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Advanced Thermodynamics – Tutorial

Problem sheet 1 (Week 2)

*** Pay attention to unit conversions between volume-, mass-, and molar-based values.
*** Consider no dissociations in the adiabatic flame temperature problems.

1. Sketch the molecular structures of the following compounds: a) normal decane b)


3,4-diethyl-2-hexene; c) methyl cyclohexane d) 1,3,5-trimethyl benzene e) 2-butanol
f) dimethyl ether

2. What are the stoichiometric air-fuel ratios a) by mass and b) by volume for the
following fuels:
formula
propane CH
3 8
n-heptane CH
7 16
Iso-octane C H
8 18
methanol CH OH
3
Ethanol C H OH
2 5

Answers: (15.6, 23.8), (15.1, 52.4), (15.1, 59.5), (6.43, 7.14), (8.95, 14.3)

3. A gas turbine runs on octane fuel at an air-fuel ratio of 40:1 by mass. What is the
volumetric composition of the engine’s exhaust gas?

Answers: 4.9% CO , 5.5% H O, 12.7% O , 76.8% N


2 2 2 2

4. A car with a full tank of gasoline can travel 300 km. Replace gasoline with ethanol-
containing fuels and assume the same engine efficiency, how far the car can travel
with a full tank of E10 and E85? E10 is a mixture of 10% ethanol and 90% gasoline
by volume, and E85 is 85% ethanol and 15% gasoline by volume.
LHV (MJ/kg) Density (kg/L)
Gasoline 44 0.75
Ethanol 29 0.79

Answer: 291 km for E10, 222 km for E85

5. Calculate the heat of reaction per kg of stoichiometric reactant mixture for mixtures
of air and the following fuels at 25°C and 1 atm.
( h f0,CO2  393kJ / mol , hf0,H 2O  242kJ / mol ).

Formula h f0 (kJ / mol)


Propane CH -103.5
3 8
Benzene CH +88.5
6 6
carbon monoxide CO -110.2
1
Advanced Thermodynamics – Tutorial

Answers: -2.8 MJ/kg, -2.87 MJ/kg, -2.92 MJ/kg

6. Calculate the heat of reaction of propane and oxygen giving only carbon monoxide
and water (vapor) as products at 25ºC.

Formula h f0 (kJ / mol) cp (J/g/K)


Propane CH -103.5 0.500
3 8
Water (vapor) HO -242.0 0.365
2
Carbon monoxide CO -110.2 0.323
Oxygen gas O 0 0.310
2

Answer: -1195 kJ/mol

7. The reactants in question 6 enter a constant pressure reactor at 315ºC and the
products leave at 537ºC. What is the heat produced from this process?

Answer: -1183 kJ/mol

8. Methane burns in air by the following chemical reaction:


CH4  2(O2  3.76N2 )  CO2  2H2O  7.52N2
This reaction can be idealized as a constant pressure or a constant volume process.
Calculate the maximum temperatures of combustion for these two cases. Assume that
the specific heats are constant for the temperature range of interest (use the value at
1500 K). Also assume that methane reacts with a stoichiometric amount of air and that
the methane and air are initially at 500ºC and 10 atm. The heat of combustion at 25°C
for one kg of methane burned (lower heat value) is -50,010 kJ. (Note that no enthalpy of
formation is given for the reactants and products in this problem.)

Formula cp (J/g/K)
methane CH4 3.075 at 298-773 K
Oxygen O2 0.983 at 298-773 K
Nitrogen N2 1.078 at 298-773 K
water (vapor) HO 2.617 at 1500 K
2
nitrogen N 1.245 at 1500 K
2
carbon dioxide CO 1.327 at 1500 K
2

Answers: 2343ºC constant pressure, 2836ºC constant volume.