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Specific Features and Uses of

Topical Preparations
Sprays
may be defined as aqueous or oleaginous solutions in the form of
coarse droplets or as finely divided solids to be applied topica!y
Sprays

Relieve nasal congestion


and inflammation

Combat infection and


contain antihistamines,
sympathomimetic agents,
and antibiotic substances
Medicinal Atomizer

Emit medication in the form


of fine droplets

Bulb squeezed cause flow of


air causing liquid to rise in
a small tip tube and broken
up into spray
Vaginal Douche
is for irrigation cleansing of the vagina
Vaginal Douche

Used for their hygienic


effects

Containing specific
therapeutic anti-infective
agents

NOT RECOMMENDED
Tinctures
are alcoholic / hydro alcoholic solution prepared "om
vegetable or animal drug or "om chemical substances
Iodine Tincture

Prepared by dissolving 2%
iodine crystals and 2.4%
sodium iodide in alcohol

Popular local anti-infective


agent

Reddish-brown color,
produces stain on the skin
Compound Benzoin Tincture
Categorized as protectant

Used to protect and toughen


skin in the treatment of
bedsores, ulcers, fissures of the
lips and anus, etc.

Used as inhalant in bronchitis


and other respiratory conditions

Serves as delivery vehicle of


podophyllum in the treatment
of venereal warts
Thimerosal Tincture

Colored orange red and has


greenish fluorescence

Commonly used household


antiseptic

Used in the preparation of


patients for surgery
Nasal Decongestant Solutions
are usua!y aqueous solutions designed to be administered to the
nasal passages in drops or sprays
Nasal Decongestant Solutions

Used for temporary relief


of congestion in the nose
caused by common cold,
sinusitis, hay fever and
allergies

Works by narrowing the


blood vessels in the nose
area, reducing swelling and
congestion
Inhalation Solutions
are of one or more drug substances administered to the
nasal or oral respiratory route for local or systemic effect
Inhalation Solutions

Classified as
bronchodilators

Works in the airways by


opening breathing
passages and relaxing
muscles

Used by people with


asthma
Otic Solutions
are usua!y placed in amounts for the removal of excessive ear wax
(ceriman) or for the treatment of ear infections, inflammation or pain
Otic Solutions

Used as analgesic, anti-


inflammatory agents

USP preparations include


Antipyrine and Benzocaine
otic solutions
Aromatic Waters
are clear, aqueous solutions saturated with
volatile oils or other aromatic or volatile substances
Aromatic Waters

May be prepared from


peppermint oil, rose oil,
anise oil, camphor,
spearmint oil, etc.

Used for perfuming and/or


flavoring
Spirits
are alcoholic or hydroalcoholic solutions of volatile substances
Spirits
Alcoholic concentration is
usually over 60 %

Used as flavoring agents and


medicinally for the
therapeutic value of the
aromatic solute

In the USP-NF are aromatic


ammonia spirit, camphor
spirit, compound orange
spirit and peppermint spirit
Liniments
are alcoholic or oleaginous solutions or emulsions of
various medicinal substances intended to be rubbed on the skin
Liniments
A.K.A embrocations -
applied with friction and
rubbing to the affected area

Use as counterirritant,
antiseptic, local anesthetic
and analgesic

2 types of liniment -
alcoholic liniment & oily
liniment
Alcoholic Liniments

Intended generally for their


rubefacient,
counterirritant, mild
astringent and penetrating
effect

Penetrate the skin readily


than the oil base
Oily Liniments

Milder in their action but


are more useful when
massage is desired

Used as protective coating


depending on the
ingredient in the
preparation should not be
applied on bruises and
broken skin
Collodion
are liquid preparations composed of pyroxylin dissolved in a solvent mixture
usua!y composed of alcohol and ether with or without added medicinal substances
Collodion

Capable of forming a
protective film on application
to the skin and the
volatilization o the solvent

Film is useful in holding the


edges of an incised wound
together

2 types: flexible collodion &


salicylic acid collodion
Flexible Collodion

Prepared by adding 2%
camphor and 3% castor oil
to collodion

Castor oil renders the


products flexible

Camphor makes the


product waterproof
Salicylic Acid Collodion

10% solution of salicylic


acid in flexible collodion

Used for its keratolytic


effects

Should be applied one drop


at a time on the wart

Salicylic acid can irritate


normal, healthy skin