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BerlinerEnsembleAdaptations

BERTOLTBRECHT

BertoltBrechtwasborninAugsburgon10February1898anddiedinBerlin

on14August1956.Hegrewtomaturityasaplaywrightinthefreneticyears

ofthetwentiesandearlythirties,withsuchplaysasManEqualsMan,The ThreepennyOperaandTheMother.HeleftGermanywhenHitlercameto power in 1933, eventually reaching the United States in 1941, where he

remaineduntil1947.Itwasduringthisperiodofexilethatsuchmasterpieces

asLifeofGalileo,MotherCourageandherChildrenandTheCaucasian

ChalkCirclewerewritten.ShortlyafterhisreturntoEuropein1947,he

foundedtheBerlinerEnsemble,andfromthenuntilhisdeathmainlydirected

andsupervisedproductionsofawidevarietyofplays,includinghisown.

DavidBarnettisReaderinDrama,TheatreandPeformanceattheUniversity

ofSussex.HehaspublishedmonographsonHeinerMüller(1998)andRainer

WernerFassbinder(2005,paperback2009),andhasco-editedavolumeand

edited a special issue of Contemporary Theatre Review on contemporary Germantheatre.HeistheauthorofBrechtinPractice:Theatre,Theoryand

Performance(2014)andAHistoryandtheBerlinerEnsemble(forthcoming).

AlsobyBertoltBrecht

PLAYS

BrechtCollectedPlays:One

(Baal,DrumsintheNight,IntheJungleofCities,TheLifeofEdwardIIof

England,ARespectableWedding,TheBeggarortheDeadDog,DrivingOut

aDevil,LuxinTenebris,TheCatch)

BrechtCollectedPlays:Two

(ManEqualsMan,TheElephantCalf,TheThreepennyOpera,TheRiseand

FalloftheCityofMahagonny,TheSevenDeadlySins)

BrechtCollectedPlays:Three

(Lindbergh’sFlight,TheBaden-BadenLessononConsent,HeSaidYes/He

SaidNo,TheDecision,TheMother,TheExceptionandtheRule,The

HorationsandtheCuriatians,StJoanoftheStockyards)

BrechtCollectedPlays:Four

(RoundHeadsandPointedHeads,FearandMiseryoftheThirdReich,

SeñoraCarrar’sRifles,Dansen,HowMuchIsYourIron?,TheTrialof

Lucullus)

BrechtCollectedPlays:Five

(LifeofGalileo,MotherCourageandHerChildren)

BrechtCollectedPlays:Six

(TheGoodPersonofSzechwan,TheResistibleRiseofArturoUi,MrPuntila

andHisManMatti)

BrechtCollectedPlays:Seven

(TheVisionsofSimoneMachard,SchweykintheSecondWorldWar,The

CaucasianChalkCircle,TheDuchessofMalfi)

BrechtCollectedPlays:Eight

(TheDaysoftheCommune,TheAntigoneofSophocles,Turandotorthe

Whitewashers’Congress)

PROSE

BrechtonTheatre

BrechtonArtandPolitics

BrechtonFilmandRadio

Diaries1920–1922

Journals1934–1955

BrechtonPerformance

Contents

Introduction:AdaptationsfortheBerlinerEnsemble TheTutorbyJ.M.R.Lenz TranslatedbyRalphManheimandWolfgangSauerlander CoriolanusbyWilliamShakespeare TranslatedbyRalphManheim

TheTrialofJoanofArcatRouen,1431byAnnaSeghers

TranslatedbyRalphManheimandWolfgangSauerlander

DonJuanbyMolière

TranslatedbyRalphManheim

TrumpetsandDrumsbyGeorgeFarquhar

TranslatedbyRoseandMartinKastner

Notes

Introduction:AdaptationsfortheBerliner

Ensemble

BertoltBrechtiscelebratedasadramatistinhisownright,buthewasalso involvedinliterarycollaborationsforthedurationofhiscareerasawriter.He gatheredagroupoffriendsaroundhimselfasayoungmaninAugsburgto exchangeideasanddiscusstheirliterarywork,andthepracticecontinued with different writers, directors and dramaturges until his death in 1956. Another form of collaboration, however, is to be found in Brecht’s relationshipwiththeworkofotherplaywrights.Hisfirstfull-lengthplay, Baal,wasadirectandcriticalengagementwithHannsJohst’sTheLonely Man,yet,overtheyears,Brechtalsodevelopedmoreintimaterelationshipsto sourcetextsintheformofadaptations.Hisapproachwasnotdictatedbya standard approach but by complex responses to the dramatic material in question. Brecht’s The Life of Eduard II of England, for example, was a radical dismemberment and reassembly of Marlowe’s play, while Brecht preservedmanyimportantelementsofJohnGay’sTheBeggarsOperainThe ThreepennyOpera.RoundHeadsandPointedHeadsbeganasanadaptation ofMeasureforMeasurebeforetakingacompletelydifferentdirectionand leaving little more than a passing resemblance to Shakespeare’s play. However,onceBrechthadatheatreofhisown,theBerlinerEnsemble(BE), hisapproachtoadaptationbegantotakeitsleadfromaseriesofpoliticaland aestheticprinciples,asweshallseebelow.Theadaptationsinthisvolume,

whichwerewrittenbetweentheBE’sfirstseason(1949–50)andthelastone

Brechtwouldexperience(1955–6),conformtotheseprinciples,but,aswill

becomeevident,theirapplicationdidnotleadtostandardizedoutputbyany means.Inordertounderstandthisshifttoadifferent,morefocusedformof adaptation, we need to appreciate what having his own theatre meant to Brechtandhowthisaffectedtheworkhesoughttobringtoit.

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Brecht,togetherwithhiswife,HeleneWeigel,andtheirchildren,hadbeenin

exileinanumberofcountriessincetheNaziscametopowerin1933.During

thisperiodBrechthadverylittleaccesstothetheatreandinsteaddevoted

mostofhiscreativeenergytowritingplays,poemsandtheoreticaltexts.

HavinglefttheUSAinOctober1947,afteranotuntraumatichearingatthe

hands of the McCarthyite House Un-American Activities Committee, he

journeyedontoZurichviaParis,andcontemplatedareturntoactivetheatre-

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making.Atthistime,itwasbynomeanscertainthathewouldsettleinthe SovietzoneofBerlin.AlthoughtheSovietshadofferedhimincentives,he flirted with relocating to Salzburg and Munich but these plans came to nothing.

Bylate1948BrechtfinallydecidedtoreturntoBerlin,thesiteofhisonly

majortriumphtodate,TheThreepennyOpera.Yetthetheatreinwhichit premiered under the direction of Erich Engel in 1928, the Theater am Schiffbauerdamm,wasalreadyoccupiedbyacompanyundertheleadership ofFritzWisten.Indeed,thereseemedtobenoroomatallinwhatwould becomeEastBerlinforBrechtandanewensemble;itlookedlikehehad arrivedinGermanytoolate.So,withthislackoffreespaceinmind,he soughttoattachthenewensembleheproposed,atleastfortheshortterm,to anexistingtheatre.TheEastGermangovernmentwasplanningtorebuild anothermajortheatre,theVolksbühne,withaviewtomovingWistenandhis troupethereandallowingBrechttoreturntotheSchiffbauerdamm.Estimates concerningthebuildingprojectwerehopelesslyoptimistic,however.Inthe meantime,theBE,withWeigelasgeneralmanagerandBrechtasartistic director, was supposed to spend just one season at Wolfgang Langhoff’s

DeutschesTheater.Asitturnedout,theyremainedthereuntil1953.

After much to-ing and fro-ing between the various institutions that ran

BerlinbeforethefoundationoftheGermanDemocraticRepublic(GDR)on7

October 1949, Weigel finally signed a contract with the Department of

People’sEducationthatbroughttheBEintoexistenceon1September.The

initialquestionthatconfrontedthenewcompanywaswhatitwasgoingto perform.Brechtcertainlyhadenoughplaysofhisownand,indeed,opened the new season on 12 November with Mr Puntila and his Man Matti. However, he was reluctant to turn his company into a vehicle solely for realizinghisowndramasandwantedagreatermix,includingcontemporary andclassicplays,thatcouldmakeanactivecontributiontotheculturallifeof thecityanditscitizens.

WhileBrechtwasinterestedinattractingotherdirectorstoworkattheBE,

hewasalsokeentodevelophisowntheorizedpracticenowthathehad

regularaccesstoaproperstage.Thishecouldnotdoaloneandsohere-

activatedoldcontacts,suchasErichEngelandhisschoolfriend,theset-

designerCasparNeher.YetthesewerecollaboratorsofBrecht’sgeneration,

andoneoftheBE’smissionswastotestoutanddisseminateanewwayof

makingtheatre.Consequently,Brechtrecruitedateamofyoungassistants

whoweretolearnfromhim,notbyspendinghoursinthearchivereadinghis

unpublishedtheories,butbyobservinghimatwork,makingsuggestions,and

reflectingontheworktheyobservedintheirowndetailedandanalytical

rehearsalnotes.Brechtcreatedacircleofenthusiastic,committedtheatre-

makerswithwhomhecouldcollaborateandadvancehisideas.Yetthetasks

hesetthemextendedwellbeyondtherehearsalroom.

InabidtobuildtheBE’srepertoire,Brechtreturnedtothepracticeof adaptation, but also exploited the process of adaptation as a means of developinghisyoungassistants.Thatis,hewasabletofocushisassistants’ nascentinterestsandabilitiesbyencouragingthemtoeditand,indeed,to adulterateexistingtextswhilereservinghisownplaceaseditor-in-chiefand writerofadditionalmaterial.Buttherepertoirewasnotmerelytocomprisea collectionofBrecht’sfavouriteplays;Brechtwasprofoundlyawarethathe hadoptedtoliveinthefirst(and,asyet,last)socialiststateonGermansoil and set about fashioning a repertoire worthy of that state. So, while he implemented ideas that had fermented during his long exile – from developinganactiveensembleonstagetoassemblingadynamicteamhe envisagedasablesuccessorsinduecourse–hedidnotneglectthematerial hispredominantlyyoungcastandcrewweretoperform.Theadaptations, whichwouldbecomesomethingofastapleattheBE,werewritteninsucha waythattheywouldexemplifythesocialaimsofthecompany,andthesecan beseeninthecriteriaBrechtsetdownforhisyoungassistants.

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ThefirsttextBrechtselectedforadaptationwasTheTutor,writtenbyJ.M. R. Lenz in 1774. Lenz was one of a disparate group of energetic young writerswhowouldcollectivelybeknownasthe‘stormandstress’movement, orSturmundDrang.Hisdramaticoutputismarkedbyitsboldthemesand formalinnovation;indeedhisplayTheSoldierscanbereadasaprecursorto Brecht’sepictheatreinthatitregularlyfeaturesscenesinwhichcharacters commentexplicitlyontheactionratherthanparticipateinit,likeBrecht’s narrators.TheTutor,aplaythatistodayregardedasaclassicofthe‘storm and stress’ period, was, in 1949, little-known and ripe for rediscovery. However,Brechtwasnotpreparedtodirectitasitstoodandengagedhis assistantsintheprocessofadaptation.Inthefollowingextract,wecanseethe sortoftasksheset.Thissystematicapproachtoadaptationmayhavebeen implicittohisownpracticespreviouslybuttheovertstatementofitstenets signalled a set of principles which informed both his thoughts about the natureofdramaticsourcetextsandhowtheymightberealizedattheBE.

First,heaskedhisassistantstotrim30minutesoffthetotalrunningtime.

Hethenwantedthemto:

2. establishclearlythecentralFabel(theaccountoftherealevents)sothat itiseasilyunderstandable,whileretainingtheeleganceofthesequence ofthescenes,

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3.

arrangethesubplotsaroundthecentralFabelsothattheyilluminateand

explicatethelattersmoothlywithoutinterruptingit,

4. eliminatetheuntypical,accidentalorpurelypathologicalfeaturesinthe

motivationoftheactionandthecharacters.

The instructions point to several important aspects of an adaptation for Brecht. Items 2 and 3 put an unmistakable emphasis on clarity. The organizationofthemainplotandthesubplothadtoservethepurposeof drawingclearthrough-linesinthecomplicatedcourseofevents.Lenz,who, like other storm-and-stress playwrights, was influenced by Shakespeare, wanted to give his play the richness and liveliness associated with Shakespeare’s dramas. Brecht, however, sought to impose order upon the variousplotsasawayofdeepeningthetreatmentofthecentralthemes,rather thantakingintoomanyextraneousmeanderings,ashesawthem.Itshouldbe noted,however,thatthisformalreorganizationwasnottointerferewiththe beautyoftheplay’sflow.Brechtwasnotsuggestingautilitarianbutcheringof theplay’sform;insteadhewantedtocombinehisaimswiththequalitiesthat madeLenz’splaysoattractivetohiminthefirstplace.Thisrespecttowards theuniqueappealofallthesourcetextsinthisvolumeisonefactorthat preventedtheadaptationsfrombecomingmechanicalorrepetitive:eachwork had to be confronted on its own terms and only then could adaptation proceed.

Item4dealsmorespecificallywithissuesconcerningBrecht’spolitical

aims for the adaptation as the basis for a successful performance. The directiontoeliminatecertainelementsagainconcernsitselfwithclarity.In addition,thethreeelementsalsotellusaboutthetypeofmaterialthatwasnot admissibleinatextdesignedtoengagetheaudience’scriticalfacultiestothe full. Eliminating the untypical meant that spectators could contemplate charactersandeventswhichwerenotinsomewayoutoftheordinarybut ones which would have concrete significance for them. Similarly, the accidental relied too much on chance to offer an audience material from whichitcouldmakemeaningfulconnectionsabouttheworldandthewayit worked.Brechtmaintainedherethattherepresentationoftheworldonstage hadtobeexemplary–itcouldnotsimplyfollowthefoiblesofeverydaylife but had consciously to aim to reproduce actions that were important and intelligible to an audience. If spectators were to learn anything, then exceptionaloraccidentalmaterialcouldnotbeincluded.Theprohibitionon ‘pathologicalfeatures’indicatesanotherareaBrechtdeemedbeyondtheremit ofapoliticallycommitteddrama,inthatsuchconditionswereinnateandthus unchangeable.Whilescholarlyworkhassubsequentlypositedlinksbetween mentalillnessandthemechanismsofsociety,atthattime,socialiststates

consideredpsychoanalysisandpsychotherapybourgeoisandalientoworking

people.

ThethreeitemsthusshowhowBrecht’sformaladaptationprocessfocused on offering material to the audience defined by its usefulness. The unswerving drive towards clarity should not, however, be mistaken for a desiretomakethingseasyfortheaudience.Brecht’stheatrewasbasedon posing questions which only the spectators could answer. ‘Clarity’, then, involvedarticulatingthesequestionsasclearly aspossible.Thequestions cameintheformofon-stagecontradictions.InTheTutor,forexample,the audiencewasconfrontedwiththecentralissueofwhyanintelligenttutorhad tosellhisservicesanddemeanhimselfinordertosurviveinthesocietyofthe time.Brechtthussoughttomakethearticulationofthatdifficultcontradiction clearwhiletheresponsestoitwerecomplexandamatterfortheaudience.

Adaptationwasnotonlyabusinessthatconcernedtheformofaplay.

Certainaspectsoftheoriginal’sthemeswerealsoimportant.Forexample,

Lenz’splaycontainsareformiststreak,suggestingthatclassandeducational

systemswerecapableofrepairunderfeudalism.Brechtdisagreedwiththis

positionandbothdeletedthefirstscenefromLenz’ssecondactandrewrote

themainvoiceofreform,MajorvonBerg,inordertoexpungethissuggestion

fromtheplay.AsaMarxist,Brechtwantedtopointtothefailingsofthe

systemitselfandsuggestthatonlyrevolutionwastheappropriatesolution.

However,theaccuracyofthedepictionoffeudalismandthoseinvolvedinit

shouldequallydemonstratejusthowdifficultitwouldbetoengineersuch

socialandpoliticalupheaval.

Formalandthematicadaptationservedtoheightenthecentralthemeofthe playinBrecht’sreading:theGerman‘misère’.Broadlyspeaking,thisterm refers to the German people’s inability to bring about a successful social revolution, unlike the French in 1789. The Peasants’Revolt of the early

sixteenthcenturyandthebourgeoisuprisingof1848bothcametonothing

and the patchwork of German states retained their class-based hierarchy. BrechtalsonotedintheunpublishedintroductiontoTurandotthateveninthe mostterribledaysattheendofWorldWarTwo,theGermanproletariathad notseizedthemomentandrisenupagainsttheNazis.ToBrecht,TheTutor wasanobjectlessoninservilityanddeferencetoone’ssocial‘superiors’,and hewantedtheproductiontousecomedyasawayofpointingtothisattitude withaviewtoovercomingit.

Adaptationwasalsomuchmorethanmerelycuttingandreworkingthetext

intoafinishedproduct;itwasanongoingprocessthatranthroughrehearsals.

SeveraldraftsofTheTutorexistandchartthewaysinwhichpracticalwork

affectedthearchitectureandfeelofthenewscript.Rehearsalwouldreveal

just how successful the current draft had been and the rhythm of lines, speeches,dialoguesandsceneswouldchangeinaccordancewiththeeffects generatedonstage.Itisworthnotingthatthiswasanexperimentalprocess:

actorswerenotrequiredmerelytoperformwhattheyfoundonthepagebut toplumbthetext’sdepthsandmakediscoverieswhichmaynothavebeen apparenttotheadapters.Thediscoverieswouldtheninformthenextdraft. Thelackofadefinitiveendpointforthescript,forexample,isbetokenedby thefactthatBrechtwrotetheepiloguetoTheTutorverylateintheday.Up untilthen,thecasthadusedthemoregeneralepiloguetoTheGoodPersonof Szechwan.Thisshowshowtheteamwerenotworkingtowardsthisendfrom the outset; on the contrary, the epilogue took the material developed previouslyandmadeitsownconcludingremarks.

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IhavedweltontheadaptationofTheTutoratlengthbecauseitoffersamodel forhowtheotheradaptationsinthisvolumealsodeveloped.Theemphasison clarity,thesocialratherthantheindividualdimension,andtheideathattext canonlybeproperlydevelopedinrehearsalrunsthroughtheBE’sworkunder Brecht’sleadership.Theoneadaptationwhichdidnotmakeittorehearsalin Brecht’slifetimewasCoriolanus.Asaresult,thetextwehaveisincomplete, especially,asRalphMannheimnotes,aroundthebattlescenesattheendof ActOne.However,itshouldnotbeoverlookedthatrehearsalitselfmightwell have revealed more about the initial adaptation and that the final version mighthavelookedverydifferentfromtheversionBrechtinfactleftafterhe

stoppedworkingonitin1953.Indeed,whentheBEfinallystagedtheplayin

1964,thedirectorsManfredWekwerthandJoachimTenschertspentmuch

timewithabatteryofassistantsadaptingtheadaptation.ThefinalBEscript

containedroughly10percentofmaterialaddedafterBrecht’sdeath.

ItwasalogicalprogressionforBrechttomovefromLenztoShakespeare,

andhesaidasmuchinaJournalentryof22December1949.Brechtrated

Shakespeareasthegreatestrealistofthebourgeoisstage,yetrealismhere doesnotdenotethefaithfulreproductionofeverydayappearances,asisthe casewithplaysbyChekhov,forexample,orArthurMiller.WhatBrecht meantwasthatShakespeareunderstoodhowcharactersbehavedandacted underthepressureoftheirhistoricalsituation–thiswasthe‘reality’Brecht soughtbeneathsurfaceappearances.Thecharacters’languagemay,ofcourse, bepoeticandmetaphorical–nobodyactuallytalkslikethat.ToBrecht,itwas theattitudestowardsrealityencodedinsuchspeechesthatrenderedthem ‘realistic’.PerformingsuchrealismwasnoteasyandsoTheTutor,inspired by Shakespeare’s dramaturgy, offered the BE, and particularly its young actors,anopportunitytodeveloptheskillsdemandedbyBrecht’srealistic

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theatrebeforethecastandcrewconfrontedthemasterofthegenre.

As much as Brecht admired Shakespeare, he still felt that there were charactersandeventsthatrequiredfurtheradaptation.The‘Studyofthefirst

sceneofShakespeare’sCoriolanus’(tobefoundonp.450ofthisvolume)

demonstratesthewaysBrechtinterrogatedthematerialhefound.The‘study’ isnotaverbatimaccountofameeting,inwhichBrechtisrepresentedbya ‘B’;herewroteitinordertoemphasizecertainsalientpoints.B’srolehereis tostimulatedialoguebyaskingquestionsandmakingobservationsaboutthe textasitstands.Onoccasion,henotesthatShakespearewaswritingfora differentkindoftheatre,oneofaclasssociety.BrechtandtheBE,onthe otherhand,wereplanningaproductioninasocialiststate,andthisshiftof context provided the main reason for an adaptation. Brecht sought to underminetheprejudicesagainsttheworkingpeopleofRomethatpervaded Shakespeare’stimeandtounderminetheimplicitdominanceofthepatricians. Inresponse,thepeople’stribunesbecamemorecrediblecharactersintheir ownrightthanmereintriguingpoliticianswhohaveapersonalproblemwith Coriolanushimself.Thecommonpeoplewerealsorecast.Shakespeare’sIV iiibecameBrecht’sIVi,forexample,andthescenewascompletelyrewritten. Rather than making the banishment of Coriolanus the focus, two men, a RomanandaVolscian,considerhowtheworldissaferwithoutCoriolanus, buttheyaremoreconcernedwiththeircommonsocialplightawayfromthe tribalwrangles.Theworkersofthisworldmostcertainlyunite,becausethey understandthattheyshareacommonsetofproblemsdefinedbytheirplace onthelowerrungsofthesocialladder.

Thelastscenealsopresentsaverydifferentfinale:ratherthanthedramatic murderofCoriolanusatthehandsofAufidiusandhismen,theaudienceis returnedtoamoretranquilandunderstatedsetting,theRomanSenate.Life goesonandthepoliticiansaregoingabouttheirlegislativebusinesswhen news of Coriolanus’ death arrives. Menenius asks that the vanquished general’snamebeinscribedintheCapitolbutthepoliticianscontinuetheir meeting.Thefamilyisalsodeniedthehonourofwearingpublicrobesof mourningfortenmonths,adecisionthatinvertstheendingofShakespeare’s play.Thisfinalsceneisalsointerestinginthatitfeaturessenators,aconsul, andthetribunes.Thatis,thedefeatofCoriolanusandtherelegationofhis importancehasnotsuddenlyledtosocialrevolution:thenoblesenatorsare stillpresentinthelegislature.However,thetribunesaretheoneswhoreject thetwoproposalstomemorializethemanwhoultimatelybetrayedRome, despitehisvictoriesearlierintheplay.Powerisshifting,butisnotinthe tribune’shandsyet.

BrechtwasalsotroubledbythefigureofCoriolanushimselfbecausehe

represented one of Shakespeare’s ‘great individuals’. These characters appearedtobeimbuedwithcharactertraitsthatresistedsocialcategorization, that is, they were seemingly ‘given’ naturally, something Brecht found difficulttoaccept. Insteadheread Coriolanusasaspecialistinwarwho overestimatedhisownvalue.Viewinghimselfaboveandapartfromsociety, hemistakenlybelievedhewasindispensable.Brechtshowedhowthepeople ofRomewentontoarmthemselvesagainstfurtherattackfromtheVolscians underCoriolanusinordertopointoutCoriolanus’moreperipheralstatus.His tragedy in Shakespeare is his pride; in Brecht he falls because of his individualism,acategorywhichissocialaswellaspersonal.Hefailsto realize that the upper echelons of Roman society indulge him his individualismwhenheisinfavourbutthatthepeople,intheformofthe tribunes,rejectitwhenhefailstoplayhisroleinthepoliticalprocess.Brecht thusretainedtheelementoftragicpridebutre-contextualizeditinthepower networksofRomansociety.

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ThesocialelementalsoprovidedthefocuswhenBrechtandBennoBesson

adaptedAnnaSeghers’TheTrialofJoanofArcatRouen,1431.Theoriginal

radioplaymostlyemphasizedthetrial,yettheadapterssoughttobringinthe on-stageaudiencefarmoreprominentlyasawayofcreatingafullerpicture ofFrenchsocietyunderEnglishrule.Besson,whodirectedtheproduction, acknowledgedthatthiswashisfirstshowinwhichheclearlyunderstoodthe way socially defined contradictions manifested themselves on stage and changedaseventschanged.Thenewscriptthusallowedhimtoconstruct contradictions,resolvethemanddevelopthemwithnewones.Indeed,the expansionofthecrowdscenesledtoexperimentswiththestaging,inthat BessonusedapproachestakenfromStanislavskyinordertoindividualizethe representative crowd more ‘realistically’. The BE found that Stanislavsky couldbeintegratedintotheBE’sworkingmethodsaslongasthefocusofthe workremainssocialratherthanpsychological.Theindividualitybroughtout fromthemembersofthecrowdemphasizeddetailsoftheirsocialoriginsand attitudes,andmadeplainhowthesefactorsalteredasnewinformationand relationshipsemergedinthelightofthetrial.

DonJuaninitiallystartedasaprojectcommissionedbyanothertheatre,the VolkstheaterRostock.BessonhadbeenoutoffavourattheBEbecausehe hadlosttherehearsalnotestoTheTutorandwasinvitedindependentlyof Brecht to direct any play of his choice. Having been involved in the adaptationprocessattheBE,hechoseMolière’splaybecauseheconsidered itformallyweakincomparisontotherestoftheFrenchplaywright’soeuvre. Hewasparticularlyconcernedbythewaytheactionseemedtodraginthe

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original’sfinaltwoactsandsoheconflatedthemintowhatisthefinalactof

theadaptation,ActFour.Elsewherewenoticeagaintheintroductionofnew

charactersandsituationsinabidtoexpandthesocialreachoftheplay.

BessonreportedthatheandBrecht’slong-standingcollaboratorElisabeth

HauptmannstartedtranslatingandadaptingthetextwhenBrechtgotwindof

theprojectandthatBrechtthentookaleadingrole.Atranscriptofameeting

thatBrechtchaired,whichappearstobeverbatimratherthantheeditedtext

onCoriolanusdiscussedabove,againshowshowactivelyBrechtsoughtto

problematizethetextsstagedbytheBE.Inthisdiscussion,heparticularly

focusedonwhatcomedymeantinDonJuan,butratherthanofferinghisown

theses,heemployedaninterrogativemode,persistentlyposingquestionsto

teaseoutthemeaningofthegenreinthecontextoftheDonJuanmyth,which

isusuallyconsideredtragic.Hisconstantquestioningdidnotsettleonthe

answersgivenbyhiscollaboratorsbutusedthemonlytoprobefurther.

Again the central figure proved problematic and Brecht was keen to processthereviewstheproductiongarneredinRostockinordertocorrect someofitsperceivedflawsandtoimproveuponthem.Brechtobjectedtothe positionthatDonJuan’satheismwasinsomewayprogressive(see‘DonJuan

asacharacter’,p.478ofthisvolume).Hepreferredtoviewitasamarkof

DonJuan’sdecadenceinadecadentcourt,anabsenceoffaithratherthanthe militant championing of a cause. Again, social contradiction is central to Brecht’sthought:DonJuan’shedonismmakeshimlazy,andhishedonismis anindexofthestateofthecourtinpre-revolutionaryFrance.Brechtwanted Bessontobringouttheseaspectsascomicandlaughable.ThisBessondid whenhedirectedtheplayafreshasthecurtain-raiserwhentheBEfinally

movedtotheTheateramSchiffbauerdamminearly1954.ThatBrechtchose

toopenthenewvenuewithaplaywrittenbyanotherdramatistanddirected byoneofhisassistantsandnothimselfshowshowhewashappynottohog thelimelightbuttopromotethetalentofothers.Brechtcertainlyplayeda major role in both the adaptation and the direction. As he told Besson afterwards,hewashappytohelp,buthewouldhavestagedtheproduction quitedifferentlyandsohewantedBessontotakethecreditassoledirector.

Brecht followed up the success of the adapted DonJuan with another comedy, taken from a different tradition. George Farquhar’s Restoration ComedyTheRecruitingOfficerformedthebasisofTrumpetsandDrums. Oneofthemostobviouschangesishistorical:Farquhar’soriginalsettings taken from his own time, the beginning of the eighteenth century, shift forwardtotheAmericanWarofIndependence,muchlaterthatcentury.This decision appears to have been taken in a bid to make the action more accessiblefortheGermanaudience.Spectatorswouldhavefounditeasierto

understandthetensionsassociatedwithimperialism,althoughthiscouldhave

ledtoapoliticalissueconcerningthepositiveportrayaloftheAmericansata

timewhentheyplayedtheroleofimperialistaggressorinGDRcold-war

propaganda.

Asithappened,thiswasnotthecase.Instead,therulingSocialistUnity Party(abbreviatedinGermanto‘SED’)hadmorepragmaticconcerns.As

JohnWillettnotesin‘AdaptingFarquhar’,p.490ofthisvolume,themain

workontheadaptationtookplacebetweenMarchandApril1955,yetthe

play was only premiered in September. The reason for this was that the culturalfunctionarieswereconcernedthattheplay,whichhasacritiqueof press-ganging as its theme, could be construed as pacifist. The Federal Republic of Germany was remilitarizing and founded the Bundeswehr a month after the premiere, and the GDR followed suit in 1956 with the formationoftheNationaleVolksarmee(NationalPeople’sArmy).TheSED thusviewedpacifismasapositionthatunderminedtheplannedestablishment ofitsarmedforcesanddidnotwantitsmostfamoustheatreproducingwork that could be interpreted as critical of the policy. In the period between adaptingTheRecruitingOfficerandputtingitonthestage,theBEsetabout insulatingthetextfromanychargeofpacifismbyfocusingitscritiqueonthe issueofimperialistwarmongeringandthelengthstowhichtheBritishwould gotofighttheirwarofsubjugation,ratherthanasablanketcondemnationof militaryaction.

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This,however,wasnottheonlyoccasiononwhichtheSEDintervenedinthe BE’splansregardingadaptations.Indeed,adaptationsweremuchcontested becauseoftheirimplicationinamajoraspectofGDRculturalpolicy.The SEDviewedtheGDRastheinheritorofaprogressiveGermantraditionand usedthisusurpedauthorityasawayofdistancingtheGDRasasocialist republicfromthecatastropheofNazism.Thewayinwhichthispolitical definitionofthenationaffectedculturewasinthetreatmentoftheGerman culturalheritage.Productionsofclassicworkswereobligedtoemphasize positiveaspectsintheplaysinordertoconnectthepresentwiththosechosen andpreferredpartsofthepast.ItisthusnotalittlepeculiarthattheSED neither publicly nor privately censured The Tutor. Staging the ‘misère’ pointedout,afterall,adeep-rootedhistoricalinabilityoftheGermanpeople toshapehistoryinitsowninterests,andtheproduction’sironichappyending wouldnothaveprotectedtheBEagainstthechargeofpessimism.ToBrecht, ontheotherhand,theplayanditsendingwereanexampleofa‘negative example’,oneinwhichtheaudiencewasconfrontedwiththeparodyofan idealwithaviewtosuggestingitsownimprovements.Thelackofpointers

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towardsabrighterfuturewouldnothavesufficedasavalidconclusiontothe authorities, who banned Hanns Eisler’s JohannesFaustus in 1953 for its negativeportrayalofFaust,theSED’smostcherishedfigurefromtheGerman canon.

ThequestionthenarisesastowhytheSEDdidnotmoveagainstTheTutor

in1950.Itislikelythatthreemainfactorsledtotheproductionfailingto

registerwiththeSED’sculturalorgans.First,TheTutor,asalreadynoted,was notthatwellknown.ItwouldhavebeendifficulttoraisetheParty’shacklesif itcouldnotrefertoanofficiallineontheplay.Similarly,theaudiencewould have encountered performances ‘afresh’ with few, if any, preconceived notions about the play, its themes or its forms. That Brecht and his collaboratorshadmadegreatchangesmaynothavebeenallthatnoticeable, especiallygiventheseconditeminthelistoftasksfortheadapters:thatthe playshouldretain‘theeleganceofthesequenceofthescenes’.Second,the productionwasagreatsuccess.Audiencesandreviewersalikepraisedits precision,itsbeauty,itslightnessanditshumour.Theyoungensemblehad demonstrated how well it could function as a unit, and the production’s critiqueofanoppressivesocietywaslivelyandengaging,notleadenand propagandistic.Third,theSEDitselfwasuncertainhowtowielditsnew power.Theregimewasstillinaprocessofbeddingdownandculturewas administered by a range of different agencies, ranging from the Central Committee,throughtherecentlyestablishedMinistryofPeople’sEducation, downtomorelocalBerlinauthorities.ItispossiblethatthePartywasnot confidentenoughtolaunchanattackonaworkthatwasatonceunfamiliar andremarkablypopular.

ThesamecouldnotbesaidofCoriolanus.By1951,theSEDwasfirmlyin

controlandhadturneditsopinionsontheculturalheritageandotheraspects of cultural policy into dogma. The Party officially adopted positions on

variousculturalmattersataconferenceheldbetween15–17March1951.

Afterthisdate,itsoughttoimposeitswillmoreheavy-handedly,and,ina meeting in August 1951, it banned further work on the Shakespearean adaptation.Thecombinationoftheworld’smostfamousdramatist,whomthe Germans had been calling ‘our Shakespeare’since at least the eighteenth century,andaprotagonist,whohadcertainaffinitiestoStalin,wasenoughto alerttheCentralCommitteetothepotentialdangersofaproduction.Brecht didcontinuetoworkontheplay,butkeptthefurtheradaptationquiet,partly forpoliticalreasons,partlybecausehecouldnotsecureasuitablemalelead fortheeponymoushero.

Another BE adaptation, not included in this volume, also came in for official criticism. In 1951, the company staged a fusion of two plays by

GerhartHauptmannthatfeaturedthesameleadcharacter,oneeachsideofthe interval.TheBeaverCoatisafull-bloodedcomedy,RedHenatragi-comedy; theirjoiningdidnotmakeforgreattheatre,andtheproductionwasnotwell receiveddespitethemuch-laudedperformanceofoneofGermany’s most accomplishedactors,ThereseGiehse,inthemainroleofMotherWolffen. TheSEDwasnotconcernedaboutthesuccessorfailureoftheproduction;it foundtheprocessofadulteratingtwoclassicplaysbytransformingtheminto one evening’s theatre at odds with its ideas on the purity of the cultural heritageandsoughttoremovethemongrelfromtherepertoire.Inthiscase, however, the SED was beaten to its goal by Hauptmann’s estate which unknowinglysharedtheParty’sviewandwithdrewtherightsafteramere fourteenperformances.Theestateexplicitlyobjectedtotheactofadaptation becauseithadonlygrantedpermissionforwhatitcalleda‘dramaturgical arrangement’ofthematerial.

ItistellingthattheBE’smostcontroversialproductioninthisearlyperiod ofGDRhistorywasdeliberatelykept‘un-adapted’.TheBEstagedGoethe’s

Urfaust,theearlydraftsofwhatwouldbecomethefirstpartofFaust,in1952

inPotsdamand1953inBerlin.AfterthediktatsonCoriolanusandother

works scheduled for the BE, Brecht was naturally wary. Nonetheless, he supervised the Urfaust production, which was directed by assistant Egon Monk, and approached it in much the same way he would any other production.Thatis,hemineditforcontradictionsandconferredonitalively newreading,awayfromtheorthodoxiesoftheday.Thefirstproduction, whichportrayedFaustasacharlatanandseducer,wasinitiallypraisedinthe localpressbutaletterfromthePartygroupatthetheatrethathostedthe production was merciless in its critique of how the BE had betrayed the Germanculturalheritage.AnadaptationwouldhavemerelygiventheParty moregristtoitsmill,inthatBrechtwouldhavebeenaccusedof‘perverting’ thetexttosuithisends.Thepreservationoftheoriginaltextmeantthathe wasonlyworkingwiththematerialhefound.Thesecondattempttostagethe playinBerlinwasdeliberatelytoneddown,inthelightofthepubliccriticism. FaustnolongerhadthenegativetraitsthathehadhadinPotsdam;histragic contradictionwaspredicateduponthepositionthathehadtoengageinapact withthedevilinordertopursuehismoreprogressiveends.Thisradicalshift ininterpretationcouldnot,however,saveaproductionalreadysullied.The headoftheDeutschesTheater,WolfgangLanghoff,didnotallowUrfaustto beperformedtoaudiencesasaneveningshow,andconsignedittomatinees. Aftersevenofthesepassed,andwithnoprospectofenteringthenormal repertoire, the production vanished, never to be seen again, although, ironicallyenough,youngfilm-makerHans-JürgenSyberbergcapturedsome

oftherehearsalsonhis8mmcamerain1953.

TheTrialofJoanofArcandDonJuandidnotattractanyadversecriticism. Onecanonlyspeculateaboutwhythiswasthecase,butTheTrialwas,like The Tutor, a little-known work, and it was written by Anna Seghers, a socialist writer of impeccable credentials. Brecht’s additions were not controversial–theymostlyexpandedthecrowdscenestoinvolvetheParty’s heroofchoice,thecommonpeople.DonJuanwasbeingrehearsedononeof

themosttraumaticdaysintheGDR’shistory:17June1953.Thiswastheday

when workers went on strike and protested against the SED’s economic policies. With support from the West, the protests became an uprising in which the masses on the streets called for the removal of the SED from power.SoviettanksrolledintoBerlinandorderwasrestored,yettheSED wasgiventhebloodiestofnosesandwasforcedtodiluteitshard-lineposition onavarietyoffronts.Whatfollowedfortheculturalsectorwassomethingof athaw.ItisdifficulttoknowwhetherDonJuanwouldhaveattractedcensure inthefirstplace–MolièrewasnotasproblematicasGoetheorShakespeare, andtocallapossiblyprogressivearistocratdecadentwashardlyincendiary.It ismorelikelythattheauthoritiesfeltseverelyrestrictedintheirabilityto interveneandthisparticularplayofferedsolittleoffencethatitwouldnot havebeenworthcriticizingthework.

*

Adaptations,itwouldseem,wereanimportantpartoftheBE’srepertoire,yet theBE’stwoattemptsatUrfaustraiseanimportantquestionregardingthe necessity of adaptations at Brecht’s theatre at all. With the SED firmly applyingpressuretoCoriolanus,Brechtdecidedtotrusthisownapproaches tomakingtheatreratherthanriskabanonaplayheconsideredimportant. Brecht’s stagecraft was concerned with activating the audience and he developedarangeofideasandpracticestoachievethis.Attheirbasewasthe desiretodoawaywithaharmonicunionofsignstransmittedfromthestage totheauditorium.Forexample,Brechtdidnotnecessarilywantlinesabout, say,happinesstobedeliveredinahappyvoice,orformusictotellthesame storyasasong’slyrics.Similarly,anactor’sbodycouldarticulatesomething different from what he or she was saying. Such moves were designed productively to unsettle the spectators and ask them why the theatre was sayingtwodifferentthingsatonce.Inshort,Brechtwaskeenforhisaudience toquestionwhatitsawandheard,andtoaskwhatmightbemotivatingit. Andwithhiscustomaryemphasisonthesocial,contributoryfactorstendedto emanatefromsocietyratherthanthecharacters.

SoBrechthadenvisagedmodesofperformingwhichcriticizedoratleast modified the material being performed. His theatre of juxtaposed signs deferredultimateinterpretationtotheaudience.Performancewasthustaking

*

*

*

*

on some of the qualities identified in the adaptation discussed above: it pointedtoareas onemightconsiderquestionableandinvited constructive

responses.Brechtsaidasmuchshortlybeforehisdeathin1956:‘ifIwere

puttinghim[Shakespeare]ontoday,itisonlysmallchangesIwouldhaveto

makeintheproduction,changesofemphasis’.Sadly,wedonotknowhow

BrechtwouldhavedirectedCoriolanusoranyotherclassicplayafterthis

pronouncement,butperhapshehadrealizedbythenthatthestagecouldoffer

aforumforcreativechallengestodramaticworkstodislodgethecentralityof

thewrittenadaptation.Regardlessofthislateposition,theBEcontinuedto

adaptplays,includingthosebyBrechtthatwereasyetunperformed,suchas

ArturoUiandTheDaysoftheCommune.

WhetherBrechtplannedtoshiftfromadaptingtextstostagingthemmore radicallywillneverbeknown.Theadaptationsinthisvolume,however,give aclearsenseofBrecht’stheatricalinterestsandthedirectionshesoughtto pursueuponarrivingbackinGermanyandtakingcontrolofanensembleof his own. The need to make socially useful theatre runs through the adaptations,andthedramaturgical‘corrections’heintroducedpointtoaneed toreadjustolderplaysforamorecompletepictureofsocietyrepresentedon stage. From a new role for the common people to the relativisation of seeminglyautonomouscentralcharacters,theplaysgivetheaudiencemoreto considerintermsoftheinteractionbetweentheindividualandsociety.This expansionofthesocialpalettewasmatchedbyanalmostironresolveto achieveclarityonstage.Thesocialcontradictionscouldnotbeblurredor mistakenforsomethingelse,otherwisetheaudiencewouldnotbeableto make informed decisions. The adaptations strove to include only salient material.Thisdidnotmeanthatsocietywasinsomewayreducedtosimple tensions;rathertheadaptationprocesswasconcernedwithbringingoutthe complexities of society in a clear fashion. Merely observe the dynamic modulationsthatrunthroughthecrowdscenesinTheTrialofJoanofArc,for example,tounderstandhowchangesinsituationaffectdifferentsocialstrata indifferentways.

Theadaptationsdraftavisionofsociallycommitteddramatoactasa correctivetoplaysthatsuggestweareprisonersofourpsychologyandunable toinfluenceourenvironment.Brechtandhiscollaboratorssetaboutprobing the texts in question to expose how people got trapped in the seemingly unchangeable structures of society and to ask in whose interests such structuresfunctioned.Hasty,theeponymoustutor,isnofoolbutfindshimself sufferingatthehandsofasystemloadedagainsthim.Whilehecanhardlybe said to triumph at the play’s conclusion, the audience, armed with more knowledgeaboutthesocialset-up,canspeculateabouthowHastyandothers likehimmightseektoescapetheirfate.

TheBEwasahothousethatproducedinnovativewaysofconceptualizing andrealizingtheatre.Theadaptationsinthisvolumerepresentoneofthe strands Brecht developed to change the theatrical landscape of Germany. Whiletheyareoneofmany,theyenduretodayasdocumentsthatreflect importantdirectionsforanewkindoftheatre.Andwhilereadingthemisone thing,theyalsoinvitetheatre-makerstotakeuptheirchallengeandrealize productionsthatpresentaworldwhichmaynotbeeasytochange,butis changeableallthesame.

TheTutor

JakobMichaelReinholdLenz

Adaptation

Collaborators:R.Berlau,B.Nesson,E.Monk,C.Neher

Translators:RalphManheimandWolfgangSauerlander

Characters*

Hasty,atutor

Lisa,hisward

PastorHasty,hisfather

CountVermouth

PrivyCouncillorvonBerg

SquintandButtress,students

Fritz,hisson

Mrs.Blitz,alandlady

MajorvonBerg

MissSwandown

Mrs.vonBerg,hiswife

CarolineSquint

Gussie,theirdaughter

MissCotton

Leopold,theirson

MissMiller

ThevonBergs’Maid

MissGosling

Wenceslas,avillageschoolmaster

* Seenote,p.410.

Prologue

Inwhichthetutorintroduceshimselftotheaudience.

Ladiesandgentlemen,theplayyou’reabouttosee

Waswrittenintheeighteenthcentury.

AhouseholdtutoristhepartIplay

Ancestorofourteachersoftoday.

I’mstillaservantofthenobility

Teachingtheiroffspringforameagerfee

Alittlemanners,theBiblemorefully

Andhowtosneerandshamandbully.

Imyself,thoughI’vehadahighereducation

Amandremainofhumblestation.

Ofcoursethetimeshavebeenchangingoflate

Themiddleclassisrisinginthestate.

UnlessIreadtheportentswrong

I’llbeservingitbeforetoolong.

Adeptattoeinganyline

I’msurethatIwillsuititfine.

Withalltheirtrimming,clipping,drilling

Thosenoblesmademeonlytoowilling

Toteachwhatsuitstherulingclass—

Ahabitthatwillneverpass.

ButwhatIreallydo,you’llsee

IsspelloutthesorrystateofGermany.

ActOne

1

InsterburginPrussia.OutsidePrivyCouncillorvonBerg’sornamental

garden.

PrivyCouncillor.Major.

Major Thingsaren’tdoingtoowellatthefarm,William.Nohorsestobe had,notforlovenormoney.Zounds!Thecountrystillhasn’trecoveredfrom thewar—sevenyearsofit.—Therecomesthatstarvelingagain,Ican’ttakea stepwithoutrunningintohim.

(Hastypasses,bowingandscrapingfourtimes.Hisgreetingsarenot

acknowledged)

Hasty Oafs!Thedeviltakeyou!

PrivyCouncillor Who’sthatlickspittle?

Major TheytellmehisnameisHasty,apastor’sson.Mywifeaskedhimto call,sheneedsatutorforLeopold;Isupposehe’lldoaswellasanyone.

PrivyCouncillor Irememberthatname.Hisfather’sbeenpesteringmeto dosomethingforhim.Hewantedapositionatthetownschool.Buthe’snot trainedforit.Hisfather’spursegaveoutbeforehisfinals.Whatishetoteach yourson?

Major Drumalittleknowledgeandgoodmannersintohim,sohecangrow uptobeasoldierlikeme.

PrivyCouncillor Hemaybegoodenoughforthat,Frederick.(Heenters thegarden,precedingthemajor,andstopsinfrontofaplant)Farra communis,thecommonfern,oldestplantonearth.—Buttellme,brother, aboutthisHasty,doyouknowwhatsortofmanyou’llbetakingintoyour house?Whatabouthisethicalmaturity?Myowninquirieshavenotbeentoo thorough.Ihaven’tlookedintohispast.

Major AllIknowisthathe’snotovercharging.Andwhatwiththewarand thehighcostofliving…

PrivyCouncillor Iwouldn’twantanythingcheap.That’swhyI’msending myboyFritztotheuniversityinHalle.

Major ’Sblood!Enoughaboutthatlout.Weweretalkingaboutyourfern here.

PrivyCouncillor Thefernwhoseremoteancestor,thehorsetail,canbe tracedbacktotheiceage…

2

Gussie’sroom.

Gussie.FritzvonBerg.

Gussie Fritz!HowfarisHalle?

Fritz Threehundredmilesorthreemiles—asyoulike.IfIcan’tstayhere, Gussie,andyou’reunattainableinanycase,whatdifferenceistherebetween threemilesandthreehundred?

Gussie Andyou’llbeinHalleand…

Fritz Withyouheartandsoul!Butyouwon’twritetomeandIshallcease toexist.

Gussie Thenyouthinkitwon’tbeaseparationwhenyougetintothecoach, notarealseparation?

Fritz We’llalwaysbetogetherinspirit.Takethis,Gussie!(Hegivesher Klopstock’sOdes)

Gussie Klopstock!(Reads)

“Thedrunkenjoyofthelongwept-for,

Almosttooblissfulhour

Whichtellstheloverthatheisloved!”

“Andnowtwobeauteoussouls,ennobled,feel

Wholly,forthefirsttimewholly,thefullnessoftheirbeing!”

Oh!—ButUnclewillmarryyouofftothatungodlyCountVermouthlong

beforeItakemydegree.Mythreeyearsattheuniversitywillbealongtime

inyourlife!

Gussie Threeyearsorthirty,asyoulike.—Ihearmyfatherandmyunclein thehall.Let’sgooutintothegarden.

Fritz No,they’regone.ButI’llcomeback.Wait,Gussie,readjustthis:

“HermannandThusnelda.”ThereturnoftheCheruscan.

Gussie(reads)

“Ah,therehecomes,coveredwithsweat,with

Romanbloodandthedustofbattles.Neverwas

Hermannsobeautiful!Neverdidsuchflames

Flashfromhiseyes.

Come,Itremblewithdesire,handmetheeagle

Andthyblood-drenchedsword!Come,breathehereandrest

Inmyembrace

Fromthetooterriblebattle.”

Wait,let’sgoouttothesummer-house.

Fritz No,no,Papa’soutside.Goonreading.

Gussie(reads)

“RestherethatImaywipethesweatfromthybrow

Andfromthycheektheblood.Thycheek’sonfire!

Hermann,Hermann,neverbefore

HasThusneldalovedtheeso!”

Oh,Fritz!

“Notevenwhenfirstintheshadeoftheoakthou

Seizedstmeimpetuouslyinthytawnyarms!

FleeingIstayedandsawuponthee

Themarkofimmortality.”

Fritz Gussie…

Gussie Wouldyou—no,Imustn’taskyou.

Fritz Askformylife,formylastdropofblood.

Gussie Weweregoingtoswearanoathtogether.

Fritz Yes,letus.Magnificent.Letuskneeldownherebesidethebed.You raiseyourfingerlikethisandIraisemine.—Tellmenow,whatshallIswear toyou?

Gussie Thatyou’llalwaysflytothearmsofyourGussieatholidaytime andcomebackfromtheuniversityinthreeyearsandmakeGussieyourwife, nomatterwhatyourfathersays.

Fritz Andwhatwillyoupromiseinreturn,myangelic…

(Kissesher)

Gussie IswearthatIwillnever,nevermarryanyonebutyou,notevenifthe TsarofRussiahimselfshouldcomeandaskme.

Fritz Iswearathousandoaths—

(ThePrivyCouncillorcomesin:bothjumpupwithloudscreams)

PrivyCouncillor Makeacleanbreastofit.Whathaveyoutwobeenupto? Forshame,IthoughtIhadasensibleson.Youwanttostudylaw,andyou can’teventeachyourselfhowtobehave?Comehere,bothofyou.Ichooseto seenowrong.Ifyouliketobewithyourcousin,Fritz,Ihavenoobjection,

butnowit’sofftoHallewithyoutobecomeabeacontohumanity.Tomake

yourselfworthyofher.Andtolearnthemeaningoftruefreedom.Which

distinguishesmanfromtheanimals.Stallionsandmareshavetodoit,but

humanbeingsarefreenotto.Understand,son?(Fritznodsshamefacedly)

ConsequentlyIwantyoutotakeleaveofeachotheratonce,without

constraint,pursuanttoyourbetterjudgment,voluntarily.Noletterstobe

exchanged,exceptunsealed.Promise?(FritzandGussienod)Thoughtsare

free,butwritingwillbecensored.Now,saygood-byeinmypresence—and

refrainofyourownfreewillfromdoinganythingthatcannotbedoneinthe

presenceofwitnesses.(FritzmakesabowtoGussie,shecurtsiestoFritz)

Yes,children,reasonisahardtaskmaster.

3

Mrs.vonBerg’sparlor.

Mrs.vonBergatthespinet,Hastystandsbesideherinadeferentialattitude,

Leopoldstandscatchingflies.

Mrs.vonBerg I’vespokentoyourfather;hesuggestedasalaryofthree hundredducatsandwe’vesettledonahundredandfifty.InreturnImustask you,Mr.—whatwasthename?—Mr.Hasty,tokeepyourselfincleanclothes andnottodisgraceourhouse.Astoyourdailyschedule,youwilltakeyour chocolateatsevenwiththeyoungmasterandseetoitthatheeatsproperly; hishealthisdelicate.Schoolfromeighttotwelve.Afternoon:awalkinthe publicparkandbesurenevertoletgoofhishand,he’saveryspiritedboy. Fromsixuntildinnertimeyoumaysitbythebaywindowandpursueyour ownstudies.IntheeveningsIshallexpectyoutoentertainourguests.Itrust you’vegotatongueinyourhead.Iexpectyoutoshowgoodtasteandtobe honorableaswell.Thelasttutorhadtobedismissedforstuffinghispockets withpears.—Doyouskate?CouldyouteachLeopold?—Andareyou proficientindancing?

Hasty Ihopeyourladyshipwillbepleasedwithme.InLeipzigInever missedaball,Imusthavehadatleastfivedancingmasters.

Mrs.vonBerg Indeed?Won’tyoushowme?Afigurefromtheminuet. Makemeacompliment.Don’tbenervous,Mr.…Hasty.Don’tbenervous! Mysonhatesbooksasitis;ifhistutorturnsouttobeasimpleton,thatwillbe theendofhim.Justtogivemeanidea.—Well,well,notbad.Now,ifyou please,apas.—You’lldo.You’llgetintothespiritonceyou’veattendedone ofoursoirées…Areyouamusician?

Hasty IplaytheviolinandIcangetbyonthespinet.

Mrs.vonBerg Splendid!I’vealwayshadtosingforthedearchildrenwhen

theywantedtodance.Thatwillbeagreatimprovement.

Hasty Yourladyship,youoverwhelmme.Isthereanyvirtuosointhewhole worldwhowoulddarematchhisinstrumentagainstyourladyship’svoice?

Mrs.vonBerg Ha,ha,ha,youhaven’tevenheardmeyet.…Wait,doyou knowthisminuet?(Shesings)

Hasty Ah…Ah…Youmustforgivemyenthusiasm.(Kissesherhand)

Mrs.vonBerg Ihappentobeenrhumée,I’msureIsoundlikeacrow.Vous parlezfrançais,sansdoute?

Hasty Unpeu,madame.

Mrs.vonBerg Avez-vousdéjàfaitvotretourdeFrance?

Hasty Non,madame…Oui,madame…

Mrs.vonBerg Vousdevezdoncsavoir,qu’enFranceonnebaisepasles mains,moncher…

Maid(enters) CountVermouth.

Mrs.vonBerg Oneofmydaughter’ssuitors…

(CountVermouthenters.Afterafewsilentbowshesitsdownonthesofa)

CountVermouth Hasyourladyshipseenthenewdancingmasterwhojust arrivedfromDresden?AmarchesefromFlorence,bythenameof…Inall mytravelsIhaveonlyseentwowhomighthavebeencomparedtohim.

Mrs.vonBerg Onlytwo?Youdoarousemycuriosity.Iknowwhat exquisitetasteCountVermouthhas.

Hasty Pintinello…,isn’tit?IsawhimdanceatthetheaterinLeipzig.With nogreatdistinction…

CountVermouth Hedances—onnepeutpasmieux.—AsIwassaying, yourladyship,inPetersburgIsawBeluzzi,whomayhavebeenbetter.But thisonehasanimblenessinhisfeet,there’ssomethingsofree,sodivinely negligentabouthisstance,hisarms,histurns—

Hasty LasttimeheappearedatKoch’sTheater,theybooedhim.

Mrs.vonBerg Beadvised,myfriend,thatdomesticsdonotintervenein conversationsbetweenpersonsofquality.Gotoyourroom.Whoaskedyour opinion?

(Hastygoestowardthedoor)

CountVermouth Thenewtutor,Ipresume?

Mrs.vonBerg Freshfromtheuniversity.—Offwithyou!Don’tyouhear you’rebeingtalkedabout?Allthelessreasontostandtherelistening.

(Hastygoesout.Mrs.vonBergandCountVermouthtaketheirchocolate)

Mrs.vonBerg It’sintolerablethatonecannolongergettherightkindof personforone’smoney.Thinkofit.Fivehundredducatsayear!Isn’tit dreadful?

CountVermouth AsIwassaying,thisPintinellodanceslikeagod.My passionforthedancehascostmesomethirtythousandducats,butI’dgladly paytwiceasmuchif…(Hesighs)HowisMademoiselleGussie?

Mrs.vonBerg So,so,lala.She’sbeenlookingabitpaletheselastfew days.

4

Attheskatingrink.

MissCotton,MissGosling,andMissMiller,skating.ToonesideHastyis

givingLeopoldaskatinglesson.

MissMiller IlovelisteningtoPastorDetzer.Thosepassagesinhis sermons.

MissCotton Aboutsinninginsecret!

MissMiller He’sathunderer,butonlybyallusion.(Imitatinghim)“You thinknooneseesit,nooneispresent,itcannevercometolight.ButIsay untoyou,thedevilliesinwaitforthosethateatofthefruitinsecret.”

MissGosling There’sthenewone.He’sdoingfigureeights!

(Hastyskatespast)

MissMiller Youmeanhim?He’sthenewtutoratMajorBerg’s.Don’t stare!

MissCotton He’swonderingwhethertogreetus.

MissGosling He’safine,upstandingfellow.

MissMiller Sotheysay.

MissCotton Whosays?Don’tbeoracular,Miller.

MissMiller Allright,goovertohim,lethimgreetyou.Isaynomore.

MissGosling Shallweskatepasthimor…

MissCotton I’mforit.(TheyskatepastHasty)

MissGosling(noseintheair) Methinksthere’sawhiffofsnowintheair.

MissCotton(burstsoutlaughing) Whynotaskyourtutorwhenit’sgoing tothaw?

MissMiller That’senoughnow.Don’tbechildish.Idon’twanthimtojoin us.Beforelonghe’llbeasnotoriousasayellowdog.

MissCotton Howso?

MissMiller LastSundayhetriedtomakeuptothatBeckgirl.Butshe didn’tlethim,andshe’snotchoosy,farfromit,thehussy!(Theywhisper together)

MissGosling Butwhatishetodoifnodecentgirlwillgonearhim?

MissCotton Ifoneofuswereseenwithhim,everyonewouldknowit wasn’tjustforfun.

MissMiller WhenyougowithHansnextdoor,noonesaysaword.He maybeawhoremaster,buthe’snotastranger.Butastranger—whyonearth wouldyouwanttogowithhim?Justdrinkingacupofchocolatewith somebodylikethatwouldruinyourreputationinInsterburgfortherestof yourlife.

MissCotton Herehecomes.

(Hasty,withoutLeopold,hasfollowedthemandnowdoffshishat.They

standstifflywithoutacknowledginghissalutation)

MissMiller There.Nowheknowswherehestands.

MissCotton ’Tisapity.Therearen’tmanylikehimintheseparts.

(HastyhasangrilyskatedbacktoLeopoldwhopullshimtothegroundby

hisclumsiness.Theyoungladieslaugh)

5

Hasty’sroom.

Hasty,writing“agricola”ontheblackboard.Leopoldathisdesk.

Leopold(reads,withincorrectstress) —cola.

Hasty(loathinglycorrectingthestress) Agricola.(Themajorwalksin)

TheMajor(reads,withwrongstress) Agricola.That’sfine,that’sthewayI likeit.Busy,busy—andiftherascaldoesn’tgetit,Mr.Hasty,justhithimon theheadwiththebooktillheforgetshowtogetup.Lookathimnow— makingfacesagain.Sotouchywhenyourfatherspeakstoyou.I’llmakea manofyouyet,ifIhavetowhipyoutillyourgutssplitopen,youlittlesneak! Andyou,sir,keepafterhim.Idemandit.ThisessayabouttheHero-Kingthat I’vebeenreadingisrathersloppy,Ishouldsay.Thelistofhisenemiesis incomplete.HedefiednotonlytheSaxons,theAustrians,theFrench,andthe Russians,healsoaddressedtheBritishinnouncertainterms.Ifyouleave themout,it’snotclearthathewasonthebrinkofdisaster—andthenthe glorydoesn’tcomethrough.

Hasty Ibegyourpardon,major.Iamatfault.Ididn’tpaintthepicture blackenough.

Major Areyoupullingmyleg?Orshieldingthislittlesneak?

—Let’sseeifheknowshisCornelio.Backstraight,boy!Chinup!(He

straightenshim)Egad,getyourheadoutofyourshouldersorI’llbreakevery

boneinyourbody.

Hasty Begyourpardon,major,buthehardlyknowsanyLatin.

Major What?Hasthelittlerascalforgottenitall?Thelasttutortoldmehis Latinwasperfect,perfect…I’llbeatthestuffingoutofyou(boxeshimonthe ear)—andnowyou’redoubledupagainlikeaquestionmark.Hesimply neverlistens—goaway,outofmysight,leavetheroom!I’llteachyouto shakealeg.Out,Isay!(Hestampshisfoot,Leopoldgoesout.Themajorsits downonLeopold’schair.ToHasty)Sitdown,Mr.Hasty.Iwantedaword withyou,that’swhyIsenttheboyaway.Sitdown,alltheway!Egad,you’ll breakthechairifyoukeepteeteringontheedge…Achairisforsittingon. Don’tyouevenknowthatafterallyourtravels?—Now,listen.Iregardyouas aclean-cut,decentyoungman,Godfearingandobedient.OtherwiseI wouldn’tdowhatI’mdoingforyou.Ipromisedyouahundredandforty ducats,didInot?

Hasty Ahundredandfifty,major.

Major Ahundredandforty.

Hasty Butwithyourgraciouspermission,major,herladyshippromisedme ahundredandfiftyducats.

Major Pshaw!Whatdowomenknow?Ahundredandfortyducats,that wouldcometothree—let’sseenow—threetimesahundredandforty,how muchisthat?

Hasty Fourhundredandtwenty.

Major Areyousure?Really,asmuchasthat?Verywell,torounditout, I’msettingyoursalaryatfourhundredPrussianthalers.Egad,that’smore thanIgetfrommyland.Fourhundredthalers.

Hasty Butahundredandfiftyducatsequalexactlyfourhundredandfifty thalers,andthosewerethetermsIagreedto.

Major Fourhundredthalers,monsieur.Ingoodconscienceyoureallycan’t askformore.Yourpredecessorwasashappyasalarkwithtwohundredand

fifty.And,uponmysoul,hewasalearnedman.Youhavealongwaytogo

beforeyoucanholdacandletohim.I’monlydoingthisoutoffriendshipfor

yourfather,andforyourownsaketoo,ofcourse,ifyouworkhard.—Now,

listen:Ihaveadaughter.SheknowsherChristianityinsideout,butyousee

she’scomingupforcommunionsoon,andyouknowwhatourpastorsare

like,soIwantyoutodoabitofChristianitywithhereverymorning.

Hasty Yes,major.

Major I’mpayingyoufourhundred,andthatincludesreligionformy daughter.Anhoureverymorning;you’llgotoherroom.

Hasty Yes,major.

Major Properlydressed,ifyouplease;notliketheyoungswineweonce hadherewhoinsistedoncomingtotableinhisdressing-gown.Noneofthat, eh?Doweunderstandeachother?

Hasty Major,woulditbetooboldofmetomakeamosthumblerequest— inconnectionwithyourlastpropositionandinviewofthefactthatit’s difficultformetomeetpeopleandmakefriendsinInsterburgandthatliving inabigcityhasbecomealmostahabitwithme,becausecitypeoplearenot sostandoffishtowardstrangers…

Major Cometothepoint!

Hasty Ifonceeverythreemonths,nomore,Imightbegrantedtheuseofa horsetoridetoKönigsbergfortwoorthreedays?…

Major Hm.Thatmightbeconsidered.

Hasty(jumpsupandmakesseveralbows) Oh,mostgraciousmajor—

Major Anyhowitcan’tbeuntilspring.It’sanimpossiblerideinthiswinter

weather.—Canyoudrawtoo?

Hasty Alittle,yourworship.—MayIshowyouafewthings?

Major(inspectingthem) Charming,charming!—Verynice.Thisone’squite good.Youshallteachmydaughterdrawingtoo.Myresourcesdon’tallowme tokeepawholebattalionofsinfullyexpensivetutorsonmypayroll.Butsee here,Mr.Hasty,forheaven’ssake,don’tbehardonher.Thelittlegirlis differentfromtheboy.She’smyonlysolace.Andshe’sbeenratherdroopy lately,ifyouknowwhatImean.Iseethechildwastingaway,losingher health,herbeauty,andsoon,andthere’snothingIcandoaboutit.Itbreaks myheart.—I’mtellingyouthisbecauseIwantyoutobegentlewithher.

ActTwo

6

HalleinSaxony.

FritzvonBerg,Squintinshirtsleeves,sittingatthetable.Buttresslyingon

thebed,Mrs.Blitz.

Buttress ThreemonthsinHalleandIstillhaven’tspokentoagirl!

Fritz Afterallwehavecertaintiesbackhome.

Squint You’vegotagirlthere?

Buttress HicRhodus,hicsalta!ThegentlemanfromInsterburgseemstobe forgettinghisphysiology.Amandoesn’tgotobedwithagirlbecausehe lovesher,helovesherbecausehewantstogotobed.Youjustwaittill March!

Squint Youmustbegettingthegloomswithoutagirl.Whynotmovein withus,thatwillcheeryouup.What’sthesenseinstayingwiththatpastor? That’snoplaceforyou.

Fritz Howmuchdoyoupayhere?

Squint Wepay—whatdowepay,Buttress?

Buttress Nothing.

Squint Honesttogoodness,brother,Idon’tknow.Mrs.Blitzwritesitall down,therent,thecoffee,thetobacco,whateverweaskfor.Wepaythebill onceayearwhenourallowancecomes.

Fritz Doyouowehermuchrightnow?

Squint Wepaiduplastweek.

Buttress Hisallowanceisdue.

Squint Itwillallbeyourswhenitcomes.Ifiteverdoes,BrotherButtress!

Fritz Youhelpeachotherout?That’sverydecentofyou.

Squint Wegohalves.Icouldn’tafforditmyself.Thistimethey’vecleaned meout.Ihadtoforkovermywholeallowance,didn’tI,Buttress?Andmy coatthatIhockedlastJulyisstillatthepawnshop.HeavenknowswhenI’ll beabletoredeemit.

Fritz Howdoyoumanageinthemeantime?

Squint Me?—I’msick.ThismorningIreceivedaninvitationfrom CouncillorHamster’swife,andIwentstraighttobed.

Fritz Buthowcanyousithomeallthetime,inthislovelywinterweather?

Buttress Whynot?Hereadshisfavoritephilosopher,ImmanuelKant.

Fritz Whatdoeshedoabouthisgirl?Wemustn’tneglectourphysiology.

Buttress Withgirlsit’snotourcoatsthatcount,it’s…

Squint Ourheads,Berg.Inmycaseitdoesn’treallymatter,becausemygirl doesn’tknowme.

Fritz Youmeanit’sallimagination?

Buttress Hedreamsabouther.Andhisbedsheetgetsitall.WhatIsayis:

TellmethegirlyoudreamedaboutandI’lltellyouthegirlyoudidn’tsleep

with.Butnowwe’veinvitedInsterburgforcoffee.Whereinblazesisthe

coffee?(Hestampshisfoot)Mrs.Blitz!Damnit,Mrs.Blitz,wepaidyou,

didn’twe?

(Mrs.Blitzcomesinwithaservingofcoffee)

Buttress Whereonearthhaveyoubeen,ma?Mr.Squinthasbeenwaiting foranhour.

Mrs.Blitz(toSquint) What?Yougood-for-nothingtramp,youalley-cat! Whatareyouholleringabout?I’lltakethecoffeeawaythisminute,I’ll—

Buttress Biscuits.

Mrs.Blitz Therearen’tany.(ReferringtoSquint)DoyouthinkIhave nothingelsetodothangivethatbald-headedlouthisbiscuitsevery afternoon?

Buttress Whyhim?Ineedbiscuits!YouknowInevertouchcoffeewithout biscuits—whatamIpayingyoufor?

Mrs.Blitz(handshimbiscuitsoutofherapron) Nowareyousatisfied,you trombone?Mr.Buttresshasavoicelikeawholeregiment.(ToSquint)Put yourbooksaway,they’renogoodanyway.Allthosebeautiful,expensive booksandyoustilldon’tknowwhichwayisup!Well,isthecoffeeallright? Isit?TellmethisminuteorI’lltearthelasthairoutofyourbaldhead.

Squint(drinks) Incomparable!Really,Ineverhadbetterinallmylife.

Mrs.Blitz Yousee,youyoungrascal.IfMaBlitzdidn’ttakecareofyou andgiveyoufoodanddrinkyou’dstarvebythewayside.Justlookathim, Mr.vonBerg,thewayhegoesaround,withoutacoattohisnameandhis dressing-gownlookingasifhe’dbeenhangedinitandfallenoffthegallows. Thisisthefourthyearhe’sfailedinphilosophy.Why?Becausehejustcan’t getthatstuffintohishead.Ifeelsorryforhismother.She’sawidowtoo.And nowallthewidows’andorphans’pensionshavebeenreducedbecauseofthe gloriouswar.Butyouseemtobeanice,well-bredgentleman,Idon’tseehow youcanbefriendswiththatlout.Well,Isupposeit’scomingfromthesame districtthatmakesforakindoffamilyfeeling.That’swhyIkeepsayingthat Mr.vonBergshouldmoveinhere.Thenwemightmakesomethingofyou. That’swhatIsay.(Goesout)

Squint Youmightn’tthinkso,Berg,butshe’sreallyagoodsoul.

Fritz What’sthisaboutyourfailingallthetime,Squint?

Squint I’mstudyingunderProfessorWolffen.HedetestsMr.Kantof Königsberg.AndKantismyman.

Buttress YourMr.Kantisamuddlehead.Listentothis—(hepicksupa book)—“Whenpeaceisconcludedafterawar,itmightnotbeamissfora nationtoletthethanksgivingcelebrationsbefollowedbyadayofrepentance, onwhichdaythepeople,inthenameofthestate,wouldimploreheaven’s forgivenessforthegreatsinwhichmankindpersistsincommitting—the utilizationofthebarbaricinstrumentthatiswar.”—Imagineteachingstuff likethatataGermanuniversity.

Fritz Itdoesn’tseemsowrongtome.

Buttress Altogetherwrong.Takethetitle:“EternalPeace.”Ifwestopped fightingoldBlitzforoneday,hercoffeewouldbepurebarley.Forfouryears nowourfriendherehasbeenreelingoffMr.Kant’sabsurditiesinWolffen’s classroom.Naturallyheflunks.Repeatafterme:Mr.Kantisanidiot.

Fritz Couldn’tyousayitjusttogetyourdegree?

Squint(hascarvedsomethingonthetabletopwithhispocketknife) Here, readwhatI’vecarved.

Fritz “No.”

Squint I’llsayitafifthtimeifIhaveto.Andmy“No”appliesequallyto everyaspectofGermanservility.AslongasGermansfindtheironly happinessinobeyingorders,theywillgoonserving,preferablyassoldiers, andsacrificingthemselvestosomesupremeleader.

Buttress Icallitstrengthofcharacter.Youappallme.Squint,theupright! Squint,thefearless!

Squint WhoisWolffenanyway?HehatesKant’swritingonfreedomasthe caponhatesthecock’scrow.

Fritz Itakeit,Mr.Buttress,thatyou’renotinterestedinthesebattlesof minds.

Buttress No.I’mgoingtobeatutor,I’llbeshutupinsomegod-forsaken hole.InthemeantimeI’vegottogetinalifetimeofloving.

Fritz Thiscoffeetasteslikebarley.

Buttress What’sthat?(Hetastesit)Soitdoes.WiththebiscuitsIhadn’t —(Looksintothepot)Goddamnit!(Throwsthecoffeethingsoutthe window)Barleycoffeeforfivehundredguildersayear!It’saninsultto Squinttheupright!

Squint Buttress,you’reraving,mydearButtress!

Mrs.Blitz(rushesin) What’sthis?Whatinthedevilisgoingon?(To Squint)Areyouraving,sir,orhasthedevilgotintoyou?

Squint Calmdown,ma,I’llpayforit.

Mrs.Blitz(withahorriblescream) Wherearemycoffeethings?Heavens alive,outthewindow!—I’llscratchyoureyesout!

Squint Therewasaspiderinthecoffee;inmyfrightIthrewit—isitmy faultifthewindowwasopen?

Mrs.Blitz Iwishyou’dchokedonthatspider.IfIsoldyouandallyour belongings,itwouldn’tpayformycoffeeset,youworthlessdog!Rackand ruinisallIgetfromyou.I’llhaveyouprosecuted,I’llhaveyoulockedup.

Squint Letitgoforonce,Mrs.Blitz.Itwon’thappenagain.Please,Mrs. Blitz.

Mrs.Blitz Andwhat’sthatonmytable,youmonster?Don’tcoveritup. He’sbeencarving.Someobscenity.“No.”

Squint It’sinreferencetoImmanuelKant.

Mrs.Blitz Onmytable!I’llcalltheconstable.I—

Buttress That’lldo,MaBlitz.Don’tfrightenSquintthefearless.Thecoffee wasinadequate.Gettheehence,woman!

Mrs.Blitz(intimidated) Well,Imustsay—throwingmycoffeesetoutin thesnowdrifts…(Goesout)

Squint Ifearnothingbutthatwoman.Sheisdevoidofunderstanding.

Buttress WhatwouldyoudowithoutButtress?You’dpaythroughthenose andstarvetodeath.

Fritz I’mthinkingoftakingupphilosophymyself.

Buttress Mr.vonBerg,Ionlyhopephilosophycanstandit.Everybody’s takingupphilosophy.I’llhavetochangenow,I’mgoingtothenewcomedy tonight.They’replayingMinnavonBarnhelm.Ihaveaweaknessfor actresses.

Fritz CanIcomealong?It’saniceplay.IfonlyIcouldtakemyGussieto seeit.

Squint IwishIcouldgotoo.ButIhaven’tgotacoat!—Sohernameis Gussie?I’llbegladtoshowyoumygirl.NowIreallyneedacoat.

Buttress Youhaven’tgotone,though.SoI’llshowhimyourgirl.She’sthe daughterofSwandownthelutenist.Shegetsafreeplaceinthestanding room,thankstoherfather.Afootnotetothehistoryofthewar.Let’sgo,Berg. Andmindyou,don’tneglectyourphysiology.(ButtressandFritzgoout)

7

Insterburg,inMarch.Gussie’sroom.

Gussie,Hasty.

Gussie IbelievethatGodcreatedme.

Hasty IfonlyHehadn’t!(Helpingheralong)Andall…

Gussie Andallothercreatures…

Hasty Andhasgivenme…

Gussie Andhasgivenme,andkeepsmybodyandsoul…

Hasty Bodytoo…

Gussie Eyes,ears,andallmylimbs,myreasonandallmysenses…

Hasty Andthat…

Gussie Andthathebestowsuponmeeachdayclothingandshoes,meatand drink,houseandhome,wifeandchild,fieldsandcattle,andallmygoods…

Hasty Andsuppliesinabundanceallneedsand…

Gussie Necessitiesofmy…

Hasty Body…

Gussie Andlife…

Hasty Andprotectsme…

Gussie Fromallperils,andguardsanddefendsmefromall…

Hasty Bodilyharm…

Gussie What’sthematterwithyou?

Hasty Withoutanymeritorworthinessinme.

Gussie Amen.

Hasty Weren’twesupposedtodrawfromnature?Youhadagoodlaugh, didn’tyou,atthethoughtofthatsillytutorwaitingforyouatthemill.And howmanymorefineMarchmorningswilltherebe?(Hastyslapshispalm withtheruler)

Gussie Ha,ha,ha,mydeartutor.Really,Ihadnotime.

Hasty Don’tbecruel.

Gussie Butwhatisthematterwithyou?Ineversawyousodeepinthought. AndI’venoticedthatyoudon’teat.

Hasty Youhave?Really?You’reaparagonofcompassion.

Gussie Oh,Mr.Hasty—

Hasty Wouldyoucaretodrawfromnaturethisafternoon?

Gussie(toucheshishand) Oh,dearesttutor,forgivemefordisappointing youyesterday.Itwasquiteimpossibleformetocome.Iwassoamazingly enrhumée.

Hasty Isupposeit’sthesametoday.Perhapswehadbetterstopdrawing fromnaturealtogether.Itdoesn’tamuseyouanymore.

Gussie(halfintears) Howcanyousaythat,Mr.Hasty?It’stheonethingI liketodo.

Hasty Orfindyourselfadrawingmaster.BecauseIbelieveIshallaskyour fathertoremovetheobjectofyouraversion,yourhatred,yourcruelty,from yoursight.Icanseethatinstructionfrommeisbecomingmoreandmore repellenttoyou.

Gussie Mr.Hasty—

Hasty Letmebe.Imustfindawayofputtinganendtothismiserablelife, sincedeathisdeniedme.

Gussie Mr.Hasty—

Hasty You’retorturingme.(Hetearshimselfawayandrushesout)

Gussie Oh,howsorryIfeelforhim!

8

PrivyCouncillorvonBerg’sornamentalgarden.

PrivyCouncillor,PastorHasty,Hasty.

PrivyCouncillor I’msorryforhimandevenmoresorryforyou,reverend. Butintercedewithmybrotheronbehalfofyourson—no!

Pastor Butthinkofit,onlythreehundredthalers!Threehundredmiserable thalers!Themajorpromisedhimfourhundred.Then,afterthefirstsix months,hepaidhimahundredandforty.Andnow,atthebeginningofthe secondhalfyear,whilemoreandmoreworkisbeingpiledonmyson,he speaksoftwohundredashisannualwage.Thatisunjust.Beggingyour pardon.

PrivyCouncillor Why?Atutor!Whatdoeshedo?Lollsaboutandgets paidforit.Wastesthebesthoursofthedaywithayoungmasterwhodoesn’t wanttolearnanythingandhasnoneedto.Spendstherestofhistimebowing tomadame’swhimsorstudyingthelinesinthemajor’sface.Eatswhenhe’s fullandfastswhenhe’shungry,drinkspunchwhenhewantstopissandplays cardswhenhehasthecolic.Withoutfreedomlifegoesbackward.Freedomis tomanwhatwateristofish.Amanwhoforfeitsfreedompoisonshisnoblest impulses,smothersthesweetestjoysoflifeintheirbloom,andmurders himself.

Pastor But—ohmy!Thosearethethingsatutormustputupwith.Noone candowhathelikesallthetime,mysonunderstandsthat,but—

Hasty Itwasaboutthehorse,yourworship.

PrivyCouncillor Somuchtheworseifheputsupwithit,somuchthe worse.Blastit,reverend,youdidn’traiseyoursontobeacommonservant.

Andwhatishenowbutaservant?

Pastor But,yourworship!Goodnessgracious!

Hasty Sticktothehorse,father.

Pastor GoodGod,sir!Therehavetobetutorsinthisworld.

PrivyCouncillor Inmyopiniontutorsarenotneededinthisworld. Worthlesstrash,that’swhattheyare.

Pastor Yourworship,Ididn’tcomeheretobeinsulted.Iwasatutormyself once.Goodday.

Hasty Father!

Pastor I’mnotahot-headedman,buthowcanIlistentosuchabsurdities? Tutorsareuseless,yousay.Ihearyoursonisstudyingattheuniversityof Halle.Whotaughthimsenseandgoodmanners?

PrivyCouncillor Why,Ihadthegoodjudgmenttosendhimtopublic school.Andthefewprinciplesheneedstoconducthimselfasascholaranda gentleman,hegotfromme.Wetalkeditoveratthedinnertable.

Pastor Isee—(takesouthiswatch)—alas,yourworship,Ihaven’ttimefor prolongeddisputations.I’maplainpastor,ashepherdofsouls,andwhen onceinabluemoonIcomeallthewayfromIngelshausenIhaveerrandsto do.

Hasty Yourworship,couldn’tyou…

Pastor Forgetit,son.Comealong!

Hasty Thehorse.Couldn’tyouputinawordwithyourbrother?Theworst ofitisthatInevergetawayfromInsterburg.Forsixwholemonths—I’m coming,father—Ihaven’tleft…Iwaspromisedahorsetorideto Königsbergeverythreemonths!

PrivyCouncillor WhatdoyouwanttogotoKönigsbergfor?

Hasty Visitthelibraries,yourworship.

PrivyCouncillor Thebrothelsseemsmorelikely.Beenfeelingyouroats? (ThePastorgoesout)

Hasty Yourworship…Somethingterriblemayhappen…(Followshis father)

PrivyCouncillor(callingafterthem) Mybrotherhasn’tenoughhorsesfor hisfarm,andhereyouare,wantingoneforyourdissipations.

ActThree

9

Halle.

Squint,Fritz.

Fritz Lookwhatshe’ssentme.ShecopieditoutoftheKlopstockIgave her:

“Ohthou,tofindtheeIlearnedlove,

Whichhasexaltedmyswellingheart

Andnow,ineversweeterdreams,

IswaftingmetoParadise.”

Andthisone:

“Great,OMotherNature,isthegloryofthyinventionOneveryfieldand

meadow…”

Andnowshe’sdrawingfromnature.Butwhatareyoubroodingabout?

Squint Ametaphysicalproblem,brother,aphilosophicalproblem.I’ll dissectitforyou.Letusassumethatawoman’sbodyandsensesaredirected towardanobject—aparticularman—andsolikewisearehersoulandmind— inotherwordsthatthethoughtofhermindandthedesiresofherbody coincide,theneverythingisasitshouldbeandwithoutphilosophicalinterest. Agreed?

Fritz Agreed.Butwhatareyoudrivingat?

Squint ThatitbecomesofphilosophicalinterestwhenshelovesonemanA anddesires,orgivesherbodyto,anotherman,B.

Fritz Isthatanactualcase?

Squint Ahypotheticalcase.Butwhatisthesolution?Isitthebodyorthe spiritthatcounts?Youseethattheproblemisphilosophical.

Fritz Youmean:shouldwesaythatshelovesAorthatshe’ssleepingwith B?

Squint Precisely:Andwhat’stheanswer?

Fritz Isupposeyouwantmetosaythatthespiritcounts.Butwhyareyou trembling?Hasitanythingtodowithyou?

Squint Berg,therearetimeswhenIfeelalmostwearyofphilosophy.(He burstsintotears)Oh,Buttress,Buttress!Whydidyouhavetotakemyplace atthemeetingwithMissSwandown?Whydidyoutakehertotheshooting gallerytoputinawordforme?IfonlyIhadhadacoat!Itwasforme,forme thatyoufondledherandgotherwithchild!

Fritz Sothat’sit.HasButtressconfessed?PoorSquint.

Squint PoorSquint!Doublypoor,forhelacksthewherewithaltohelpthe unhappycreatures.PoorSquint,alwaysflunking,ruinedbyhisperseverance inantagonizingProfessorWolffen.Sothatnowheisunabletodohisduty.

Fritz Whatduty?

Squint Don’tyousee?Thesurgeonwantstwentythalers.

Fritz ButgoodLord,notfromyou.Itwasn’tyouthat…

Squint Butitwasdoneformysakeandnooneelse’s.I’mtheoneshe

loves.Ifhehadn’tgoneinmystead,she’dneverhave…Hertear-drenched

facehauntsmydreams:whenButtressbroughthertome,shetookmyhand

andwhispered:“Wetalkedofnothingbutyouthewholetime.”HowcanI

abandonher?

Fritz(embraceshim) MagnanimousSquint.Iunderstand.Whatwillyou do?Whatshallwedo?Yes,we.AmInotyourfriend?Yourdutyismyduty. Commandmypurse.

Squint Fritz,ohFritz,canitbetrue?Istheearthpeopledbyaraceof philosophers?

Fritz(giveshimmoney) Quick,takeit.IhaditonmebecauseIwasgoing toInsterburgfortheholidays.

Squint ThenIwon’tacceptit.YourGussie!Ishouldn’twonderifshe neededyoubadly,straininghereyesforthesightofyou.AndnoFritz appearstoembraceher.HesacrificeshistravelmoneyforMissSwandown…

Fritz Forgetit,Squint,let’ssaythatIamnotovercomebyemotionbut guidedbyreason.Mygirlexpectsmefortheholidays,shesayssoinher letter.(Reads)“InyourEasterholidaysyouwillfindabolderJuliet!”Frankly, Squint,thosewordsfrightenedme.No,believeme,Ishalldobetternottogo homethisyear.I’mnotthechasteJosephIusedtobe.Itoohavedevelopedin thisHalleofyours.

Squint HowcanIeverrepayyou,brother?

Fritz ByteachingmemoreaboutyourrebelliousImmanuelKantduringthe holidays.I’llhavegotthebetterofthebargain.

Squint Iwill—thoughhisrebellionislimitedtotherealmofideas.(The doorbellrings)

(Squintleapstothewindow)

Squint Heretheyare!

(EnterButtressandMissSwandown)

Buttress Well,we’reback.TheHunoldwomanwantsthirtythalers.—Miss Swandownisindisposed.Aglassofwaterwouldhelp.

Squint Mydear,adorablechild,youfindme—myfriendheretoo,he knowsall—overcomewithtenderness.

Buttress Tendernessisallverywell,buthowaboutsomecash?

Squint Everythingwillbeallright.Butfirstthatglassof…

Buttress Allright,yousay?You’llcoughup?You’vegotmoney?Don’t runaway!You’vegotit?

Squint MissSwandown,Iwon’tkeepyouinsuspenseanotherminute.I shalldomydutywithoutreserveordelay.

Buttress Twentythalers?

Squint(countsoutthemoneyonthetable) Renderedliquidbytheprofound influencesofphilosophy!—Twentythalers!

MissSwandown You’reverykind,Mr.Squint,seeingyoudidn’tget anythingoutofitforyourself.

Buttress Don’tsaythat.Butyou’vedoneagooddeed.Kissher,honest Squint,youdeserveit.

Squint(withadeepbow) Yourhumbleservant,MissSwandown.

(ButtressandMissSwandownleave)

Squint TheremustbesomethinggoodinButtress,orhewouldn’tbeso crude.He’seatinghisheartout.(ReturnsthepursetoFritz)Youhaveacted ontheprinciplesofImmanuelKant,BrotherBerg.(Looksforsomethingina book)“Soactthatyoucanwillthemaximofyouractiontobecomeuniversal law.”WritingsonMorals,PartOne,FundamentalPrinciplesofthe MetaphysicsofMorals,ChapterTwo.

10

Insterburg,Gussie’sroom.

GussieandHasty,inbed.

Hasty Yourfather’sbeentoblamefromthestart.Whydidhehaveto scrimponateacherforyou?Theninthesameburstofavaricehereducedmy pay.Andnowhewantstocutmedowntoahundredandtwentythalersfor nextyear.Ishallhavetoquit.

Gussie ButwhatwillIdothen?

Hasty Getthemtosendyoutomyfather’srectoryinIngelshausen.

Gussie Myunclewouldneverletmyfathersendmetoyourfather’shouse.

Hasty Confoundhisbeastlynobleman’spride!

Gussie(takeshishand) Don’tbeangry,Hermann!(Kisseshim)Oh,dear teacher,howdoesyourpupillook?Aspaleasdeath?

Hasty Asfitasafiddle.Now,Ineedyouradvice.—Yesterdayyourbrother slappedmyfaceagain.

Gussie Youmustbearitformysake.

Hasty ThenmaybeIneedn’tregretmyfailuretocontrolmyself.Isuppose I’mbeingfedtoowellforaslave.Thecelery,theturkey,thechocolate—how canabodysopamperedhelpsuccumbingtosin?

Gussie Faugh!Isthatthelanguageoflove?Itwasfate,mydearteacher.

Hasty(asshecontinuestoraisehishandintermittentlytoherlips) Letme think…(Sitsupinthought)

Gussie(inthepantomimedescribed) Oh,Romeo,ifthiswerethyhand!— Whyhastthouabandonedme,ignobleRomeo?Dostnotthouknowthatthy Julietisdyingforloveofthee—hated,despised,rejectedbyalltheworld,by herwholefamily?(Presseshishandstohereyes)CruelRomeo!

Hasty(looksup) Whatareyouravingabout?

Gussie It’sasoliloquyfromatragedythatIliketorecitewhenI’mupset.

Hasty Idon’tcarefortragedies.

Gussie Oh,Halle,worldsaway!—MaybeIshouldn’tblameitallonyou. Yourfatherforbadeyoutowritetome—butlovesurmountsallobstacles.— You’veforgottenme…

Hasty(suspiciously) EveninbedIhavetodeciphereverythingyousay.

Gussie(kissesHasty’shandswithabandon) Oh,heavenlyRomeo!

Hasty(crossly) I’mnotRomeo,I’mHasty,ifyoudon’tmind.(Gussieturns tothewall,weeps.Hastyremorsefullykissesherhandandgazesatherfora while)WhathappenedtoAbelardcouldhappentome.Iseemtorecallthat you’vereadtheromance,MissvonBerg.Wouldyourecapitulatewhatyou knowofAbelardandHéloise?

Gussie WhenitbecameknownthatAbelardandHéloisehadsecretly married,heruncle,MonsignorFulbert,canoninParis,hadhimseizedand deprivedofhismanhood.

Hasty Ihearfootstepsinthehall!

Gussie Myfather—OhGod—you’vestayedthree-quartersofanhourtoo long.(Hastyhurriesaway)OhFritz,mylove!

11

Mrs.vonBerg’sparlor.August.

Mrs.vonBerg,CountVermouth,theMajor.

Mrs.vonBerg(atthespinet) Ah,dearcount,somanytalentsaredoomed tohidetheirlight.Theyfindnoscopeinthisnarrowworld.Oh,tobea singer!Withthecandlesshiningonme,perhapseventhefootlights.It’s deniedus,ourstationdoesn’tpermitofsuchliberties.Doyoulikethisone? (Shesingsalanguishingair)

Count Superb!

Mrs.vonBerg Flatterer!I’mnotingoodvoicetoday.Thisone…(Sings another)

Count Anaturaltalent.Somehaveit,somedon’t.Andiftheydon’t, nothinghelps.

Mrs.vonBerg Believeme,it’strainingandhardworkaswell.Sheerwill power.

Count IwishMissGussiehadinheritedsuchgenius.Whereisshe?

Mrs.vonBerg Ah,yes.(Hums)IseeI’mkeepingyou.Isthereanything moreghastlythananartist—howevertalented—whodoesn’tknowwhento stop?Justonemore,mayI?(Shesings)

Count Charming.But,madame,amInevertoseeMissGussieagain?Has shebeenwellsincethehunttheotherday?

Mrs.vonBerg Thankyouforasking.Shehadatoothachelastnight,that’s whyshemustkeepoutofsighttoday.Andyourstomach,count,afterthe oysters?

Count Oh,I’musedtoit.—ImustsaythatMissGussiehasdeveloped magnificently—blossomedoutlikearosesincelastfall.

Mrs.vonBerg Thesemodernyounggirls…theychangefromdaytoday. Thosesentimentalbookstheyreadgivethemconsumptiveshadowsunder theireyes;butthenalittledrawingfromnaturebringsbackthebloom…I alwayssaythatproperhealthbeginsatforty.

Count Andhealthisthetruesourceofbeauty.(Mrs.vonBergplaysthe spinetagain)IfMissGussieweretocomedown,Ishouldliketotakeastroll inthegardenwithher.Ican’taskyou,dearmadame,becauseofthe fontanelleonyourleg.

Mrs.vonBerg Ifonlycertainpeoplewereasconcernedaboutmywell- being…Sincethewarthemajorhashadonlyoneinterest,hisdamnable farm.Alldayhe’sinthefields,andwhenhecomeshomehesitstherelikea stick.—Oh,dearcount…Afewdaysagohetookitintohisheadtosleep withmeagain,butinthemiddleofthenighthejumpedoutofbedandstarted …ha,ha,ha,Ishouldn’tbetellingyouthis,butyouknowhowridiculousmy husbandcanbe…

Count Started…?

Mrs.vonBerg Poringoverhisaccountbooks.Andgroaningsomething dreadful.Icouldhearhimdowninhisstudy.Buthisfoolishnessisnothingto me.LethimturnQuakerorPietistifhewantsto.Itwon’tmakehimany uglierormoreamiableinmyeyesthanheisnow.(Shelooksroguishlyatthe count)

Count(chucksherunderthechin) Whatwickedthingsyousay!

—ButwhereisGussie?I’dreallyliketotakeastrollwithher.

Mrs.vonBerg Hush!Herecomesthemajor…Whydon’tyougooutwith him,count?He’llshowyouhishothouse.

Count Fancythat!—Butit’syourdaughterIwanttosee.

Mrs.vonBerg Idaresayshe’snotdressedyet.Thegirlisinsufferablylazy.

(MajorvonBergcomesin,hiscoatbespatteredwithmud)

Mrs.vonBerg(playsHandel’sLargoonthespinet) Well,husband?What haveyoubeenuptonow?Idon’tlayeyesonyoufrommorningtonight,and

nowlookathim,count.Doesn’thelookexactlylikeTerence’sSelf-

TormentorinMadameDacier’sedition?Idobelieveyou’vebeencarting

manure,MajorvonBerg.

Count It’strue,major,you’veneverlookedsohorrible.I’dneverhave expectedfarmingtogotoyourheadlikethis.

Mrs.vonBerg Avarice,pure,execrableavarice.Hethinkswe’llstarveifhe doesn’tgoburrowinginthemucklikeamole.Hespades,heplows,he harrows.Ifyoumustturnpeasant,couldn’tyoufindmeanotherhusband first?

Major Zounds,woman,youforgetthatwarshavetobepaidfor.Butit’s true,Ineverseeyouladiesanymore.Where’sGussie?

Mrs.vonBerg(stillplaying) Gussie!Gussie!Gussie!That’sallIeverhear! Themole,there’snothingelseleftinhishead.OnlyGussie.HisGussie, alwayshisGussie.

Major Yes,andyoukeepherawayfrommebecauseyou’rejealousofher.

Mrs.vonBerg Howthemanspeakstome!AsifIkeptherlockedup.I’m

sickofit.Sheshouldcomedownwhentherearevisitors.(Goesout)

Count Iamembarrassed,MajorvonBerg.Permitmetotakemyleave.

Major Justhangaround.

Count(afterapause) Speakingofeconomics,haveyouseenagazette recently?There’sbeenquiteastiraboutthekingfoundingabankinBerlinon theFrench…

Major Berlin!

Count Don’tsayanythingagainstBerlin.Wearedefinitelymaking progress,allEuropeiswatchingus.Firsttheballetandnowthebank,àla bonneheure!

Major Abank!It’sarottenbusiness,count,takeitfromme.Wecanperish likeSodomwithoutanyneedforbanksandsuch-likenovelties,indeedwe can.

Count Butthinkoftheballet.Betweenyouandme,major,I’vealwaysfelt thatabriefexcursiontoSodomnowandthenisgoodfortheblood.

(Mrs.vonBergrushesin)

Mrs.vonBerg Help!Help!Husband—we’relost—thefamily!Thefamily!

Count Madame,whatonearth…?

Mrs.vonBerg Thefamily—theinfamy—oh,Ican’tgoon.(Fallsona chair)Yourdaughter!

Major(goestowardher) What’shappened?Outwithit!SpeakuporI’ll

wringyourneck!

Mrs.vonBerg Yourdaughter—thetutor—hurry!(Shefaints)

Major Hashemadeawhoreofher?(Shakesher)IsthiswhatIburrowin theearthfor?What’sthegoodofcollapsing?Thisisnotimetocollapse. Madeawhoreofher?Isthatit?Allright.Letthemturnthewholeworldinto awhore,withballets,banksandspinets.Andyou,Berg,takeupyour pitchfork.(Tohiswife)Comeon,you’reawhoretoo!Watchme!(Tearsthe doorsopen)I’llsetanexample.That’swhatGodhaspreservedmefortothis day—tomakeanexampleofmywifeandchildren.—Burnitall,burn,burn, burn!(Carrieshiswife,whoisstillinafaint,offthestage)

Count Parbleu!

12

VillageschoolnearInsterburg.

Wenceslas,Hasty,Lisa.

Wenceslas(sittingatatable,spectaclesonhisnose,rulingsheetsof paper) Who’sthere?Whatisit?

Hasty(whohasrushedinbreathlessly) Help!Saveme!Dearschoolmaster! They’llkillme!

Wenceslas Whoareyou?

Hasty Thetutoratthecastle.MajorvonBergisaftermewithallhis servants.Hewantstoshootme.

Wenceslas Godforbid!—Justsitdownquietly.—You’llbesafewithme, here’smyhandonit.TellmeallaboutitwhileIwriteouttheseexercises.

Hasty Letmecollectmywitsfirst.

Wenceslas Allright.Getyourbreath.Buttellmethis—tutor—(putshis ruleraside,takesoffhisspectaclesandlooksathimforawhile)whaton earthcanhavemadeyourmastersoangryatyou?—Wouldyoukindlypass methesandbox?—Yousee,Ihavetoruleoutthelinesformyboys,because nothingisharderforthemtolearnthantowrite,straight,towriteevenly.— Themainthing,Ialwayssay,istowritenotelegantlyorquickly,butstraight, becausehandwritinghasitseffectoneverythingelse,morals,thought,in shorteverything,mydearMr.Tutor.Amanwhocan’twritestraight,Ialways say,can’tactstraighteither.—Wherewerewe?Wouldyouputthesesheets overthere?

Hasty(whohasdoneso) MayIaskyouforaglassofwater?

Wenceslas Water?—Youshallhavebeer.But—yes,whatwerewetalking about?

Hasty Aboutwritingstraight.

Wenceslas No,aboutthemajor.Ha,ha,ha.Nowlet’ssee.Doyouknow, Mr.—whatisyourname?

Hasty Name—mynameis—Midge.

Wenceslas Mr.Midge.—Forgottenit,hadn’tyou?Strangehowour thoughtscangiveustheslip.

Hasty MayIopenthewindow?OhGod,there’sCountVermouth.

Wenceslas(severely) Ineedthesandboxagain,ifyouplease.(Hasty, shaking,handsittohim.CountVermouthcomesinwithsomeservants brandishingpistols.Hastydashesintoanotherroom)

Wenceslas Nervicorrupti!

Count I’mlookingforacertainHasty.Astudentwithabrownbraidedcoat.

Wenceslas Sir,inourvillageitiscustomarytoremoveyourhatwhen addressingthemasterofthehouse.

Count Thematterisurgent.—Ishehereornot?

Wenceslas Whatcanthemanhavedonethatyoushouldbelookingforhim withpistols?(TheCountisabouttoenterthesideroom;Wenceslasblocks

thedoor)Stop,sir.Thatismyroom.Leavemyhousethisinstant,sir,orI

shallpullthebellcordandhalfadozensturdypeasantswillbeatyoutoa

pulp,pistolsandall!Ifyoubehavelikeabandit,youshallbetreatedlikea

bandit,sir!Thewayoutisthesameasthewayin,butincaseyou’ve

forgotten—(Hetakeshimbythehandandleadshimoutthedoor)

Hasty(peepsoutofthesideroom) Happyman!Enviableman!Iadmireyou

Wenceslas Nowsitdownandhavesomeknackwurstandpotatosaladafter yourfright.Lisa!(Lisacomesin)BringMr.Midgeapitcherofbeer.(Lisa goesout)She’smyward.—Whileyou’rewaitingforyourbeer,youmayas wellearnyoursupperandhelpmetorulethesesheets.Itwillimproveyour morals.(Hastysitsdowntodotheruling)Whowasthatrudefellowwho wantedyou?

Hasty AcertainCountVermouth,themajor’sson-in-lawtobe.He’sjealous ofme,becausetheyoungladycan’tstandhim.That’sall.

Wenceslas Butwhat’sthesenseinit?Whatdoestheyoungladywantof you,monsieurladykiller?Bettergetthatsortofthingoutofyourheadand sticktoknackwurst.Goahead,eat!Butdon’tmakegreasespots.Anddraw thelinesevenly,ifyouplease.—Idaresaythere’sadifferencebetweenthe major’stableandmine.ButwhenschoolmasterWenceslaseatshissupper,a clearconsciencehelpshimdigestit,andwhenMr.Midgewaseatingpheasant withmushroomsauce,hisconsciencepromptedmoralqualmsthatdrove everybiteheswallowedbackintohisthroat.

Hasty Verytrue,butthat’snotall.Youdon’trealizehowfortunateyouare. Haveyouneverseenaslaveinabraidedcoat?Oh,freedom,goldenfreedom!

Wenceslas(motioninghimbacktohisruling) Thatchurlwantingtobreak intomyroomwithoutsomuchasaby-your-leave!Justlethimcomeback, withallthemajorsintheworld!Zooks!Nowyou’vefinishedyour knackwurst,andthebeerisn’thereyet.—Won’tyousmokeapipewithme?

Hasty I’llbegladtotry.I’veneversmokedinallmylife.

Wenceslas Ofcoursenot,youfinegentlemen,itdiscolorsyourteeth,isthat it?IstartedsmokingwhenIwasbarelyweaned.Exchangedmymother’s nippleforthemouthpiece.Ha,ha,ha.Smokeisgoodforfoulair,andforfoul cravingsaswell.Here’smyprogram:onrising,coldwaterandapipe,school tilleleven,thenanotherpipeuntilthesoup’sready.MyLisa’ssoupisasgood asanyFrenchchef’s.Thenanotherpipe,thenschooluntilfour.ThenIwrite outexercisesuntilsuppertime.MostusuallyIhaveacoldsupper,sausage withsalad,apieceofcheese,orwhateverthegoodLordmayprovide.And thenalastpipebeforebed.

Hasty Godhelpme,I’vecometoasmokingden!

Wenceslas AndwithallthatI’mfatandhealthyandcheerful,andIhaven’t evenbeguntothinkaboutdeath.

Hasty Youearngoodwages,Ipresume?

Wenceslas Wages?That’sastupidquestion,Mr.Midge.Forgiveme,did yousaywages?MywagesarefromGod,agoodconscience.Haveyouany ideawhatitmeanstobeaschoolmaster?(Hestrutsawesomelytoandfro)I shapehumanbeingsinmyownimage.Germanheroes!Healthymindsin healthybodies,notFrenchmonkeys.Ontheonehand,asitwere,mental giants,ontheotherhand,goodsubjects.Andwhatdoesthatmean?Doesit meansubjectedgiantsorgiganticsubjects?Itmeans:reachforthestars,but Godhelpyouifyoukickagainstthepricks!—Won’tyouhaveasmoke?Go on,haveapipe.Conqueryourself—no,notyou,theGermanhero—ifyou wouldconquertheworld.I’lltakethecanetoyouifeveryou…Ohdear(he snatchesthegoosequillwhichHastyhasbeenpickinghisteethwith)what areyoudoing!Agrownman!Haven’tyouevenlearnedtotakecareofyour ownbody?Pickingtheteethissuicide.There.Ifsomethinggetsstuckinyour teeth(takeswaterandrinseshismouth)thisisthethingtodo,ifyouwantto havesoundteeth.Goon,doit!(Hastydoesso)

Hasty He’sgoingtoschoolmastermetodeath.

Wenceslas Youdon’tcareforthepipe?Justspendafewdayswithold

Wenceslas,andI’llwagerthishandwillshapeyousoyouwon’tknow

yourself.—Iassume,youngman,thatwithoutareferenceyourtutoringdays

areover.Andyoucan’thopeforapositioninavillageschoolbecausethe

king,nowthathiswarisover,isputtinginhisdisabledsergeantsas

schoolmasters.Yes,that’showitis.You’reprobablyweakinLatin,butasa

tutoryoumusthavealikelyhandwriting.Youcouldlendmeahandinthe

evening.It’stimeIbegantosparemyeyes.Youcouldwriteouttheexercises

formyboys.Butyouwillhavetoworkhard,Icantellyouthat!

Hasty Thehumiliation!

(TheMajor,thePrivyCouncillorandCountVermouthenterwithservants)

Major(withpistoldrawn) Thedeuce…!Therehesitslikearabbitinthe cabbagepatch.(HeshootsandhitsHastyinthearm.Hastytumblesfromhis chair)

PrivyCouncillor(hasvainlytriedtorestraintheMajor)Brother!(Pushes

himangrily)Nowyou’vedoneit,youfool!

Major Hey!Areyoudead?Speaktome!Whereismydaughter?

Wenceslas Yourlordships!Isthelastjudgmentonitsway?(Hereachesfor thebreadknife)I’llteachyoutoassaultaChristianinhisownhouse!

Hasty Don’t,Iimploreyou!—It’sthemajor.IdeserveditforwhatIdidto hisdaughter.

PrivyCouncillor Worthyschoolmaster,isthereasurgeoninthevillage? He’swoundedinthearm.Iwanttohavehimcaredfor.

Wenceslas Caredfor!Youbandits!Doyouthinkyoucanshootpeople downbecauseyou’rerichenoughtohavethemcaredfor?He’smyassistant. He’sbeeninmyhouseexactlyoneyear.Aquiet,peaceful,industriousman. Andyoubargeinandshootdownmyassistantbeforemyveryeyes!—I’llbe

avenged!

PrivyCouncillor(motionsaservanttobandageHasty) What’sthegoodof lying,mydearman?Weknowthewholestory.(TotheMajor)Ishallsend FritztoItaly,hemustneverhearofthis.—He’llbleedtodeath.Runfora surgeon!

Wenceslas Nonsense!Ifyoumakewounds,youcanhealthemyourselves, youbandits!I’mnotrunningtogetthesurgeon,I’mrunningtoringthe tocsin.(Leaves)

(ServantsputHastybackonhischair.Hastycomesto)

Major Andnowtoyou!Ifittakesred-hotpincers:Whereismydaughter?

Hasty IfyourworshiphadonlygrantedmeahorsetoridetoKönigsberg, asyouagreedto!

Major What’sthehorsegottodowithit,youscoundrel?Where’smy daughter?

Hasty Idon’tknow.

Major Youdon’tknow?(Drawsanotherpistol)

Lisa(comesinwiththebeer) Don’tshoot!PoorMr.Midge!(Throwsherself infrontofHasty)

PrivyCouncillor(snatchesthepistolfromtheMajorandfiresitoutthe window) Dowehavetoputyouinchains,you…(ToHasty)Answerus!

Hasty Ihaven’tseenhersinceIescapedfromyourhouse.IsweartoGod beforewhosejudgmentseatImaysoonstand.

Major(abouttoassaulthimagain) Anotherchargeofpowderwasted! Swine,Iwishithadgonestraightthroughyourbody,seeingwecan’tgetany senseoutofyou!

PrivyCouncillor Berg!

Lisa AreyouMajorvonBerg?Oh,yourgrace,therewasaladyattheinn, sheorderedcoffee.Asshewaspayingshesaidtothelandlord,“Ifmyfather comesaskingforme,don’ttellhimIwenttothepondbytheelmtrees.Tell him,goodpeople,thatIsendhimmylove.”

Major Tothepond?Tothepond!Tothepond!(Goesout)

PrivyCouncillor Themancan’tswim.

Count IfonlyIcould!

PrivyCouncillor Imustn’tlosesightofhim.(ThrowsHastyapurse)Use ittogetwellandrememberyouwoundedmybrotheragooddealworsethan hewoundedyou.

(ThePrivyCouncillorandtheCountleavequickly)

Hasty(withbitterness) What’sthehorsegottodowithit!Myvitasexualis cangohang!

13

NearInsterburg.

Gussie at the edge of a pond surrounded by bushes. Major, Privy Councillor,CountVermouth,servants.

Gussie Nobody’scoming.MustIdiehere?Fritz,ohFritz!Whydidn’tyou comehomefortheholidays?ThenIwasstill…Cloudsarepassingoverthe moon.Noonewilleverfindme.

Major(fromadistance) Gussie!Gussie!

(Gussieputsdownhershoesandwadesintothepond,herfaceturnedback)

Major(appears,followedbythePrivyCouncillorandCount Vermouth) Heigh-ho!Somebody’sgoneintothepond—there,look,it’sa woman.Afterher,Berg!I’llsaveherorgotohell.(Wadesafterher)

PrivyCouncillor GodAlmighty,he’sgoingtodrowntoo.

Count Let’shopeit’sshallow.

PrivyCouncillor Totheotherside!(Totheservantswhoarecarryinglong poles)Afterthem,fellows!—Ithinkhe’sgrabbedher…There…backthere, bythebushes.—Don’tyousee?He’swadingalongtheshore.Godpreserve ourwits!Ontheotherhand,canonehelpbeingmovedbyhuman…

(Theservantsprobethepondwiththeirpoles)

Major(backstage) Help!Thisway!It’smydaughter!

PrivyCouncillor(toCountVermouth) Thetragedyofitall!Thetragedy! Thepoorman;forallweknow,he’ssavingtwolives.

Count(toPrivyCouncillor) Ifeelsohelpless.Thosecrudefellows (pointingattheservants)arebetteratit.

Major Oddsbobs,zookersandbodkins!Givemeapole!Theplague…

PrivyCouncillor(kicksaservantinthebehind,makinghimfallinthe water) Getoutthere,yourascal.Don’tjustthinkofyourself!

(MajorBergcarriesGussieontothestage)

Major There!(Putsherdownandkneelsdownbesideher)Gussie!Why didyoudoit?—Ifonlyyouhadbreathedawordtome.I’dhaveboughtthe swineatitle,thenyoucouldhavecrawledintobedwithhimtoyourheart’s content.—ForGod’ssake,dosomething.She’sonlyfainted.

PrivyCouncillor IwishIknewwherethatgoddamsurgeonwas.

Gussie(inafeeblevoice) Father!

Major Whatdoyouwant?

Gussie Yourforgiveness.

Major Forgivenessbedamned,youspoiledbrat.—No,don’tcollapse.I forgiveyou—andyouforgiveme.I’veputabulletthroughthatscoundrel’s brains.

PrivyCouncillor Ithinkwe’dbettercarryher.

Major Letherbe!Whatconcernissheofyours?Worryaboutyourown fleshandbloodathome!(Carryingherinhisarms)There,mygirl—really,I oughttowalkbackintothepondwithyou(swingshertowardthepond)—but maybeweshouldn’ttrytoswimuntilwe’velearnedhow.—(Pressesherto hisheart)Godlesshussy!(Carriesherout)

Interlude

Totheaccompanimentofamusicboxwhichmissesafewnotes,thestage revolves to show the passing of a year and how our characters are spendingit.Winter:FritzvonBergstrollingunderlemontreesinItaly; spring:SquintmarryinghisCarolineinHalle;summer:Gussiesewing diapersinInsterburg;autumn:Hastystillwritingoutexercisesatthe villageschool.

ActFour

14

Villageschool.

a)

StormynightinNovember.Hastyiscorrectingpapers.Lisacomesin.

Lisa I’vefrightenedyou.Ionlywantedtoaskyouifyou—neededanything, Mr.Midge.

Hasty Me?Needanything?Why,Ineverdo.Whatshouldawretchlikeme need?Ihaveeverything.AndI’llbegoingtobedsoon.

Lisa Ishouldn’thavedisturbedyou.I’llgo,Mr.Midge.You’realways writing.

Hasty Heavenlyapparition!

Lisa Ithoughtthelampmightbesmoking.

Hasty Isee.

Lisa Butitisn’t.

Hasty You’recold,mychild.Letmeputmyscarfonyou.Nowgo.

Lisa Apotofcoffee,Mr.Midge,tokeepyouwarm?

Hasty No.Yes,makesomecoffee.(Lisagoesout)HaveIgonemad?What hashappenedtome?Thisinnocentcreature.Thisangelofkindness.AndI,in thesefewminutesassailedbycontemptibleinstincts!Whencethishurricane risingfromamerenothing?Sheshowsaninnocentsolicitude—ismylamp smoking?—Irequiteherwithcarnallust!Undermybenefactor’sownroof,in sightoftheobjects—thischair,thisbed—withwhichhehassurroundedme inhislovingkindness.ThatishowIrepaythemanwhotaughtmewhatitis toteach.MonsterthatIam,shallInevermendmyways?Isittostartallover again?Haven’tIalready…?Myhead’sinawhirl.Ravished.Fishedoutof thepondbyadespairingfather,pushedinbyme.Andnow,isittobeLisa? Never!Never!(Hebarsthedoor)Midge,getbacktowork!(Heworksagain) Writestraight,livestraight.WhatamIcomingtowiththishurricaneinmy heart?Howlongdoesittaketomakeapotofcoffee?Gradepapers,correct spelling,abodiceismadeforconcealment,stoptryingtolookthroughit. Scoundrelwithoutareference,withoutafuture.(Aknockingatthedoor) Don’tmove!Thelatchwillhold.Angel,turnback!(Heopensthedoor)

Lisa(comesinwithapot) Whydoyoulockyourselfin?Noevil-doer wouldcomethiswayatnight.Here’syourhotdrink.

Hasty Thankyou.(Takesitfromherandpushesherout)That’sdone. (Sinksontoachair)Goinpeace,Lisa,you’resaved.(Anotherknock)The latch!(Lisacomesin)

Lisa I’mbackagain,Mr.Midge.Doyoumind?

Hasty Yes,Imind.

Lisa I’vecomebecauseyousaidtherewouldbenocatechismtomorrow— becauseyou—that’swhyI’vecome—yousaid—I’vecometoaskifthere’d becatechismtomorrow.

Hasty Oh!—Thosecheeks,angelsofheaven!Seehowtheyburnwiththe fireofinnocence,thencondemnmeifyoucan—Lisa,whyareyourhands trembling?Whyareyourlipssopaleandyourcheekssored?Whatdoyou want?

Lisa Toknowifthere’llbecatechismtomorrow.

Hasty Come,Lisa,sitdown.—Whoputsyourhairupwhenyougoto church?(Makeshersitdownonachairbesidehim)

Lisa(wantstogetup) Excuseme.Mycapmustbecrooked.Therewassuch awindwhenIwenttothekitchen.

Hasty(takesbothherhandsinhis) Ohyouare—Howoldareyou,Lisa? Haveyouever—whatwasIsaying—haveyoueverbeencourted?

Lisa(gaily) Ohyes,andGretaattheSheepsheadInnwasenvious.“How canhebesointerestedinthatstupidgirl?”that’swhatsheusedtosay.And thenIknewanofficertoo,beforeyoucamehere.

Hasty Anofficer?

Lisa Oh,yes.Andmostdistinguished,withthreestripesonhisarm.ButI wastooyoung,mymotherwouldn’tletmehavehim.

Hasty Andthen?

Lisa Becauseofthelifesoldierslead,alwaysmovingabout,andintheend theyhavenothing.

Hasty Andme?WhathaveIgot?

Lisa Butyou’reintrouble,Mr.Midge.

Hasty Wouldyou—wouldyoureally—(slapshishandwiththeruler)

Lisa Ohyes,withallmyheart.(Hastythrowshimselfonherandkissesher

hand.Lisatakesitaway)Oh,youmustn’t.Myhandisallblackfromthe

stove.—Shameonyou,whatareyoudoing?Youknow,IalwaysthoughtI

wantedaclergyman.EvenasachildIlikededucatedgentlemen,they’reso

gentleandpolite,notslam-banglikesoldiers,thoughinawayIlikethemtoo,

Ican’tdenyit,becauseoftheirgaycoats.Ifclergymenworesuchgaycoats,

reallyitwouldbetheendofme.

Hasty(leapsatherandseizesher) Oh,Lisa!Youdon’tknowhowunhappy Iam.

Lisa Forshame,sir,whatareyoudoing?

Hasty Oncemore.Andthenneverneveragain!(Kissesher)

Lisa No,no,no…

Wenceslas(burstingin) What’sgoingon?Isthistheattentionyouoweto yourflock?Arabidwolfinsheep’sclothing?Seducingtheinnocenceit’s yourdutytoprotect!

Hasty MasterWenceslas!

Wenceslas Notaword!You’veshownyourtruecolors.Leavemyhouse, youseducer!

Lisa(kneelsbeforeWenceslas) Deargodfather,he’sdonemenowrong.

Wenceslas He’sdoneyoumorewrongthanifhewereyourworstenemy. Hehasseducedyourinnocentmind.

Hasty Iconfessmyguilt.—Buthowcouldanyoneresistsuchcharms? Unlessyouteartheheartoutofmybody…

Wenceslas Doyoumeantogoonseducinginnocentgirls?Isthatyour

plan?

Hasty No,no.Godismywitness,ifIsealedtheseinnocentlipswithmy kisses,itwasonlytostopthemfromincitingmetofargreatercrimeswiththe magicoftheirspeech.

Wenceslas Andhowwouldyousupporther,youpauper?

Hasty That’swhatItoldher.

Wenceslas Doyouthinkthatwillkeepherfed?You,getup,innocent victim.You’readisgracetoyourprofession.Whereareyourreferences? Wherecanyoushowyourface?Outofmysight,youreprobate!(Takesthe copybooksaway)Youwillcorruptmygoodchildrennolonger.Tomorrow morningyouleavemyhouse!(HedragsLisaout)

b)

Hasty,attheopenwindow.

Hasty ThereIgoagain!—Roar,yenightwinds!Andyou,unworthyfiend, outintothestormwithyou!Didyouthinkyoucouldshapelittlechildrenin yourownimage?Beholdyourfaceinthiswindowglass,andtremble!Doesa nurserymanpulluphisseedlings?Guardian,whereisyourguardian?Allyour lifeyou’vebeenanoutcast.Afterwhatyouhavedonewillyougotohimand say:Unfortunateman—unfortunatebecauseyoutrustedme—givemethe handofyourwardwhomIhaveabused.Youcanruinher,butcanyoufeed her?Andyet,isitsoreprehensibletobehuman?Carnalornot,aresuch impulsesunnatural?Acurseonnaturefornotmakingmeastoneinthe presenceofhercreation!What’swrongwithme?Astablehandisallowedto beaman.NotI.ShallIpluckouttheeyethatoffendsme?ShallIstandupto you,spiritofcreation,andsay:Irejectyourpurposes?Thefaceyougaveme isdisfigured,Imyselfdisfigureditbecauseitdidnotfit.Andsaytothewind, whenyoucomebacktomorrow,Ishallbeherenolonger.Sobeit.Imust.I willsetanexampletomakeyoutremble!(Tearsoffhiscoat)

c)

Hasty,inbed.Wenceslascomesin.

Wenceslas HolyGod!Whatisitnow?Whyhaveyoucalledmeawayfrom mywork?Thisroom!—Itlookslikeabattlefield.Whyareyoustillinbed? I’vetoldyoutoleavemyhouse.Youshouldhavebeenonyourwayto Heidebühllongago.

Hasty IbelieveI’monmywaysomewhereelse.

Wenceslas Whythosefearfulglances?Theymakemybloodruncold. Frigidusperossa—Whatisit?—Asifyouhadkilledaman.—Whyareyou makingsuchaface?

Hasty MasterWenceslas,Idon’tknowifI’vedoneright.—I’vecastrated myself.

Wenceslas What?—Emasculated?—Butthat’s…

Hasty Ihopeyou’llgrantmeafewmoredaysunderyourdesecratedroof.

Wenceslas Saynomore.Youshouldn’thavedoneit.Why,you’reasecond Origen!Letmeembraceyou,youngman,ohpreciouschosenvessel.Adeed likethiscanmakeyouabeaconoftheschoolsystem,ashiningstarof pedagogy.Icongratulateyou.WenceslassalutesyouwithaJubilateandEvoë —myspiritualson!

Hasty Andyet,dearschoolmaster,Iregretit.

Wenceslas What,regretit?Notforonemoment,mydearcolleague!Will youdarkenyournobledeedwithfoolishregretsandsullyitwithsinfultears? DoIseetearswellingupinyoureyes?Swallowyourtearsandintoneajoyful song:Ihavefreedmyselffromvanity,andneedbutwingstofly.Areyou goingtobehavelikeLot’swife,lookingbackatSodomwhenyou’vealready reachedthepeaceandsafetyofZoar?No,no.IpreferourblessedDoctor Luther:WhatsoeverrisesisforourdearLord,whatsoeverdescendsisfor Beelzebub.

Hasty I’mafraidmymotiveswereofadifferentkind…Repentance… Concernformylivelihood.

Wenceslas That’stakencareofnow.Whocanbebetterfittedforateaching careerthanyou?Nowyouhavethehighestqualificationsofthemall.Haven’t youdestroyedyourrebelliousspirit,subordinatedeverythingtoduty?No longerwillyourprivatelifedeflectyoufromshapinghumanbeingsinyour ownimage.Whatmorecouldyouhavedone?Astoyourfuture,don’tletit worryyou.You’vedoneyourduty.Yourprospectsareofthebrightest.

Hasty I’vewrittenalettertoMajorvonBerg.It’sthereonthetable,beside theknife.Wouldyoureaditandsenditoffifyouapprove?

Wenceslas(reads) “…Andso,bymyowndecision—acruelone,Ican assureyou—Ihaveeliminatedanydangerthatmayhavearisenfrommy manhood…BetweenScyllaandCharybdis,betweennatureandmy profession,Ihavechosenmyprofession,andventuretohopethatyouwill mostmercifullyvouchsafemeatestimonialpermittingmetheexerciseofthat profession.Allthemoreso,mostgraciouslord,asIshallendeavormust dutifully,inallotherrespectsaswell—Irepeat,inallrespects—todoandto teachexactlywhatisdesiredofme,formyowngoodandthatofmyfellow men…Iam,mostgraciousetc.…Yourmosthumbleandobedientservant …Postcript:FurthermoreIpromisealwaystoteachthemartydomofour Hero-Kingwithoutomissions.”

Hasty Isitstillstorming?

Wenceslas No.

Hasty No.

Wenceslas Everything’scoveredwithsnow.

Hasty Safelytuckedaway.

Wenceslas Great-heartedsufferer,anyteachingposition,Iassureyou,any teachingpositioninthedistrictisopentoyou.

ActFive

15

Halle,winter.

Squintinslippers,smokinghispipe.Fritzintravelinghabit.

Squint LetmequotewhatImmanuelKanthastosay:“Matrimony (matrimonium)isacontractbetweentwopersonsprovidingforthelifelong useofeachother’ssexualorgans.”Andhere:“Hence,thoughbasedonthe suppositionofpleasurethroughthemutualuseofthesexualattributes,thatis tosay,thesexualorgans,themarriagecontractisnoarbitrarycontract,but onemadenecessarybythelawsofmankind,thatis,ifmanandwomandesire toderivepleasurefromoneanotherinaccordancewiththeirsexualattributes, theymustofnecessitymarry,andthisnecessityfollowsfromthelaws prescribedbypurereason.”Yousee.

Fritz Ithoughtyou’dgivenupKant.

Squint Onlyinpublic.HowelsecouldIhaveobtainedateachingposition? Andwithoutaposition,howcouldIhavemarriedmyCaroline—youhaven’t metheryet,thedear.Andasyouseerighthere,Ihadto.

Fritz Soyourfavoritephilosopherhasprovedtoyouthatyouhadtogive himup,andyou’vegivenhimupbyfollowinghisprecepts.Whataworld!

Squint Anantinomy,that’sall.Hecouldhaveresolveditinatwinkling.

Fritz Whatwasthesubjectofyourthesis?

Squint Iwasclever,Berg.Ileftphilosophywellalone.“War,Fatherofall Things”—still,Imanagedtoslipinasuitablyobscurephraseimplyingthat thepaternityisnotalwaysdemonstr…

Fritz SpeakingofCaroline,whatbecameofMissSwandown?

Squint Shesanklowerandlower.—Carolineisverydifferent.Shewas madeformarriage.Incidentally,she’stherector’sdaughter.

Fritz Sothetwoofyouliveherebesidethestove,happy.—Doyoueversee Buttress?

Squint IfindthatI’verathercooledtowardhim,Berg.Nowthatwe’reboth schoolmasters.There’ssomegoodinhim,but…Carolinefindshimattractive andI’veforbiddenhertoseehim.Womenhavegottobekeptinhand,Berg …HowwasItaly?

Fritz Divine.It’smadeamanofme.

Squint HalfayearinItaly!—There’safatherafterRousseau’sownheart.

Fritz Idon’tknow,Squint.SendingmetoItalylikethatandgivingmethat curiouspieceofadvice,nottowritetoGussie—Iwastooexcitedaboutthe triptowonderwhy.Downthere,amongthelemonsandolives,Ibeganto worry,butconsoledmyselfwiththethoughtthathewasputtingourloveto thetest.AndtheninPompeiiasuddenfearsentmeflyingback—coveringas muchaseightymilesaday.HereinHallethesameemotionsmademe interruptmyheadlongjourney.ItseemedtomethatperhapsIhadbetternot returntooquicklytomybelovedInsterburg.AndhereIfindthisletter,I’m afraidtoopenit.MyhandshakeseverytimeItrytobreaktheseal.Youbreak it,brother,andreadittome.(Throwshimselfintoaneasychair)

Squint Whoisitfrom?Isityourfather’shand?

Fritz No,it’sfromacertainSoapbubble.Aneighbor.

Squint(reads) “InviewofthefriendshipIhavehadthehonorofenjoying inyourfather’shouse—”(Stops)thefellow’sspellingisinsane!(Readson) “—Ifeelobliged,consideringthathavinglongbeenoutofcommunication withourdelightfulInsterburgyoucanhardlybeawareoftheincident concerningthetutorwhohasbeenputoutofyouresteemeduncle’shouse… (Stops)

Fritz Goon!

Squint “…forravishingyourcousin,wherebyherspiritsweresoshaken thatshejumpedintoapond,whichcalamitythrewyourfamilyintothe utmost…”(Fritzfaints)Berg!What’sthematter?(Pourslavenderwateron him)Berg,Berg,speaktome!—Damnletter,ifonlyIhadn’t…Itmustbea fabrication—Berg!Berg!

Fritz Leavemealone.Itwillpass.

Squint ShallIgetsomeonetobleedyou?

Fritz Faugh!Don’tbesoFrench!Readitagain.

Squint Certainlynot.—It’sadisgusting,maliciousletter,I’ll…(Tearsit up)

Fritz Ravished—drowned—(Strikeshisforehead)Myfault.Allmyfault.

Squint You’reoutofyourmind.—Isityourfaultifsheletsthattutor seduceher?

Fritz Squint,Isworetogobackhomefortheholidays!AndIwenttoItaly. Damnpicturesqueness!Shedespairedofme.Grief.Youknowher melancholybent.Loneliness,disappointedlove.It’sasplainasday:I’ma villain.I’mtoblameforherdeath.(Throwshimselfbackintothechairand covershisface)

Squint Pureimagination!—It’snottrue,itwasn’tlikethatatall.(Stamps hisfoot)’Sblood!Howcanyoubestupidenoughtobelieveallthis,shecan’t havebeenallthatinnocent.Women!Weknowwhattheyare.Theydon’t wantit,buttheydoit.Whentheyitch,theylookforsomeonetoscratchthem.

Fritz Ibegofyou,Squint,sheisnomore.

Squint Berg,lookmeintheeyeandtellmewomenarenotasIsay.

(CarolineSquintcomesin)

Squint Heresheis,mybelovedwife.ThisisBerg,anoldschoolfriend.

Caroline I’veheardaboutyou.You’reacompanion.ofSquint’srebellious youth.

Squint Yes,indeed.Makehimsomecoffee,heneedsit.He’sjusthada terribleletterfromhome.

Caroline Oh,itcan’tbesoterriblethatagoodcupofcoffee…

Fritz Please,don’ttrouble.Imusthurryhome.Myfriends,myplaceisata grave-side.(Leaves)

Squint Sad.—Butit’snoconcernofours.Come,Caroline,comeandwarm yourselfbythestove.

16

Insterburg,Mrs.vonBerg’sparlor.

Mrs.vonBerg,theMajor,Gussie,PrivyCouncillor,Leopold.Ababyina

cradle.

PrivyCouncillor Mydearsister-in-law,mydearbrother,dearGussie,dear Leopold!LetusdrainaglassofgroginhonorofSt.Nicholasandthefirst snowthatdecksthestreetssogloriously.Butfirstitseemsfittingtoaskthe servantsintosharethehotspiritswithusandadmirethelandscapeso beautifullytransformed.

Gussie I’llcallthem.(Leaves)

PrivyCouncillor Ohyes,there’saletterforyoufromHasty,inwhichhe proclaimshiscontritionandswearstochangeforthebetter.Heenclosesa medicalcertificatetotheeffectthathe,withhisownhands,hassocorrected hisGod-givencorpusasneveragaintobeamenacetohisfemalepupils.

Mrs.vonBerg Disgusting!

PrivyCouncillor Iagree,sister-in-law.Andheasksyou,dearBerg,in exchangeforhiscertificatetogivehimareferencethatwillenablehimto pursuehisprofession.

Major(laughs) Heoughttobeallrightnow.

PrivyCouncillor Saywhatyouwill,he’samanofprinciple.

Major Araredisciplinarian!

PrivyCouncillor Atruepedagogue,bythegraceofGod.

Major Heshallhavehisreference.

PrivyCouncillor Thoushaltnotmuzzletheox—ha,ha,ha,theox—when hetreadethoutthecorn.(Theylaughuproariously)

Mrs.vonBerg Disgusting!—

(Maidcomeshurryingin)

Maid Sir!Madame!Theyoungmaster.(Shesobs)

Major Whichyoungmaster?

Maid MasterFritz!

PrivyCouncillor FritzbackfromItaly?

Maid He’sdownstairs.Whatathingtohappen!They’llputitinthegazette. Hecomesininhistravelingclothes.HeseesMissGussie.Staresatherlike she’saghost.Criesout:“Gussie,you’renotdead?MyownGussie,not dead?”She’sinhisarms.“OhFritz,you’vecome?”Andallislove.Butthen:

“Poorme,don’ttouchme,I’myourGussienolonger.”Andhe,youshould

haveheardhisvoice…“Ohyes,youare!”—andshe:“No,youdon’tknow.”

Andhimsoloudtheycouldhearhiminthekitchen:“Iknowallaboutit,and

allIwantis—tobegyourforgiveness.MyGussie!”Oh,heretheycome.

Mrs.vonBerg GussieandFritz?

Major ’Odsbodkins!

(FritzandGussieenter)

Fritz Father!Andmysecondparents!I’llfightformyGussietothelast dropofblood.

Major Youmeanyouwanttomarryher?Inspiteofeverything?

Fritz Inspite?No,notinspite,becauseof.Letmetellyou,Gussie,howa strangeexperienceinHalleopenedmyeyestothegloryandweaknessof yoursex.Ayounglady,tomakealongstoryshort,wasinlove,passionately inlove,withasplendidfellow,conscientious,devotedtophilosophy,though perhapssomewhatunworldly.Nevertheless—perhaps,myfriends,Ishould sayforthatveryreason—shegaveherselftoamanoffarlessconsequence. Butwhileinhisarmssheneverforonemoment—shetoldmesoherself— thoughtofanyonebutthemanshetrulyloved.Yes,dearfather,youmaynot understanditbutIdo,andnowmorethanever;inreality,inspirit,shegave herselftohertruebeloved.Nothing,myfriends,wouldhavehappenedto Gussie,ifoddlyenoughbecauseofmyinvolvementinthisveryaffair,I hadn’tstayedawayduringtheholidays.

PrivyCouncillor Orifacertainyoungscoundrelhadbeengivenahorse.

Gussie Oh,Fritz,that’showitwas,justlikethat.

Fritz Papa,IthoughtshewasaghostwhenIsawheronthestairs.Butshe’s real.

PrivyCouncillor Alwayssticktoreality—isn’tthatwhatI’vealways taughtyou?—unlessitcontradictstheinnerimage.

Major Come!(TakesFritztothesofa)Areyouaphilosopher?

Mrs.vonBerg(referringtothebaby) Doyourecognizethis?

PrivyCouncillor Myson,havingjustifiedthecause,youmustnotshrink backfromtheeffect.Havingclimbedatalltree,willyouclimbdownagainto retrieveyourhatthathasblownaway?Whathaveyoustudiedlogicfor?

Fritz(kissesthebabyandhandsittoGussie) Nowthechildisminetoo.I loveitalready.Ithasyourangelicfeatures.

Gussie Fritz!

PrivyCouncillor You’reright!

Mrs.vonBerg Ohdear!

(Theservantsappear)

Major Don’tgape,youpeople,don’tgossip,don’tjudge.Joinahappy fatherinadrink.Totheyoungcouple!

Leopold Andtothelittleone!

Mrs.vonBerg Leopold!

PrivyCouncillor Andtothefirstsnow!

Mrs.vonBerg Berg,Isuspectyouwouldlikemetocontributesomething inthepopularvein.(Shesingsatthespinetwhileallothersdrink)

Ohsilentwintersnow

Thatcloakstheearthbelow.

Mensitandidlygaze

Uponthesnow-claddays.

Andinthebarnthesilentcows

Harktothesilenceastheydrowse.

17

Villageschoolhouse.

Wenceslas,Hasty,bothdressedinblack.Lisa.

Wenceslas Whatdidyouthinkofmysermon,colleague?Didyoufindit edifying?

Hasty Ohyes.Yesindeed.(Sighs)

Wenceslas(takesoffhiswigandputsonanightcap) Thatwon’tdo.—Tell mewhatpartofityourheartmostfavored.Listentome—sitdown—Ihave somethingtosaytoyou:inchurchjustnowIsawsomethingthattroubledme. Yourgazeasyousattherewassoshiftythat,totellyouthetruth,Ifelt ashamedofyouintheeyesofthecongregation.SeveraltimesInearlylostthe threadofmydiscourse.Isaidtomyself:Isthistheyoungwarriorwhofought sobravelyandtriumphed,asitwere,inthehardestofbattles?—AndImust confess,youmademeangry.Isawthedirectionofyourthoughts,Isawit onlytooclearly.Towardthecenterdoor,downbytheorgan.Didyouforone momenthearwhatIwassaying?Canyourepeatonewordofmysermon?It wasallforyourbenefit,youknow,designedtofityourparticularcase.—Oh, oh,oh!

Hasty Iwasdelightedwithyourideathattherebirthofoursoulscanbe likenedtotheraisingofflaxandhemp,andthatjustashempmustbefreedof itshusksbyvigorousbeating,soourspiritsmustbepreparedforheavenby suffering,hardship,andtheeradicationofallsensuality.

Wenceslas Itwasdesignedtofityourcase,myfriend.

Hasty However,Ican’tdenythatyourlistofthedevilsexpelledfrom heavenandthewholestoryabouttherevoltandaboutLuciferregarding

himselfasthemostbeautifulstrikesmeassheersuperstition—ouragehas

outgrownallthat!

Wenceslas That’swhythisrationalworldofourswillgotothedevil.Take thedevilawayfromthepeasantandhe’llturnagainsthismasterlikeadevil, soprovingthatdevilsexist.Butenoughofthat—whatwasIsaying?Yes.Just tellme,whomwereyoulookingatallthroughmysermon?Don’tdenyit. Youcertainlywerenotlookingatme,oryou’dhavehadtosquint disgracefully.

Hasty Idon’tknowwhatyoumean.

Wenceslas Youwerelookingdowntowardthegirlswhogettheircatechism fromyou.—Mydearfriend,canapinchoftheoldAdamhavelingeredin yourheart?Iaskyou—theverythoughtmakesmyhairstandonend—what willbecomeofyouifyouyieldtotheoldevilpromptingswhenyoulackthe meansofsatisfyingthem?(Embraceshim)Ibegyou,mydearson,bythese tearsthatI’msheddingoutofthemostheartfeltconcernforyou:Don’tgo backtothefleshpotsofEgyptwhenyouhavecomesoclosetoCanaan!How canyoukeepleeringatmywardasifyouweredyingofthirst?Asifshe wouldcontentherselfwithacapon.

(Lisastepsforward)

Lisa Ohyes,deargodfather,I’mperfectlycontentwithhim.

Hasty Woeisme!

Lisa Believeme,deargodfather,Ishallneverlethimgo.

Wenceslas Oh.—Thedevil—Lisa,youdon’tunderstand—Lisa,Ican’ttell youwhy,butyoucan’tmarryhim,it’simpossible.

Lisa Whyisitimpossible,deargodfather?YoualwayssaidImightmarrya clergymansomeday.

Wenceslas Thedeviltakeyou,hecan’t—Godforgivememysins,can’t youtakemywordforit?

Hasty Maybethat’snotwhatshe’saskingfor.—Lisa,Icannotsleepwith you.

Lisa Butyoucanwakewithme.Ifonlywecanbetogetherinthedaytime andsmileateachotherandkisseachother’shandsnowandthen,because,by God,I’mfondofyou.Godknows,I’mfondofyou.

Hasty Yousee,MasterWenceslas!Allshewantsofmeislove.Doesa happymarriagereallyrequirethesatisfactionofanimallusts?

Wenceslas Heavenhelpus.—Befruitfulandmultiply,saystheGoodBook. Wherethereismarriagetheremustbechildren.

Lisa No,deargodfather.IswearthatIwantnochildrenaslongasIlive. You’vegotplentyofducksandchickensformetofeedeveryday:mustI feedchildrentoo?

Hasty(kissesher) MydivineLisa!

Wenceslas(priesthemapart) Ideclare!What’sthis?Beforemyveryeyes? —Allright,goahead,crawlintobed,it’sbettertomarrythantoburn.—But, Mr.Midge,it’salloverbetweenyouandme.ThehighhopesIsetinyouasa paragonwithoutcompare—theexpectationsarousedbyyourheroism— mercifulheavens!Tomeyou’rejustanotherhybrid,neitherfishnorflesh. (Goesout)

Hasty AndIfeelsuretheirlordshipsatInsterburgwillhelpme—inmy presentstate—tofindagoodpositionthatwillenablemetosupportmywife.

Epilogue

Spokenbytheactorwhoplayedthetutor.

That’stheconclusionofourplay

Wehopeit’sbroughtyousomedismay.

You’veseenthesorrystateofmind

TowhichtheGermanswereresigned

Ahundredyearsandeventenyearsago—

Itstillprevailsinmanyparts,youknow.

You’veseenatutoroftheGermanschool

Ledtohiscalvaryofridicule—

Poordevilwhomtheysobrowbeat

Hecan’tdistinguishhandsfromfeet.

Enactingaparablebiggerthanlife

Hefinallyhasrecoursetotheknife

Exterminatinghisvirility

Whichonlybroughthimmisery.

Forwhenhedidasnaturemeant

Thehigher-upswerenotcontent

Andwhenhecrawledasbesthecould

Theycutdownonhislivelihood.

Hissterlingvaluetheyproclaimed

Onlywhenhewascutandmaimed.

Hisbackbonebroken,hewoulddo

Hisdutybybreakinghispupils’too.

TheGermanschoolmaster,ifonereflects

Istheproductandoriginofourdefects.

Pupilsandteachersofthiscentury:

Considerhisservility

Andletitteachyoutobefree.

Coriolanus

WilliamShakespeare

Adaptation

Translator:RalphManheim

Characters

CaiusMarcius,latercalledCoriolanus,aRomangeneral

Volumnia,hismother

Virgilia,hiswife

YoungMarcius,hisson

MeneniusAgrippa,hisfriend

Cominius,TitusLartius,generalsagainsttheVolscians

SiciniusVelutus,JuniusBrutus,tribunesofthepeople

Valeria,friendofVirgilia

Virgilia’sServant

TheManwiththeChild

TullusAufidius,generaloftheVolscians

OneofAufidius’Captains

RomansandVolscians:(Senators,Consuls,Aediles,Patricians,Citizens —Plebeians—Officers, Soldiers, A Herald, Attendants, Servants, Messengers)

ActOne

1

Rome.Apublicsquare.

Enter a group of rebellious Citizens to whom clubs, knives, and other weaponsaredistributed;amongthemamanwithachild;themaniscarrying alargebundle.

FirstCitizen Beforewegoanyfurther,letmespeak.

Citizens Speak,butbebrief.

FirstCitizen Areallofyouresolvedtodieratherthanstarve?

Citizens Resolved.Resolved.

FirstCitizen Areyoupreparedtostandfastuntilthesenateagreesthatit’s uscitizenswhodecidethepriceofbread?

Citizens Yes.Yes.

FirstCitizen Andthepriceofolives?

Citizens Yes.

FirstCitizen CaiusMarciuswillmeetuswithforceofarms.Willyourun awayorwillyoufight?

Citizens We’llknockhimdead.—He’sthepeople’smainenemy.Noneed toaskusthat.

FirstCitizen Becauseifyou’renotpreparedtoseethisthingthrough,you cancountmeout.Whyhaveyoubroughtthatsack?Andthechild?

TheManwiththeChild Iwanttoseehowfaryouget.Ifyoufail,I’m goingtoleaveRomewiththosepeoplefromthethirddistrict.

FirstCitizen Regardlessofthefactthattheplainwherethey’regoingto settleisasaridasstone?

TheManwiththeChild Regardless.We’llhavewater,freshairanda grave.WhatmoreisthereforusplebeiansinRome?Atleastwewon’thave tofightrichmen’swars.(Tothechild)Willyoubegood,Tertius,ifthere’sno goat’smilkforyou?(Thechildnods)

FirstCitizen Yousee,that’sthekindofpeoplewe’vegot.HefearsCaius MarciusmorethanthewildsoftheAllegiMountains.Aren’tyouaRoman citizen?

TheManwiththeChild Yes,butapoorone.Theycallusplebeiansthe poorcitizens,buttheycallthepatriciansthegoodones.Theunnecessaryfood thegoodcitizensstuffintotheirbelliescouldsaveusfromstarvation.Evenif theygaveustheirleftovers,we’dbesaved.Buttheydon’teventhinkthat muchofus.Theirfoodtastesbetterwhentheyseeusstarving.(Tothechild) Tertius,tellhimyoudon’twanttobeacitizenofsuchacity.

(Thechildshakeshisbead)

FirstCitizen Thenmakeoffquickly,youcowardlydog,butleavethechild here;we’llfightandmakeabetterRomeforTertius.

Citizens What’sthatshouting?—Thesixthdistricthasrisen.—Andwehang

aroundhere,squabblingamongourselves.TotheCapitol!Who’sthis?

(EnterMeneniusAgrippa)

FirstCitizen It’sMeneniusAgrippa,thesenatorandsilver-tonguedorator.

Citizens Nottheworstofthem.—Hehasaweaknessforthepeople.

Menenius

Mydearfellowcitizens,what’sthis?WhereareyougoingWithbatsand

clubs?What’swrong,Iprayyou?

FirstCitizen Ourbusinessisnotunknowntothesenate.They’vebeen hearingrumorsofitforafortnight.YourCaiusMarciussaysoursmelltakes hisbreathaway.Hesayspoorpleadershavestrongbreaths;he’llseethatwe havestrongfiststoo.

Menenius

Citizens,mygoodfriendsandhonestneighbors

Areyoudeterminedtodestroyyourselves?

FirstCitizen Wecan’tdothat,sir.We’redestroyedalready.

Menenius

Itellyou,friends,thesenatehasforyou

Mostcharitablecare.Foryourgrievances—

Therisingcostoffood—youmayaswell

Strikeattheheavenswithyourstavesasliftthem

Againstthesenate;yousee,thesoaringprices

Comefromthegodsandnotfromman.Alas

Yourmiseryisdrivingyoutogreater

Misery.Youremindmeofababethat

Bitesattheemptybreastofitsunhappy

Mother.Youcursethesenateasanenemy

Andyetitcaresforyou.

FirstCitizen Caresforus!Alikelystory!They’venevercaredforus. Leaveustostarvewhentheirstorehousesarecrammedfullofgrain.Issue decreesagainstusurythatbenefitnoonebuttheusurers!Everydaythey repealanothergoodlawagainsttherichandeverydaytheygrindoutanother cruelregulationtochainthepoor.Ifthewarsdon’teatusup,theywill.That’s allthelovetheybearus.

Menenius

Eitheryoumust

Confessyourselveswondrousmalicious

Orbeaccusedoffolly.Ishalltellyou

Aprettytale.Itmaybeyouhaveheardit

Butit’sappropriate.Well,willyoulisten?

FirstCitizen It’shardlyatimeforstories.ButIformyparthavelong wishedtolearnhowtomakeaprettyspeech.Andthatcanbelearnedfrom you,Agrippa.Fireaway!

Menenius

Therewasatimewhenallthebody’smembers

Rebelledagainstthebelly,thusaccusedit:

Thatonlylikeagulfitdidremain

Inthemidstofthebody,idleandinactive

Yetstoringupthevictuals,neverbearing

Equallaborwiththerest,whereastheotherorgans

Didseeandhear,devise,instruct,walk,feel

And,mutuallyparticipating,minister

Untotheappetiteandaffectioncommon

Tothewholebody.Thebellyanswered…

FirstCitizen

Well,sir,whatwasthebelly’sanswer?

Menenius

Sir,Ishalltellyou.Withakindofsmile

Thatcamenotfromtheheart,adismalsmile—

Foryousee,Icanmakethebellysmile

Aswellasspeak—ittauntinglyreplied

Tothediscontentedmembers,themutinousparts

Thatenvieditsreceipts…

FirstCitizen

Thelazybelly,sinkandcesspitof

Thebody?Whatdidhesay?

Menenius

What?No—how!

Thatisthecruxofthematter.

FirstCitizen

No,telluswhatyourgluttonousbellysaid.

Whatcouldhesay?

Menenius

Whatdidhesay?

Yousoonshallhear.

FirstCitizen

Withyou“soon”means“tomorrow.”

Menenius

Yourmostgravebellywasdeliberate

Notrashlikehisaccusers,andthusanswered:

“Itistrue,myincorporatefriends,”hesaid

“ThatIamthefirsttoreceivethegeneralfood

Youliveupon,andthisisnecessary

BecauseIamthestorehouseandtheshop

Ofthewholebody.Butifyouwillremember

Isenditthroughtheriversofyourblood

Andthroughthecorridorsandpantriesofthebody.

Thestrongestsinewsandthefinestveins

Frommereceivetheirpropersustenance.

Andthough,myfriends,youmaynotallatonce”—

Thisisthebellyspeaking,mindyou…

FirstCitizen

Stop,sir.

Menenius

“Thoughyoumaynotseeallatonce

WhatIdeliverouttoeachofyou

Still,myaccountbooksshowthatI

Distributetoyouallthefinestflour

Retainingonlythebran.”Wellthen,whatdo

Yousaytothat?

(Enter,unnoticedexceptbyMenenius,CaiusMarciusescortedbyarmed

men)

FirstCitizen

Ananswerofsorts.Butnowthemoral?

Menenius

ThesenatorsofRomearethisgoodbelly.

Youarethemutinousmembers.Think!

That’sallyouhavetodo.Think,think,think,think!

Thenyouwillfathomhowtheworthyfathers

Intentuponthecommonweal,distribute

Thepublicbountytoeachcitizen.

Whateveryoureceiveisgivenyou

Bythemalone.Well,whatdoyouthinknow?

You,thegreattoeofthisassembly?

FirstCitizen

Ithegreattoe?Whythegreattoe?

Menenius

Becauseyou,thelowest,basest,poorest

Ofallthisrabble,takethelead.

Youscoundrel,youinfectiousrottenapple,you

Self-seekingbandit—verywell,swingyourclubs!

Romewillmakewaruponitsrats.Onceand

Forallitwill…Hail,nobleMarcius!

Marcius

Thanks.What’sthematter?Gottheitchagain?

Scratchingyouroldscabs?

FirstCitizen

Alwaysexpectagraciousword.

Marcius

Fromyouwecan

Youcurs

Thatlikenorpeacenorwar.Warfrightensyou

Peacemakesyouinsolent.Anyonewhotrustsyou

Findshareswhenhewantslions,geesewhenhelooks

Forfoxes.Youhatethegreatbecausetheyaregreat.

Todependuponyouistoswimwithfins

Ofleadandhewdownoakswithrushes.Hanging’s

Theonlyhope!You’vegottheappetite

Ofasickmanwhodevourswhatmakeshimsicker.

Youcursethesenatewhowiththehelpofthegods

Maintainsomelittleorder.Iftheydidn’t

You’dfeeduponeachother.

Menenius

They’redemanding

Therighttosetthepriceofgrain.Theysay

Thegranariesareoverflowing.

Marcius

Theysay!Hang’em!

Theysitbythefireandpresumetoknow

What’shappeningontheCapitol,whatthereis

Andwhatthereisn’t.Wastegrainonthem!

Ifonlythesenatedroppeditsmoderation

ForwhichIhaveaverydifferentname—

Theysaythere’sgrain!—they’dgettheiranswer

Frommysword.AndwithmylanceI’dmeasure

Notgrainbuttheircorpsesbythebushel

InthestreetsofRome.

Menenius

Letbe.I’vewonthesefellowsover,stoppedthem

Withafairytale.Thoughtobesure,itwasnot

Theswordofmyvoicebutratherthevoiceofyoursword

Thattoppledthem.Butwhatoftheothertroop?

Marcius

Dissolved.Ibrokeitup.Hang’em!Damnation!

Theyshoutedtheywerehungry,bellowedslogans

Thathungerbreaksstonewalls,thatdogsmusteat

Thatbreadismadeformouths,thatthegodsdon’tsend

Fruitfortherichalone.Andmoresuchnonsense.

AndwhenIfelluponthem,whileretreating

Theyshouted:“Thenwe’llemigrate.”AndI

Wishedthemapleasantjourney.

(AMessengerenters)

Messenger Where’sCaiusMarcius?

Marcius

Here.What’sthematter?

(TheMessengerwhispersinhisear)

Marcius

Menenius,intheforum

They’retossinguptheircapsintotheair

Asiftheywishedtohangthemonthemoon:

Thesenatehasallowedthemtheirdemand.

Menenius

Allowedthemwhat?

Marcius

 

Twotribunes

Torepresentthewisdomoftherabble.

TheoneisJuniusBrutus,thenSicinius

Andheavenknowswhoelse.I’dsooner

Haveseentherabbletearthecity’sroofsoff

Thangrantedthat.They’llbe

Moreinsolentthanever.Soonthey’llthreaten

Revoltforeverypoundofolives.

Menenius

 

Itisstrange.

(ACitizencomesrunning)

SecondCitizen LongliveJuniusBrutus!Thesenatehasgrantedallour demands!Twotribunesappointed!Withtherighttoattendallsessionsand vetodecisions!

Citizens

HurrahforJuniusBrutus!

SecondCitizen

Marcius

Gohome,youfragments!

Menenius

Marcius

AndSiciniusVelutus!

Theworthyfathers!

Andthenewlybaked

Tribunesarecomingtoo.Withfaces

Suchasyou’dcutdownfromthegallows!

(EnterCominius,TitusLartiusandotherSenators,Brutus,andSicinius)

Citizens

LongliveSicinius!—AndJuniusBrutus!

Marcius

Mostworthyfathers,I’vehearduglynews

AndIseeanuglysight…

FirstSenator

TheVolsciansareinarms,encouragedby

Reportsofshortageandrebellionhere.

Cominius

NobleMarcius

War!