Vous êtes sur la page 1sur 137

Identification of the

Research Problem/Topic
• Originates with a question.
• An inquisitive mind is the beginning of research.

•You notice something – wonder why it happens

•You see something – wonder what causes it
•You want to know how or why something works

–Principal question is divided to other questions.

Identification of the
Research Problem/Topic
• Most critical decision that has to be made.
• Choosing the topic determines the area on which the research will
be focused.
• Challenge is in the choice of the system to be used in the
• For science laboratory class – choices is limited by the concepts
that has to be learned.
• For student projects, research problems could –
Arise from curiosity; based on necessity; be of practical
importance; be of theoretical value; be an exploratory study; or
application of a known concept towards a new development.
Identification of the
Research Problem/Topic
• Research problem has to be clearly defined in order to ensure an efficient and
fruitful investigations.
• A well delineated set of objectives is a valuable guide in the design and
planning of experiments.
Identification of the
Research Problem/Topic

• A clearly defined research problem manifests its implications.

• Problem can be broken into smaller units, known as sub-problems.
• Sub-problems could be expressed in the forms of hypotheses, using
known concepts and principles.
Identification of the
Research Problem/Topic

• Interest of the researcher is also a determinant.

• Other factors to be considered:
• Amount of available time – size of topic has to be
commensurate with the time period for investigation.
• Available financial resources.
• Availability of facilities required
• Available expertise
Planning Stage of
a Research Process
• Background Research: Review of Literature or Literature Survey
• Research Design or Methodology
Background Research
Find out about what you want to investigate.
Keep track of where you got your information.
Ask the “Why” or “What if”
Look for unexplained or unexpected results.
Talk to professionals/experts in the field.
Literature Survey
Reading materials related to the research topics enriched background and broaden the
perspective of the research.

Thorough review of published work

Yield information on what investigations have been previously conducted and eliminate
“reinventing the wheel”.

Reveals gaps in the existing knowledge.

Allows an analysis of the problem and an evaluation of the validity of the study to be done.
Literature Survey

Provides basis for research design.

Appropriate methodology can be guided

by previous related works.

Choice of materials can be wisely based on

the experiences of previous investigators.
Sources of Literature

 Library
 Web Pages
Primary Sources
Original and unedited information.

 Present up-to-date and detailed information on work in
specialized areas of interest
 Whether conventional or electronic form, recognized as reliable
sources of recent information.

Other Sources
 Interview, e-mail contact, discussion, debate, community
meeting, survey, observation of object (animate and inanimate).
Secondary Sources
Edited primary sources, second-hand versions.

• Reference materials
• Books
• Encyclopedia
• Magazine
• Newspapers
• Video Tape
• Audio Tape
• TV
Literature Survey
 New ideas/approaches for practice.

 Identify relevant studies/investigators.

 Suggest methods.

 Identify other sources of information.

Place your own study and practice in perspective.

 Evaluate various studies by comparison.

Formulating the hypothesis
- is a tentative answer to the research
Stated in 3 ways:
1. null form
2. alternative form
3. cause and effect statement
Null hypothesis
•A hypothesis in null form states that there is no
significant difference between the results of two
conditions being tested.
•Example: There is no significant difference
between the effects of plant extract and the
commercial antibacterial on inhibiting the
growth of S. aureus.
Alternative hypothesis
•A hypothesis in alternative form states
that there is a significant difference
between the results of the two conditions
•Example: There is a significant difference
between the effects of plant extract and
the commercial antibacterial on the zone
of inhibition of S. aureus.
Cause and Effect
A cause and effect statements states that if a certain
condition (cause) is true, then a supporting
observation (effect) occurs.
If there is a difference between the effects of plant
extract and the commercial antibacterial, then the
growth of the S. aureus will differ significantly in
terms of zone of inhibition.
1.Overview on Research
2.Field of Interest
3.Research Problem and sub-problems
Research Plan
Designing Experiments
 Experimental unit/ plot
 Collection of plot – block
 Treatments (set-ups)
 Experimental errors
 Systematic errors

to increase the accuracy of the experiment and to
provide a valid test of significance
 Randomization
 every experimental unit will have the same chance of receiving
any treatment
 To eliminate systematic errors
 Replication
 number of distinct experimental units under the same
 Local control
 control of all factors except the ones about which we are
 Properties that are studied
 Conditions that are manipulated or varied
 Signify a property whose changes can be
The two main variables in an experiment are For example, a scientist wants to see if
the independent and dependent variable. the brightness of light has any effect
on a moth being attracted to the light.
An independent variable is the variable that is The brightness of the light is
changed or controlled in a scientific controlled by the scientist. This would
experiment to test the effects on the be the independent variable. How the
dependent variable. moth reacts to the different light
levels (distance to light source) would
A dependent variable is the variable being be the dependent variable.
tested and measured in a scientific
experiment. When results are plotted in graphs,
the convention is to use the
The dependent variable is 'dependent' on the independent variable as the x-axis and
independent variable. As the experimenter the dependent variable as the y-axis.
changes the independent variable, the effect
on the dependent variable is observed and
 Extraneous/ controlled variables
 Constant in all experimental runs
 Must be controlled to ensure that these will not contribute any
change in the observed response
Independent Variables
 Leaf extract
 Bark extract
 Fruit extract
Dependent Variable
 Inhibition of the growth of fungi
Extraneous Variables
 Nutrient media
 Temperature
 Amount of extract
 Complete sequence of steps to be followed
for data gathering
 Provides structure to the research
 answers the problems posed
 Completely Randomized Design (CRD)
 treatments are assigned completely at random so that each
experimental unit has the same chance of receiving any one
 homogeneous experimental units
 One-way of analysis of variance
 Randomized Complete Block Design (RCBD)
 Subjects are divided into homogenous groups then assigned to
 Two- way analysis of variance
The procedure is a set of very specific instruction about how you are
going to conduct your experiment
 Make an outline
 Setting up of the experiment
 Do a pre-trial
 Revise the procedure if necessary
 Do the experiment
 Recording Data
 Writing the Methodology
 All processes done during actual experimentation
 All materials & amounts used in the study
 Description of experimental & control set-ups
 Kind of data gathered
 Number of trials & replicates done
 Description of the samples & reference population
how long your experiment will take?

"sample size”

list all of your variables

write down the procedure step by step (exact materials you need, how you'll
measure your dependent variable, and a chart, journal or other method of
recording results and observations.
“Effects of classical music on the
growth and flowering of orchid
 General Problem:
What are the effects of classical music
on the growth and flowering of orchid
 Specific Problem:
1. What is the effect of classical music on the
growth of orchid plants as to:
a. size of leaves
b. length of plant
c. number of stems
2. What is the effect of classical music on the
flowering of orchid plants as to:
a. color intensity of petals
b. number of petals
c. size of petals
 Classical music has no effect on the growth
and flowering of orchid plants.
 There is a direct relationship between
classical music and the growth and flowering
of orchid plants.
What are the effects of classical music on the
growth and flowering of orchid plants?
1. To identify & collect orchid plants.
2. To determine classical music to be used.
3. To expose orchid plants to classical music.
4. Measurement of the size of leaves, length of
plants & number of stems as growth indicators.
5. Measurement of color intensity of petals,
number of petals & size of petals as flower
Orchid plants Selection of classical
identification & collection music

Exposure of orchid plants to classical music

Measurement of the effects of classical music on orchid plants

Growth indicators Flower indicators

size of leaves, length of plants & color intensity of petals, number of petals &
number of stems size of petals
1. Make a Gantt Chart
2. Prepare a budget plan and stick to it.
3. Do your experiments meticulously. (Control VS Experimental)
4. Be HONEST. Record your experiments in detail. Logbooks
5. Make several trials and replicates.
6. Analyze data. Do statistical analysis if applicable.
7. Write down your research studies. Publish.
8. Take note of other problems that arise. Write it in your
10. Present your studies. Apply.
Thank you!!!
“Be not afraid of growing slowly, be afraid of
standing still.”
 Workshop: Designing Experiments