: un nerf 5. The nose: Le nez
a sinew: un tendon
*a bone: un os ♦the nose: le nez
♦a vein: une veine to sneeze: éternuer
*an artery: une artère to blow one’s nose: se moucher
*the blood: le sang the nostrils: les narines
*to bleed: saigner the adenoids: les végétations
white blood-corpuscles: globules blancs
red blood-corpuscles: globules rouges 6. The eyes: Les yeux
hairs: les poils ♦the eyes: les yeux
the marrow: la moelle the-eyeball: le globe (de l’œil)
the spine/backbone: la colonne vertébrale ♦the eyelids: les paupières
♦the eye-lashes: les cils
2. The vital organs: ♦the eyebrows: les sourcils
Les organes vitaux ♦blind: aveugle
colour blind: daltonien
*the heart: le cœur
to throb: battre 7. The ears: Les oreilles
the spleen: la rate
*the kidneys: les reins ♦the ears: les oreilles
the large intestine: le gros intestin the ear drum: le tympan
the small intestine: l’intestin grêle ♦deaf: sourd
♦the liver: le foie 8. The mouth, the teeth and the
the gall-bladder: la vésicule biliaire
glands: des glandes throat: La bouche, les dents et la
gorge
3. The respiratory system: ♦lips: les lèvres
Le système respiratoire ♦the tongue: la langue
♦the lungs: les poumons ♦the mouth: la bouche
♦to breathe: respirer to spit: cracher
to choke: étouffer ♦a tooth: une dent
to pant: haleter milk teeth: les dents de lait
♦to cough: tousser wisdom teeth: les dents de sagesse
false teeth: un dentier
4. The head: La tête the incisors: les incisives
the canines: les canines
♦the skull: le crâne the premolars: les prémolaires
the scalp: le cuir chevelu the molars: les molaires
♦the head: la tête the gums: les gencives
♦the brain: le cerveau the palate: le palais
♦the hair: les cheveux ♦the throat: la gorge
♦the face: le visage ♦dumb/mute (U.S.): mtiet
the forehead: le front the tonsils: les amygdales

150
9. The trunk of the body: Le tronc the ring finger: 1'annulaire
the little finger: l'auriculaire
*the neck: le cou
♦the chest: la poitrine 11. The sexual organs:
the ribs: les côtes
*the shoulders: les épaules Les organes génitaux
the shoulder-blades: les omoplates the genitals: les organes génitaux
the breasts: les seins the penis: la verge
the nipples: les bouts de seins the testes: les testicules
the waist: la taille the vagina: le vagin
the diaphragm: le diaphragme the womb: l'utérus
*the stomach: l’estomac periods: les règles
the navel: le nombril sanitary towels: des garnitures périodiques

10. Arms and hands: 12. Legs and feet:


Les bras et les mains Les jambes et les pieds
the arm-pit: Vaisselle the hips: les hanches
♦the arms: les bras the buttocks: les fesses
the forearms: les avant-bras the thighs: les cuisses
the biceps: les biceps the knees: les genoux
*the elbow: le coude the calf (pl. calves): le mollet
♦the wrist: le poignet the shin-bone: le tibia
*the hand: la main *the ankle: la cheville
the fist: le poing *the heel: le talon
*the fingers: les doigts *the foot (pl. feet): le pied
*the nails: les ongles the sole: la plante du pied
to bite one’s nails: se ronger les ongles barefoot: nu-pieds
*the thumb: le pouce ♦the toes: les orteils
the index finger: le majeur the big/little toe: le gros/petit orteil

Medicine
La médecine

1. The medical profession: a paediatrician: un pédiatre


an optician: un opticien
Le corps médical a research worker: un chercheur
*the N.H.S.: ~ la Sécurité Sociale *a laboratory: un laboratoire
*a doctor: un docteur
a physician (U.S.): un médecin 2. Illnesses/General symptoms and
a quack: un charlatan medical terms: Maladies/
a healer: un guérisseur Symptômes généraux et termes
a witch doctor: un guérisseur africain,
un sorcier médicaux
*a general practitioner: un généraliste *the health: la santé
*a surgery: le cabinet d’un médecin ♦an illness/an aliment: une maladie
*a patient: un malade ♦to be ill; être malade
♦a nurse: une infirmière *to be sick: être souffrant
a male-nurse: un infirmier sickly: chétif
a sister: une infirmière (d’hôpital) *a pain: une douleur
a matron: une infirmière-chef *a disease: une maladie (contagieuse)
a nanny/a children’s nurse: une bonne d’enfants catching: contagieux
*a specialist: un spécialiste to spread: se répandre
a gynaecologist: un gynécologue *an epidemic: une épidémie

151
an outbreak: une manifestation soudaine *to sneeze: éternuer
d’une épidémie *a headache: un mal de tête
to
*to hurt/
* ache: faire mal a sore throat: un mal de gorge
unbearable: insupportable to be hoarse: être enroué
*to relieve/to soothe: soulager to vomit: vomir
*to avoid: éviter diarrhoea: la diarrhée
*to look after/to nurse: soigner to be constipated: être constipé
*to cure/to heal: guérir an ear-ache: mal aux oreilles
*a prescription: une ordonnance otitis: l’otite
*a medicine: un médicament sinus trouble: la sinusite
an injection/a shot (U.S.): une piqûre
a syringe: une seringue 4. Skin complaints and diseases:
*a chemist: un pharmacien Affections cutanées et maladies
*tablets: des cachets
*pills: des pilules *a spot/a pimple: un bouton (d’acnée)
*sleeping tablets: des somnifères a stye: un orgelet
pessaries/suppositories: des suppositoires a wart: une verrue
*to recover: se rétablir a cyst: un kyste
to get well: aller mieux a blister: une ampoule
a relapse: une rechute a chilblain: une engelure
quarantine: la quarantaine (l’isolement *a burn: une brûlure
médical) the plague: la peste
the side-effects: les effets secondaires leprosy: la lèpre
*a toothache: une rage de dents a leper: un lépreux
a decayed tooth: une dent cariée smallpox: la variole
*a dentist: un dentiste venereal disease (VD): une maladie vénérienne
to extract a tooth: arracher une dent French pox: la vérole
an extraction: une extraction (de dent) 5. Bumps, bruises and broken bones:
a filling: un plombage
the drill: la roulette (du dentiste) Bosses, bleus et fractures
to feel someone’s pulse: a bruise: un bleu
tâter le pouls de quelqu’un a bump: une bosse
to take someone’s blood pressure: to swell: enfler
prendre la tension de quelqu’un a sore: un mal blanc
an allergy: une allergie *to break one’s leg/one’s arm:
to drink the waters at a spa: se casser une jambe/un bras
faire une cure (dans une station thermale) to strain a muscle/a ligament:
*to get drowned: se noyer se claquer/se déchirer un muscle/un ligament
*to drown: noyer to sprain one’s wrist: se fouler le poignet
the kiss of life: le bouche à bouche *an X-ray: une radio
a tonic: un fortifiant a plaster cast: un plâtre
a sling: une écharpe
3. The common cold, fevers and crutches: des béquilles
sickness: a wheel-chair: un fauteuil roulant
Rhume, fièvres et malaises a physiotherapist: un kinésithérapeute
to be lame: boiter
a runny nose: un nez qui coule to be crippled: être paralysé
*to blow one’s nose: se moucher a cripple: un paralytique
a chill: un refroidissement a hunchback: un bossu
*a cold: un rhume a dwarf: un nain
*to catch a cold: prendre froid a giant: un géant
*the flu: la grippe
*to have a fever/to have a temperature: 6. Dressing a wound:
avoir de la température Pansement d’une blessure
*to sweat: suer
pneumonia: la pneumonie *a wound: une blessure (à la guerre)
*to cough: tousser *an injury: une blessure (accident)
a dressing: un pansement eczema: l'eczéma
*cotton wool: du coton rhumatism: des rhumatismes
gauze: de la gaze gout: la goutte
stitches: des agrafes/des points de suture to be tuberculous: être tuberculeux
gut: du Hl (pour points de suture) *a T.B. test: une cuti
*sticking plaster: un pansement adhésif *a blood test: une prise de sang
a bandage: une bande a blood donor: un donneur de sang
typhoid fever: la fièvre typhoïde
7. Hospitals and operations: jaundice: la jaunisse
Hôpitaux et opérations leukaemia: la leucémie
cancer: le cancer
a heart transplant: une greffe cardiaque
to graft: greffer 9. Stress, nervous complaints and
*a hospital: un hôpital mental disorders: Surmenage,
the almoner: l'assistante sociale (à l'hôpital)
a nursing home: une maison de repos troubles mentaux et dérèglements
*an infirmary: un hôpital mentaux
*a sick-room: une infirmerie to faint/to swoon: s’évanouir
a clinic: un dispensaire *to be overworked: être surmené
a private hospital: un hôpital privé, *to be depressed/to be downhearted :
une clinique être déprimé
a ward: une salle d'hôpital *a nervous breakdown: une dépression
a labour-ward: une salle de travail (maternité) nerveuse
a mid-wife: une sage-femme to commit suicide: se suicider
to deliver a baby: accoucher *insane: fou
a miscarriage: une fausse couche sane: sain d’esprit
a delivery: un accouchement *to be mad/to be mental/to be crazy: être fou
*an emergency ward: la salle des urgences a lunatic: un fou
*a surgeon: un chirurgien a maniac: un fou (à lier)
to perform an operation: to need professional help : être déséquilibré
pratiquer une opération a psychologist: un psychologue
appendicitis: une appendicite a psychoanalyst: un psychanaliste
a psychiatrist: un psychiatre
8. Other complaints and illnesses: *a mental hospital: un hôpital psychiatrique
Autres troubles et maladies a lunatic asylum: un asile de fous
a stiff neck: un torticolis an inmate: un pensionnaire (d'hôpital
an ulcer: un ulcère psychiatrique)
*to bleed: saigner a straight jacket: une camisole de force
a haemorrage: une hémorragie a padded cell: une cellule capitonnée
piles/haemorroids: hémorroïdes an outpatient: un patient de jour
*to itch: démanger *to feel tired: se sentir fatigué
*a heart attack: une crise cardiaque *to feel dizzy: avoir des vertiges
*a stroke: une congestion cérébrale *to be exhausted: être épuisé
a fit: une attaque
*to scratch: se gratter 10. Drugs: Drogues
chicken pox: la varicelle *hard/soft drugs: des drogues dures/légères
scarlet fever: la scarlatine hash: le hashish
measles: la rougeole pot/grass: canabis
German measles: la rubéole pot: la drogue
whooping cough: la coqueluche acids (U.S.): les drogues dures (type LSD)
mumps: les oreillons pushers: les revendeurs de drogue
bronchitis: la bronchite junkies: les drogués
tonsilitis: l'amygdalite
tonsils: les amygdales 11. The veterinary surgeon:
hay fever: le rhume des foins Le vétérinaire
asthma: l’asthme
♦a vet: un vétérinaire
foot-and-mouth disease: la fièvre aphteuse
rabies: la rage
153
39.C
The Olympic games and sport
Les jeux olympiques et le sport

(In a London pub, a few weeks before the Olympic


employés d’une compagnie d'assurances games, Tom, Mick and Hughfinsurance company
figés d’une trentaine d’années employees who are in their early thirties are
devant un verre de bière talking sport over a pint of beer.)

tom - Have you ever tried to answer this question


s’entraînent comme des fous - why do athletes train like mad for the Olympic
Games?
Mick - Yes, I have, but I’ve always found the answer
► assez claire was pretty obvious.
hugh - And what is the answer, if I may ask?
gagner Mick - They simply want to win, that’s all.
(ne me) convainc (pas) tom - That argument doesn’t convince me at all.
Mick - Why not?
beaucoup tom - Lots of athletes are realistic enough to know
qu’ils n’ont aucune chance they don’t stand a chance of winning anything.
vrai hugh - That’s not entirely true - champions are
often athletes who have never been heard of before.
seule équipe tom - Yes, but in one single team for example,
there are some favourites and others who know
battre they’ll never beat the better ones.
Mick - Why shouldn’t they try?
hugh - Yes, why not. But you know what serious
entrainement/implique training / implies! In fact athletes sacrifice all their
loisirs leisure hours for the stadium or gymnasium.
tom - Well, they’re probably happier that way.
habitude Mick - Or it becomes a habit, like smoking for
instance. Sometimes they can’t do without it. A
*
entraîneur/ un jour coach / once told me he knew an athlete who had
gagné/course/qui plus est never won a race, / moreover there was no hope of
et cependant his ever winning anything and yet he went on
running three miles a day. That coach assured
me that the man could not possibly live without it.
tom - Some also train hard just for the pleasure
of taking part in the Olympic Games. Because of
drapeaux the ceremony, the flags, the parade, the honours.
ce qu’ils recherchent hugh - No, I don’t think that is what
* they are
païen looking for. I really do believe the pagan aspect
of the meeting is just fantastic. Just think of all the
assister fi people who pay only to attend the opening
J’ose ceremony! But I dare say most athletes are not
préoccupés/
* gloire bothered about their own fame and honour.
tom - So?

154
► aiment hugh - Well, they simply enjoy meeting other
amicale/ambiance young people, the friendly / atmosphere of the
mettre à l’épreuve/possibilités games, and they enjoy testing their ability, their
forme fitness. They want to compare what they can do
with what others can do.
Mick - That’s exactly the spirit that the Marquis de
Coubertin wanted to encourage. But I think you’re
too optimistic.
hugh - Do you mean that in reality it’s different?
tout à fait Mick - Quite.
hugh - In what way?
n’importe quoi Mick - Some people would do anything to succeed,
or (métal)/argent to win a gold, a silver, or even a bronze medal.

tom - Are you suggesting that they dope


themselves?
je crains bien que Mick - I’m afraid some probably do.
hugh - What makes you say that?
me frappe/records mondiaux Mick - It always strikes me that world records are
constantly being broken. I don't think that human
exploits beings can accomplish such feats on physical
ability alone.
contrôles tom - But there do exist serious anti-dope checks,
you know.
principalement Mick - Oh, they mainly consist of a urine analysis.
Some forms of doping are so sophisticated that
they are hard to discover.
hugh - Such as?
Mick - Well, you’ve probably heard of that
technique which consists of extracting a certain
sang quantity of an athlete’s blood a few weeks or days

155
la compétition before the contest and re-injecting it the day
ainsi/» coup de fouet before, thus giving him a boost.
tom - Yes, but that’s not a drug.
Mick - But it's a form of doping all the same.
hugh -1 don’t see what could encourage athletes to
mettre en péril do such a thing and take the risk of jeopardizing
carrière their career just to win a medal which won’t bring
them any money. I don’t think the end justifies
les moyens the means. Also, when you speak of breaking
entièrement records you’re leaving out altogether the type
de nos jours of training athletes have nowadays, which is much
more technical than it used to be.
tom - But the training shouldn’t be technical. It
transforms ordinary athletes into supermen.
natation Mick - It’s true that often female swimming
épaules champions don’t have very feminine shoulders!
autre chose tom - There’s something else you just said with
affirmez which I disagree. You claim that athletes wouldn't
take drugs just to win a medal. You simply forget
pression that in some countries the social pressure is such
» qui n’arrive pas à gagner that the athlete who fails to win is considered to
une espèce/traître be a kind of traitor.
tu fais allusion à Mick - You’re alluding to the Eastern European
countries I suppose.
tom - Not only there - you find the same
phenomenon in America.
niveau/cependant hugh - Not at national level, / though.
tom - No, but some universities have spent so
much money on the training of an athlete that
it’s difficult to accept that he shouldn’t win.
rêve Mick - I must say also that I sometimes dream of
some kind of Olympic Games in which only
je veux dire ordinary young people would participate. I mean
people who would have had a normal training and
poids who would not feel the weight of their country’s
reputation on their shoulders.
hugh - Oh, that’s a real problem. When an athlete
concitoyens wins a gold medal his fellow country-men adore
s’il échoue/blâment him. If he fails, they blame him.
la politique/s’est immiscée Mick - And recently politics have interfered with
the Olympic Games too.
quel dommage tom - Yes, what a shame it was when some
countries were excluded for political reasons, as
» étaient coupables if the athletes from these countries were to blame.
hugh - And so they had trained for nothing. How
décevant disappointing!
tom - Yes, I find it unacceptable that politicians
should be allowed to decide about such things - one
country is excluded for political reasons or, if it is
•e retirent not, others withdraw also for political reasons.

156
and no one seems to bother about the athletes'
sentiments feelings.
Mick - The solution would be for all athletes to take
► à titre personnel part as private persons.
hugh - There would be no flags, no national
hymnes anthems. The games would lose a lot of their
apparat interest, as well as their pomp and circumstance.
cependant Mick - Yes, but they would gain in interest, though.
If they’re not careful, money is going to interfere
too.
hugh - Oh, it does in many other competitions.
Why has the “Tour de France” become so
uninteresting for many? Because the race is
organized on lucrative terms, that’s all.
c’est bien dommage/et pourtant tom - It’s a great pity,/and yet sportsmen must
gagner/paln quotidien earn their bread and butter like other people.
bourses Mick - They could get grants from their
governments.
A tout prix hugh - Yes, but then they feel obliged to win *at all
costs.
obligatoire mick - So it should be compulsory for them to
have a job.
tom - But when would they have time to train?
exige Serious training demands several hours a day,
au moins at least. It’s a vicious circle.
cela nécessite mick - It needs several hours a day because we
supposons assume that records will always be broken, which
1 personally find ridiculous as well as impossible.
hugh - But sport would lose most of its attraction
if only ordinary performances were attained.
a donner son maximum *do
milk - Can’t one just enjoy watching an athlete
his best?
passionnant hugh - It's thrilling for the fans, but uninteresting
for the others.
spectacle mick - Then they need a sort of show, they don’t
need ordinary sportsmen but athletic monsters.
où se trouve la différence tom - It’s a paradox, and this is probably
*
where
the difference lies between those who practise sport
and those who don’t.
mick - Do you mean that those who don’t practise
s’attendent â sport expect much better performances from
athletes?
oui TOM - I do.
mick - Then sport is a bit like literature. People
vies don't generally like to read about lives and
aussi terre A terre adventures as down to earth as their own.
romanciers tom - That’s it. And yet recently a lot of novelists
► non sans succès *quite
have started to write about ordinary people
successfully.
mick - So now, just as we have anti-heroes in

157
literature, perhaps we’ll have anti-superathletes in
the future?
hugh - Who knows?
Sujets complémentaires, voir p. 263.

Sport
Le sport

1. Athletics and sportsgrounds:


Athlétisme et terrains de sport ♦the goal keeper: le gardien de but
*an athlete: un athlète the kick-off: le coup d’envoi
*a competition: une épreuve ♦the half-time: la mi-temps
a coach: un entraîneur a centre forward: un avant-centre
the training: l'entraînement a full back: un arrière
*a referee: un arbitre ♦to score: marquer
*a championship: un championnat we drew: nous avons fait match nul
*a record: un record the game was a draw: il y a eu match nul
*a sportsground: un terrain de sports/ un stade football pools: les paris sur
a stadium: un stade les matchs de football
the stands: les tribunes ♦to win: gagner
the onlookers/the spectators: les spectateurs ♦to lose: perdre
the skill: l'habileté *to beat: battre
to bounce: rebondir a foui: une faute (du joueur)
a spring-board: un tremplin ♦a team: une équipe
the trampoline: le trempolin to be off-side: être hors-jeu
to toss up: tirer au sort (avec une pièce) the net: le filet
*to leap: sauter/bondir
to hurl: lancer 4. Rugby football: Le rugby
*a track suit: un survêtement ♦rugby league: le rugby à treize
*exciting: passionnant/palpitant rugby union: le rugby à quinze
♦I’m not very fit, I’m afraid: j’ai bien a forward: un avant
peur de ne pas être en forme a try: un essai
to convert a try: transformer un essai
2. Mountaineering and winter sports: France vs England: France contre Angleterre
Escalade et sports d’hiver he had a try for France which he converted (1):
il a marqué un essai pour la France qu’il a
a climber: un alpiniste transformé
climbing: l’alpinisme the English were forced to defend for much of
a rucksack: un sac à dos the time : les Anglais furent dominés la plupart
a sledge: une luge du temps
a sleigh: un traîneau the England backs showed they could be
♦skiing: le ski dangerous: les arrières anglais montrèrent
a skilift: un remonte-pente qu’ils pouvaient être dangereux.
the ski sticks: les bâtons de ski thanks to a long and accurate pass of scrum­
pot-holing: la spéléologie half Steve Smith...: grâce à une passe longue
et précise du demi de mêlée Steve Smith...
3. Soccer: Le football J.B. Aguirre was forced to leave the pitch
♦soccer: le football shortly before half-time and was replaced
a football ground: un terrain de football by René Bugescan: J.B. Aguirre fut obligé
♦a game: un match de quitter le terrain peu avant la mi-temps et
♦the goal: le but fut remplacé par René Bugescan
(I) Ces cinq exemples sont tirés d’un article du Sunday Times.

158
5. Golf and cricket: to ride pillion: monter en croupe
Le golf et le cricket a race course: un champ de course
a groom: un palefrenier
a golf club: un club de golf a steeplechase: une course d'obstacles
golf links: un terrain de golf to rear: se cabrer
cricket: le cricket
a wicket: un guichet (cricket) 8. Water sports and skating:
*a bat: une batte Sports aquatiques et patinage
an umpire: un arbitre (cricket)
♦swimming: la natation
6. Shooting, fencing, wrestling, etc. ♦a s wlm min g-pool: une piscine
Le tir. l'escrime, la lutte, etc. the shallow-end: le petit bain
the deep end: le grand bain
stilts: des échasses a paddling pool: le bain ou bassin
archery: le tir à l'arc des tout-petits
•a bow: un arc ♦a bathlng-costume/bathlng trunks/
♦an arrow: une flèche a swimming costume: un maillot de bain
♦fencing: l'escrime to dive: plonger
a fencing bout: un assaut d’escrime a divlng-board: un plongeoir
♦wrestling: la lutte/le catch I'm in my depth: j'ai pied
♦ahootlng: le tir to be out of one's depth: ne plus avoir pied
a ahootlng range: un stand de tir Pm out of my depth: je n’ai plus pied
to learn to swim: apprendre à nager
7. Equestrian sports: to swim side-stroke: nager è l'indienne
Sports équestres to awlm breast-stroke: nager à la brasse
♦races: les courses de chevaux to crawl: nager le crawl/ramper
back-crawl: le dos crawlé
♦to bet: parier
Ice-skating: le patinage
a bet: un pari
akatlng-boots: des patins à glace
a race-horae: un cheval de course
akatlng-rlnk: une patinoire
♦riding: l'équitation
roller-skating: le patinage è roulettes
♦to ride aide aaddle: monter en amazone
a regatta: une régate
to ride aetrlde: monter à califourchon

__________________ 40.A
Smoking: an expensive way of killing oneself
Lejabac : un moyen onéreux de se supprimer

considéré 1. Tobacco is a drug and must be held to be as


drogués such. Smokers are addicted to it when they oan't
(U.S.) abandonner quit smoking. The funny thing is that lots of
gros fumeurs chain-amokera disapprove of drugs, not knowing
that tobacco is one.

nuisible 2. Tobacco is very harmful. If you blow the


boufféee/poumonc equivalent of two puffs into a rat’s lungs, it dies
en moins de within a few minutes.

eapiror 3. Have you ever tried to breathe out tobacco


mouchoir en papier smoke through a tissue? You will have seen a big
tache yellowiah stain on it. This is what goes into your
lungs when you inhale tobacco smoke.

139
4. If you take into account the fact that a heavy
en gros smoker lives roughly eight years less than a non-
on additionne smoker, and if you add up the prices of ail the
packets of cigarettes smoked in a life-time, you will
vraiment realize that tobacco is indeed a very expensive way
of killing yourself.
rapporte 5. Tobacco costs more to the State than i "brings
in. While taxes on cigarettes and tobacco bring in
maladies/ ~ causées £5 million, diseases / stemming from smoking cost
the National Health Service £18 million.
6. A man who does not smoke can contract lung
cancer, but one who smokes twenty cigarettes a
celui qui day has fifteen more chances of getting it and"he
cigarettes par jour who smokes sixty cigarettes a day has sixty more
chances of getting it.
7. Cancer is not the only danger you run if you
smoke. Many other diseases are caused or
aggravées/cœur worsened by tobacco: heart diseases and
inflammation of the arteries sometimes leading to
amputation are two of them.
prétendent 8. Many people claim that smoking helps them
to think over a problem. This is scientifically
*
cerveau/ fonctionne wrong. It has been proved that the brain / works
slower when you smoke, just like the lungs.
9. Do you know many sportsmen who also
smoke? It is quite impossible to smoke and practise
sport seriously.
10. What is the most dangerous in a cigarette:
goudron/feuilles nicotine, tar, the paper round the leaves, or the>
énorme/chaleur tremendous / heat which comes out of the cigarette
si près/lèvres so close to the lips? All are harmful. Nobody
would agree to live with a flame burning constantly
cependant near his lips. Smokers do though! Workmen who
étalent spread tar on the roads are said to do dangerous
work, but smokers inhale tar all their lives.
Between 60 milligrammes and 120 milligrammes
mortel of nicotine are lethal, and smokers breathe in
2 milligrammes with each cigarette.
inconscients 11. Are smokers definitely unaware of these
dangers? Some are, but most are intelligent enough
to realize that they are putting their lives in
danger jeopardy. Nevertheless, they can’t give up smoking
drogués because they are addicts. When they do try, they
irritables lose their appetite and become very irksome, which
shows well enough how dependent they have
become on tobacco. The best thing to do is
assuredly never to start smoking. But on the

160
contrary more and more young people are tending
car to smoke. At least in Europe, for in the U.S.A, a
un bon nombre good many teenagers disapprove of smoking.
pour une fois Perhaps the Americans could for once send us
saine/habitude over this new healthy / habit?
voir vocabulaire p. 150, 151. Sujets complémentaires, voir p. 263.

41.C
Hunting
La chasse
(A discussion between Gerald, a hunter, and
S.P.A. Monica, a member of the R.S.P.C.A.).

Monica - Where’ve you been?


je viens de passer mon examen (écrit) Gerald - I’ve just been sitting for my exam.
m. - What exam?
qui vous permettent g. - You know, the new tests which enable you to
permis de chasse get a shooting-licence.
m. - Oh, I see. I think it’s a good idea. Do you
» tu l’as réussi think you've passed it?
» je m'attends à ce que beaucoup de gens g. - I hope so, but I expect a good many people will
échoué have failed. They asked us a question about
protected birds.
aigles m. - I could have answered that one: eagles, /
faucons/hiboux falcons and owls, are all protected.
proie g. - And a few others too. In fact all birds of prey
are.
tes aptitudes de tireur m. - Did they test your ability to shoot?
supposent g - No. 1 suppose they assume we can all shoot
» correctement straight.
m. - That’s not always the case. You often read
about accidents during the shooting season.
g. - 1 know, it’s generally on the openingday. Some
chasseurs ne font pas assez attention sportsmen are not cautious enough. Thej^aim at a
visent un lièvre/effrayé hare they’ve startled and they shoot their own dog.
Anyway, I don’t feel concerned about shooting, as
chasse i courre I only hunt.
m. - Do you really?
g. - Yes, I do. 1 usually hunt with my uncle on his
domaine estate down south.
m. - What do you hunt?
renards/daims g. - Oh, most of the time foxes, but sometimes deer
cerfs or stags.
m. - 1 can't imagine you taking part in such a cruel
sport.
G. - Sportsmen don’t find it cruel. In fact we're
doing a useful job. When we hunt foxes we kill

161
répandent la rage animals which spread rabies and when we hunt
malade/» ainsi deer we usually kill an old or ailing animal, thus
» harde/nous nous débarrassons limiting the population of the herd. Andewe are
getting rid of animals which might contaminate
the others too.
meute de m. - But a deer which is hunted by a pack of
chiens de chasse/» n’a aucune chance hounds / doesn’t stand a chance of escaping.
une fois sur trois g. - That’s wrong. On one occasion out of three the
animal escapes.
► tirer m. - But what pleasure can you derive from such a
sport?
rendez-vous de chasse g. -1 like the atmosphere of the meet, the huntsmen
» rouge/éperons étincelants in pink, their spurs glittering in the sun, their
culottes breeches, riding-boots, the horses, the hounds
» aboient/cor de chasse which cry when they hear the sound of th^iunting-
» lâche horn or before the master unleashes them...
à proprement parler m. - Well, all that is before the actual hunt, but what
have you got to say about the end of it, when they
sonnent/l’hallali/assistent à la curée sound / the mort, when they are in at the death,
entrailles when they give the entrails to the hounds? You
pleure know that a deer weeps when it realises it can’t
get away?
affreux g. - Speaking of it in cold blood, it does seem awful,
en plein dedans but when you’re in the thick of it you’re so excited
une arrière-pensée that you don't give these things a second thought.
And a young animal always has a good chance of
getting away.
m. - You can’t get out of it by saying that a young
à cheval animal might escape. You are all on horseback,
les rabatteurs you have a pack of hounds, the beaters are
» les chances there to help you. I still think the odds are against
the deer.
chasse (au fusil) G. - Well, what do you think about shooting, then?
favorable à m. - I’m not particularly in favour of that either. I
don’t think it’s fair to let dozens of sportsmen and
their dogs invade a forest. It’s not shooting - it’s
a massacre. It’s almost as if the beaters brought
laisse/fusils the animals on a lead just in front of the guns.
g. - You exaggerate a great deal. Most sportsmen
respect the rules.
m. - Which rules?
G. - Well, for instance in duck shooting you never
» un canard qui s’est posé shoot at a sitting-duck.
néanmoins, je me demande m. - Nevertheless, I wonder what pleasure one can
get from shooting.
en plein air g. - It’s mainly the pleasure of walking in the open,
un contact étroit of establishing a close contact with nature, the love
of animals...
m. - The love of animals! You must be joking! How
can you love animals and kill them at the same
time?

162
G. - It’s surprising if you’ve never hunted or gone
shooting yourself, but we do love animals all the
same.
m. - You love them so much that you kill them and
then eat them.
vous vous trompez g. - You’re getting confused - we rarely eat the
qui plus est animals we kill. Moreover, if there were no
shooting, the animal world would be overpopulated
incapable de vivre de and they would be unable to live off their natural
environment.
m. - That’s an easy excuse.
G. - No, it’s scientific. In fact in Switzerland, in the
National Park of the Greylands, the deer
population had grown so much that a shooting­
la réduire party was organized to cut it down.
m. - That’s a different problem. If there had been
prédateurs/loups predatory animals such as wolves or lynx in the
park, the number of deer would never have reached
that critical point.
G. - Well, man is a predatory animal, like the others.
m. - Except that a wolf, for example, will use its
ses griffes/ses mâchoires instinct, its sense of smell, its claws, I its jaws, its
jumelles teeth. A man will use binoculars, landrovers,
tours de guet watch towers, dogs, walkie-talkies.
s’applique aux braconniers g. - This applies to poachers, not to real sportsmen.
» respectons As 1 told you before, we abide by many rules.
m. - But when you shoot a rabbit or a hare with
chevrotine/du plomb buckshot or even small shot, you’re almost sure
to hit the animal as there are seven hundred shots
cartouche in a cartridge.
des balles g. - Some use bullets and I can assure you it's very
sanglier hard to kill a wild boar, for instance, with a bullet.
digne d’un chasseur m. - It would be even more sportsman-like to do it
épieu with a spear.
arc/fliche/couteau de chasse g. - Or with a bow and arrow - or why not a *bowie

163
knife?
m. - Of course I’m joking, but what strikes me is
jeu de cache-cache that in this hide-and-seek game with death the
hunter or the sportsman is never killed by the
animal.
g. - Except on safaris in Africa. Your life is always
en jeu at stake when you aim at a charging buffalo.
m. - That’s a different matter. I’m speaking of
dans nos régions hunting and shooting in our parts. I’ll tell you
m'inquiète what worries me.
g. - What is it?
► vous autres m. - I think you people take a perverse pleasure
in killing animals. You have an instinct to kill and
you express it quite legally when hunting.
je nie absolument g. - I utterly deny your interpretation, but in war
don’t people kill and aren’t they even paid fordoing
so?
m. -1 disapprove of that too - but one has to do
one’s duty. On the contrary it’s among those who
enjoy killing animals that war criminals are proba­
bly recruited.
vous me mettez en boite g - 1 only hope you’re having me on!
m - I am - but I’ll tell you what type of hunting I
really like.
g - What type?
m - It’s the hunting you find in the fantastic film
called “Count Zarov’s hunting grounds”.
g. - What’s it all about?
m. - Count Zarov is a hunter who hunts a special
normal type of game : men. I think it’s only fair. If such
hunting really existed 1 would volunteer.
g. - Look who was talking about perverse pleasure!
je vous faisais marcher/je dois partir m. - 1 was pulling your leg. Anyway I must be off.
I’m going to dine at the “Café de France”.
chic g - Oh, that’s a posh place - what’s their speciality?
le gibier m - You’ll never guess - venison!
Sujets complémentaires, voir p. 263.
Hunting
La chasse

1. The hunter and his pack: “the hounds: les chiens (de chasse)
to cry (1): aboyer
Le chasseur et sa meute “the pack: la meute
“hunting: chasse à courre the scent: l'odorat
“shooting: la chasse a pointer: un chien d’arrêt
“a huntsman/hunter dressed in pink: “a poacher: un braconnier
un chasseur à courre habillé en rouge “a gamekeeper: un garde-chasse
“a sportsman: un chasseur (à pied) “a trap: un piège
“a hunting horn: un cor de chasse a game-bag: une carnassière
the beat: la battue a hunting-licence: un permis de chasse
a beater: un rabatteur “a gun: un fusil
H) Uniquement pour le» chiens de chasse (pour les autres “aboyer" - to bark).

164
small-shot: du plomb a grouse (pl. grouse): grouse/coq de bruyère
buck-shot; de la chevrotine ♦game: le gibier (à poils) * venison: gibier (viande)
♦to miss: manquer *a stag: un cerf
*■ track/
*
! trail; une piste a roe-buck: un chevreuil
a doe: une biche
2. The quarry: Le gibier *a fox: un renard
a wlld-boar: un sanglier
a species: une espèce *a hare: un lièvre
conservation: la protection *a rabbit: un lapin
game-birds: gibier ù plumes a badger: un blaireau
*a pheasant; un faisan a beaver: un castor
*a partridge: une perdrix a skunk: un putois (U.S.), une mouffette (G.B.)
a quail: une caille to stink: puer

Fishing and water animals


La pêche et les animaux aquatiques

1. Fish: Les poissons a sperm whale: un cachalot


a school of whales: un troupeau de baleines
a shoal of fish: un banc de poissons a whaler: une baleinière
♦a cod (I): une morue *a dolphin: un dauphin
a hake (I): un colin a porpoise: un marsouin
a halibut (I): un flétan
*a sardine; une sardine a seal : un phoque
*a tuna fish: un thon 4. Other water creatures:
*a salmon (I): un saumon Autres créatures aquatiques
an eel: une anguille
*a trout (1): une truite a turtle: une tortue
*a perch (I): une perche a starfish: une étoile de mer
*a sole (I): une sole. a Jelly-flsh: une méduse
*haddock (I): du haddock an octopus: une pieuvre
a shark: un requin a squld/an Ink-flsh: un calmar
a glll: une branchie *sea-weed ( I ): des algues
*a flsh-bone: une arête a mermaid: une sirène
plankton: du plancton
2. Shell-fish, etc.:
Coquillages, crustacés, etc. 5. Fishing: La pêche
■hell-flsh: des coquillages angling: la pêche à la ligne
an angler: un pêcheur ù la ligne
*a lobster: un homard a fisherman: un pêcheur (professionnel)
a splny-lobster: une langouste *a fishing-rod: une cnnne À pêche
♦a crab: un crabe *a flshlng-llne: une ligne
*an oyster: une huître a hook: un hameçon
*a mussel: une moule a bait: un appAt
a cockle: une coque (animal) a worm: un ver de terre
a crayfish: une écrevisse
the float: le bouchon (flotteur)
♦a shrimp: une crevette grise a flshlng-net: un filet
a prawn: une crevette rouge a flshlng-llcence: un permis de pêche
*a shell: une coquille to cast the line: lancer la ligne
to bite: mordre (A l'hameçon)
3. Water mammals: to pull In the line: tirer la ligne
Mammifères marins undersea fishing: pêche sous-marine
*a whale: une haleine (I) mot invariable

163
42. A a____________________
Is it possible to make good films out of literary masterpieces?
Peut-on faire de bons films à partir de chefs-d’œuvre littéraires?

pour FOR
gagne 1. A novel always gains something in being
metteur en scène adapted by a film director. When you watch a film
made from a novel you have read, you always get
personnages the impression that the characters have really
come to life. A real face and a real voice are put
paysages/cadres (de l’action) to a name, the landscapes and settings appear. The
sounds and all that you only imagined, and most
ajoutent of all the music, add another dimension.
2. In the film made from Shakespeare's
“Hamlet” for instance, the scene of the famous
monologue/exceptionnelle soliloquy is outstanding. Laurence Olivier
rôle (playing the part of Hamlet) is sitting at the top of
» près a tower by the sea. You can hear the noise of the
vagues/musique de fond waves and the background music creates the right
état d’âme mood. Hamlet does not speak, you can simply
souligne hear his voice far off, and the music underlines
the pathetic passages. All these effects are non­
existent when you read the play, or even when it is
jouée sur scène performed on the stage, where the actor is obliged
to say the soliloquy.
3. Take Fielding’s “Tom Jones”. Like most
œuvres eighteenth century works, it is long and even
ennuyeux/renoncent boring to read, and most people give up after a few
► tourné chapters. But the film shot from it had a charm,
clavecin a vivacity, a rhythm (underlined by the harpsichord
roman music) that the novel could not possibly give. All
the long scenic descriptions were replaced by
prises de vue several beautiful shots, and the boring descriptions
suppressed. Exactly the same impression was
given by “Barry Lindon”.
4. Cinema even encourages people to read works
autrement/► restées of art which otherwise could have remained
unknown. When Truffaut’s “Jules and Jim” came
out, who had ever heard of the book? It soon
became a best-seller, and the readers were not at
déçus all disappointed. For them the characters in the
book had the faces and voices of the actors in the
film.

166
5. Who can now speak of Alan Sillitoe’s novel
“Saturday night and Sunday morning” without
also mentioning the film? The two have become
étroitement liés so entwined that many people could not even say
which they saw (or read) first. “Saturday night and
Sunday morning” is now as much a film as a book,
and the same thing goes for “Room at the Top”.
contre AGAINST
1. The cinema can never do justice to the novel,
trahir it can only betray it. The novel is always much
richer than the film. There is so much in a book
which never appears in a film. Cinema is good
pour rendre/sentiments for rendering the actions, but not the feelings. If a
film had to reproduce all the dialogues you find in
► très a book, it would be most boring. Another danger
gardera is that the film director will retain only one aspect
« Docteur Jivago » of a novel and forget about the rest. In * “Dr
Zhivago” for instance, the film does not make it
cœur/hésite clear why Zhivago’s heart/wavers between his
wife and his mistress. This important aspect of the
main character’s personality is made very clear in
the book.
2. You are often disappointed by a film made
vous avez aimé from a book you enjoyed. The characters,
especially, are not always what you had imagined.
A juste titre/interdit/en images Flaubert rightfully / forbade any pictorial
reproduction of his characters. He wanted each
selon reader to imagine them according to his own
imagination fancy and environment.
malheureusement 3. Unfortunately all film-directors are not
également/doués/maitrisé equally / gifted and have not all mastered their art.
When a film is technically bad, the novel will lose
potentiels some of its would-be readers.
4. Long novels are practically impossible to
adapt. All directors who have tried to make a film
Guerre et Paix/échoué from “War and Peace” have failed. How can one
render one thousand pages of writing in three or
even four hours? Sometimes certain scenes of a
book cannot be reproduced. For instance in
Les Hauts de Hurlevent/déterre “Wuthering Heights” when Heathcliff digs up Ca­
cadavre/cimetière thy’s body in the snow-covered churchyard, the
bouleversante reader finds the scene heart-rending. The film only
made the same scene rather ridiculous and far­
tirée par les cheveux fetched.

167
5. Literature and cinema are two forms of art
and each has its own originality. There is no real
reason for film-makers to look to novels for
toute prête inspiration, except to find a ready-made story.
There is practically no writer who can make a
decent book out of a film, so why should film
directors want to do the opposite? Cinema is a
qui ne doit rien mature form of art which owes nothing to other
suédois forms of art. Just look at the Swedish director
conteur/plume/caméra Ingmar Bergman. He is a philosopher or’story-
teller whose pen is quite simply the movic-camera.
Sujets complémentaires, voir p. 263.

Entertainment - games - festivals and holidays


Divertissements - jeux - fêtes légales et vacances

THE THEATRE: LE THÉÂTRE *the make-up: le maquillage


an extra: un figurant
1. The cast and the performance: the prompter: le souffleur
La distribution et la représentation *to prompt: souffler

*the theatre: le théâtre


3. The audience: Le public
*a company: une troupe
a tour: une tournée to boo: huer - siffler
a director: un directeur de compagnie, encore: bis
un metteur en scène the applause: les applaudissements
*the acting: le jeu (des acteurs) *to applaud/to clap: applaudir
*an actor/actress: un acteur/une actrice *the audience: l’assistance/le public/
the leading man/lady: les spectateurs
le 1er rôle masculin/féminin the stalls: les fauteuils (d'orchestre)
an understudy: une doublure the dress circle: le balcon
to take the part of...: jouer le rôle de... a box: une loge
I was trying to recall the name of the actor: the pit: le parterre
j'essayais de me souvenir du nom de l'acteur a seat/a revolving seat: une place/un
*to act/to play: jouer (au théâtre) strapontin
*to perform: représenter - jouer a row: une rangée (de sièges)
♦a performance: une représentation the gods: le poulailler .
an award: une récompense - un prix *the cloakroom: le vestiaire
the cast: la distribution it’s stifling inside:
*to rehearse: répéter c’est étouffant à l’intérieur
a dress rehearsal: une avant-première *to cancel: annuler
the first night: la première *to postpone: remettre-repousser-reporter
*the interval: l’entr’acte THE CINEMA: LE CINÉMA

2. Backstage: Les coulisses *cinema: le cinéma


the safety curtain/the iron-curtain: *a film/a movie (U.S.): un film
le rideau de fer a trailer: une bande de présentation
*the stage: la scène a documentary film: un documentaire
*the scenery: les décors *a cartoon: un dessin animé
backstage/the wings: les coulisses *a thriller: un film angoissant
the limelights: les feux de la rampe *a producer: un producteur
a dressing room: une loge d'artiste *a film director: un metteur en scène

168
it's pathetic/it's cissy: c'est bête/c'est cucu *a trumpet: une trompette
it's awful/it's hopeless/it's lousy (l):c'est moche a French horn: un cor anglais
it's moving: c'est émouvant an oboe: un hautbois
to be retained: tenir l'affiche (en exclusivité) a double bass: une contrebasse
♦a movie camera: une caméra a chord: un accord
to dub a film: doubler un film ♦the drums: la batterie
*an organ: un orgue
TELEVISION, RADIO AND *a choir: une chorale
RECORDINGS: TELEVISION, RADIO ET a chorus: un chœur
ENREGISTREMENTS to sing out of tune: chanter faux
gregorian chant: le chant grégorien
*a camera: un appareil-photo *the conductor: le chef d’orchestre
the lens: la lentille/l'objectif *the leader: le premier violon
*colour television: la télévision en couleurs a beat: une mesure
the aerial/the antenna: l'antenne to beat time: battre la mesure
*the TV viewers: les téléspectateurs the treble clef: la clef de sol
a TV valve: une lampe (d’appareil de TV)
*a TV set: un appareil de TV
the wireless: la TSF MISCELLANEOUS: DIVERS
*a transistor: un transistor
frequency modulation: la modulation 1. Children’s entertainments:
de fréquence Divertissements pour les enfants
a signature tune: un indicatif
*to record: enregistrer a pageant: une reconstitution historique
*an L.P./a long playing record: un microsillon (un défilé)
a record sleeve: une pochette de disque a punch and judy show: un spectacle de
a groove: un sillon (de disque) marionnettes
*a record player: un électrophone *a puppet: un pantin
the arm: le bras (de l'électrophone) a pantomime: une pantomime
the stylus: le saphir *a fair: une fête
*a merry-go-round: un manège
MUSIC, INSTRUMENTS AND THE candy floss/cotton candy (U.S.): de la barbe à
ORCHESTRA: MUSIQUE, papa
INSTRUMENTS ET ORCHESTRE *a swing: une balançoire
a slide: un toboggan
a tune: un air ♦fireworks: un feu d'artifices
a fan: un fan(atique) bonfires: des feux de joie
a mouth organ: un harmonica firecrackers: des pétards
*to play the piano: jouer du piano a kite: un cerf-volant
the keyboard: le clavier a conjuror: un prestidigitateur
to play the guitar: jouer de la guitare a trick: un tour
the music score: les partitions
♦a flute: une flûte 2. Games: Jeux
a flautist: un flûtiste ♦to play hide and seek: jouer à cache-cache
a harp: une harpe backgammon: le jacquet
a harpsichord: un clavecin ♦chess: les échecs
the strings: les cordes ♦draughts: les dames
a violin: un violon billiards: le billard
a cello: un violoncelle a billiard cue: une queue de billard
the bow: l'archet talcum powder: du talc
the brass and strings: chalk dust: de la poussière de craie
les cuivres et les cordes (instruments) a pool room (U.S.): une académie de billard
a bassoon: un basson ♦to play bowls: jouer aux boules
*a clarinet: une clarinette ♦a game of: une partie de...

(I) Argotique.

169
3. Card games: August bank holiday: un jour férié en août
Jeux de cartes Labour Day (U.S.):
la fête du travail aux USA (septembre)
*a card-game: un jeu de cartes Thanksgiving Day (U.S.):
to shuffle the cards: battre les cartes
la fête d’action de grâce aux USA (Novembre)
to deal the cards: distribuer les cartes
All Souls: le jour des Morts
ace: l’as
Hallowe’en: la fête des sorcières
joker: le joker
Ail Saints Day: la Toussaint
diamonds: carreau
Guy Fawkes: le 5 novembre (complot des
hearts: cœur
poudres)
spades: pique
Poppy Day: le 11 novembre
clubs: trèfle
Half term: les petites vacances
Queen: la reine
*Christmas (Xmas): Noël
King: le roi
*Father Christmas/Santa Claus (U.S.):
Jack/Knave: le valet le Père Noël
a gambler: un joueur Boxing day: le 26 décembre
*to cheat: tricher New Year’s Eve: la St Sylvestre
4. Dancing: La danse *New Year’s Day: le jour de l’an
*to dance: danser Twelfth Night: la nuit des rois
*a dance-hall: un dancing Shrove Tuesday: Mardi gras
a disco: une discothèque (pop) St Valentine’s Day: la St Valentin
to tap-dance: faire les claquettes a* Valentine: une carte pour la St Valentin
Lent: le carême
FESTIVALS AND HOLIDAYS: Mid-Lent: la mi-carême
FETES VOTIVES ET VACANCES Carnival: le Carnaval
Easter-week: la semaine Sainte
*the summer vacation/
the
* summer holidays: Ash Wednesday: le mercredi des Cendres
les grandes vacances Maundy Thursday: le jeudi Saint
*to go on holiday: partir en vacances Good Friday: le Vendredi Saint
the Queen’s official birthday: *Easter: Pâques
l’anniversaire officiel de la reine (juin) April Fool’s Day: le 1er avril
Bastille Day: le 14 juillet Ascension: l’Ascension
Assumption Day: l'Assomption *Whitsun: la Pentecôte

Art
L’art
1. The work of art: a gouache: une gouache
L’œuvre d’art
*the foreground: le premier plan 2. The artist and his tools:
the middle-distance: le second plan
*the background: l’arrière-plan
L’artiste et ses instruments
to stand out sharply against...: *an artist: un artiste (peintre)
se découper net sur... *an artist’s studio: un atelier de peinture
with a background of light: à contre-jour *a brush: un pinceau/une brosse
♦a still-life: une nature morte the artist’s palette: la palette du peintre
*life-size: grandeur nature a tube of paint: un tube de peinture
*striking: frappant an easel: un chevalet
a shade: nuance a stool: un tabouret
fanciful: fantaisiste a model: un modèle
*a masterpiece: un chef d’œuvre brush-work: la facture
*an art gallery: une galerie d’art the frame: le cadre
*a painting: un tableau the canvas: la toile
a lithography: une lithographie varnish: du vernis
*a drawing: un dessin *a patron: un protecteur/un mécène

170
43. C
Is television the new opium of the people?
La télévision est-elle le nouvel opium du peuple?

dîner (ver* 18 h) (In an English home at tea-time)

veux-tu allumer dad - Peter - will you switch on the television


please?
franchement/depuia le moment où mum - Honestly, Dad, ever since you bought a
pocte/marehe colour set our television is on night and day. You
► t’abetenlr pendant que could at least refrain while we’re having our
evening meal.
arrête de rouspéter dad - Stop grumbling, Mum. You know I enjoy
watching the news when I'm eating.
■enté mum - It’s bad for your health - you don’t even see
pour ne pas mentionner what you’re eating, not to mention conversation,
which is impossible.
peter - Dad, there’s a problem - there’s nothing
la première chaîne on channel one.
dad - Try channel two, then.
peter - It’s exactly the same, and on channel three
floue the picture is blurred.
► en panne dad - Don’t tell me the set is already out of order!
* bouton
ce * eemblent bien marc peter - The knobs seem to be working all right.
antenne Perhaps the aerial has something to do with it, or
la société émettrlce/en grève maybe the broadcasting company is on strike.
mum - No, it’s the actual set. Listen - you can hear
l’écran the sound but there’s no picture on the screen.
fin prêt dad - That’s too bad, just when I was all set for a
nice television evening.
c’eet bien fait pour toi mum - It serves you right - you’ll be forced to speak
pour une fols/(onr te maintenir to us for once. Anyway, have some tca *to keep you
le moral going.
mary - Television is the invention which has
changed daily life the most, dôn’t you think?

171
jane - I agree. People who used to read don’t read
aimaient any more, those who enjoyed a conversation like
au cinéma Dad don’t speak any more, those who went *to the
pictures don’t any more...
mary - That’s not true. After every literary
programme on television thousands of books are
sold. Those that are mentioned on the programme
the night before are impossible to find in the public
bibliothèques libraries the following day.
peter - 1 admit that television could be a wonderful
transmettre/dans l’ensemble means of conveying culture, but on the whole it’s
very poor.
dad - It all depends on the programme or the
channel.
mary - Do you think that games such as “The price
feuilletons is right” or serials like “Dallas” do a lot for people?
vous les intellectuels dad - Not necessarily, but you intellectuals can’t
imagine that people can enjoy themselves without
mal de tête getting a headache.
stupide peter - Come on Dad, don’t be silly. These games
téléspectateurs/plus sots can only make viewers even duller than they
already are.
dad - What about the news? You couldn’t have
anything better.
peter - Oh, it’s not better than on the radio. You
» des reportages en direct don’t always see live shots. You see the newsreader
je ne vois pas l’intérêt most of the time. I can’t see the point.
mum - I’ve read that a whole news bulletin would
hardly fill two columns of the “Times”.
jane - That’s another argument against T.V.
People don’t read newspapers any more.
mary - I think television should only be used in
moyen contraceptif underdeveloped countries as a *
contraceptive
device!
que diable dad - What on earth do you mean?
mary - You probably know the story of the big
► panne electricity black-out in New York city a few years
ago.
dad - Yes, I do.
mary - Well, as you can imagine the T.V. sets were
A peu prés not working and roughly nine months later the
salles/marchaient A bloc maternity wards were doing a roaring-trade.
vraiment mum - There was actually a baby-boom because the
réseau T.V. network was out of order?
mary - Exactly.
intellectuel dad - Honestly! I’m afraid I might not be brainy
enough for you, but I don’t think television has
a rapproché les hommes destroyed communication. On the contrary ifhas
j’ai remarqué brought men closer. And I’ve noticed that people

172
who didn’t have anything to say to each other
la nuit précédente before, now discuss the programmes they saw *
the
previous night.
bien pi- i ir - That would be fine if the programmes were
good, but they aren’t.
mum - What about the films, then?
peu r - It would be much better to see them in a
» vrai proper cinema. Television can’t do justice to films,
paysages show landscapes, for instance.
de toute évidence mary - That’s true, television is obviously meant
to show faces, not landscapes.
jane - And for one good programme which is
» supporter shown late at night, you have to sit through too
fineries much rubbish.
les éclats de rire sont enregistrés peter - Even the bursts of laughter are recorded
when they show comedies.
mary - Just as if people were not mature enough
to decide when they should laugh...
jane - 1 can see another danger. In a cinema people
n’osent pas/tandis que don’t dare speak aloud whereas when they watch
fi haute voix television they make their comments aloud.
les gosses peter - How can you expect the kids at school to
keep quiet while their teachers speak, if they get
that sort of habit?
évaluer mary - It will take a generation to weigh up the
influence of television.
dad - Once again, 1 don’t agree. Old-aged people,
sick people would feel very lonely without
ils s’ennuieraient à mourir television. They would be bored stiff.
tu es à côté de la plaque mary - You’re missing the point, Dad; we never
est forcément mauvaise said television is bound to be bad - we just mean
that it has become the opium of the people.
cela me rappelle quelque chose dad - That rings a bell.
mary - Yes, it’s a quotation from Marx, I think. It
runs “religion is the opium of the people!”
dad - What did he mean?
mum - 1 suppose he meant that because of religion
ne se préoccupaient pas people did not bother enough about the realities
pauvreté of daily life, their poverty for instance. Is that it?
mary - Yes, and I mean that television is something
which makes people accept their condition and
forget their spiritual life.
les voilfi qui recommencent dad - There they go again, always reducing an
» une question politique argument to a political issue.
jane - Come on Dad. You’re simply alienated by
your colour T.V.
dad - Alienated?
jane - Yes, separated from other people and things.
je parie I bet you didn't even realize that Mum had given
un plateau-repas you a T.V. dinner.

173
et tu l’as englouti mary - And you gulped it down without
appreciating it.
► en colère mum - Don't make him mad, girls.
dad -1 find it quite funny. It’s true, I didn’t realize
it was a T.V. dinner I was eating. But you simply
forgot I wasn’t watching television.
peter - And what no one knows is that the
television has been back on for over five minutes...
absorbés we were so engrossed in our conversation that we
didn’t even realize!

voir vocabulaire p. 168. Sujets complémentaires, voir p. 263.

44.A
Pop Music
La musique « Pop »

pour FOR
1. As the name indicates, it is popular, in the
literal sense of the word. You needn’t have a high
niveau/oreille level of education, an ear for music, or be
enthousiastes (pour) particularly keen on music, to appreciate it. All
classes and types of people can enjoy it. This is not
demeure the case with classical music, which remains the
music of an elite.
2. Pop music is sometimes accused of being
commercial, but classical music was as well, when,
compositeurs for instance, eighteenth century composers wrote
pour plaire/mécène concertos and symphonies just to please a patron.
3. Pop music cannot be criticized on the artistic
plan plane. For instance the Beatles and the Pink Floyds
à bon droit have become classics in their own right. Even
reconnaissent musicologists acknowledge the originality of their
styles and the perfection of their music.
4. Pop music is the music of a generation.
Different styles have corresponded to different
périodes eras. Mozart corresponded perfectly to the
» mentalité eighteenth century, Berlioz to the romantic mind.
We are now living in a new world, a new era, and
en dépit de/» défauts pop music, in spite of its shortcomings is the
expression of today’s mind.

174
contrairement A 5. Pop music, unlike most classical music, can be
donc danced to. It is therefore a type of music which
brings pleasure to those who just like to listen and
to those who want to amuse themselves. It is a very
divertissant entertaining genre.
de toute façon/i la fols Anyway, you can like both classical and pop music,
can’t you?

contre AGAINST
► vedettes 1. Pop music is purely commercial. Pop stars
make immense fortunes just because they have
bruyant created a noisy style which has nothing to do with
donner libre cours music and helps youngsters give vent to their
feelings. Can you call that music when the players
cordes become hysterical and break their guitar strings?
l'aide d'un psychiatre They rather need professional help.
2. Pop music is not a pure musical style in itself.
mélange It is a mixture of folk music jazz, blues and negro
agréables spirituals, which are all enjoyable types of music in
trahis their own way, but which are betrayed in the way
they are used by pop stars.
se soit répandue 3. It is very surprising that pop music^hould
have spread so quickly round the world, and
i travers/doit especially through Europe. It owes nothing to
European influences, being typically American
and part of the American cultural hegemony.
n’aurait pas grand chose d’ 4. A pop star would not be much of a singer if
micro/haut-parleurs you took away his mike, loud speakers, electric
attirail guitar and other paraphernalia. Pop music is
~ musique artificielle “gimmick music...”
5. It’s far too easy to become a successful pop
singer or pop musician. In fact, it is so easy that it’s
doués immoral. When you consider how gifted people
must be to become good classical singers or
musicians and how hard they have to work all their
Juste lives long, it simply is not fair that pop stars
ascension vertigineuse should enjoy such a sweeping rise to success
» acharnés without any painstaking efforts on their part.

voir vocabulaire p. 168. Sujets complémentaires, voir p. 263.

175
45. C
Books and reading
Les livres - La lecture

institutrice (Between Joan, a junior school teacher, and Celia,


assistante sociale/toutes les deux a social worker; both aged 26. They are members
of the "Guild", a literary club.)

selon joan - According to this report I'm reading, more


et cependant and more books are published every year and yet
de moins en moins/effectivement fewer and fewer are actually bought.
ce n’est pas étonnant/dans l’ensemble celia - No wonder, people don’t read much *on the
whole.
J. - I read some statistics concerning France, which
lit en moyenne show that one Frenchman in four reads an average
of one book every year, which means that the other
three don’t read at all.
► c’est bien dommage c. - It’s a great shame, but statistics don’t mean
much in fact. They don’t always include all the
prêtés books found on the market, or the books lent out
bibliothèques by public libraries.
exact/» on tient compte de ces données J. - Right - if you take these elements into account
you will find that each Frenchman reads one book
a year on average.
c. - Well, that’s better, isn’t it?
J - Yes, but we’re a long way from the twenty books
Islandais/par which every Icelander reads per year.
c. - I suppose there isn’t much else to do during the
long winter evenings up there near the Arctic circle!
surprend/livres de poche J. - What amazes me is that paper-backs sell very
well.
tirage c. - They do. It’s not unusual to find a circulation
un seul of over a hundred thousand for a single paper­
back.
les livres brochés j. - Soft-covers also seem to sell well. Several titles
» vaste have reached a huge circulation. Just remember
best-sellers like that book about China.
« Racines » c. - Or “Papillon” or “Roots”, I know. But you see
the word “best-seller” doesn’t mean much, and if
moyenne you were to calculate the average, the circulation
per title would be very low.
J. - A friend of mine who works in a publishing firm
ouvrages d’imagination/dans l'ensemble told me recently that fiction did not sell wellfbn the
romans whole. Some excellent novels don’t sell more than
exemplaires three thousand copies.
c - Well, that’s not so bad when you think of it. I
dont l'action se passe remember that book of Michel Butor’s which is set

176
« l'emploi du temps » in Manchester. “The Timetable" I think it's called.
Well, it sold only seven hundred copies in the first
years.
grand J - And now it has attained a large circulation,
c - Yes, because the author has become well known
now. But I find it remarkable that seven hundred
people who had probably never heard of Michel
Butor should buy his book in the first years.
réconforter/ roma nciers .1 - This example should cheer up all those novelists
whose books aren’t selling well.
il n'en reste pas moins c - The fact remains that the books which do sell
nouvelles well are mainly non-fiction, rarely novels orshort
stories and never poems.

j. - It’s true that best-sellers are rarely novels now.


si peu c - Yes, why is it that novels have so little success
siècle these days? In the eighteenth century for example,
people only read fiction.
exact J - That’s not really accurate. You remember the
success of the “Encyclopeadia” in the eighteenth
century. It was in some ways the equivalent of our
present-day historical, political or sociological
essays.
néanmoins c. - 1 can’t help thinking, nevertheless, that most
novels have very little to offer their readers.
ils manquent J. - Do you mean they lack originality?
c. - Yes, and also they often have a style which is
hard to read.
empêcher J - That’s true, but you can’t prevent writers from
making stylistic experiments. What is true is that
cherchent most people are looking for something
extraordinary in what they read. I mean a story
which is completely different from the life they

177
réellement actually live, which carries them miles away from
morne their everyday humdrum existence.
c. - But some literary movements, such as “The
en colire Angry Young Men”, wrote about very ordinary
cadres people in very ordinary settings. I think the
personnages average reader likes to see that characters in fiction
évier (► terre à terre) also have their kitchen sink problems.
s’appliquerait J. - That would apply rather more to intellectuals,
in my opinion. People who haven’t had the
» la chance opportunity of a higher education often read to
d’où escape from their day to day problems. Hence the
bon marché/» romans policiers success of cheap / thrillers and books written in
argot/tremblent/peur slang. They like to laugh or quake with fear rather
mal de tête/» dépression than get a head ache or have a nervous breakdown
reading about an author’s problems.
intelligent c. - Your reasoning is quite clever, but how can you
explain that those who normally would go for
novels or short-stories now prefer historical or
political essays?
J. - It’s hard to find an answer. Publishers are
grandement/tendent à promouvoir largely responsible. They tend to promote works
ces derniers of non-fiction and not novels so much. The latter
chers have also become too expensive.
c. - But it seems to me that non-fiction is even more
expensive.
J. - Right, but when you buy a non-fiction work,
in which you have for example a number of photos,
you don’t object so much to paying a lot.
c. -1 personally have the impression that there
mode/de nos jours exists a certain fashion I nowadays. For example,
livres de cuisine you know how well cookery books are selling - they
didn’t use to twenty years ago.
livres de bricolage J. - Yes, and “do-it-yourself’ books as well.
recette c. - As for autobiographies, the recipe seems easy
to follow. You find someone who has led an
un enregistrement extraordinary existence, you ask him to makeea
» d’un coup de baguette recording for you, and then hey presto a
professional writer transforms all that into a
successful book...
le lecteur moyen recherche J. - Doesn’t this prove that the average reader seeks
originality?
style dépouillé c. - Yes, but also that he accepts a plain style, that
he is not highly critical.
» difficile J. - The average reader has never been very fussy
you know. By the way, how would you define a
“good writer”?
sans aucun doute c. - Undoubtedly someone who has something to
say and who says it well.
J. - In the past there used to be a lot of people who
tandis que had nothing to say but who said it well, whereas /
maintenant nowadays it seems to be the contrary.

178
c. - What worries me is that the younger generation
don’t read much these days and this must surely be
le cœur du problème the heart of the matter.
j. - True, it explains a lot, but how can you read
when you only think of watching television?
c. - This is a problem of our times, isn’t it?
j. - Yes, the Canadian sociologist Marshall
MacLuhan says we are in fact going back to a pre­
ère Gutenberg era.
c. - What does he mean?
J. - Well, that before printing techniques were
► occasion invented, most people didn’t have the opportunity
conteurs to read. They listened to story-tellers.
c. - Who have been replaced by television now,
that’s it, isn’t it? Of course, it’s easier to go to the
cinema than the theatre, you don’t have to book
your seat for instance, just as it’s easier to watch
television than read.
J. - And to phone rather than write and so on...
c. - That makes me feel very pessimistic, but how
tendance could we change the trend?
j. - As far as the young are concerned, it won’t be
easy. In fact when they do read they only read
bandes dessinées comics.
intriguée c. - That has always puzzled me. Why do they
prefer comics to good adventure stories?
bandes dessinées J. - It must be because picture strips resemble more
what they see on T.V. They correspond to their
environnement culturel cultural surroundings, and what is more they don’t
have to make an effort to read them.
légèrement c. - As I see it, the problem is slightly different.
Several generations have read comics and quite
naturally around the age of fifteen turned to more
» s’en tenir à serious literature. Now the young tend to stick to
laissent tomber comics longer, and when they drop them they’re
tout à fait quite satisfied to watch television instead.
je suis d’accord avec toi J. -1 agree with you. I read somewhere that comics
augmentèrent increased their circulation when they reduced their
ainsi/permettant/adultes/cacher size, thus / enabling / grown-ups / to hide them
easily inside a more serious-looking newspaper,
tiens donc ! c. - Gosh! And yet there are millions of people who
buy and read serious works in the paper-back
collections. This proves that all hope is not yet lost.
partage J. - I don’t share that optimism of yours. How
many people used to read the great eighteenth
century writers?
c. - Not more than fifty thousand. But many
de toute façon people couldn’t read in any case...
c’est li où je veux en venir/d’un côté j. - That’s my point. / On the one hand, there’s a
much bigger population now...

179
c. - And most people can read...
de l’autre côté J. - Yes, and on the other hand a best-seller only
totals one or two millions over a period of several
years.
c. - I think this figure is comparatively low.
J. - May I ask you how many books you read every
year?
* j’aimerais lire c. - Oh, four or five I think. I wish I read more but
► occupée I’ve no time. I’m too tied up with my work, you
know.
Sujets complémentaires, voir p. 263.

Books and newspapers


Les livres et les journaux

1. The writer and his works: a lame attempt at humour:


L’écrivain et ses oeuvres une tentative humoristique maladroite
light entertainment: une distraction légère
a scroll: un rouleau de parchemin *a masterpiece: un chef-d’œuvre
literature: la littérature *the characters: les personnages
*a story: une histoire subtle: subtil
*history: l’histoire (de France...) concise: concis
*poetry: la poésie *to describe: décrire
*a poem: un poème *fate: le destin
a verse: un vers/une strophe/un couplet dull: inintéressant
a line: un vers *boring: ennuyeux
the rhythm: le rythme the climax: le point culminant d’une histoire,
the stress: l’accent tonique le moment le plus palpitant
a foot: un pied the anticlimax: le moment le plus
a rime: une rime décevant d’une histoire
fiction: des œuvres d’imagination verisimilitude: la vraisemblance
a romance: un récit d’aventures merveilleuses fanciful: fantasque
*a novel: un roman melancholy: mélancolique^
*a novelist: un romancier
*an author: un auteur 2. From the author to the public:
*a short story: une nouvelle De l’auteur au public
a story-writer: un auteur de nouvelles
*a thriller: une histoire angoissante a translator: un traducteur
a story-teller: un conteur *a publisher: un éditeur
'talkative: loquace a proof: une épreuve (d’imprimerie)
‘a play: une pièce (de théâtre) a misprint: une coquille (d’imprimerie)
♦a playwright: un dramaturge bold type: en caractères gras
*the plot: l’intrigue the binding: la reliure
the plan: le plan *a second-hand book: un livre d’occasion
a common place: un lieu commun *a book shop: une librairie
the part of speech: *a library: une bibliothèque
la valeur grammaticale (d’un mot) a librarian: un bibliothécaire
to base: baser/s’appuyer sur a bookworm: un rat de bibliothèque
the setting: le cadre (d’une histoire) a riddle: une énigme
the foreword: l’avant-propos a pamphlet/a booklet: une brochure
•a work: une œuvre a leaflet: un dépliant

180
*a survey: un sondage (d'opinion) the yellow press/the cheap press:
♦to quote: citer la presse ù sensations
*a quotation: une citation ♦an evening paper: un journal du soir
a critic: un critique a reporter: un reporter
a criticism: une critique a Journalist: un journaliste
to subscribe: s'abonner
3. Newspapers and journalism: *an advert: une publicité
Journaux et journalisme *the small ads: les petites annonces
a newsboy/a newsvendor: un marchand de
'newspapers: les journaux
journaux (ù la criée)
*a daily: un quotidien
*a newsagent: un marchand de journaux
a weekly: un hebdomadaire
(un dépositaire)
a monthly: un mensuel
a magazine: une revue
a Sunday paper: un journal du dimanche
4. Newspaper cuttings:
'the editor: le rédacteur en chef Coupures de journaux
letters to the editor: le courrier des lecteurs a paper clip: un trombone
the cover story: l’article principal a paper clipping/a newspaper cutting:
(annoncé en lère page) une coupure de journul
a piece of news: une nouvelle staples: des agrafes
the headlines: les grands titres a stapler: une agrafeuse
the leader: l'article de fond - l'éditorial *a pair of scissors: des ciseaux
the obituary column: la rubrique nécrologique glue: de la colle
*an issue: une édition (de presse) cellotape: du papier adhésif
the circulation: le tirage

46.A
Is fashion out of fashion?
La mode n’est-elle plus à la mode?

NO!
1. It is a good thing for fashions to change
cheveux regularly. New hair styles to try and new clothes
pimentent/auommant to wear put spice into life. It would be so tedious
to see women (or men) always dressed the same
way and with the same old hair-cut. Very few
people keep the same style of clothes for a period
éloignéee/côtlèree of time, except in remote / coastal islands where
portent le deuil/parent women are mourning/a next of kin lost at sea,
which obliges them to be continually dressed in
» tout au long black. But most civilizations throughout history
have changed their fashions regularly.
passionnante 2. Changes in fashion are exciting, not only
permettent because they allow men to look at women (and vice
versa) with new eyes, but also because they
modélistes/ couturiers stimulate the imagination of designers, /dress­
coiffeurs makers, ! hairdressers and all those whose work

181
ainsi is connected with fashion. Thus fashion can be
comparée likened to an art, such as painting and music.
de plus Moreover one must face the fact that one
particular fashion does not necessarily flatter all
donc/injuste women, therefore it would be unfair for some if
the fashion never changed. Take the mini-skirt
fashion, for instance. Mini-skirts were very
jolies jambes pleasant to look at on young ladies with nice legs,
but so unflattering for older women, or those with
jambes arquées/grosses/soulagement bow-legs and fat legs. What a relief to the latter
dans le vent when longer skirts were “in” again.
3. Changes in fashion encourage women to be
attirantes more feminine and more attractive. If there were
no changes, women would surely lose interest in
s'habillent the way they dress and would lose most of their
charm. Young women would look older as they
would be dressed like their mothers and grand­
vrai/elles ont tendance & mothers, for it is true that they tend to follow
plus volontiers/aînées the fashion more readily than their elders.
4. Changes in fashion are necessary because of
environmental changes. Fashion is the mirror of
a certain mentality or a certain way of life. In the
1920’s women’s clothes became short for the
first time since antiquity. This sudden change in
fashion corresponded to a desire for emancipation
on the part of women and coincided with the
droit de vote campaigns of the suffragettes for women’s* right
chapeaux to vote. Why did hats go out of fashion in the
early 1960’s? Simply because it was impossible
► monter/sans to climb into a car without knocking off one’s hat
gâcher/coiffure and spoiling one’s hair-do.
5. Regular changes in fashion are enriching for
the economy. Women, as well as men, are
encouraged to buy new clothes regularly and
prêt-à-porter thus keep the ready-to-wear industry going. The
economic role played by fashion was shown during
pénurie the Second World War, when the shortage of
tissu material imposed shorter clothes. When
everything was back to normal after the war,
fashion imposed longer clothes. There again, the
mini-skirt fashion was almost the cause of
faillite bankruptcy in the textile industry. If the fashion
had not changed, many textile workers would
licenciés have been laid off.
YES!
ridicule 1. Fashion in itself is silly. It encourages women
to be frivolous. Look at women’s magazines,
which are so futile. They give the impression that

182
~ le MX
* faibli the fair aex is only interested in underwear, /
loiH-vltementi/robaa/jupM/maquillai
* dresses, / skirts, shoes, make-up, / Jewelry, hair­
bijoux styles, and so on. Nothing about hunger in the
fxlm/chômage third world, unemployment in industrialized coun­
■Ujata tries, and other such topics of similar importance.
If women are interested only in fashion, it's a great
légère pity that such a trifling / matter should overshadow
quaation/» cacher the rest.

2. When a fashion is pleasant, which is sometimes


the case, why feel the need to change it? And so
often replace it by a less attractive one? What a
déception disappointment for a man to see the woman he
loves dressed in a way which does not do her justice,
è la mode just to be fashionable. Women ought to think
deux fola/aveuglément twice about following fashion blindly.

obéinint 3. And some do obey fashion's rules so blindly


that they are ready to dress in the most eccentric
apparence way despite their age or looks. Recently a
lança/bouclée hairdresser launched the fashion of frizzy hair.
Thousands of women started to resemble Merino
mouton/
* jurait sneep, and in many cases even, the style clashed
forme with the shape of their faces. And what about the
unthinking grand-mothers who followed the mini­
* vogue skirt wave?

4. Changes in fashion tend to make people look


all the same. They create a uniformity which
trlete soon becomes dull. And the few who refuse to
coneldérée/étree lose their identity are regarded as curious beings,
marginaux if not outcasts. It has become so hard in our
preaalon society not to follow the fashion, social pressure
Inatinct grégaire being what it is. But this herd Instinct makes people
forget their personalities.

5. Changes in fashion are economically


un non-iani nonsensical. They may be extremely lucrative for
détaillante a few industrialists, designers and retailers, but
for the woman in the street, the cost is high. You
porter rarely have time to wear your new clothes (not to
lea uaer/voua renverm
* mention wear them out) before a new wave'bowls
you over again. And the imagination of the
specialists has no limit. For example, with
lee bai (de nylon)/fllé stockings, when one was laddered you could pair
collante it up with another, but with tights you have
to throw the pair away when one leg is laddered.
When women get used to doing their hair on their
own, you can be sure that a new style will force
gaaplllage them back to the hairdresser's. All this "waste"

183
pas mal d'argent costs the consumer a pretty penny. Fashion can
thus be accused of being one of the symbols of our
prodigue/société de consommation wasteful / affluent society.
Sujets complémentaires, voir p. 263.

Clothes and fashion


Les vêtements - la mode

1. Dresses, skirts and suits: 4. Winter wear, coats, furs, gloves,


Robes, jupes et tailleurs etc.: Vêtements d’hiver, manteaux,
a wardrobe: une garde robe fourrures, gants, etc.
*a dress/a frock (arch.): une robe *a scarf: un foulard/une écharpe
an evening dress: une robe du soir *a fur coat: un manteau de fourrure
a sundress: une robe soleil mink: vison
a cocktail dress: une robe d'intérieur skunk: sconse
*a pleated skirt: une jupe plissée fox: renard
a divided skirt/culottes: une jupe culotte seal: phoque
a full skirt: une jupe ample a shawl: un châle
a pencil skirt/a straight skirt: une jupe droite ♦gloves: des gants
*a suit: un costume mittens: des moufles
a three piece suit: un costume à trois pièces a hood: une cagoule/un capuchon
*a jacket : une veste headwear: chapeau/couvre-chef
*a waistcoat: un gilet (de costume)
*a blouse: un corsage 5. Swimming costumes:
Maillots de bain
2. Trousers and woollens:
*a bathing suit (U.S.)/
*a bathing costume/
Pantalons et lainages a swimming costume: un maillot de bain
*pants (U.S.)/trousers (G.B.): un pantalon a two piece bathing suit/a bikini:
a pants-suit: un ensemble pantalon un maillot 2 pièces
a cardigan: un gilet en tricot a topless swimsuit: un maillot seins nus
♦a jumper/a pullover: un pull
6. Accessories, shoes, bags, etc.:
3. Lingerie and underwear: Accessoires, chaussures, sacs, etc.
Lingerie et sous-vêtements an overall: une blouse de travail
*a nightdress/a nightie: une chemise de nuit an apron: un tablier
a bed jacket: une liseuse ♦boots: bottes/chaussures montantes
a bathrobe: une sortie de bain *sandals: sandales
a ribbon: un ruban high-heeled shoes: chaussures à talons hauts
‘underwear, sous-vêtements *high heels: talons hauts
*a brassière/
*bra: soutien-gorge lace-up shoes: chaussures à lacets
a slip: une combinaison brogues: mocassins
a petticoat: un jupon canvas shoes: espadrilles
*pants: culotte *a handbag: un sac à main
'briefs: slip *a shoulder bag: un sac en bandoulière
*tights/panty-hose: un collant *a purse: un sac à main (U.S.)/un porte-
stockings: des bas monnaie (G.B.)
a suspender belt: un porte-jarretelles
suspenders: des jarretelles
a girdle: une gaine

184
7. Fitting and fastening clothes: to dye: teindre
Essayages et fermetures ♦to Iron: repasser
♦an Iron: un fer à repasser
♦dress size: taille to ecorch/to singe: roussir
♦shoe sire: pointure ♦dry-cleanlng: nettoyage ù sec
♦to wear: porter moth-balls: boules de naphtaline
♦to put on: mettrc/cnfiler *ready-to-wear: prêt-à-porter
♦to tie: attacher custom-made/made to measure: sur mesure
to zip up: remonter la fermeture ♦brand new: tout neuf
to button up: boutonner shabby: élimé
to hook up: agrafer ♦worn out: usé
♦to crease: froisser tight: serré
♦to fold up: plier loose: ample
a fold: un pli ♦fashlonable/ln fashion: ù la mode
♦to suit: aller (bien) old-fashloned/out of fashion: démodé
♦to dress: s’habiller ♦dirty : sale
♦to undress: se déshabiller ♦clean: propre
♦cheap: bon marché
8. Materials: Tissus ♦expensive: cher
she looked as if she had stepped out of a
♦materlal/fabrlc: du tissu
band-box: elle était tirée ù quatre épingles
cloth: toile
satin: satin
silk: soie
velvet: velours
♦wool: laine
♦nylon: nylon
♦cotton: coton MEN’S CLOTHES:
linen: du lin/du linge VETEMENTS MASCULINS
lace: dentelle
poplin: popeline 1. Shirts and sweaters:
flannel: flanelle
rayon: rayonne Chemises et pulls
♦a shirt: une chemise
cuff links: des boutons de manchette
9. Dressmaking: La couture overalls: un bleu de travail
♦to sew: coudre a turtle-neck pullover: un pull à col roulé
♦sewlng/needlework: couture a polo-necked Jersey: un polo
♦a needle: une aiguille ♦a sweater: un pull
to prick oneself: se piquer ♦a tie: une cravate
a thimble: un dé à coudre a bow-tie: un nœud papillon
♦thread/cotton: du fil ♦a collar: un col
♦a pin: une épingle ♦a button: un bouton
♦a safety-pin: une épingle de sûreté
to darn: repriser 2. Trousers and suits:
to mend: raccommoder Pantalons et costumes
♦to knit: tricoter
a stitch: une maille ♦trousers/pants: pantalon
the hem: l’ourlet ♦suit: un costume
the seam: la couture an evening sult/a tuxedo (U S ): un smoking
the lining: la doublure a dinner Jacket : un queue de pie
♦a zip: une fermeture éclair ♦a fly/files: une braguette
a hook and eye: une agrafe de vêtement braces; des bretelles
♦a press-stud: un bouton pression ♦a belt: une ceinture
a leather patch: une pièce en cuir ♦Jeans: un blue-jean
♦to shorten: raccourcir ♦shorts: un short
♦to lengthen: allonger ♦a tracksuit: un survêtement

185
3. Underwear: Sous-vêtements a felt hat: un chapeau mou
a bowler hat: un chapeau melon
♦a vest: un tricot de corps a top hat: un chapeau haut de forme
a string vest: un maillot de corps à larges *a cap: une casquette
mailles *an umbrella: un parapluie
*briefs:
*underpants/ un slip a wallet: un portefeuille
*pyjamas: un pyjama
6. General appearance:
4. Footwear: Chaussures
Apparence générale
*socks: des chaussettes
*shoes: des chaussures *smart/stylish/posh: chic/élégant
snow boots: des après-skis he is dressed up to the nines:
riding boots: bottes de cheval il est sur son 31
laces: lacets he is dressed up in his Sunday best:
*slippers: pantoufles il est habillé en dimanche

5. Coats and hats:


Manteaux et chapeaux
*an overcoat: un manteau
*a raincoat: un imperméable

Appearance and beauty


L’aspect physique et la beauté

WOMEN: FEMMES
*gold: or
*silver: argent
1. Make-up and cosmetics: gold plated: plaqué or
Maquillage et produits cosmétiques *a watch: une montre
*a handkerchief: un mouchoir
*a tissue: un mouchoir en papier 3. Hair-care and appearance:
cotton swabs: des coton-tiges La coiffure et l’apparence
*nail varnish: vernis à ongles
nail varnish remover: du dissolvant hair spray: de la laque
*a nail file: une lime à ongles *a comb: un peigne
*make-up: maquillage *a brush: une brosse
powder: de la poudre a barrette (U.S.)/a hairslide: une barrette
*lipstick: du rouge à lèvres *a hair-do/a hair-set: une mise en plis
rouge: rouge à joues a perm: une permanente
mascara: mascara *a shampoo: un shampooing
deodorant: du déodorisant to rinse: rincer
*perfume/scent: parfum to bleach: décolorer
a chignon/a bun: un chignon
2. Jewellery: Bijoux a pig-tail: une natte (unique)
bunches: couettes
a necklace: un collier plaits: nattes
*a ring: une bague a pony-tail: une queue de cheval
*a wedding-ring: une alliance *fair/blond: blond
a bracelet: un bracelet *dark: brun
a brooch: une broche auburn: châtain
*ear-rings: des boucles d’oreille ginger: roux
a pendant: un pendentif straight hair: des cheveux raides
a gem: un joyau wavy hair: cheveux ondulés
*a pearl: une perle frizzy hair: cheveux frisés

186
almond eyes: yeux en amande *a towel: une serviette de toilette
freckles: tâches de rousseur side-whiskers: pattes/favoris
*good-looking: jolie/beau/bien
plain: quelconque/moche 2. Hair: La chevelure
a clipper: une tondeuse (à cheveux)
MEN: HOMMES
dandruff: des pellicules
bald: chauve
1. Shaving and beards: greying hair: cheveux grisonnants
La barbe/Le rasage
*an electric razor: un rasoir électrique 3. Appearance: Apparence
*a razor blade: une lame de rasoir *wrinkles: rides
a shaving brush: un blaireau a double chin: un double menton
shaving soap: savon à barbe *short: petit
shaving foam: mousse à raser *tall: grand
*a face doth: un gant de toilette *handsome: bien/beau

47. C
Was Shakespeare Shakespeare?
Shakespeare était-il Shakespeare?

lycée (anglais) (In a comprehensive school. A conversation


professeur d’anglais/élives de terminale between the English Master and his sixth-formers.
lecteur de français The French assistant is taking part in the
discussion.)

parie/pièce master -1 bet you all watched the play on television


last night.
chaîne (de T.V.) boy - Which play? Which channel was it on?
master - Don’t tell me you didn’t watch the
“Comedy of Errors”!
loin d’ètre girl - “The Comedy of Errors” - but it’s^far from
chefs-d'œuvre being one of Shakespeare's masterpieces.
mises en scène master - That’s true - but when they are directed by
valent la peine d’être vues Peter Brook, even Shakespeare’s minor plays%re
worth seeing.
► toujours french assist. - It still remains a mystery to me
that the same person wrote some of the world’s
greatest masterpieces, such as “Macbeth” or
“Hamlet", and on the other hand was capable of
sans goût producing a number of tasteless comedies andiar-
tirés par les cheveux fetched dramas.
master - You’re thinking of “Titus Andronicus”,
sans doute no doubt.
boy - Yes and...
assez évidente fr. ass. - The answer is pretty obvious to a non­
British observer.

187
master - Ah! I’d be interested to know what is
thought on the Continent; may I ask?
fr. ass. - Well, it’s simply that Shakespeare was
not Shakespeare!
master - That is not a new theory, 1 know; many
astucieuses/avancées clever ideas have been put forward as to
Shakespeare’s “real” identity.
girl - Some went even as far as to say that
Shakespeare was Queen Elizabeth I!
boy - Others said he was a Jesuit.
tout au moins boy - Yes, or at least a Roman Catholic.
prétendu girl - Many have claimed he was Bacon.
Premier ministre girl - Sir Francis Bacon, the Queen’s Chancellor?
plutôt/ridicule That seems rather / silly.
girl - Not as silly as you think. There are many
indices clues which could lead us to think that.
master - Do you mean that you attach importance
to those who have found a code in Shakespeare’s
► poèmes sonnets?
assez/courant girl - Why not? It was quite / customary in those
days to do that sort of thing, and some American
savants/caché scholars have found a message hidden in a sonnet,
which clearly says: “I, Francis Bacon, am the
œuvres author of Shakespeare’s works”.
boy - Oh yes! They took the third letter of every
fourth word of every other line or something
equally simple!
girl - It’s not quite that, but it was done by
cependant specialists, though.
master - I know that those responsible worked
décodage for the American deciphering services during the
moins convaincant last war. But that makes it less convincing. Every­
one knows that a specialist can discover codes in
texts when there is no code in them...
comment expliques-tu/découverte girl - How do you account for the discovery made
in Bacon’s own house, then?
master - Which discovery?
équipe girl - This same American team found in one of
the Sonnets a coded message revealing that a
document concerning the identity of Shakespeare
une niche could be found in a nook in the wall of Bacon’s
bedroom.
boy - Did they find anything?
conservateur girl - Yes, the curator of Bacon’s house allowed
sonder/lambris them to sound the wooden panels, and they
réellement actually found a niche behind one of them.
master - And the document?
malheureusement/ vide girl - Unfortunately it was empty...
sans blague master - No joking! So that code business proves
nothing.
girl - On the contrary. The American scholars

188
could not possibly have known of the existence
of the nook without the coded message in the
sonnet.
boy - So, when another code says Shakespeare was
croire Bacon, we must trust it?
master - That’s all very well, but even supposing
Shakespeare was Bacon, why should Bacon want
cacher to conceal the fact that he was Shakespeare? I
homme politique mean, after all, he was not only a politician, but
savant (scientifique) also a scientist and philosopher; he could very well
dramaturge have been a playwright, too.

bon nombre fr. ass. - Yes, we mustn't forget that a good many
dea hommes complets intellectuals of those days were men of all parts.
irudits/vous m’avez mal compris girl - And very learned I know, but you
*
misunderstood me. There was no reason not to
admit he was Shakespeare.
girl - That’s not so sure. To start with, there are
many scenes in Shakespeare's plays which describe
complots court intrigues and government plots. The man
qui faisait allusion who alluded to these doings could have been
ennuis making trouble for himself...
boy - That point certainly tends to prove at least
that Shakespeare could not be Shakespeare, or
else how could he have known all the details about
courtisan court life? He wasn't a courtier.

189
qui me frappe master - There is something that strikes me in all
that has been said. You are trying to prove that
Shakespeare was Bacon, but you haven’t said
why he couldn’t be Shakespeare.
girl - Oh, there is no doubt at all about that point.
seul/témoin First of all, there is not one single / witness from
soit... Shakespeare’s home town of Stratford who either
soit said or wrote anything to show that Shakespeare
was recognized as the genius we all know him to be.
boy - And he must have been a genius to write plays
époque in which every age has found a description of its
own time. The Romantics said Shakespeare was a
Romantic, the Existentialists have claimed he was
one of them...
boy - Even the Marxists claim he was a Marxist!
qui plus est/si peu girl - Moreover, there are so few manuscripts
si peu de choses written by his own hand. And we know so little
about him.
naissance master - There is only his birth certificate, his
testament marriage certificate and his will. We also know for
à succès sure that he became a successful actor in London
and that he directed the Globe theatre.
fr. ass. - His will is also very strange. He mentions
légua in detail all that he bequeathed - for instance,two
assiettes/plat plates for so and so, and a dish for someone else.
But he does not speak of manuscripts or books.
hautement apprécié
master - And books were an expensive anrAiighly-
cadeau appreciated / present in those days.
fr. ass. - Can we conclude that such a genius never
had any books, that he wasn’t interested in
où diable reading? Where on earth did he find all the
* inspiration material for his plays, for we know that he had a
very elementary education.
master - There is another reason which might have
led Bacon not to reveal he was Shakespeare. You
» méprisés know that actors and theatres were *
looked down
on in those times. Actors were often refused a
enterrement/assistaient (aux repré­ Christian burial, and when women attended the
sentations)/portaient/pour éviter Globe theatre they used to wear a mask to avoid
(d’être reconnus) recognition... All this indicates that a Chancellor,
such as Francis Bacon was, might have thought
deux fois twice about signing a play with his own name.
fr. ass. - Yes, theatre was appreciated, but not
highly esteemed, but this reason is not very
convincing. If we admit that Shakespeare could
not be Shakespeare, why should Bacon be
è part/soi-disant Shakespeare, apart from the so-called revelation
of the sonnets.
girl - Well, obviously Bacon was Shakespeare,
* puisque since Bacon was the brightest intellectual of his
time.

190
fr. ass. - What about Christopher Marlowe, then?
He was an intellectual too.
suffisamment proche boy - Yes, and Marlowe was close enough to the
Court to know all about its intrigues and he was
beaucoup well-educated. He had travelled a good deal too.
master - And was considered the greatest
Elizabethan playwright before Shakespeare came
sur onto the scene.
fr. ass. - That’s true. Marlowe’s “Doctor
cent coudées au-dessus Faustus’’ and “Edward II” are a cut above
everything which was being written at that time.
philologues master - Some philologists even say they can
prove that Marlowe actually wrote scenes of
Shakespeare’s “Richard III”.
boy - How?
master - There are evidently some similarities of
style and vocabulary.
ennui master - The only trouble about the Marlowe
theory is that he died very young, only 23.
boy - He was the same age as Shakespeare,
en gros roughly. And as Shakespeare was writing plays
for many years after, Shakespeare can’t be
Marlowe.
fr. ass. - Strangely enough Shakespeare’s first
plays are pretty poor. At the same time Marlowe
a de bonnes choses/tout d’un coup was writing good stuff. But when all of a sudden
Marlowe died, Shakespeare started producing
excellent plays. Strange, isn’t it?
boy - You don't mean that Marlowe had been
writing plays in secret before the age of 23 and they
mort were published after his death by Shakespeare?
pas tout à fait fr. ass. - Well, not quite.
ne tient pas debout master - So *
* the Marlowe theory
doesn ’t hold
écossais/irudit water like that Scottish / scholar, who claimed that
Corneille, Racine and Shakespeare were the same
person because there is a resemblance in their
écriture hand-writing!
et pourtant fr. ass. - And yet there is some kind of logic in
saying that Marlowe was Shakespeare. Like many
de l’époque d’Elisabeth 1/nobles young Elizabethan / noblemen, Marlowe went on a
“grand tour” of Europe.
coutume master - That was the custom in those days. Some
Pologne went very far, as far as Poland or Italy.
fr. ass. - It was a risky business going to Italy. In
interdit fact, it was sometimes forbidden by parents, who
craignaient feared their sons would come into contact with
Jesuits and be converted to Roman Catholicism.
boy - Did Marlowe go to Italy?
fr. ass. - Yes, he did. And if there is no evidence at
vraiment all that he actually became a Catholic, it is almost
espion certain that he became a spy for the Jesuits. You

191
espionnaient know that the English who spied for the Jesuits
were often put to death in horrible conditions.
bagarre master - But Marlowe was killed in a tavern brawl
► encore near the Thames. We still have the magistrate’s
► procès-verbaux records.
fr. ass. - His death was very mysterious, though.
Only two witnesses could testify that he had been
poignardé/après s’ètre querellé stabbed in the eye after quarrelling with a drunkard.
ivrogne The magistrates never examined the corpse, and
cadavre/sépulture when some time later his tomb was opened, there
cercueil was no coffin in it.
girl - But why all this “mise en scène”?
fr. ass. - Simply because Marlowe had the feeling
he was going to be arrested and he preferred the
mort authorities to think he was dead so that he could
se cacher/sans être remarqué go into hiding and live and work unnoticed,
perhaps on the Continent.
boy - Where he would no doubt have written the
works of Shakespeare?
d’abandonner fr. ass. - Yes, there was no reason to give up
writing.
girl - And when you write you prefer your works
to be published... that’s why he would have asked
his actor friend, William Shakespeare, who had
written a few minor works, to sign his own
productions.
fr. ass. - This also explains why Shakespeare’s
s’améliorèrent plays improved all of a sudden after Marlowe’s
supposed death and also why Shakespeare gave up
writing three years before he died. Evidently that
was the time when Marlowe himself actually died
and the Shakespeare who survived couldn’t
publish any more...
master - Well, all this is very ingenious, I must
admit. But it seems to me there are quite a few
► points faibles flaws in your demonstration.
fr. ass. - Such as?
master - Well, you know as well as I do that
Shakespeare’s plays are full of historical or
geographical errors.
fr. ass. - That’s right. His description of the
guerre de Cent Ans Hundred Years War was very flattering for the
English side, but it is far from satisfying to the
historians, to say the least.
une horloge qui sonne master - In “Julius Caesar” you can hear*
a clock
striking; everyone knows there were no clocks in
romains/rugissent Roman times. There are also lions which roar in
the streets of Rome, which is ridiculous.
Gênes/i l’intérieur des terres boy - In another play, he situates Genoa/inland...
boy - More examples could be quoted, but they all
tend to show the work of an uneducated man who

192
► ne s’embarrassa (pas)/de vérifier did not even bother/to check his sources of
information.
master - But he was simply a genius, and a
n’a pas besoin genius does not need to be a chancellor, a
i mon avis nobleman, a politician or anything else. * To my
mind, Shakespeare was Shakespeare, and he was
reconnu not acknowledged as the greatest writer of his time
préjugés because of the prejudice against actors in those
days.
est-ce que cela est vraiment important boy - By the way, does it really matter who
Shakespeare really was? What is important is
ce qui reste surely what remains - these extraordinary
masterpieces.
je ne suis pas d'accord avec toi girl -1 don’t agree with you. It always helps to be
familiar with a great writer’s personality. We
would regard his works in a different light if we
knew he was a simple man, a courtier, the
Chancellor, a Catholic, or even a homosexual.
boy - 1 have been patiently listening to all your
arguments and 1 must say none of them seems
pertinent to me.
master - So what do you think?
boy - There are several points which strike me.
First of all, you find everything in Shakespeare.
époque You’ve already mentioned the fact that each era
has considered Shakespeare as one of its
* techniques de la mise en scène contemporaries. You also find stage techniques
metteur en scène which only an actor, a director could know, and at
the same time only a courtier could speak of court
troublants life as he did. Some minor facts are also puzzling.
girl - What, for example?
boy - Well, you know that some very
complètes comprehensive studies have been made on the
music in Shakespeare’s plays - they have shown
he was certainly an excellent musician. He was
nous nous en apercevons also an excellent botanist, we can gather that
from the references to different plants and
flowers which abound in his works.
fr. ass. - What is the interest of the plants in his
plays?
boy - It is more important than you think. For
example in “Hamlet” when Ophelia becomes
folle/herbes médicinales insane she sings a song in which different herbs
découvert are mentioned. It has been found out that these
avortement plants were of a nature to bring about an abortion,
enceinte which means that Ophelia may have been pregnant
when she was abandoned by Hamlet, this explains
folie her madness. Anyway, I feel it was absolutely
impossible for a single man to be at the same time

193
a stage director, an actor, a historian, a musician, a
botanist, a philosopher... and so on...
master - So?
boy - So “Shakespeare” could simply have been a
écrivains/courant group of writers. This was quite customary at the
time. It would also explain why the Bacon or
attirantes Marlowe theories are so attractive. They probably
belonged to the team, and several others including,
ce dernier why not, the actor Shakespeare himself. * The
latter not only signed the plays, but gave the final
touch of the stage director!
girl - Then the actual role of Shakespeare would
néanmoins nevertheless have been an important one.
boy - Absolutely essential, I would say.
master - Well, what about the mistakes you find
here and there?
tout à fait boy - They are quite normal when several people
s’attendait à (ce que) work together - one certainly expected the others
to correct what was wrong, and if Shakespeare was
principalement the co-ordinator, he would mainly correct what
was wrong from a dramatic point of view, but not
the historical or geographical mistakes, as he was
not sufficiently educated for that.
master - The greatest merit of your theory is that
it reconciles everybody’s views!
fr. ass. - But it is only a theory... no one will ever
vérité know the truth, unless...
master - Unless the progress of science, what with
ordinateurs/
* procédés the use of computers and other modern devices,
déconcertantes leads to newand baffling discoveries in the future...

voir vocabulaire p. 180. Sujets complémentaires, voir p. 263.

48.A
Private motor-cars or public transport?
Voitures particulières ou transports publics?

pour les automobiles FOR PRIVATE MOTOR-CARS


1. Cars are super. They give you a feeling of
intimité independence and privacy. You can sing, smoke,
pendant que listen to the radio or to cassettes while driving a
car. They are an extension to your home. You
disputes don’t get into arguments with other passengers,
and if you do so with other drivers, you are
protected by your vehicle.

194
~ aller au travall/forcé de 2. If you commute by car you are bound to save
» perdre time. Of course you may waste some time in
A chercher traffic-jams and in searching for a place to park,
on... compense but you easily make up for it because you don't
have to wait around in queues. As soon as you
are ready, you leave.
Ipjuste/falre campagne 3. It is very unfair / to campaign against private
i la place motor-cars and support public transport instead.
en déficit Public transport companies are often in thé red
and cost the community a lot. On the contrary
rapportent/énormément cars bring in / an awful lot in tax. In fact, drivers
contribuables are probably the only tax-payers who keep on
paying without realizing it and even without
► se plaindre grumbling. (When you buy petrol do you ever
somme think of the amount of money you are giving over
to the State in the price of that gallon?)
moyen 4. The car is the only means of transport (along
permet with other private vehicles) which enables you to
go anywhere you want, whenever you want. You
s’inquléter/horaires don’t have to worry about timetables, it is simply
vérlfler/essence/jauge advisable to check your petrol / gauge from time
to time.
5. The car industry has become one of the
leading industries in Western countries. What
uslnes/détalllants with the workers in the actual plants, the retailers,
mécaniciens/sous-traitants mechanics and sub-contractors, this industry
fournit provides work for millions of people. If people
stopped buying cars, the economy of Western
ennuis Europe could very well be in trouble.

pour les transports en commun FOR PUBLIC TRANSPORT


1. Cars cost the State an awful lot, and even
possèdent/si voue faites le total people who do not own one. If you add up what
entretien/autoroutes is spent on road maintenance, new motorwaysand
surtout especially compensation to the victims of accidents,
global/effirayant you will come to a gross total which is frightening.
fléau 2. Cars are a nuisance. They cause a great deal
of pollution, a lot more than public transport, not
plomb only because of the lead which is contained in the
carburant fuel they use, but also because of the noise they
make. To be able to park them, public gardens
parkings and open spaces are transformed into car parks.
They consume a lot of energy at a time when, on
the contrary, everyone is trying to save energy. A
» envlron/économlse bus-load of 50 people or so / saves a great deal of
quantité petrol. Just imagine what amount would be saved
if people commuted only by train!

195
3. In towns it is practically impossible to drive, at
heures de pointe least at peak hours. The solution is to encourage
more people to use buses, trains and the
gagné/en plus
underground. A lot of time would be saved /^>n
top of all the other advantages of economy, and
people would be less irritable.
le peu d’empressement 4. The reluctance shown by many people to use
public transport is hard to understand. Take trains
for instance. They are fast, comfortable and they
soucis/quels qu’ils soient arrive on time. You have no worries / whatsoever
concerning your security, and you can even read
voyage or work during the journey. This means of
moins cher transport has another advantage. It is cheaper
on inclut than a journey by car, if you include the cost of the
l’entretien (vidanges)/assurances petrol, the servicing, the insurance and the money
you invested in your car.
5. The possession of a beautiful car is considered
le fin du fin the hallmark of success in our modern day and age.
futile This is rather a shallow attitude. In fact people
have become too dependent on their cars and
don’t get enough exercise. Of course some cars
are attractive to loojc at, and may have an
incomparable charm for some, but what about the
charm of a journey by train? The Orient Express
had an attraction which no car will ever be able to
égaler match.
Sujets complémentaires, voir p. 263.

Cars - means of transport - vehicles


Autos - moyens de transport - véhicules

1. Cars and driving:


shock-absorbers: les amortisseurs
Les automobiles, la conduite *the tank: le réservoir
♦a brand new car: une voiture toute neuve the radiator: le radiateur
♦a second-hand car: une voiture d'occasion the fan belt: la courroie de ventilateur
*a car make: une marque d'automobiles the radiator shell: la calandre
the motor show: le salon de l'auto the suspension: la suspension
a convertible: une voiture décapotable a dual circuit braking system :
*to show off: crâner/fai re le beau un double circuit de freinage
a sun roof: un toit ouvrant *the engine: le moteur
the body: la carrosserie a spark-plug: une bougie
a roof rack: une galerie (à bagages) the ignition: l'allumage
*the bonnet/hood (U.S.): le capot the battery: la batterie
*a wing: une aile the carburettor: le carburateur
a mudguard: un garde boue the power of the motor: la puissance du moteur
*the boot/trunk (U.S.): la malle arrière ♦the exhaust-pipe: le tuyau d’échappement
♦a bumper: un pare choc lubrication : graissage
bump proof bumpers: des pare chocs ♦the gear-box: la boîte de vitesse
indéformables aux petites collisions the gear-lever: le levier de vitesse

196
*a pedal: une pédale lubricating oil: l’huile (à lubrifier)
*the accelerator: l’accélérateur ♦fill her up please !: le plein SVP !
the speedometer: le compteur de vitesse ♦this car does 42 miles per gallon:
the rev counter/the tachometer: cette voiture consomme 91 aux 100
le compte-tours this car averages 100 km per hour:
*the clutch: l'embrayage cette voiture fait une moyenne de 100 à l’heure
•the brake/foot brake: le frein ♦the average: la moyenne
the handbrake: le frein à main ♦to stall: caler
low gear: la lérc (ou la vitesse inférieure) a garage: un garage
*to brake: freiner ♦a breakdown: une panne
to press the clutch: embrayer/débrayer on tow: en remorque
to accelerate: accélérer ♦a mechanic: un mécanicien
*this car has a good lock: clogged: encrassé
cette voiture braque bien ♦spare parts: les pièces détachées
*the steering wheel: le volant a flat battery: une batterie à plat
*the dash-board: le tableau de bord the standards: les normes
*the mirror: le rétroviseur to zoom up north: filer vers le nord
the side-mirror: le rétroviseur latéral ♦to slow down: ralentir
a day/night rear-view mirror: reckless driving: conduite imprudente,
un rétroviseur à deux positions (jour-nuit) dangereuse
*the indicator: le clignotant a road hog: un chauffard
*the windscreen/windshield (U.S.): le pare-brise ♦to exceed the speed limit: dépasser la limitation
*windscreen wiper: un essuie-glace de vitesse
two-speed wipers: un essuie-glace à deux ♦careful: prudent
vitesses a reflex: un réflexe
rear window heating: désembuage de an inertia seat belt:
la lunette arrière une ceinture de sécurité à enrouleurs
the side windows: les glaces latérales a safety belt hinders your movements:
to demist: dégivrer une ceinture de sécurité vous empêche
reclining front seats: de bouger
des sièges avant inclinables ♦to overtake: doubler
a hatchback/a tailgate: une 5e portière (arrière) ♦a lorry/truck (U.S ): un camion
the hazard warning lights: ♦a caravan: une caravane
le signal de détresse to pass: passer/doubler/dépasser
the side-lights/the parking lights: ♦to reverse/to back: reculer/faire marche
les feux de position/les lanternes arrière
*the head-lights: les phares to skid: déraper
dipped-lights: les codes/en codes to capsize: se renverser
♦to park: se garer to bump into: rentrer dans/heurter
♦a car-park: un parking ♦to hoot: klaxonner
♦the driver: le conducteur ♦to run somebody over: écraser quelqu'un
a chauffeur: un chauffeur (de maître) to swerve: faire un écart
♦a flat tyre: un pneu à plat to lose one’s licence: se faire retirer
♦a punctured tyre: un pneu crevé le permis de conduire
to burst: éclater a radar: un radar
the spare wheel: la roue de secours an endorsement: un avertissement
to change a wheel: changer une roue (système du permis à points)
to remove a tyre: changer/enlever un pneu ♦the driving test: l'examen du permis
a crank/a jack: un cric de conduire
the gauge: la jauge the highway code: le code de la route
petrol/gas (U.S.): l’essence a car licence: une carte grise
a petrol pump: une pompe à essence ♦the number plate: la plaque minéralogique
♦a service station/a filling station: une station ♦a traffic-jam: un embouteillage
service bumper to bumper: pare-choc contre
to service the car: vidanger une voiture pare-choc
the air-pressure: la pression (des pneus) a by-pass : une route d’évitement

197
a motorway links 2 towns: une autoroute relie a wheel: une roue
2 villes ball-bearings: des roulements à billes
a toll-road (U.S.): une route à péage the rim: la jante
the toll: le péage a spoke: un rayon (de roue)
a lay-by/the verge, an inner tube: une chambre à air
l'accotement/le bas côté the chain: la chaîne
a parking area/a rest area (U.S.): free-wheel: en roue libre
une aire de stationnement the luggage-rack: le porte-bagages
a roundabout: un rond-point a patch: une rustine
a traffic-island: un refuge (au milieu de la rue) a (bicycle) pump: une pompe (à vélo)
no through road: voie sans issue
no U-turn: demi-tour interdit 3. Buses and coaches:
no left/right turn: Autobus et autocars
interdit de tourner à gauche/à droite *a means of transport: un moyen de transport
*a bend: un virage ♦public transport: les transports publics
the right of way: la priorité *a coach: un autocar
*a slope: une côte *a bus: un autobus
the safety barrier/the safety rail (U.S.): ♦a bus stop: un arrêt de bus
la glissière de sécurité a fare stage: une section
the solid line: la ligne continue *the conductor: le receveur
the dotted line: la ligne discontinue *the fare: le prix
cats-eyes: plots réfléchissants délimitant *to be late: être en retard
le milieu de la chaussée ♦to hurry: se dépêcher
a winding road: une route sinueuse *to rush: se précipiter
*a busy road: une route très fréquentée a bus shelter: un abribus
*a ditch: un fossé *the underground/subway (U.S.): le métro
pot-holes: des nids de poules a subway (G.B.): un passage souterrain
the road surface: le revêtement *formerly: autrefois
a dirt-road (U.S.): une route non goudronnée a stage coach: une diligence
tar: le goudron a hackney coach: un fiacre
dust: la poussière a waggon: un tombereau
a steam-roller: un rouleau (compresseur)
a sand heap: un tas de sable 4. In the mountains: A la montagne
a hump: un dos d’âne
*cross-roads: un croisement *a gondola (U.S.): une télé-cabine
a dual carriageway: *a chair-lift: un télésiège
une route à 4 voies séparées a ski-lift: un téléski
*a milestone: une borne (kilométrique) a cable-car/a funicular: un funiculaire
the traffic police/the highway patrol (U.S.): a teleferic: un téléphérique
la police de la route
♦traffic lights: les feux de circulation 5. On the rivers: Sur les cours d'eau
the sequence of lights: le passage des feux ♦a barge: une péniche
red/amber/green: rouge/ orange/vert a lock: une écluse
*to hitchhike: faire de l’auto-stop the tow path: le chemin de halage
to give a hitchhiker a lift: a river boat (U.S.): un bateau sur
prendre un auto-stoppeur le Mississippi (see BOATS, p. 200)
to drop a hitchhiker off: laisser un
auto-stoppeur (à un endroit) 6. Trains: Le chemin de fer
would you like to come for a drive ?: ♦a passenger train; un train de voyageurs
voulez-vous venir faire un tour (en voiture) ? *a goods train/ a freight train (U.S.):
un train de marchandises
a goods waggon: un wagon de marchandises
2. Bicycles: Vélos a fork-lift truck: un chariot élévateur
*the handlebar: le guidon *a station: une gare
*the saddle: la selle the ticket office:
the cross-bar: la fourche le guichet (pour les billets)

198
*the clerk: l'employé/le préposé *a jet plane: un avion à réaction
*to book a seat : louer une place a twin engined plane: un bi-moteur
a bookstall: une bibliothèque de gare •the wings: les ailes
‘the enquiry office: le bureau de renseignements *a flight: un vol
*a luggage rack: un filet (à bagages) *to take off: décoller
*a trunk: une malle •to land: atterrir
‘a suitcase: une valise the landing gear: le train d’atterrissage
a porter: un porteur the corridor: l’allée centrale (dans un avion)
*a station master: un chef de gare signs: les signaux lumineux
*the left luggage/the cloak room: la consigne fasten your seat belts: attachez vos ceintures
‘the lost property office: les objets trouvés no smoking: interdit de fumer
*a waiting room: une salle d'attente put your seats in the upright position:
a spitoon: un crachoir relevez le dossier de votre siège
*a timetable: un horaire an emergency exit: une sortie de secours
*to find out: trouver/découvrir a loudspeaker: un haut-parleur
*a platform: un quai (de gare) a hostess/a stewardess: une hôtesse de l'air
a quay: un quai (dans un port) a steward: un steward
to punch tickets: poinçonner des billets *refreshments: une collation
*to see somebody to the station: *a tray: un plateau
accompagner quelqu'un à la gare the galley: la cuisine (de l'avion)
*crowded: bondé *a port-hole: un hublot
*empty: vide the cockpit: le poste de pilotage
to be in time: arriver à temps a pilot: un pilote
to be on time: arriver à l'heure the captain: le commandant
‘to miss a train: manquer le train the flight engineer: l’ingénieur de vol
a steam/diesel/electric engine: a radio operator: un radio
une locomotive à vapeur/diésel/électrique earphones: des écouteurs
an engine driver: an air traffic controller:
un mécanicien (conducteur de locomotive) un contrôleur aérien (aiguilleur du ciel)
the dining-car: la voiture-restaurant the control tower: la tour de contrôle
a sleeping-car : un wagon-lit the joy-stick : le manche à balai
a rug: un couvre-lit *an airport: un aéroport
the guard: le chef de train ♦the terminal: l’aérogare
the inspector: le contrôleur a shuttle car (U.S.): une navette
the caboose (U.S.): le fourgon *a stopover: une escale
the alarm signal: le signal d'alarme ♦to check in: enregistrer (les bagages, etc...)
a level crossing: un passage à niveau the freight hold: la soute à bagages
*the (level crossing) gates: the beacons: les balises
les barrières (du passage à niveau) the airport boundaries:
the signals: les signaux les limites (balisées) des pistes
the points: les aiguillages *an air-strip: une piste d’envol
a concertina vestibule: un soufflet a windsock : une manche à air (indique
(entre 2 wagons) le sens du vent)
a buffer: un butoir
coupling-buffers: des tampons (de wagons) 8. Motorbikes: Motos
electricity-poles: des poteaux électriques *a moped: un vélomoteur
a railway (railroad U.S.) track: ♦a motorbike/*a motorcycle: une moto
une voie de chemin de fer a sporting machine: une moto de sport
a touring machine: une moto de tourisme
7. Air: Par avion a racing machine: une moto de course
a hot-air balloon: une montgolfière the taillight: le feu arrière
•an aeroplane/an airplane (U.S.): un avion the starter/the kick crank: le kick
a glider: un planeur the mudguard/the front fender:
to hover: planer le garde boue avant
a propeller plane: un avion à hélices a brake pedal: une pédale de frein
a turbo prop: un turbo propulseur the front fork: la fourche

199
the rear wheel: la roue arrière the front wheel: la roue avant
the change pedal: le sélecteur the footrest: le repose-pied
the speedometer: le compteur de vitesse the fuel tank: le réservoir
the brake lever: le levier de frein the side stand: la béquille latérale
the ignition/the mainswitch: le contacteur the clutch pedal: le levier d’embrayage
*the frame: le cadre the rev counter/the tachometer:
the cylinder head: la culasse le compte-tours
an air filter/an air cleaner: un filtre à air the throttle grip: la poignée à accélérateur
a*spark plug: une bougie the seat: la selle
2/4 stroke: 2/4 temps *neutral: point mort
idling: le ralenti (du moteur) the carburettor: le carburateur
the handlebar: le guidon the suspension system: la suspension
a drum brake: un frein à tambour the drive chain : la chaîne
the silencer/the exhaust/the muffler: steering: la direction
le pot d'échappement a fuse: un fusible
the headlight: le phare *a steering lock: un antivol

Boats
Les bateaux

1. Boats: Les bateaux the stern: l’arrière/la poupe


*sailing: (faire de) la voile *the anchor: l'ancre
boating: (faire) du bateau to moor: amarrer
*rowing: (faire de) l’aviron the foremast: le mât de misaine
the oars: les rames/les avirons the mainmast: le grand mât
a punt: une plate a look-out: une vigie
a flat-bottomed boat: un bateau à fond plat the gangway: la coupée
a barge: une péniche the hull: la coque
a trawler: un chalutier the keel: la quille
a monohull: un monocoque the hold: la cale
a multihull: un multicoque the wake: le sillage
a trimaran: un trimaran the galley: la cambuse
a hovercraft: un aéroglisseur a port hole: un hublot
a hydrofoil: un hydroglisseur a bunk: une couchette
to skipper: commander (un navire) a berth: une couchette
*to sail: naviguer (à la voile) the propeller: l’hélice
♦a liner: un transatlantique the furnace: le foyer/la chaudière
*a crossing/a passage: une traversée the funnel: la cheminée
a deck chair: une chaise longue an air shaft: une manche à air (aération)
the maiden voyage: la traversée inaugurale the handrail: la rambarde
to launch a ship: lancer un navire the capstan: le cabestan
the trials: les essais the forecastle: le gaillard d'avant
a vessel: un vaisseau *the deck: le pont
*a tanker: un pétrolier *the bridge: la passerelle de commandement
*a cargo-boat: un cargo the helm: la barre
*the cargo: la cargaison the rudder: le gouvernail
a tramp: un caboteur to steer: diriger/gouverner (le navire)

2. Parts of the boat: 3. Sailors/Sailing:


Différentes parties du bateau Les marins/La navigation
the topsail: le hunier a compass: une boussole
the foresail/the jib: le foe port: bâbord
the bow: I’avant starboard: tribord

200
a knot: un nœud (vitesse) to pitch: tanguer
a spy-glass: une longue-vue to roll: rouler
'binoculars: des jumelles to rock: tanguer
the log-book: le livre de bord ♦to be seasick: avoir le mal de mer
the chart-room: la chambre des cartes sea-spray: les embruns
a searchlight: un projecteur ♦a reef: un récif
*the captain: le commandant ♦a shipwreck: un naufrage
the mate: le second ♦to sink: couler
♦the crew: l'équipage ♦to capsize: chavirer
a ship's boy: un mousse ♦a life-boat: un canot de sauvetage
a sea-dog: un loup de mer ♦a life-jacket: un gilet de sauvetage
a stowaway: un passager clandestin a raft: un radeau
a wharf: un appontement a buoy: une bouée
a dock: un bassin to be stranded: être échoué
♦a quay: un quai (dans un port) (I) to drift: dériver
4. The sea and its dangers:
La mer et ses dangers
a mill-pond: une mer d'huile
♦a storm: une tempête
(I) Un quai (dans une gare) = a platform.

49. C
Road safety
La sécurité routière

conversation au coin du feu (A fire-side chat in the local pub of an English


country village, between a Frenchman and an
Englishman.)

vous êtes-vous jamais demandé Englishman - Have you ever wondered what
accident d'avion public reaction would be if a plane crash were
reported every week in our newspapers?
frenchman - No problem - people would simply
trop effrayé/» pour prendre l'avion be too scared / to fly.
et pourtant/en gros e. - And yet this is roughly what happens with
taux de mortalité cars, the death toll is so high that people don't seem
se préoccuper to bother.
effectivement/je ne suis pas vraiment f. - Indeed it's very high but*
I don’t really agree
d'accord with you. People do bother and governments have
» mesures taken important steps to make sure that the
les victimes (d'accidents) n'augmentent casualties don't increase, ! even though the number
pas/même si of cars increases.
vous faites allusion e. - Oh, I see, you’re alluding to recent innovations
ceinture de sécurité/limitations de and gadgets such as the safety belt or speed limits.
vitesse f. - The safety belt is not a gadget and it has saved
a lot of lives.
e. - Do you mean, for example, that people who are
» bloqués/brfllés trapped in their cars and burnt to death are saved
thanks to their safety belts?

201
► valable F. - Your argument is not relevant. For one person
who dies because of his safety belt there are dozens
who are saved because of them.
e. - But do you know that statistics include in the
grâce à percentage of people who are saved thanks to their
néanmoins/côtes belts all those who have, nevertheless, broken ribs
blessures and other internal injuries?
atta'ché f. - That may be so. but if you're not strapped in
pare-brise and you’re thrown through your windscreen for
crâne one reason or another, you may get a skull fracture
even if you are only driving at a reasonable speed.
vue And what about those who lose their sight, too
en avant because when they are thrown forward their head
brise smashes the windscreen?
je suis d’accord e. - I agree with your last example, that’s why I
en verre feuilleté favour triplex windscreens.
f. - But these new windscreens can’t be used
without a safety belt, their main quality being that
they are so hard that a stone can’t break them. Just
(se) cognant imagine the damage done to a skull bumping into
a triplex!
e. - All right, but the belt can be dangerous too,
choc en retour because of the return shock which can break your
colonne vertébrale backbone.
très' bien/appui-tête f. - Fair enough, that’s why a head-rest is necessary
► gênants and please don't tell me they’re a nuisance too; a
arriver à faire marche arrière good driver can always manage to back up even
with one of those. Not to mention the new types
which are semi-transparent.
je vous fais marcher/boucle e. - In fact I’m kidding you because 1 always fasten
my belt, but I must say I don’t feel at all
comfortable with it.
f. - You need an automatic one; it’s expensive but
very efficient. Free movement is possible without
attaché feeling tied down, but it blocks if there is a sudden
freiner shock or if you have to brake suddenly.
bien que e. - I’m not really convinced even though your
arguments are interesting. But don’t you think
signal de détresse/simples speed limits and the warning system are mere
gadgets?
f. - Of course the warning light is a gadget but
nevertheless a useful one. As for the speed limit, I
don’t agree. It’s the most efficient measure, and I
would never call it a gadget. In fact you don’t
► sonnerie seem to know what a gadget is. The buzzer system
rappeler you find in American cars to remind you to strap
yourself in if you’ve forgotten is a gadget, but not
the speed limit.
e - You can’t deny though that it was a measure
économiser primarily meant to save energy.
je vous raccorde/pétrole/principal f -1 grant you that, but the oil crisis was the main

202
pretext for a measure which should have been
Imaginez taken a long time before. Just fancy that in the
autoroute *motor-
U.S.A, the speed limit was 65 m.p.h. on
ways at a time when it was unlimited in France.
You know as well as I do that lots of people
prendre la pelne/ralentir didn’t even used to bother/to slow down when
agglomération going through a built-up area.

e. - Yes, you’re right, and it was very dangerous for


plétons/dann la cralnte/renversés pedestrians who lived in fear of being run over.
Personally 1 would have reinforced such rules but 1
Inutile find it pointless that there should be a limit on
motorways.
nier e. - And yet you can’t deny that there are fewer
accidents now.
e - It could also be because the roads are better. A
vlrages/rectifléa lot of dangerous bends have been Straightened
amélioria/routM nationale» out and road services improved. ManySnain
élargies roads have been widened and road signals made
clearer.
e. - What you are saying is only partly true. If
faisaient attention people were cautious there would be very few
► quel que soit accidents whatever the state of the road. I would

203
chaussées à deux voies even say that apart from dual carriageways some
améliorations/dangereux improvements can be very hazardous. There is
route à trois voies nothing more dangerous than a three lane road.
qui plus est/ne se préoccupent pas Moreover, most drivers don’t take any notice of
the surface signals.
cœur e. - This might be the heart of the problem. Many
drivers don’t drive well even if they drive slowly.
enseignés f. - Do you mean they’ve been badly taught?
e. - I’ve always been surprised to see that most
auto-écoles schools of motoring only taught you to drive in
moniteurs town. Why don’t the instructors take you to the
countryside as well?
si cela dépendait de moi f. - I couldn’t agree more. If I had my way the
examen du permis de conduire/complet driving test would be more comprehensive and
include all sorts of different conditions.
e. - I’ve got the impression that people drive too
apte early here. They’re not really fit to drive at 18,
vifs their reflexes are not acute enough.
c'est ridicule f. - That’s rubbish. In most States in the U.S.A,
les jeunes ont le droit youngsters are entitled to drive at 16 or 17 and
sometimes even 15!
e. - How’s that?
f. -1 assume it’s because in some States there is
practically no public transport and parents simply
gamins don’t have the time to drive all their kids around.
But I can assure you these youngsters don’t drive
aînés any worse than their elders.
peut-être e. - Maybe, but their cars are much more solid than
ours in Europe - Some of them even make you
voitures blindées think of armoured car!... The bonnet is much longer
capot/plus épais and thicker and the bumpers don’t get dented easily,
pare-chocs/cabossés/par ailleurs but on the other hand they don’t hold the road very
ne tiennent pas la route well and you are almost sure to skid if you brake
déraper/tout d’un coup all of a sudden.
trouver l’équilibre f. - It’s hard to strike a balance between active and
passive security. Our European cars usually have
puissances great powers of acceleration and hold the road
traction avant very well, especially if they have front traction,
carrosseries/robustes but in general their bodies are not tough enough.
ajouter/surestiment E. - I’d like to add that our drivers often overrate
pire their cars and what is even worse generally think
code de la route/» destiné that the highway code is meant for others.
des gens tris bien/fous furieux f. - That’s right, some very decent fellows go’raving
volant/» peines mad at the wheel and I think that penalties are
clémentes/dépassent often too lenient, especially for those who exceed
the speed limit.
e. - And when I see some drivers ignoring the
“Halt” signs or crossing over a continuous white
feux de signalisations sont oranges line or accelerating when the traffic
* lights are
at amber, I sometimes wish I were a policeman. I
amendes would not hesitate to impose heavy fines and

204
retirer/permis/au moins withdraw their licences or at least give them an
avertissement endorsement on their licences.
dommage F. - Too bad you’re not a policeman. But seriously
l’ensemble you’re right. Priority rules and the whole of the
highway code should be sacred.
e. - And those who drink and drive should be
clémence shown no mercy - straight to prison!
prise de sang f. - I wouldn’t even bother to give them a blood test
alcool to prove the degree of alcohol in their blood. I
would simply have them blow in the balloon.
gagner du temps That would save time, at least.
~ le coup de l’étrier *
e. - That’s fair enough. Well now, what about
one
for the road. What’ll you have, beer or whisky?

voir vocabulaire p. 196. Sujets complémentaires, voir p. 263.

50. C
Hitch-hiking
L’auto-stop

d'une quarantaine d’années (A conversation between Mr. Ross, a middle-aged


man, and two students Martin and Claire.)

Mr. ross - So you’re keen hitch-hikers, are you? I’m


j’oserais not sure I’d dare try it myself.
martin - There’s no problem. Why should it be
more dangerous than anything else?
effraie ci.aire - What scares you about hitch-hiking?
Mr. r. - You don’t know how well the driver drives.
avertissement/permis de conduire He might have an endorsement on his *
driving
licence.
cl. - But you have to face the same danger when
chauffard you go with a friend. He might be a road hog.
Mr. r. - Yes, but you don’t need to go with him again.
mar. - It’s the same when you hitch-hike; you never
deux fois see the same driver twice, and on the whole most
assez people drive fairly well.
ci.. - 1 have been all round the British Isles, France
and Scandinavia hitch-hiking and out of dozens
a trajets (en tant qu’auto-stoppeur) of lifts, I did not find more than three very bad
drivers.
Mr. r. -1 dare say it was three too many. 1 don’t like
siège being scared in the passenger seat. Also I’d be
m'agresse frightened the driver would assault me.

205
mar. - Usually it’s the contrary. I know a good
many drivers who would not give a hitch-hiker a
de peur lift for fear they might be attacked.
néanmoins Mr. r. - Nevertheless a lot of girls who hitch-hike are
violées raped by their drivers.
cl. - Personally I would not say a lot, but there are
un bon nombre quite a few. Of course it’s quite hazardous for a
une jeune femme/toute seule young female to hitch-hike on her own.
me rappelle mar. - This reminds me of a strange thing which
happened to me some years ago. I had spent the
week-end on the Isle of Wight with two girl­
friends of mine. We had done quite a lot of
auto-stop/» marchait thumbing together. It usually worked very well.
Mr. r. -1 would have thought it was more difficult
for three of you to get a lift.
routiers mar. - No, because lorry-drivers thought that one
of the girls was my girl-friend, therefore they
supposaient/baratiner assumed they could chat up the other girl.
astucieux Mr. r. - That’s very clever - 1 never thought of that!
mar. - So we took the car-ferry from Yarmouth to
le continent/» nous allions vers the mainland, / we were aiming for the South as we
were students at Exeter University. It was almost
nuit tombante dusk as we started to thumb.
avez-vous réussi à Mr. R. - Did you manage to get a lift all right?
mar. - That was the problem. The only lifts we
could get were from the cars which were coming
la route nationale off the ferry - we were too far from the main road
» nuit to reach it before it was completely dark, and as
you can imagine it’s hard to get a lift at night.
j’en sais quelque chose/» bloquée cl. - You’re telling me - I was once stuck for a
couple of hours at night before a lorry stopped,
continuez but excuse me for interrupting, go ahead.
anxiété grandissante mar. - Well, it was with growing concern that we
realised that all the cars coming off the ferry were
bondées/» sauf crowded. All the cars but one had gone, so our
last chance was that very last car. Fortunately it
stopped and we got in. We thanked the driver very
chaleureusement warmly and told him we were going to Exeter.
He replied that it was on his way.
parie/soulagés Mr. r. - I bet you were relieved.
mar. - We were indeed - until he drove into a small
taillis/il faisait nuit noire copse. By that time it was pitch dark.
cl. - Where were you sitting?
mar. - Just behind him. He then stopped right in
the middle of the wood and started putting his
gloves on...
ça, par exemple Mr. r. - Oh my goodness!
cl. - I would have died!
mar. - The girl sitting next to him looked at me as if
to say “do something quickly!”
Mr r. - What did you do?

206
mar -1 was mainly concerned about myself. I only
peau thought of saving my own skin - so 1 reached out
poignée for the door handle.
qu'aviez-vous l'intention cl. - What did you intend doing?
la crosse/carabine mar. -1 had seen the butt of a carbine near his seat
so I thought he would first kill me and then rape
the girls.
c’est affreux Mr. r. - How dreadful! But how did it all finish?
il démarra mar. - Once he had put his gloves on he started up
the car again and drove back to the main road,
ci.. - What a fright you must have had!
sa voiture cala mar. - Yes, especially as his car stalled just before
chemin de terre he got off the dirt road. We thought he might still
changer d’avis change his mind and kill us.

cl. - I would have jumped out.


un fou mar. - We didn’t dare, and he drove like a madman
to Exeter without saying a word to us.
Mr. r. - He must have been a mental case.
mar. - Yes, I believe he mainly wanted to frighten
us.
l’avez-vous signalé cl - Did you report him to the police?
mar. - No, but we thought later on that we should
have done, though.
un fou/a s’était échappé cl. - He might have been a lunatic who had broken
un asile d’aliénés out of a mental hospital.
fous Mr. r. - The world is full of crazy people. Some
fous furieux might prove to be true maniacs, that's why I don't
personally want to take the risk of thumbing. I
also feel that we are taking advantage of someone.
c’est comme si on mendiait It’s like begging.
mar. - No, not at all. The driver only stops if he
wants to. He’s not forced to give you a lift.
Mr. R. - Which people give you lifts generally?
cl. - It varies. Very often lorry drivers, because
voyages they enjoy talking to someone on long journeys.

207
compatissent Also a lot of young people who sympathize with
un peu hitch-hikers, or older people who have done a bit
of hitching when they were younger, or whose
children do it.
mar. - In fact this is the main advantage of hitch­
hiking. You meet all sorts of people. It’s obviously
► car the best way of visiting a country, for you really
étroit have a close contact with the local population,
alors que/autocar whereas if you travel by train, coach or in your
garçons de café own car, you only meet hotel-keepers, waiters and
so on...
je suis entièrement d’accord cl. - I completely agree. Even if I had enough
je ferais quand même du stop money to travel about. I’d still hitch-hike. In fact
for a young person it’s a good intellectual exercise
s’adapter to be able to adjust to different categories of people.
une vingtaine mar. - Yes, once I had a score of lifts to go from
Cornouailles Edinburgh to Cornwall. Half of them were lorry­
drivers who talked about sport, their own personal
problems, their jobs. The others were all sorts; an
Oxford University student, an army officer, a top
fonctionnaire/C.E.E. civil servant at the E.E.C. commission, a
pasteur commercial traveller, a parson. I was even given
un type a lift by a chap who had been to Tibet and who was
the secretary of the Liberal Party leader. He
assister invited me to attend his party’s General Assembly.
attrayant Mr. r. - All that is very appealing, but I do get the
pour faire des économies impression that most hitch-hikers do it *
to save
money.
mar. - Of course this noble sport is deteriorating
bien dommage and it’s a great pity.
cl. - Yes, you now even find hitch-hikers who sit
s’allongent down or even lie down while thumbing.
ne se donnent même pas la peine mar. - A lot don’t even bother to thumb now.
plutôt mal soignés Mr r. - They also look pretty scruffy on the whole,
don’t they? They smoke too, which a lot of drivers
don’t like.
cl. - And they also hitch-hike in places where it’s
impossible to stop safely, or even right in the
middle of a town, as if they couldn’t walk to the
périphérie outskirts.
allons/des vieux Mr. r. - Come on. You sound like old folks. I bet
you wouldn’t give a lift to anyone if you had a car.
auto-stoppeurs mar. - 1 must say I’d carefully select my hitch-
*
hikers.
moi aussi cl. - So would I.
où voulez-vous que je vous dépose? Mr. r. - Well, here we are - Where shall I drop you?
mar - Oh, anywhere... It was very nice of vou’to
» de nous avoir pris
mille mercis
pick us up. / Thanks ever so for the lift...

voir vocabulaire p. 196. Sujets complémentaires, voir p. 263.

208
51.C
Towns and modern architecture
Les villes et l’architecture moderne

(A conversation between Patrick, a 24 year old


fonctionnaire/épouse civil servant, Margaret, his 22 year old wife, whois
sténo-dactylo/le frère de celle-ci a short-hand typist, and the latter’s brother Dave,
étudiant aux Beaux-arts aged 19, a fine arts student at Manchester
University.)

de retour dave - So you’re back from Exeter. How long


jusqu'au Nord (de l’Angleterre) did it take you to drive up North?
Patrick - Four and a half hours, I think.
autoroute Margaret - Of course, it’s all motorway from here
down to the South.
à part/~ section pat. - Yes, and apart from a twenty mile stretch
i trois voies near Bristol, it’s a three lane motorway.
limitation de vitesse dave - I don’t suppose you respected the *speed
limit!
bien que pat. - Not always, I'm afraid, although I must say I
pressé wasn’t in a hurry to get back here.
marg. - Why’s that?
pat. - Well, I liked it very much down South. I
hadn't been to Exeter for years and I liked the
town as much as when I was a student.
dave - What impressed you most down there?
verdure pat. - It’s hard to tell. Probably the greenery, there
arbustes are so many trees and shrubs.
» tu as dû trouver dave - You would find a difference then. I’ve
always found that here in Manchester there was
béton too much concrete and not enough greenery.
pat. -1 also liked the architecture. There are some
~ style ISe s. wonderful Georgian houses and the use of pink
grès/frappant sandstone is very striking. There's a very human
dans l’ensemble atmosphere, all in all.
cela n’est pas étonnant mar. - Well, that’s no wonder, really - it's only a
small town and small towns are more human.
dave - Yes, this is the problem of our modern day
and age. Is man made to live in big cities?
immenses pat. - Personally, I don’t think so. Huge
metropolises like London, New York or even
écraser Manchester can only crush the individual and
engendrer/habitants breed aggressiveness in their inhabitants.
maladies dave - That’s why you find so many social diseases
délinquance in these big cities - delinquency, prostitution,
» misère squalor.
taudis mar. - But aren’t there any slums in Exeter?

209
pat. - I don’t think there are many. But talking
about aggressiveness, people suffer so much in big
► perdent cities, they’re always in a hurry, and waste so much
~ en transport time commuting that it’s no wonder they’re
aggressive.
partage/cependant dave -1 share your opinion, and yet big cities are
phénomène not a new phenomenon. Rome had a population
au moins of at least half a million inhabitants at the time of
Caesar.
pat. - Yes, and if you consider other ancient
brillantes civilizations, all the bright ones developed in
cities, not in rural areas.
mar. - Such as?
Byzance pat. - Well, for example, Byzantium, Rome,
Athens, Persepolis. The rural civilizations did not
have a great intellectual development, or at least
have not left anything tangible behind them.
dave -1 think the second reason is the correct one.
Gaulois Take for instance the Gauls. It has been proved
that they were a bright people, but very little
remains of their civilization.
mar. - Because they didn’t develop big towns.
je te l’accorde dave - Oh, I grant you that. So you would consider
mal that the big town would be a necessary evil in the
development of a civilization.
d’un autre côté/» en plus pat. - Exactly. But on the other hand, / besides
allowing culture, art, and ideas to develop, the big
city imposes its own way of life on you, takes you
emprise/vous épuise (peu à peu) in its grip and wears you down. It makes you
arriver à wonder how people can manage to live in these
qui plus est places, and moreover, be happy.
mar. - Personally, I think it’s all a question of
buildings, or of architecture, if you like.
d’accord pat. - Right. In general the buildings are too high.
Man can only feel oppressed next to such huge
gratte-ciel skyscrapers.
dave - And yet in ancient Rome there were some
bâtiments de 7 étages seven storey buildings.
pat. - Well, Rome had its own problems too, I’m
me frappa sure of that. But what struck me in Exeter is that
there are only two or three tall buildings.
de trop dave - Well, that makes two or three too many.
mar. - Sure - and in London there are now a good
gâchent number of tower-like buildings that spoil the
*
paysage landscapes, and it’s even worse in New York and
other American cities. But what strikes me in
modernes Europe is that these up-to-date tower blocks often
jurent (ne vont pas avec) clash with the rest of the architecture. And the
ennui trouble now is that a lot of small towns feel the
immeuble necessity of having “their” own block of flats
domine which towers over the town and seems so

210
incongruous. Why is it that in the Alps and the
Himalayas you find a similar architecture, the
en bols/ll n'intègre au wooden chalet? Because it fits in with the
landscape and the climate.
font les plans/grands pat. - Why is it that nowadays architects plan / tall
blocks then?
une mode dave - Oh, there are many reasons. It's a fashion
► munlclpalités/flères these days, as you said many boroughs are proud
of their own tower block - it gives them the
impression of being up-to-date.
mar - There is also the promoter, don’t forget, who
puts pressure on the architects to build higher and
higher.
pat. - Yes, and it’s quite normal when you think in
bénéfices terms of profits. If you can build two hundred
appartements/terrain flats on the same plot of land, then you’re not
going to build only one hundred.
mar - So the higher you build, the more money
► gagner you make.
dave - That’s it. It’s all a question of profit - but
you can’t blame them.
il n'en reste pas moins pat. - No, but the fact remains that architects have
little imagination when they plan tall buildings.
Small individual buildings are often planned in an
quand il s'agit de imaginative way, but when it comes to a big block,
you find thé same plan all over the world.
cependant mar. - Perhaps not exactly the same, though.
que vous soyez pat. - But you must admit that whether you’re in
Stockholm, Manchester, Chicago, Paris or
Moscow, you find exactly the same type of
architecture, with very few variations.
forme dave - Yes, the cube seems to be the only shape
they know.

211
ligne droite pat. - And the straight line. 1 read somewhere that
the beauty of the Parthenon was due to the fact
* seule that there was not a single straight line in it, only
courbes curves. Architects please take note.
je suis d’accord dave - That's a problem, I agree. In fact when a tall
building has a façade whose monotony is broken
lignes ondulées/une gamme by wavy lines, curves or a range of different
colours, the result is much more pleasing to the
eye.
peinture pat. - The quality of the paint-work is important
too.
mar. - Yes, but I don’t like what they’ve done on
► badigeonnées de couleurs criardes some new buildings which are all tarted up in pink,
pale green, yellow...
pat. - Those sorts of round towers whose windows
ne sont pas à mon goût/non plus have a funny shape are not my cup of tea, / either.
dave - But to me what makes all modern buildings
hideux/toits so ugly is that they’ve got no roofs. In the French
town of Tours they’ve put a modern roof on some
tall buildings and they look nicer, more human.
je regrette de ne pas être d’accord pat. - I’ve seen the buildings you mention, buPl’m
afraid I don’t agree with you. I think they look just
mornes as dismal as the others.
mar. - I suppose the architects should not always
be blamed, though. Most of the time they can’t
égayer/coût liven up the buildings because of the cost,
H.L.M. especially if it’s a block of council flats.
me désole dave - What also distresses me is that these
buildings are so tall that there will never be any
cachés chance of their being hidden by trees.
une loi/établissant pat. - I think there should be a law / stating that no
building should be higher than the highest trees
pousser that can grow in a town.
subsiste dave - But the problem remains, that if you don’t
forcément build high you will necessarily have more buildings
moins de place in a town, which leaves less room for open spaces
and parks. It’s a vicious circle.
en effet mar. - It is indeed, but because people now want
to live in towns.
favorable à dave - Are you in favour of building the towns in
campagne the countryside as one humorist suggested?
pire mar. - This would be even worse. At least with the
situation as it is, we know we can escape to the
afin de countryside in order to find a more human
dimension...
Sujets complémentaires, voir p. 263.

212
Towns and architecture
Les villes et l’architecture

1. Local government and *a bus-conductor: un receveur (d'autobus)


administration: Le gouvernement *a bus-driver: un conducteur (chauffeur)
local et l'administration d'autobus
a taxi-rank: une station de taxi
*a city, une grande ville a meter: un compteur (de taxi)
*a town: une ville *the fare: le prix de la course/la course
a borough: un bourg administratif/ *the commuters: les banlieusards qui utilisent
un district/un arrondissement les transports publics
a corporation/
a
* municipality: the lost property office: le service
une municipalité/un conseil municipal des objets trouvés
*the mayor: le maire ""inquiries: les renseignements
*the deputy mayor: le maire-adjoint
the council: le conseil 3. Public services (firemen, etc.):
*a councillor: un conseiller Les services publics
the registrar: l'officier d'état-civil
the town-clerk: le secrétaire de mairie (pompiers, etc.)
*the town-hall: la mairie the sewers: les égoûts
the city-hall: l'hôtel de ville foul water: de l'eau putride
*the inhabitants: les habitants ""refuse/rubbish: les ordures
the mob/the crowd: la populace/la foule a refuse-collector/dustbin man: un éboueur
the rates: les impôts locaux *a dustbin/rubbish bin: une boite à ordures
a rate-payer: un contribuable *a telephone-booth/a telephone box:
a tax-collector: un percepteur une cabine téléphonique
*the police station: le poste de police
2. Pedestrians, commuters and public to the rescue: à l'aide
transport: Les piétons, ""help ! help !: au secours !
les banlieusards et les transports *the fire station: la caserne de pompiers
the fire brigade: les pompiers
publics *a fireman: un pompier
*a block (U.S ): un pâté de maisons a fire-engine: une voiture de pompiers
*a suburb: une banlieue *a ladder: une échelle
the outskirts: les faubourgs the fire-alarm: l'alerte au feu
a thoroughfare: une artère to sound the siren: actionner la sirène
a hanging bridge: un pont suspendu a fire hose: un tuyau d'incendie
a draw-bridge: un pont levis a fire hydrant: une bouche d'incendie
♦a one-way street: une rue à sens unique a fire extinguisher: un extincteur
an arcade: un passage couvert
*the passers-by: les passants 4. Entertainments and places of
a lane: une ruelle interest: Les distractions et
*a zebra-crossing: un passage protégé/clouté lieux touristiques
the beacons: feux à éclats annonçant
un passage protégé *the cinemas: les cinémas
*the traffic-lights: les feux tricolores *the theatres: les théâtres
*the tube (G.B.)/
*the the
*
underground/ the music-halls: les music-halls
subway (U.S.): le métro the night-clubs: les night-clubs
the kerb: le bord du trottoir the bars: les bars
*the pavement/sidewalk (U.S.): le trottoir *the cafés: les cafétérias
*the gutter: le caniveau *the pubs: les débits de boissons
*a bus-stop: un arrêt d'autobus *the restaurants: les restaurants
a fare stage: une section *the museums: les musées
a curator: un conservateur de musée plain: simple
♦the churches: les églises to raise: élever
♦a cathedral: une cathédrale *a landmark: un point de repère (dans une ville)
floodlit: illuminé to dig: creuser/fouiller (archéologie)
a resort: une station (balnéaire...) the slums: les taudis
the housing-shortage: la crise du logement
a census: un recensement
5. Art and architecture, housing and remote: éloigné/perdu
amenities: he knows the town like the back of his hand:
L’art et l’architecture, le loge­ il connaît la ville comme sa poche
ment et les équipements ♦factories: les usines
the slaughter house: l’abattoir
Romanesque/Norman art: l'art Roman ♦hospitals: les hôpitaux
fan gothic: le gothique flamboyant the foundling hospital: l’hôpital
the shell: la carcasse des enfants trouvés
the frame: le châssis a deserted village: un village abandonné

The house
La maison
1. Architecture: L’architecture 3. Dwelling places:
♦an architect : un architecte Demeures
to design: faire un plan/élaborer un plan ♦a dwelling: une demeure/une habitation
a plan: un plan ♦a detached house: une maison indépendante
♦tasteless: sans goût ♦a semi-detached house: une maison double
Tudor/black and white architecture: a shed: un hangar
architecture Tudor (façades à croisillons) ♦a fiat: un appartement
an apartment (U.S.): un appartement
2. Construction work and materials: ♦a block of flats: un immeuble (d’appartements)
Travaux et matériaux de a cottage: une maison rurale
construction a thatched cottage: une chaumière
a bungalow: une maison de plain-pied
♦to build: construire a flatlet: un studio
♦cement: du ciment ♦a council house ~ une HLM
♦sand: du sable a mountain house ~ un chalet (de montagne)
♦ferrn-concrete: du béton armé ♦a camp site: un camping
♦plaster: du plâtre to pitch a tent: dresser une tente
adobe ~ de la terre battue a hammock: un hamac
to whitewash: blanchir à la chaux a sleeping bag: un sac de couchage
♦a ladder: une échelle down: du duvet
♦tiles: des tuiles an eiderdown: un édredon
slates: des ardoises a hut: une case/une hutte/une cabane
shingles: des tuiles d’amiante a jerry-built house: une maison de pacotille
♦a crane: une grue a penthouse (U.S.) = un duplex (au dernier
♦a wheelbarrow: une brouette étage d’un immeuble de standing)
a trowel: une truelle with an unobstructed view: avec vue imprenable
a concrete mixer: une bétonnière ♦to look onto: donner sur
copper: du cuivre ♦it’s situated off Baker Street: c’est situé
brass: du laiton dans une rue qui donne sur Baker Street
lead: du plomb ♦I live next door but one: j’habite à
♦iron: du fer deux numéros (de là)
♦steel: de l’acier
zinc: du zinc
tin: de l’étain
ply-wood: du contreplaqué

214
4. Castles and chateaux: *the garage: le garage
Châteaux-forts et châteaux *the ground floor: le rez de chaussée
*the 1st floor: le Ier étage
*a Hall: un château (en général) *the 2nd floor: le 2e étage
a manor: un manoir a sash window: une fenêtre à guillotine
♦a palace: un château (type Versailles) a window-pane: un carreau/une vitre
a chateau: un château (type Loire)
a hunting lodge: un rendez-vous de chasse 7. Heating, insulating and electricity:
a mansion house: une grande maison de maître
*a castle: un château-fort Le chauffage, l’isolation
the dungeon: le cachot thermique et l’électricité
the keep: le donjon *to insulate a house: isoler une maison
Romanesque/ Norman : (du froid)
roman (adj.)/roman anglo-saxon (adj.) asbestos: de l'amiante
Gothic: gothique (adj.) cork: du liège
a pointed arch: une arche gothique fibre-glass: de la laine de verre
to conserve energy: économiser l'énergie,
5. Exchange of property: ne pas gaspiller l'énergie
Echange de propriété double-glazing: double vitrage
*to buy: acheter *shutters: des volets/des persiennes
*to purchase: acquérir *the boiler: la chaudière
a mortgage: une hypothèque a wood supply: une réserve de bois
a loan: un prêt *coal: du charbon
*to move in/out: emménager/déménager charcoal: du charbon de bois
*to let: louer (propriétaire à locataire) *to turn on/off the gas: brancher,
the landlord/the owner: le propriétaire allumer/débrancher, éteindre le gaz
*to rent: louer (locataire) *to switch on/off the electricity: brancher,
the tenant: le locataire allumer/débrancher, fermer l’électricité
inhabited: habité the electricity meter: le compteur électrique
’vacant: libre *a fire-place: une cheminée (l'âtre)
*to accommodate: loger a poker: un tisonnier
bellows: le soufflet
a stove: un poêle
6. The framework and structure of soot: la suie
the house: ashes: les cendres
La charpente et les structures de *matches: des allumettes
la maison *a lighter: un briquet
*an ash-tray: un cendrier
*the walls: les murs *central heating: le chauffage central
*the roof: le toit a water-heater: un chauffe-eau
a weathercock: une girouette
a lightning conductor: un paratonnerre a radiator: un radiateur
*the beams: les poutres a live wire: un fil électrique à nu
the wooden frame: la charpente an electric wire: un fil électrique
the timber: le bois de charpente
the eaves: les combles 8. The kitchen: La cuisine
the gutter: la gouttière (horizontale) *the kitchen: la cuisine
the drain pipe: la gouttière (conduit vertical) *a tap: un robinet
*a chimney: un conduit de cheminée the sink: l’évier
the loft: le grenier to scrub: récurer
junk: (de vieux) rossignols a stopper: un bouchon (d'évier)
*an attic: une mansarde *a gas/electric cooker:
a roof window/a sky-light: une lucarne une cuisinière à gaz/électrique
an attic window: un chien assis the oven: le four
(fenêtre de mansarde) *a washing machine:
*the basement: le sous-sol une machine à laver (le linge)
*the (wine) cellar: la cave (à vin) *soap powder: de la lessive

215
*a dish washer: une machine à laver la vaisselle ♦to unplug: débrancher
♦to wash up: faire la vaisselle ♦a wash-basin: un lavabo
♦the washing: le lavage (du linge) ♦to have a bath/a shower:
♦the cupboards: les placards prendre un bain/une douche
moulds/dishes: les moules/les plats ♦to have a wash: se laver
a dust/rubbish bin: une boîte à ordures ♦an (electric) toothbrush:
the larder: le cellier/le garde-manger une brosse à dents (électrique)
♦a fridge: un réfrigérateur ♦toothpaste: du dentifrice
to defrost: dégivrer ♦soap: du savon
perfume: du parfum
9. Upstairs/The bedrooms: cologne: de l'eau de Cologne
En haut/Les chambres ♦shampoo: du shampooing
♦an (electric) razor: un rasoir (électrique)
*the staircase/the stairs: l'escalier ♦a (razor) blade: une lame (de rasoir)
*a step: une marche ♦shaving soap/foam:
the handrail: la rampe du savon/de la mousse à raser
a landing: un palier ♦a towel: une serviette
*a lift: un ascenseur a coat hanger: un cintre
*the bedrooms: les chambres (à coucher) a peg: une patère
a mattress: un matelas ♦the toilets/bathroom (U.S.): les toilettes
*sheets: des draps to spend a penny: aller aux W.C.
*blankets: des couvertures toilet paper: du papier hygiénique
*a pillow-case: une taie d’oreiller the flush: la chasse d'eau
a cradle (G. B.): un berceau ♦dirty: sale
a crib (U.S.): un berceau (U.S.) la crèche (G.B.) ♦it smells vile: cela sent mauvais
*a chest of drawers: une commode neat: bien rangé
bunk beds: des lits superposés stains: des taches
*slippers: des pantoufles
12. Housework and decorating:
10. Downstairs/The living and . Le ménage et la décoration
dining-rooms: En bas/La salle
♦untidy: en désordre
de séjour et la salle à manger ♦to do the housework: faire le ménage
*furniture/a piece of furniture: ♦to dust: épousseter
des meubles/un meuble ♦to sweep: balayer
*the dining-room: la salle à manger ♦a broom: un balai
the drawing-room: le salon ♦a vacuum cleaner: un aspirateur
*the sitting-room/the living-room: a closet: une armoire/un placard
la salle de séjour a cabinet: un meuble à tiroirs,
a hi-fï: une chaîne hi-fi un secrétaire, une vitrine (d’appartement)
*an arm-chair: un fauteuil wallpaper: du papier peint
a sofa: un canapé ♦to (re) decorate: décorer/tapisser,
♦the study: le bureau (pièce) refaire une pièce
♦the desk: le bureau (meuble) ♦to paint: peindre
a book-case: une bibliothèque (d'appartement) a coat of paint: une couche de peinture
♦shelves: des étagères
♦a waste-paper basket: une corbeille à papiers 13. Internal fittings:
Accessoires intérieurs
11. The bathroom and toilet:
La salle de bain et les toilettes a skirting board: une plinthe
an aerial: une antenne (de TV...)
♦the bathroom: la salle de bain a key-hole: un trou de serrure
the tiles: les carreaux (de faïence) a key: une clef
♦the bath: la baignoire ♦a bunch of keys: un trousseau de clefs
a mirror: une glace a boit: un verrou
an electric plug: une prise électrique ♦a lock: une serrure
♦to plug: brancher a lamp shade: un abat-jour

216
the frame: l'armature (de l'abat-jour) 14. Outside the house:
a lamp: une lampe A l’extérieur
a bulb: une ampoule
the chimes: le carillon
carpet Titting: pose de la moquette
a sun-dial: un cadran solaire
fitted carpet: de la moquette
flower boxes: des bacs à fleurs
upholstery binding: galon de finition
*a kennel: une niche
a mat: un tapis brosse/de bain
kennels: un chenil
*a door mat: un paillasson
*the front garden: le jardin (de façade)
*a carpet: un tapis
the back garden: le jardin (derrière la maison)
a door-handle: un bouton de porte
*the lawn mower: la tondeuse
an electric fan/a fan:
the gate: le portail
un ventilateur/un éventail
the threshold: le seuil
*the curtains: les rideaux
the front door: la porte d'entrée
a shade: un store
the back door: la porte de service
blinds: des stores (vénitiens)
the porch (U.S ): la galerie extérieure
a screen: un paravent
a house warming party:
wood panelling: des lambris
une pendaison de crémaillère
to raise the roof (U.S.): pendre la crémaillère

52.A
What the British Commonwealth is (or rather: what it is not)
Ce qu’est le Commonwealth (ou plutôt : ce qu’il n’est pas)

1. The British Commonwealth is not a political


contrairement à union, unlike what most people believe. In fact,
sur les out of the 41 States which belong to it, some
* suivent/de très près/politique étrangère subscribe/closely to the British foreign policy, like
plus proches Australia and New Zealand; others feel closer to
the U.S.A., like Canada; whilethe majority are not
surtout committed, especially in Africa and Asia. Some
others, on the contrary, could be said to be on
friendly terms with Communist regimes.
ce n’est pas non plus 2. Neither is it an economic union which favours
Britain. Its members are in no way obliged to buy
Grande Bretagne/en fait British or sell to Britain. / Asa matter of fact, most
Commonwealth countries belong to local or
excluent international unions which sometimes exclude
Britain.
3. It is not at all a financial union. The countries
of the Commonwealth do not all belong to the
► zone/par exemple sterling area, even. Australia and Canada
for
*
instance, are part of the dollar area. A good many
of the Commonwealth countries have closer
liens/plutôt qu'avec financial and economic ties with the U.S.A.trather
than Britain.

217
4. It is not a racial union. Practically all the races
on this earth are represented in the Commonwealth
and many various ethnical origins are to be found;
the British of Canada, New Zealand, Australia
(and Britain) being a minority compared to the
French Canadians, the Greeks and Turks of
Cyprus, Maltese, Blacks and Arabs, Indians.
de langue anglaise 5. It is not a union of English-speaking/
pays/vrai/largement countries only. It is true that English is widely
spoken in the Commonwealth countries but dozens
langues locales of vernacular languages are used by the local
populations: French or Creole in Mauritius, many
different dialects in India and Africa, Arabic in
Aden, and so on.
6. All these countries do not have the same
political institutions. If a great many have actually
imitated the British system, going so far as to
royaumes/souverain become kingdoms whose sovereign is the English
assez (grand) monarch, a fair number of other countries have
chosen their own institutions. Some, like India
and Pakistan are republics.
7. One may wonder what the Commonwealth is
modèles if it does not correspond to any of the patterns one
habitué is accustomed to. To start with, what is sure is that
all these countries were British colonies, mandates
donc or protectorates at one time or another. Therefore
éloignés even those which are geographically very remote
ont subi from Britain have borne at least a British cultural
influence.
anciennes 8. None of these former colonies was forced to
join or remain part of the Commonwealth. For
instance Burma refused to join in 1947, Ireland
withdrew in 1949 and South Africa in 1960.
9. By the “Statute of Westminster”, which
officially established the Commonwealth in 1931,
all member countries “recognize the British
sovereign as the symbol of their free association”.
10. In fact the Commonwealth can be compared
to a Club, very much like the exclusive clubs one
obligé can find in England. No one is compelled to join or
but remain a member, its purpose is rather vague, but
it is more than an honour to belong. Just as there
beaucoup is a good deal of talking and useful personal
contact going on in the clubs of London, Oxford
principal or Cambridge, the main advantage of the
Commonwealth “club” is that it allows its Prime
Ministers and Heads of State to meet regularly,

218
get to know each other, understand each other and
résoudre be in a better position to solve any problems which
» se présenter may arise.

voir vocabulaire p. 47, 224. Sujets complémentaires, voir p. 263.

53.
A
The Faroes
Les îles Féroé (récit de voyage)

(An article written for an English magazine by a


French student who visited the Faroes some years
ago.)

I had always wanted to visit the Faroe Islands,


► depuis/il m’arriva ever since I was a kid when I happened to read in a
archipel geography book that this archipelago situated far
accordé/large out in the North Atlantic had been granted a wide
autonomy from Dennark in 1948. So when I
eventually decided to go there, I contacted “Thomas
affirment Cook and Sons”, the travel agents, who claim they
déroutés can take anyone anywhere. But they were baffled
when I told them I wanted to go to the Faroes.
They pointed out that there was no regular service,
cargo only a cargo boat would be possible. I felt
renoncer disconcerted that day, but refused to give in - and
I wrote for information to the Danish embassy.
finalement/» il se trouva/paquebot Eventually / it turned out there was a liner which
» faisait escale called there once a week from Copenhagen and
Faroyenne (des Iles Féroé) even a Faroese air company which could take me,
découvris also once a week. I also found out that the
islandais/vol (avion) Icelandic / flight from Glasgow to Rekjavik called
ce dernier on the Faroes once a week. I chose the latter.
voyage The journey was a bit of an adventure in itself.
pendant que/avion While waiting for the plane in Glasgow we were
retardés told that we would be delayed for 24 hours
décollé because it hadn't even taken off from the Faroes
à cause owing to a strong wind... But this unexpected delay
faire la connaissance gave me the opportunity to get to know some of my
pêcheurs à la ligne travelling companions. Most of them were anglers.
Thus I learnt that the Faroes were an anglers’
paradise.
There were also some Faroese women who had
soldats married English servicemen during the war when
the isles were occupied by the British forces; a

219
professor from Cardiff University who intended to
study the Faroese language, the oldest of the
Scandinavian languages, he said; a Protestant
missionary who, when asked if he were going to
âmes the Faroes to fish, replied, “Yes, to fish Souls”;
and finally a man from an English zoo who
vivante/baleine wanted to capture a live / whale. The latter had
► beaucoup de choses already been to the Faroes and knew an awful lot
about the twenty-two islands, their five million
macareux/eau douce birds including the lovely puffins, the fresh water
saumons/truites/sauvages/oies fish (mainly salmon and trout), wild / geese, and
surtout above all the thirty-six thousand inhabitants.
The arrival in the Faroes was extremely
► se trouve impressive. As the airport lies at the end of a fjord
piste d'atterrisssage the plane had to approach the landing strip
s’élevant between two mountain walls rising abruptly from
the sea. The clouds were so low that the sky
se mélanger/atterimes seemed to be mingling with the sea. We landed
(en) foulant safely, and what struck me most on first treading
on Faroese soil was the relative cold. The
moyenne temperature was only 14 °C which is the average
attendaient in summer. Two or three taxis were awaiting the
énorme passengers. Each of them was a huge American
tourne-disques car with a radio system and a record player fully
equipped with the latest Beatles' record! I had
always imagined the Faroese as a nation of
pêcheurs fishermen living humbly and fighting continually
pluvieux against their cold and rainy climate. I soon
came to realize that they enjoy a high standard of
► confort living and possess all the modern conveniences one
can find in other Scandinavian countries. A first
coup d’oeil glimpse of the landscape showed the impressive
mountains marked by the passage of glaciers long
*'
cascades/ jaillissaient ago. From the mountain tops waterfalls / shot /
» droit (dans) headlong into the sea. The ferry carried us to
route à trois voies another island where we noticed a three-lane
highway cutting up into the mountains.
After a twenty minute drive the taxi was
enveloppé/brume shrouded in mist although it had been sunny a few
minutes before. I soon found how changeable the
weather could be - pleasantly warm one minute,
then rainy, misty or even snowy a few minutes
later.
As we were driving down the other side of
the mountain, the capital Thorshavn suddenly
* surgit surged out of the mist. More than nine thousand
demeurent inhabitants dwell in hundreds of neat little houses
jaunâtre painted in red, green or yellowish colours. Some
tourbe/gazon of the houses have a peat roof on which turf grows.
isolation This seems to be a perfect insulation from the cold.
simples/chemins Some streets are mere country lanes - others are

220
goudronnées tarred and here and there you are surprised by the
béton/port tall concrete building of a bank. The harbour at
chalutiers Thorshavn is very busy - hundreds of trawlers call
here every year, for the sea around the Faroes is
regorge swarming with fish.
étrangers In spite of the presence of many foreign sailors,
on remarque one notices the absence of pubs or night clubs. The
Faroese are puritan Lutherans and alcohol is
interdit/distractions banned./Entertainment is decidedly not their
strong point, either. There are only two cinemas,
each of which shows one film a day. That’s about
all there is in public entertainment. Most people
logements stay at home in dwellings which are spacious and
highly comfortable in the Scandinavian way. They
read a lot, write a lot, mainly poetry, and listen to
the local radio programmes which are generally
very instructive. When they feel like a change,
they get into their cars, usually Peugeots, and
drive a few miles out of the town to admire the
ilôts/ ► surgissent du distant islets whose peaks loom out of the fog
off the harbour of Thorshavn. They might even
promenade stop at the “Plantation”, a local park, for a stroll
among the pine trees. They are the only trees in the
à propos archipelago, by the way, which proves that trees
are able to grow, in spite of the almost continual
vent violent blustering wind.
gens The younger folk will then invade the local
cafeteria to savour a cup of coffee or a glass of
non-alcoholic beer...
de loin But by far the most important form of
entertainment in the islands is the “grind", the
chasse whale hunt. In summer there are hunts every day
in one or the other of the islands. Hundreds of
dauphins/massacrés whales or dolphins are slaughtered, which is
indeed a great shame. The whales are not the
cachalots enormous sperm whales of the Moby Dick type,
but a smaller kind measuring between 9 and 15 feet
long. The Faroese claim that whale meat is
» alimentation/manque de necessary for their health, as their diet / lacks fresh
» puisent fruit and vegetables, and that they derive their
vitamins from whale meat and fat.
But whale hunting is not only a vital necessity.
banc de baleines It is also a passion. When a school of whales has
repéré been spotted somewhere out at sea by a fisherman,
all radio programmes are interrupted and
détails/découverte particulars given about the find. Then, all those
who wish to take part in the hunt have the right to
► chargés stop work and join it. Several boats loaded with
se dirigent vers volunteers leave the harbour, head for the school
of whales and surround it. The boats follow the
marée whales until the wind and the tide are favourable to

221
vers la terre/car drive them landwards, / for whales never swim
against the wind or the tide. The hunters drive
rivage/échouer them towards the shore in order to strand them on
the beach. This is done to be able to cut their
gorges throats more easily. This “sport” can be
dangerous: one year thirty-six sailors died when
chavira their boat capsized; but usually it’s pretty safe.
► je vis The hunt I witnessed was of a particular type,
as the whales, fifty or sixty of them, were driven
plage into Thorshavn harbour, as there was no beach
à proximité nearby. The only way to kill them in such a case
was with hand harpoons. This sort of hunt is a
événement great event and I dare say neither the local
piscine swimming pool nor the football ground would
attract so many fans.
se précipitèrent About two thousand people came rushing down
appareils photos/caméras to the harbour, dozens of cameras and *
movie
cliquetaient cameras / were clicking away, people in search of a
entrepôts better view climbed on the roofs of nearbyVare-
houses, and suddenly the crowd started shouting:
“grindabod", "the whales are coming”. Just at the
harbour mouth, the hunt leader harpooned the
à l'arrière whale at the rear. The others panicked and cut
rapidly through the water, straight into the port.
massacre Then the slaughter started as the poor animals
pris au piège were trapped. Imagine them diving down into the
profondeurs depths of the harbour to escape and then rising up
haletant to the surface panting for breath, only to be
foule/frénétique harpooned. The crowd was going frantic. It
me rappela/corridas/Espagne reminded me of those bull-fights in Spain. Soon
sang the water was red with blood and people were
accrocher even jumping in fully clothed to hook the whales
tirer and drag them up on to the quayside. When all
cadavres was quiet again and fifty corpses were lined up
along the waterside, magistrates came to measure
them and calculate the amount of meat which was
partagé to be shared equally among the inhabitants of the
town. Of course those who had risked their lives
supplément in the hunt had a bonus and the one who had
repéré/récompensé/entière sighted the school was rewarded with a whole
boucher whale. Another was sold to a butcher who was to
sell it for the profit of a fisherman whose boat had
pour couronner le tout been damaged. Then, to top it all, a celebration
was held in the town meeting house where the local
jeunes youth danced and sang traditional whale songs
until late into the night. Of course all the
ragoût restaurants were offering whale stew the next
day! Whale meat, by the way, is very much like
plus dur beef, perhaps a little tougher, but personally I
côtelettes de porc preferred to eat the other local “specialities”:^>ork
chops and fish balls. 1 must confess I never had

222
me demande encore any fresh fish while I was in the Faroes and^am
still wondering why fish or mutton are never
» principales served, as these are the two staple products of the
archipelago.
Before flying back to Glasgow 1 had the
opportunity of travelling round the other islands
un peu/effectivement a bit. Seventeen out of twenty-two are actually /
habitées inhabited. If it had not been for the dangerous seas
I would have enjoyed the splendour of those
falaises tremendously high cliffs, the highest in the world,
and seen those many rare birds which are
planent constantly hovering above your heads. I managed
to visit the Gothic Cathedral, an archaeological
mystery, because although it was consecrated, it
achevée was never completed, no one knows why. I
contacted the Catholic mission, a Belgian priest
hollandaises/
* dirigent and several Dutch nurses, who run a school
* fréquentée attended by four hundred pupils, although there
en tout are not more than thirty Catholics altogether in
on me traduisit/
* des passages the Faroes. I was translated / bits of the Faroese
saga which explains how King Olaf of Norway
conquered the Faroes around the year 1000 and
convoqua summoned the parliament giving them the choice :
“either you’ll be Christians or you won’t be at all”.
sagement Wisely the parliament unanimously voted for the
* première former solution. I visited some of the local
newspapers which, on the whole, refuse the Danish
rappeler cultural domination and like to remind their
readers that even if Denmark belongs to the EEC,
the Faroes, as an autonomous Danish province,
* d’en faire partie refused to join.
Towards the end of my stay I met Pol, the
* lycée French teacher at the local “gymnasium”. He
spoke perfect French and had a superb private
bibliothèque library with thousands of volumes. I have rarely
met such a cultured man, and he happened to live
in the Faroes. He explained that if most Faroese
speak Danish, Icelandic or Norwegian and English
* enthousiaste as foreign languages, they are not so keen on
learning French, which is surprising in a country
where the hat of the national costume strangely
resembles the revolutionary "bonnet phrygien"
répandu/prénom and where " Napoleon” a widespread /Christian
name.
No doubt it was the France of the Revolution
and the Empire which impressed the Faroese. It is
liens a pity closer cultural links have not been established
depuis since.
As 1 was flying back to Scotland I couldn’t help
feeling nostalgic, and wished I could go back one
day to these fascinating islands. Perhaps the

223
second time 1 would be lucky enough to
aurore boréale contemplate an Aurora Borealis, which is
là-haut common up there in summer, and after all it’s so
~ voyage organisé much more original than a package holiday on
the Costa Brava!
Sujets complémentaires, voir p. 263.

Geography
La géographie

1. Geographical terms, oceans, seas, Cornwall: la Cornouailles


etc.: Termes géographiques, the Isle of Man: l’île de Man
océans, mers, etc. the Isle of Wight: l’île de Wight
*a country: un pays the Scilly Islands: les Iles Sorlingues
*the countryside: la campagne the Shetlands: les Iles Shetlands
the provinces: les provinces the Orkneys: les Iles Orcades
*the land/the sea: la terre/la mer *an Englishman/a Briton: un Anglais
an archipelago: un archipel *a Welshman: un Gallois
*an island: une île Welsh: gallois (adj.)
*the mainland: la terre ferme “a Scot: un Ecossais
the equator: l'équateur Scottish/Scotch: écossais (adj.)
the meridian: le méridien *an Irishman: un Irlandais
the tropics: les tropiques Irish: irlandais (adj.)
the North/South pole: le pôle Nord/Sud Cornish people: les habitants de Cornouailles
the Arctic: l'Arctique
the Antarctic: l'Antarctique
“the Atlantic: l'Atlantique 3.Overseas countries under British
the Pacifie: le Pacifique influence: Pays d’Outre-Mer sous
the Indian Ocean: l’Océan Indien influence britannique
*the Mediterranean: la Méditerrannée
♦the English Channel: la Manche *South Africa: l’Afrique du Sud
*the North Sea: la Mer du Nord the South African Republic:
♦the scale: l’échelle (d’une carte) la République Sud-Africaine
*the border: la frontière a South African: un Sud-Africain
“a county: un comté an Afrikaaner: un Sud-Africain de souche
“Boer”
2. The British Isles: the Transvaal: le Transvaal
the Orange Free State: l’Etat libre d’Orange
Les Iles britanniques the Cape province: la province du Cap
*the British (l)Isles: les Iles britanniques Natal: le Natal
* Great Britain: la Grande Bretagne “Canada: le Canada
*the United Kingdom (the U.K.): le Royaume uni *a Canadian: un Canadien
*England/Britain: l’Angleterre a French Canadian: un Canadien français,
*Scotland: l’Écosse un Québécois
"Wales: le Pays de Galles “Australia: l’Australie
"Ireland: l'Irlande “an Australian: un Australien
Ulster: l’Ulster - l’Irlande du Nord “New Zealand: la Nouvelle Zélande
Eire: l’Eire - l’Irlande du Sud “a New Zealander: un Néo-Zélandais
The Channel Islands: les Iles Anglo-normandes “India: l'Inde - les Indes

(I) les adjectifs de nationalité s'écrivent toujours avec une majuscule en anglais.

224
"the Went Indies: les Indes occidentales: ’(a) Norwegian: un Norvègien/norvègien (udj.)
les Antilles "Austria: l'Autriche
Cyprus: Chypre the Tyrol: le I y roi
"Italy: l’Italie
4. France and a few other western "(an) Italian: un Italien/italien (adj.)
continental countries: La France "Greece: la Grèce
(a) Greek: un Grec/grec (adj.)
et quelques autres pays d’Europe
occidentale 5. A few eastern block countries:
•France: la France Quelques pays du bloc oriental
"a Frenchman: un Français
"Poland: la Pologne
*the French: les Français "a Pole: un Polonais
French: français (adj.)
"Polish: polonais (adj.)
the Lozere: la Lozère
"the USSR: l’URSS
the Dordogne: la Dordogne
"a Russian: un Russe
Corsica: lu Corse
Soviet/Russian: soviétique/russe (adj.)
a Corsican: un Corse
* East/West Germany: the Ukraine: l'Ukraine
l'Allemagne de l'Est/de l'Ouest the Iron Curtain: le Rideau de fer
"a German: un Allemand
the Netherlands/the Low Countries: 6. America and miscellaneous:
les Pays-Bas L'Amérique et divers
"Holland: la Hollande "the USA: les USA
*a Dutchman: un Hollandais "an American: un Américain
Dutch: hollandais (adj.) Morocco: le Maroc
"Denmark: le Danemark Moroccan: marocain (adj.)
"Danish: danois (adj.) Jordan: la Jordanie
"a Dane: un Danois "Mexico: le Mexique
Iceland: l'Islande (a) Mexican: un Mexicain/mexicain (adj.)
an lèelander: un Islandais a Chicano: un Mexicano-américain
Icelandic: islandais (adj.) Greenland: le Groenland
"Spain: l'Espagne
"Spanish: espagnol (adj.) 7. A few towns:
a Spaniard: un Espagnol Quelques villes
a Basque: un Basque
"Switzerland: la Suisse The Hague: La Haye
"the Swlss/Swiss: les Suisses/suisse (adj.) Genoa: Gènes
"Sweden/Swedish: la Suède/suédois (adj.) Moscow: Moscou
"a Swede: un Suédois Warsaw: Varsovie
"Finland: la Finlande Mecca: La Mecque
"a Fin: un Finlandais/un Finnois Algiers: Alger
"Finnish: finnois (adj.) Mexico City: Mexico
"Norway: la Norvège Cairo: Le Caire

225
54.
A
The U.S.A.
Les États-Unis

le pays THE LAND


énorme 1. North America is a huge country, a continent
frappé rather, and the foreign visitor is first struck by the
immensity of the distances. No one would
entreprendre hesitate, for instance, to undertake a 60 mile drive
simply to dine with friends. The second surprise
is the extreme beauty and variety of the
paysages/il ne manque pas/» coins landscapes. / There is no lack of beautiful spots
a du mal to admire, but a European is hard put to adjust
grands to American dimensions. Their lakes are as large
as seas, deserts as 'huge as whole European
countries, trees older and taller than anything you
have seen on the old continent.
2. American institutions are extremely
bien que interesting and stable. Although the American
évolué constitution has evolved, it is one of the oldest and
efficaces most efficient that exists. Europeans in the States
seul imagine they are in one single country. In fact it
plus exact would be more accurate to say that each of the
50 states which form the USA has its original
traits and a certain independence. For instance,
lois/varient laws / differ from one state to another. Nebraska,
à une chambre for example, has only a one-house parliament.
peine Capital punishment has been abolished in many
appliquée/avortement states but is still applied in others; abortion is
délit legal in some places but considered as a crime
in others. Some states are even “dry” as far as
alcohol is concerned.
» don 3. Americans have a gift for comfort and their
preuve homes are a proof of it. They are pleasant to look
de pacotille at, although may seem jerry-built to some. Made
supporter of wood they can stand the extremes of temperature
the American climate imposes on theM, and are
ouragans/chutes de neige built to resist hurricanes, heavy snowfalls, /
tempétes/brfllantes/sécheresses storms, / scorching / droughts. One feels so at
home inside, too. Every gadget, from the inevitable
juaqu’i/ouvre-boite air-conditioning down to the electric can-opener
tâches ménagères makes household tasks child’s play for the
maîtresse de maison American housewife.
4. The American’s home is a house and only
qui plus est rarely an apartment. Moreover, he prefers to

226
campagne live in the countryside. The middle classes have
» fui deserted the city centres for the country and only
les a chassés go into the city to work. One thing which *has
driven them out is the danger of being attacked in
crépuscule the streets after dusk. Racial minorities have
pris possession taken over the city centres where one can feel so
banlieues insecure, whereas in the countryside or suburbs
en sécurité one feels perfectly safe. The police forces are very
ne prennent même pas la peine efficient here and most people
*do not even bother
to lock their doors at night.
► réserve 5. The American climate always holds surprises
for the visitor from Europe. In summer it is not
only warm, but extremely hot in most places. In
winter, except in the south, snowfalls are so
► abondantes/drapeau heavy that cars carry a little flag on their radio
afin de/repérées/croisements aerials in order to be spotted at cross-roads above
chasse-neige the piles of snow thrown out by the snow ploughs.
The hard, cold American winter surprises the
moyen average European who cannot understand that.
New York city being situated on the same latitude
District of Columbia as Madrid, or Washington DC on that of
Morocco, the climate should be so rigorous in
winter.

» les habitants THE PEOPLE


mode de vie/attirant 6. The American way of life is very attractive
désorienter/fermes (adj.) and pleasant, but can bewilder / staunch
Europeans at first sight. The meals are not
considered a ceremony as on the old continent.
The food is delicious and varied but Americans eat
quickly, converse little and everything is served
en même temps/barrières at once. The houses are not separated by fences
haies/voisins/rendent visite i or hedges and neighbours and friends often
pop
*
l’improviste in unexpectedly.
larges d'esprit 7. The Americans are charming and •open-
» sincèrement/accueillants minded. They are genuinely welcoming and
serviables helpful. Their homes are always open to friends
and even people they do not know can be sure of a
chaleureux hearty welcome. It takes less than five minutes to
become real friends, call each other by one’s
prénom/
* gagnent Christian name and know how much they make
a year. Unlike Europe there are no social barriers
patron and the boss and his employee may very well live in
the same road, in the same type of house, each
have three cars, go to the same clubs and call each
other by their Christian names. Unfortunately
racial barriers have not been completely destroyed,
cependant/perspective however, and there seems to be no prospect of an
amélioration improvement in the near future.

227
plutôt naïfs 8. The Americans are also rather naïve. They
contrarient/scandalisent vex and even shock a lot of visitors by their
divertissements tactless attitudes and childish entertainments.
qui ont grandi trop vite They sometimes resemble over-grown children,
imbéciles playing the fool round the swimming-pool, or
voitures miniatures driving toycars in a parade like the Shriners
.
* But
épouses their wives are always there to send them back to
tondre la pelouse/la vaisselle mow the lawn or do the washing-up! Strangely
peu sévères enough American mothers are lax with their
children and let them do what they like; whereas
dominatrices/ maris they can be bossy with their husbands. The image
dominé of the American underdog bossed around by his
les bandes dessinées wife that one sees in comics is certainly not a
myth.
pratiques 9. Americans are not only efficient and *
hard-
perspicaces headed workers, they are also shrewd business­
décontracté/type men. The nice easy-going/guy who cooked all the
paroisse/se révélera hamburgers at the parish picnic will prove to be
tours a tough partner who will not let anyone play tricks
domaine on him in the business field.
déçu 10. One is often disappointed to realise that the
Americans forget you as easily as they make you
bougeotte welcome. The great distances and the *
moving
amènent/se séparer disease / lead American families to split up very
often and people learn from an early age to make
friends quickly and forget them just as fast.
*Shriners: membres d'un club philanthropique.

voir vocabulaire p. 47, 224. Sujets complémentaires, voir p. 263.

A ________________________
55.
Quebec
Le Québec

la veille (On the eve of the elections in Quebec a local radio


station in Louisiana is interviewing a French
exchange teacher who had visited Canada a few
years before.)

interviewer - It would be very interesting to know


pendant que what a Frenchman felt while visiting Quebec...
enthousiasmé french teacher - I must say 1 was terribly thrilled
at the idea of going to Quebec. I had spent some

228
avais envie de time in the USA and felt like meeting French-
speaking people again. I also felt extremely
attracted by the Province of Quebec itself. You
élevé (► nourri) see, 1 had been brought up on French Canadian
contes/gosse/» de près tales when I was a kid, and had always closely
followed the political and social evolution of the
country, especially after General de Gaulle’s
discours famous speech in Montreal.
int. - When did you go?
il y a un bon bout de temps Fr. t. - As a matter of fact it was quite a while ago / -
au début des années 1970 in the early 1970’s.
qu'est-ce qui vous a le plus frappé? int - And what struck you most?
frontière Fr. t. - Well, I drove across the Canadian border
inspecteurs de la police des frontières from New Hampshire. The Canadian*immigration
officers were all English-speaking but they were
disposés/remarquai willing to speak French to me. 1 noticed that the
couramment younger ones spoke it fluently. The first real
French-speaking Canadians I met were two young
» bureau saisonnier ladies at the Tourist Information booth about a
couple of miles from the border. They were
assez jeunes/mignonnes youngish (and good-looking!) but I had a hard job
understanding them. Their French seemed so
carrément provincial, if not downright rural and terribly
vieux-jeu old-fashioned. They sounded as if they were very
old.
int. - Are you talking about their accent?
(les expressions) mêmes ft. t. - Not only the accent, but also the actual
expressions they used. Of course, you have to
admit too that the French we speak might well
les étonner astonish them as much as theirs does us. I was to
learn later on that the people of Quebec are a bit
susceptibles touchy about their French.
When they hear a Frenchman from France speak
dédaigneux they often think he is going to be smug and
condescending.
int. - Do you mean they have a kind of inferiority
complex because of their accent?
évidemment Fr. t. - Obviously, but I don’t see any reason why
they should feel inferior.
int. - What were your first impressions of the actual
country?
pension de famille Fr. t. - I spent the first night in a kind of^guest
propriétaires house. The owners were nice people and the whole
» propre comme un sou néïif place as clean as a new pin. I was impressed by
propreté the cleanliness of the hotels where I stayed in
» assez/bon marché Quebec, although they were all quite/cheap
places. But what surprised me was that the hotel
owners didn’t consider me as one of them.
Although we spoke the same language they treated
étranger me as a foreigner. For instance, you know what
the Americans are like when you question them

229
about where their ancestors came from. They
occasion always seize the opportunity to inform you they
are half English, quarter German or quarter
directeur French... Well, when I asked the manager’s wife
which part of France her ancestors were from,
» abruptement she replied shortly:
“Oh, we’ve always been from Quebec!”
► au fond d’eux-mêmes iNT. - So you don’t think they feel French^m their
heart of hearts, I mean.
à part Fr. t. - Not at all. But apart from the historical and
political reasons which created the rupture
between the French Canadians and the French,
their way of life itself, which has been one hundred
plus proches per cent Americanized, makes them feel closer
to the USA than to France. What struck me when
I went round that border town, where people spoke
French and where everything was written in
French, was that it looked in every way like
an American town.
iNT. - Was that impression confirmed later on?
Fr. t. - Absolutely. On the road to Montreal and
on traverse Quebec city you pass through dozens of villages
with French names, usually saints’ names, but the
► plan architecture, the pattern of each, is American.
ajouter/parcours I must add that it’s a beautiful drive.
► longe The road skirts the St.Lawrence and the landscape,
plat/impressionnant although flat, is quite breath-taking. I had
vallonné expected it to be more hilly, though.
iNT. - And what about Montreal?
énorme Fr. t. - Oh, it’s a huge city like dozens of others.
Very clean and rather pleasant, but very little
different from any other big North American
serviables town. Its inhabitants are very helpful, I noticed;
probably more so than in most other big cities. For
example, if you stop to have a look at your street
plan there’s always someone there to ask you if you
» un coup de main need a hand.
iNT. - What language do they address you in?
Fr. t. - English! and I quite often had the impression
that they were disappointed when I answered in
French. That Parisian accent again!
cuisine iNT. - Did you try out the local cooking?
Fr. t. - Yes, of course. They have a few specialities
ragoût de queues de cochon/liaricots
like pigtail stew with beans. It’s very tasty and
blancs/savoureux makes a change from hot dogs and hamburgers, in
any case! But you know what? My wife was refused
lois entrance to a tavern. Apparently the laws of
► subi l’influence du M.L.F. Quebec had not yet *born the stamp of Women’s
Lib!
iNT. - Did you happen to hear the man in the street
speak French?

230
Fr. t, - Yes, and I admit 1 didn’t understand much!
patois québécois They either speak French, or “jouai’’, which is a
patois with the surprising accent I mentioned
before.
int. - Did you visit any big towns apart from
Montreal?
Fr. t. - 1 spent a few days in Quebec city, which is a
beautiful town. Very human and rather European
in atmosphere. It is one of the three North
où je me suis senti à l’aise American cities where I really felt at home.

int. - What are the others?


Fr. t. -Apart from Quebec city I’d say New Orleans
and Washington D.C.
int. - What does Quebec city look like?
Fr. t. - It would appear similar to a big provincial
town in France, although the hundreds of
American cars parked in the streets would
make it hard to believe you were in France! Some
hackney coaches driven by students take visitors
for rides round the town, giving a very old-
fashioned air to the place. A few old houses,
perfectly maintained, add to this feeling, whereas
more recent buildings, like the Château Frontenac
hotel with its green roofs, don't clash with the
general atmosphere. You also find some old
churches with white zinc roofs, which have a style
of their own, and as the town is built on a hill
overlooking the river, you can imagine it’s very
picturesque.
int. - Did you sCe the battlefield where the French
and English fought each other?

231
vous faites allusion Fr. t. - Oh, yes, you’re alluding to the Plains of
endroit Abraham, I suppose. They're a popular spot for a
promenade Sunday afternoon stroll. That’s where Wolfe
vainquit defeated Montcalm, isn't it?
int. - Yes, and the English took possession of the
French Canadian territories.
Fr. t - Another interesting spot is Laval University,
just a few miles out of the city, nicely situated
bosquet in a copse on a hill top. I’ve rarely seen such a
modern University, and being in North America
► équipement you can imagine what its sports amenities are like...
int. - They’re fabulous, I suppose... But you
haven’t said much about the inhabitants of Quebec
city.
Fr. t. - It’s the same problem as usual. I really felt
they weren’t particularly keen on meeting French
excursions people from France. I went on a few trips, to Ste
Anne de Beaupré, which is the local Lourdes, and
to the Island of Orleans in the middle of the
engager la conversation St. Lawrence, and each time I found it hard to get
talking to people. Most people were pleasant but a
distants bit cold. I mean much more aloof than in the USA.
int. - You mentioned your Parisian accent - would
there be any other reason?
vous vous attendez peut-être Fr. t. - You’re perhaps expecting me to say that the
French Canadians reproach us with deserting their
tirée par les cheveux cause in 1763, but this would be too far-fetched
explication/avancée an explanation. Another reason put forward by
a friend of mine, who had lived in Quebec for a
couple of years, was more interesting.
int. - What was it?
en bref Fr. t. - In short that the recent French immigrants
aiment assez are rather fond of making jokes about the French
Canadians, rather like we do about the Belgians.
se moquent/ne cessent de se vanter They make fun of their accent and keep boasting
about France being a more cultured place, about
pensions de retraités its social security and retirement pensions - which
énerve quite naturally annoys the French Canadians,
who feel like replying that if things are so
merveilleux wonderful in France, why ever did those French
people leave?
int. - Don’t you think too that most of the people
you met were not really representative of the
Quebec population?
je suis d'accord Fr. t. - Oh, yes, I subscribe to that argument. I
garçons de restaurant mainly met hotel keepers, waiters, taxi-drivers and
so on... You can’t say they’re really typical of the
*(ne)
dans (son) ensemble/> se donnent population at large, and they don’t always
go
* out
(pas) de mal of their way to help tourists. I daren’t imagine
what tourists who stay just a few days in Paris
think of the French.

232
conclure in i - We could perhaps conclude that in order to
profit from your travels you have to have some
kind of close contact with the local people?
ce que j'ai à l'esprit Fr r. - That’s exactly what I have in mind, but it’s
rêve easier said than done. In fact 1 dream of a system
permettre which would enable tourists to spend a few hours
souhaitent in a local home, if they so wish.
iNT. - Such an organization exists in the USA.
en avance Fr. r - I’m not surprised, you're always miles ahead
of everyone else...

voir vocabulaire p. 47, 224. Sujets complémentaires, voir p. 263.

_____________ 56.A
The English
Les Anglais

pour FOR
peuples 1. Are there many peoples in the world who are
dotés/profond endowed with such a deep civic sense as the
English? Remember in the late 1970’s the campaign
économiser to save electricity: “There’s always a light you can
éteindre/en moins de quelques jours switch off somewhere’’. Within a few days the
consommation/visiblement/baissé electricity consumption had noticeably / dropped.
As far as speed limits are concerned most drivers
respectent/la loi abide by the law, even if there is no chance of
voiture de police meeting a patrol car.
2. Many more examples concerning the common
good of the nation could be quoted, but a last one
will summarize them all. In France in 1940 the
civil defence authorities asked everyone to carry a
masque à gaz/> le faisaient gas-mask just in case, but very few people bothered.
At the same time in England no one would have
dreamed of going out without his mask.
serviables 3. The English are helpful. They often stop in the
a perdu street to ask you if you are stranded, especially
if you are looking at a street map or a plan. They
are always ready to give you a hand if you need it.
qui plus est/de passer prendre Moreover, they are hospitable and will ask you to
même si drop in for a cup of tea or coffee even though they
don’t know you well.
They are strongly attached to their traditions, and
bien que although they have often shown that as a nation

233
dans le vent/désuet they can be “in”, they have maintained the^old-
coutumes fashioned charm of their ancient customs. Would
England be England without school uniforms, the
» la relève changing of the Guard and the annual opening of
Parliament by the Queen? In many countries
rapidement/abandonnées customs are swiftly / dropped. Not in England.
► savoir-faire 4. The English have a knack for comfort: the
“home sweet home” that one is so happy to go back
to in the evening after a hard day’s work and where
volontiers/se reposer one readily stays to rest during the week-end.
5. Very few nations have been as great as the
English in time of adversity. During the last war,
and especially during the Battle of Britain, the
flanchait morale of the English never flinched. Millions of
bombardements homes were destroyed in the blitz and millions of
démolies others so damaged that they had to be pulled down.
pertes The number of civilian casualties was very high,
tinrent bon and yet the English held fast and were never
di