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FOREWORD

1. STRUCTURE
This service manual has been prepared as an aid to improve the quality of repairs by giving the
serviceman an accurate understanding of the product and by showing him the correct way to
perform repairs and make judgements. Make sure you understand the contents of this manual and
use it to full effect at every opportunity.
This service manual mainly contains the necessary technical information for operations performed in
a service workshop.
For ease of understanding, the manual is divided into the following sections.

Structure and function


This group explains the structure and function of each component. It serves not only to give an
understanding of the structure, but also serves as reference material for troubleshooting.
Operational checks and troubleshooting
This group explains the system operational checks and troubleshooting charts correlating problem to
remedy.
Tests and adjustments
This group explains checks to be amide before and after performing repairs, as well as adjustments
to be made at completion of the checks and repairs.
Disassembly and assembly
This group explains the order to be followed when removing, installing, disassembling or assembling
each component, as well as precautions to be taken for these operations.

The specifications contained in this shop manual are subject to change at any time and without any
advance notice. Contact your Hyundai distributor for the latest information.

0-1
2. HOW TO READ THE SERVICE MANUAL
Distribution and updating Revised edition mark (①②③…)
Any additions, amendments or other changes When a manual is revised, an edition mark is
will be sent to HYUNDAI distributors. recorded on the bottom outside corner of the
Get the most up-to-date information before you pages.
start any work.
Revisions
Filing method Revised pages are shown at the list of revised
1. See the page number on the bottom of the pages on the between the contents page and
page. section 1 page.
File the pages in correct order.
2. Following examples shows how to read the Symbols
page number. So that the shop manual can be of ample
Example 1 practical use, important places for safety and
3-3 quality are marked with the following symbols.
Section number (3. Power train
system)
Consecutive page number for Symbol Item Remarks
each section.
Special safety precautions are
3. Additional pages : Additional pages are necessary when performing the
indicated by a hyphen(-) and number after the work.
Safety
page number. File as in the example. Extra special safety precautions
10 - 4 are necessary when performing
10 - 4 - 1 the work because it is under
Added pages internal pressure.
10 - 4 - 2
10 - 5 Special technical precautions or

※ Caution
other precautions for preserving
standards are necessary when
performing the work.

0-2
3. CONVERSION TABLE
Method of using the Conversion Table
The Conversion Table in this section is provided to enable simple conversion of figures. For details of
the method of using the Conversion Table, see the example given below.

Example
1. Method of using the Conversion Table to convert from millimeters to inches
Convert 55 mm into inches.
(1) Locate the number 50 in the vertical column at the left side, take this as ⓐ, then draw a horizontal
line from ⓐ.
(2) Locate the number 5in the row across the top, take this as ⓑ, then draw a perpendicular line
down from ⓑ.
(3) Take the point where the two lines cross as ⓒ. This point ⓒ gives the value when converting
from millimeters to inches. Therefore, 55 mm = 2.165 inches.

2. Convert 550 mm into inches.


(1) The number 550 does not appear in the table, so divide by 10 (move the decimal point one place
to the left) to convert it to 55 mm.
(2) Carry out the same procedure as above to convert 55 mm to 2.165 inches.
(3) The original value (550 mm) was divided by 10, so multiply 2.165 inches by 10 (move the decimal
point one place to the right) to return to the original value.
This gives 550 mm = 21.65 inches.

Millimeters to inches ⓑ
1mm = 0.03937 in

0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9

0 0.039 0.079 0.118 0.157 0.197 0.236 0.276 0.315 0.354


10 0.394 0.433 0.472 0.512 0.551 0.591 0.630 0.669 0.709 0.748
20 0.787 0.827 0.866 0.906 0.945 0.984 1.024 1.063 1.102 1.142
30 1.181 1.220 1.260 1.299 1.339 1.378 1.417 1.457 1.496 1.536
40 1.575 1.614 1.654 1.693 1.732 1.772 1.811 1.850 1.890 1.929

50 1.969 2.008 2.047 2.087 2.126 2.165 2.205 2.244 2.283 2.323

60 2.362 2.402 2.441 2.480 2.520 2.559 2.598 2.638 2.677 2.717
70 2.756 2.795 2.835 2.874 2.913 2.953 2.992 3.032 3.071 3.110
80 3.150 3.189 3.228 3.268 3.307 3.346 3.386 3.425 3.465 3.504
90 3.543 3.583 3.622 3.661 3.701 3.740 3.780 3.819 3.858 3.898

0-3
Millimeters to inches 1mm = 0.03937in

0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9

0 0.039 0.079 0.118 0.157 0.197 0.236 0.276 0.315 0.354


10 0.394 0.433 0.472 0.512 0.551 0.591 0.630 0.669 0.709 0.748
20 0.787 0.827 0.866 0.906 0.945 0.984 1.024 1.063 1.102 1.142
30 1.181 1.220 1.260 1.299 1.339 1.378 1.417 1.457 1.496 1.536
40 1.575 1.614 1.654 1.693 1.732 1.772 1.811 1.850 1.890 1.929

50 1.969 2.008 2.047 2.087 2.126 2.165 2.205 2.244 2.283 2.323
60 2.362 2.402 2.441 2.480 2.520 2.559 2.598 2.638 2.677 2.717
70 2.756 2.795 2.835 2.874 2.913 2.953 2.992 3.032 3.071 3.110
80 3.150 3.189 3.228 3.268 3.307 3.346 3.386 3.425 3.465 3.504
90 3.543 3.583 3.622 3.661 3.701 3.740 3.780 3.819 3.858 3.898

Kilogram to Pound 1kg = 2.2046lb

0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9

0 2.20 4.41 6.61 8.82 11.02 13.23 15.43 17.64 19.84


10 22.05 24.25 26.46 28.66 30.86 33.07 35.27 37.48 39.68 41.89
20 44.09 46.30 48.50 50.71 51.91 55.12 57.32 59.5. 61.73 63.93
30 66.14 68.34 70.55 72.75 74.96 77.16 79.37 81.57 83.78 85.98
40 88.18 90.39 92.59 94.80 97.00 99.21 101.41 103.62 105.82 108.03

50 110.23 112.44 114.64 116.85 119.05 121.25 123.46 125.66 127.87 130.07
60 132.28 134.48 136.69 138.89 141.10 143.30 145.51 147.71 149.91 152.12
70 154.32 156.53 158.73 160.94 163.14 165.35 167.55 169.76 171.96 174.17
80 176.37 178.57 180.78 182.98 185.19 187.39 189.60 191.80 194.01 196.21
90 198.42 200.62 202.83 205.03 207.24 209.44 211.64 213.85 216.05 218.26

0-4
Liter to U.S. Gallon 1ℓ = 0.2642 U.S.Gal

0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9

0 0.264 0.528 0.793 1.057 1.321 1.585 1.849 2.113 2.378


10 2.642 2.906 3.170 3.434 3.698 3.963 4.227 4.491 4.755 5.019
20 5.283 5.548 5.812 6.6076 6.340 6.604 6.869 7.133 7.397 7.661
30 7.925 8.189 8.454 8.718 8.982 9.246 9.510 9.774 10.039 10.303
40 10.567 10.831 11.095 11.359 11.624 11.888 12.152 12.416 12.680 12.944

50 13.209 13.473 13.737 14.001 14.265 14.529 14.795 15.058 15.322 15.586
60 15.850 16.115 16.379 16.643 16.907 17.171 17.435 17.700 17.964 18.228
70 18.492 18.756 19.020 19.285 19.549 19.813 20.077 20.341 20.605 20.870
80 21.134 21.398 21.662 21.926 22.190 22.455 22.719 22.983 23.247 23.511
90 23.775 24.040 24.304 24.568 24.832 25.096 25.631 25.625 25.889 26.153

Liter to U.K. Gallon 1ℓ = 0.21997 U.K.Gal

0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9

0 0.220 0.440 0.660 0.880 1.100 1.320 1.540 1.760 1.980


10 2.200 2.420 2.640 2.860 3.080 3.300 3.520 3.740 3.950 4.179
20 4.399 4.619 4.839 5.059 5.279 5.499 5.719 5.939 6.159 6.379
30 6.599 6.819 7.039 7.259 7.479 7.969 7.919 8.139 8.359 8.579
40 8.799 9.019 9.239 9.459 9.679 9.899 10.119 10.339 10.559 10.778

50 10.998 11.281 11.438 11.658 11.878 12.098 12.318 12.528 12.758 12.978
60 13.198 13.418 13.638 13.858 14.078 14.298 14.518 14.738 14.958 15.178
70 15.398 15.618 15.838 16.058 16.278 16.498 16.718 16.938 17.158 17.378
80 17.598 17.818 18.037 18.257 18.477 18.697 18.917 19.137 19.357 19.577
90 19.797 20.017 20.237 20.457 20.677 20.897 21.117 21.337 21.557 21.777

0-5
kgf·m to lbf
kgf lbf·ftft 1kgf·m = 7.233lbf·ft

0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9

7.2 14.5 21.7 28.9 36.2 43.4 50.6 57.9 65.1


10 72.3 79.6 86.8 94.0 101.3 108.5 115.7 123.0 130.2 137.4
20 144.7 151.9 159.1 166.4 173.6 180.8 188.1 195.3 202.5 209.8
30 217.0 224.2 231.5 238.7 245.9 253.2 260.4 267.6 274.9 282.1
40 289.3 396.6 303.8 311.0 318.3 325.5 332.7 340.0 347.2 354.4

50 361.7 368.9 376.1 383.4 390.6 397.8 405.1 412.3 419.5 426.8
60 434.0 441.2 448.5 455.7 462.9 470.2 477.4 484.6 491.8 499.1
70 506.3 513.5 520.8 528.0 535.2 542.5 549.7 556.9 564.2 571.4
80 578.6 585.9 593.1 600.3 607.6 614.8 622.0 629.3 636.5 643.7
90 651.0 658.2 665.4 672.7 679.9 687.1 694.4 701.6 708.8 716.1

100 723.3 730.5 737.8 745.0 752.2 759.5 766.7 773.9 781.2 788.4
110 795.6 802.9 810.1 817.3 824.6 831.8 839.0 846.3 853.5 860.7
120 868.0 875.2 882.4 889.7 896.9 904.1 911.4 918.6 925.8 933.1
130 940.3 947.5 954.8 962.0 969.2 976.5 983.7 990.9 998.2 10005.4
140 1012.6 1019.9 1027.1 1034.3 1041.5 1048.8 1056.0 1063.2 1070.5 1077.7

150 1084.9 1092.2 1099.4 1106.6 1113.9 1121.1 1128.3 1135.6 1142.8 1150.0
160 1157.3 1164.5 1171.7 1179.0 1186.2 1193.4 1200.7 1207.9 1215.1 1222.4
170 1129.6 1236.8 1244.1 1251.3 1258.5 1265.8 1273.0 1280.1 1287.5 1294.7
180 1301.9 1309.2 1316.4 1323.6 1330.9 1338.1 1345.3 1352.6 1359.8 1367.0
190 1374.3 1381.5 1388.7 1396.0 1403.2 1410.4 1417.7 1424.9 1432.1 1439.4

0-6
kgf/cm2 to lbf/in2 1kgf / cm2 = 14.2233lbf / in2

0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9

14.2 28.4 42.7 56.9 71.1 85.3 99.6 113.8 128.0


10 142.2 156.5 170.7 184.9 199.1 213.4 227.6 241.8 256.0 270.2
20 284.5 298.7 312.9 327.1 341.4 355.6 369.8 384.0 398.3 412.5
30 426.7 440.9 455.1 469.4 483.6 497.8 512.0 526.3 540.5 554.7
40 568.9 583.2 597.4 611.6 625.8 640.1 654.3 668.5 682.7 696.9

50 711.2 725.4 739.6 753.8 768.1 782.3 796.5 810.7 825.0 839.2
60 853.4 867.6 881.8 896.1 910.3 924.5 938.7 953.0 967.2 981.4
70 995.6 1010 1024 1038 1053 1067 1081 1095 1109 1124
80 1138 1152 1166 1181 1195 1209 1223 1237 1252 1266
90 1280 1294 1309 1323 1337 1351 1365 1380 1394 1408

100 1422 1437 1451 1465 1479 1493 1508 1522 1536 1550
110 1565 1579 1593 1607 1621 1636 1650 1664 1678 1693
120 1707 1721 1735 1749 1764 1778 1792 1806 1821 1835
130 1849 2863 1877 1892 1906 1920 1934 1949 1963 1977
140 1991 2005 2020 2034 2048 2062 2077 2091 2105 2119

150 2134 2148 2162 2176 2190 2205 2219 2233 2247 2262
160 2276 2290 2304 2318 2333 2347 2361 2375 2389 2404
170 2418 2432 2446 2460 2475 2489 2503 2518 2532 2546
180 2560 2574 2589 5603 2617 2631 2646 2660 2674 2688

200 2845 2859 2873 2887 2901 2916 2930 2944 2958 2973
210 2987 3001 3015 3030 3044 3058 3072 3086 3101 3115
220 3129 3143 3158 3172 3186 3200 3214 3229 3243 3257
230 3271 3286 3300 3314 3328 3343 3357 3371 3385 3399
240 3414 3428 3442 3456 3470 3485 3499 3513 3527 3542

0-7
TEMPERATURE
Fahrenheit-Centigrade Conversion.
A simple way to convert a fahrenheit temperature reading into a centigrade temperature reading or vice verse
is to enter the accompanying table in the center or boldface column of figures.
These figures refer to the temperature in either Fahrenheit or Centigrade degrees.
If it is desired to convert from Fahrenheit to Centigrade degrees, consider the center column as a table of
Fahrenheit temperatures and read the corresponding Centigrade temperature in the column at the left.
If it is desired to convert from Centigrade to Fahrenheit degrees, consider the center column as a table of
Centigrade values, and read the corresponding Fahrenheit temperature on the right.

˚C ˚F ˚C ˚F ˚C ˚F ˚C ˚F
-40.4 -40 -40.0 -11.7 11 51.8 7.8 46 114.8 27.2 81 117.8
-37.2 -35 -31.0 -11.1 12 53.6 8.3 47 116.6 27.8 82 179.6
-34.4 -30 -22.0 -10.6 13 55.4 8.9 48 118.4 28.3 83 181.4
-31.7 -25 -13.0 -10.0 14 57.2 9.4 49 120.2 28.9 84 183.2
-28.9 -20 -4.0 -9.4 15 59.0 10.0 50 122.0 29.4 85 185.0

-28.3 -19 -2.2 -8.9 16 60.8 10.6 51 123.8 30.0 86 186.8


-27.8 -18 -0.4 -8.3 17 62.6 11.1 52 125.6 30.6 87 188.6
-27.2 -17 1.4 -7.8 18 64.4 11.7 53 127.4 31.1 88 190.4
-26.7 -16 3.2 -6.7 20 68.0 12.8 55 131.0 32.2 90 194.0
-26.1 -15 5.0 -6.7 20 68.0 12.8 55 131.0 32.2 90 194.0

-25.6 -14 6.8 -6.1 21 69.8 13.3 56 132.8 32.8 91 195.8


-25.0 -13 8.6 -5.6 22 71.6 13.9 57 134.6 33.3 92 197.6
-24.4 -12 10.4 -5.0 23 73.4 14.4 58 136.4 33.9 93 199.4
-23.9 -11 12.2 -4.4 24 75.2 15.0 59 138.2 34.4 94 201.2
-23.3 -10 14.0 -3.9 25 77.0 15.6 60 140.0 35.0 95 203.0

-22.8 -9 15.8 -3.3 26 78.8 16.1 61 141.8 35.6 96 204.8


-22.2 -8 17.6 -2.8 27 80.6 16.7 62 143.6 36.1 97 206.6
-21.7 -7 19.4 -2.2 28 82.4 17.2 63 145.4 36.7 98 208.4
-21.1 -6 21.2 -1.7 29 84.2 17.8 64 147.2 37.2 99 210.2
-20.6 -5 23.0 -1.1 35 95.0 21.1 70 158.0 51.7 125 257.0

-20.0 -4 24.8 -0.6 31 87.8 18.9 66 150.8 40.6 105 221.0


-19.4 -3 26.6 0 32 89.6 19.4 67 152.6 43.3 110 230.0
-18.9 -2 28.4 0.6 33 91.4 20.0 68 154.4 46.1 115 239.0
-18.3 -1 30.2 1.1 34 93.2 20.6 69 156.2 48.9 120 248.0
-17.8 0 32.0 1.7 35 95.0 21.1 70 158.0 51.7 125 257.0

-17.2 1 33.8 2.2 36 96.8 21.7 71 159.8 54.4 130 266.0


-16.7 2 35.6 2.8 37 98.6 22.2 72 161.6 57.2 135 275.0
-16.1 3 37.4 3.3 38 100.4 22.8 73 163.4 60.0 140 284.0
-15.6 4 39.2 3.9 39 102.2 23.3 74 165.2 62.7 145 293.0
-15.0 5 41.0 4.4 40 104.0 23.9 75 167.0 65.6 150 302.0

-14.4 6 42.8 5.0 41 105.8 24.4 76 168.8 68.3 155 311.0


-13.9 7 44.6 5.6 42 107.6 25.0 77 170.6 71.1 160 320.0
-13.3 8 46.4 6.1 43 109.4 25.6 78 172.4 73.9 165 329.0
-12.8 9 48.2 6.7 44 111.2 26.1 79 174.2 76.7 170 338.0
-12.2 10 50.0 7.2 45 113.0 26.7 80 176.0 79.4 172 347.0

0-8
SECTION 1 GENERAL

Group 1 Safety Hints --------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------1-1


Group 2 Specifications -----------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------1-10
Group 3 Operational Checkout Record Sheet ---------------------------------------------------------------1-18
SECTION 1 GENERAL
GROUP 1 SAFETY HINTS

FOLLOW SAFE PROCEDURE


Unsafe wor k practices are dangerous.
Understand service procedure before doing
work.Do not attempt shortcuts.

WEAR PROTECTIVE CLOTHING


Wear close fitting clothing and safety equipment
appropriate to the job.

73031GE01

WARN OTHERS OF SERVICE WORK


Unexpected machine movement can cause
serious injury.
Before performing any work on the wheel load-
er, attach a 「Do Do Not Operate
Operate」 tag on the
right side controller lever.

850S1SH03

USE HANDHOLDS AND STEPS


Falling is one of the major causes of personal inju-
ry.
When you get on and off the machine, always
maintain a three point contact with the steps and
handrails and face the machine. Do not use any
controls as handholds.
Never jump on or off the machine. Never mount or
dismount a moving machine. 73032E01

Be careful of slippery conditions on platforms,


steps, and handrails when leaving the machine.

1-1
PREPARE FOR EMERGENCIES
Be prepared if a fire starts.
Keep a first aid kit and fire extinguisher handy.
Keep emergency numbers for doctors,
ambulance ser vice, hospital, and fire
department near your telephone.

73031GE03

WORK IN CLEAN AREA


Before starting a job :
· Clean work area and machine.
· Make sure you have all necessary tools to do
your job.
· Have the right parts on hand.
· Read all instructions thoroughly; Do not
attempt shortcuts.
73031GE26

PROTECT AGAINST FLYING DEBRIS


Guard against injury from flying pieces of metal
or debris; Wear goggles or safety glasses.

73031GE04

PROTECT AGAINST NOISE


Prolonged exposure to loud noise can cause
impairment or loss of hearing.
Wear a suitable hearing protective device such
as earmuffs or earplugs to protect against
objectionable or uncomfortable loud noises.

73031GE05

1-2
PARK MACHINE SAFELY
Before working on the machine:
· Park machine on a level surface.
· Lower bucket to the ground.
· Turn the flameout swich to stop engine.
Remove key from switch.
· Turn the hydraulic safety lock to locked
position.
· Allow engine to cool. 73031GE23

SUPPORT MACHINE PROPERLY


Always lower the attachment or implement to
the ground before you work on the machine. If
you must work on a lifted machine or attachment,
securely support the machine or attachment.
Do not support the machine on cinder blocks,
hollow tiles, or props that may crumble under
continuous load.
Do not work under a machine that is supported
solely by a jack. Follow recommended
procedures in this manual. 73031GE06

SERVICE COOLING SYSTEM SAFELY


Explosive release of fluids from pressurized
cooling system can cause serious burns.
Shut off engine. Only remove filler cap when
cool enough to touch with bare hands.

73031GE07

HANDLE FLUIDS SAFELY-AVOID FIRES


Handle fuel with care; It is highly flammable.
Do not refuel the machine while smoking or
when near open flame or sparks. Always stop
engine before refueling machine.
Fill fuel tank outdoors.

73031GE08

1-3
Store flammable fluids away from fire hazards.
Do not incinerate or puncture pressurized
containers.
Make sure machine is clean of trash,
grease, and debris.
Do not store oily rags ; They can ignite and
burn spontaneously.

73031GE09

BEWARE OF EXHAUST FUMES


Prevent asphyxiation. Engine exhaust fumes
can cause sickness or death.
If you must operate in a building, be positive
there is adequate ventilation. Either use an
exhaust pipe extension to remove the exhaust
fumes or open doors and windows to bring
enough outside air into the area.

REMOVE PAINT BEFORE WELDING OR


HEATING
Avoid potentially toxic fumes and dust.
Hazardous fumes can be generated when paint
is heated by welding, soldering, or using a torch.
Do all work outside or in a well ventilated area.
Dispose of paint and solvent properly.
Remove paint before welding or heating:
· If you sand or grind paint, avoid breathing the
dust. Wear an approved respirator.
· If you use solvent or paint stripper, remove
stripper with soap and water before welding.
Remove solvent or paint stripper containers
and other flammable material from area.
Allow fumes to disperse at least 15 minutes
before welding or heating. 73031GE10

1-4
ILLUMINATE WORK AREA SAFELY
Illuminate your work area adequately but safely.
Use a portable safety light for working inside or
under the machine. Make sure the bulb is
enclosed by a wire cage. The hot filament of an
accidentally broken bulb can ignite spilled fuel
or oil.

73031GE11

SERVICE MACHINE SAFELY


Tie long hair behind your head. Do not wear a
necktie, scarf, loose clothing or necklace when
you work near machine tools or moving parts.
If these items were to get caught, severe injury
could result.
Remove rings and other jewelry to prevent
electrical shorts and entanglement in moving
parts. 73031GE12

STAY CLEAR OF MOVING PARTS


Entanglements in moving parts can cause
serious injury.
To prevent accidents, use care when working
around rotating parts.

73031GE13

1-5
AVOID HIGH PRESSURE FLUIDS
Escaping fluid under pressure can penetrate the
skin causing serious injury.
Avoid the hazard by relieving pressure before
disconnecting hydraulic or other lines. Tighten
all connections before applying pressure.
Search for leaks with a piece of cardboard.
Protect hands and body from high pressure
73031GE14
fluids.
If an accident occurs, see a doctor immediately.
Any fluid injected into the skin must be
surgically removed within a few hours or
gangrene may result.

73031GE15

AVOID HEATING NEAR PRESSURIZED


FLUID LINES
Flammable spray can be generated by heating
near pressurized fluid lines, resulting in severe
burns to yourself and bystanders. Do not heat
by welding, soldering, or using a torch near
pressurized fluid lines or other flammable
materials.
Pressurized lines can be accidentally cut when
heat goes beyond the immediate flame area.
Install fire resisting guards to protect hoses or 73031GE16

other materials.

PREVENT BATTERY EXPLOSIONS


Keep sparks, lighted matches, and flame away
from the top of battery. Battery gas can
explode.
Never check battery charge by placing a metal
object across the posts. Use a volt-meter or
hydrometer.
Do not charge a frozen battery; It may explode.
73031GE17
Warm battery to 16˚C (60˚F).

1-6
PREVENT ACID BURNS
Sulfuric acid in battery electrolyte is poisonous. It
is strong enough to burn skin, eat holes in
clothing, and cause blindness if splashed into
eyes.
1. Avoid the hazard by:
2. Filling batteries in a well-ventilated area.
3. Wearing eye protection and rubber gloves.
Avoiding breathing fumes when electrolyte
is added.
4. Avoiding spilling of dripping electrolyte.
5. Use proper jump start procedure.
1. If you spill acid on yourself:
2. Flush your skin with water.
Apply baking soda or lime to help neutralize
the acid.
3. Flush your eyes with water for 10-15 minutes.
Get medical attention immediately.
1. If acid is swallowed:
2. Drink large amounts of water or milk.
Then drink milk of magnesia, beaten eggs,
or vegetable oil.
73031GE18
3. Get medical attention immediately.

USE TOOLS PROPERLY


Use tools appropriate to the work. Makeshift
tools, parts, and procedures can create safety
hazards.
Use power tools only to loosen threaded tools
and fasteners.
For loosening and tightening hardware, use the
correct size tools. Avoid bodily injury caused by
73031GE19
slipping wrenches.
Use only recommended replacement parts.
(See Parts catalogue.)

1-7
SERVICE TIRES SAFELY
Explosive separation of a tire and rim parts can
cause serious injury or death.
Do not attempt to mount a tire unless you have the
proper equipment and experience to perform the job.
Always maintain the correct tire pressure. Do not
inflate the tires above the recommended pressure.
Never weld or heat a wheel and tire assembly.
The heat can cause an increase in air pressure
resulting in a tire explosion.
Welding can structurally weaken or deform the
wheel.
When inflating tires, use a clip-on chuck and
extension hose long enough to allow you to stand
to one side and not in front of or over the tire
assembly. Use a safety cage if available.
Check wheels for low pressure, cuts, bubbles, 73031GE24

damaged rims or missing lug bolts and nuts.

USE PROPER LIFTING EQUIPMENT


UIPMENT
Lifting heavy components incorrectly can cause
severe injury or machine damage.
Follow recommended procedure for removal and
installation of components in the manual.

73031GE25

DISPOSE OF FLUIDS PROPERLY


Improperly disposing of fluids can harm the
environment and ecology. Before draining any
fluids, find out the proper way to dispose of waste
from your local environmental agency.
Use proper containers when draining fluids. Do
not use food or beverage containers that may
mislead someone into drinking from them.
73031GE20
DO NOT pour oil into the ground, down a drain, or
into a stream, pond, or lake. Observe relevant
environmental protection regulations when
disposing of oil, fuel, coolant, brake fluid, filters,
batteries, and other harmful waste.

1-8
REPLACE SAFETY SIGNS
Replace missing or damaged safety signs.
See the machine operator' s manual for correct
safety sign placement.

73031GE21

LIVE WITH SAFETY


Before returning machine to customer, make
sure machine is functioning properly, especially
the safety systems. Install all guards and
shields.

1-9
GROUP 2 SPECIFICATION

1. MAJOR COMPONENT

Bucket Tire Head light Hydraulic tank Air cleaner Radiator

Boom Boom cylinder Main control valve Battery Counterweight

Bell crank Bucket cylinder Cab Main pump Precleaner Muffler Engine

Bucket link Front axle Steering cylinder Transmission Torque converter Rear axle Fuel tank

733S2SE01

1-10
2. SPECIFICATIONS

WITH TOOTH TYPE BUCKET


B

F
I

4885
J
H

3770

C
38

G
49
577 50

D
0
E
A

733S2SE04

Description Unit Specification


Operating weight kg (lb) 10200 (22490)
Struck 1.4 (1.8)
Bucket capacity m3 (yd3)
Heaped 1.7 (2.2)
Overall length A 6965 (22' 10")
Overall width B 2475 (8' 1")
Overall height C 3215 (10' 7")
Ground clearance D 370 (1' 3")
Wheelbase E mm (ft-in) 2750 (9' 0")
Tread F 1850 (6' 1")
Dump clearance at 45˚ G 2790 (9' 2")
Dump reach (full lift) H 1150 (3' 9")
Width over tires I 2295 (7' 6")
Dump angle J 45
degree (˚)
Roll back angle (carry position) K 43
Lift (with load) 5.4
Cycle time Dump (with load) sec 1.3
Lower (empty) 3.0
Maximum travel speed km/hr (mph) 40.0 (24.9)
Braking distance 13.7 (43' 0")
m (ft-in)
Minimum turning radius (center of outside tire) 4.95 (16' 3")
Gradeability degree (˚) 30
First gear 7.5 (4.7)
Second gear 13.4 (8.3)
Forward
Third gear 24.2 (15.0)
Travel speed km/hr (mph)
Fourth gear 40.0 (24.9)
First gear 9.3 (5.8)
Reverse
Second gear 29.4 (18.3)

-
3. SPECIFICATION FOR MAJOR COMPONENTS
1) ENGINE
Item Specification
Model YC6J125Z-T20
Type 4-cycle turbocharged diesel engine.
Control type Mechanical control
Cooling method Water cooling
Number of cylinders and arrangement 6 cylinders, in-line
Firing order 1-5-3-6-2-4
Combustion chamber type Direct injection type
105×125 mm (4.1"×4.9")
Piston displacement 6494 cc (396 cu in)
Compression ratio 17.5 : 1
Rated gross horse power 92 kW / 2200 rpm
Maximum gross torque at 1400~1600 rpm 500 N·m
Engine oil quantity 16ℓ(4.2 U.S. gal)
Dry weight 650 kg (1430 lb)
High idling speed 2400±50 rpm
Low idling speed 725±50 rpm
Rated fuel consumption (at rated) 215 g/kW·hr
Starting motor 24 V-6 kW
Alternator 28 V-55 Amp
Battery 2×12 V×120 Ah

1-12
2) MAIN PUMP (+steering pump)
Item Specification
Type Fixed displacement gear pump
Capacity 100.8 cc/rev
Maximum operating pressure 200 kgf/cm2 (2840 psi)
Rated oil quantity 221ℓ/min (58.4 U.S.gpm)
Rated speed 2200 rpm

3) MAIN CONTROL VALVE


Item Specification
Type 2 spool
Operating method Mechanical control
Main relief valve set pressure 173 kgf/cm2 (2460 psi)
Overload relief valve set pressure 193 kgf/cm2 (2750 psi)

4) CYLINDER
Item Specification
Boom cylinder Bore dia×Rod dia×Stroke Ø110×Ø65×800 mm
Bucket cylinder Bore dia×Rod dia×Stroke Ø160×Ø80×380 mm
Steering cylinder Bore dia×Rod dia×Stroke Ø 70×Ø45×293 mm

5) DYNAMIC POWER TRANSMISSION DEVICES

Item Specification
Model YJ315LH/BD08XD
Converter Single-stage, Single-phase
Type
Transmission Transmission Mechanical, hydraulic
Gear shift Forward fourth gear, reverse second gear
Control Mechanical single lever type
Drive devices 4-wheel drive
Axle Front Front fixed location
Rear Oscillation±11˚ of center pin-loaded
Wheels Tires 17.5-25, 14PR (L3)
Travel Four-wheel, dry-disc type, pneumatic
Brakes
Parking Mechanical type brake on transmission
Type Hydraulic, articulated
Steering
Steering angle 38˚ to both right and left angle, respectively

-
4. TIGHTENING TORQUE OF MAJOR COMPONENT
Torque
No. Descriptions Bolt size
kgf·m lbf·ft
1 Engine mounting bolt (4EA) M18×2.5 30.4 ± 4.6 220 ± 33.3
2 Engine mounting bolt (bracket) M12×1.5 9.03 ± 1.8 65.3 ± 13.0
Engine
3 Radiator mounting bolt M12×1.75 9.03 ± 1.8 65.3 ± 13.0
4 Fuel tank mounting bolt M16×2.0 21.9 ± 3.3 158 ± 23.9
5 Main pump housing mounting bolt M12×1.75 9.03 ± 1.8 65.3 ± 13.0
6 Main control valve mounting bolt M12×1.75 9.03 ± 1.8 65.3 ± 13.0
7 Steering unit mounting bolt M10×1.5 5.0 ± 1.0 36.2 ± 7.2
Hydraulic
8 Steering valve mounting bolt M10×1.5 5.0 ± 1.0 36.2 ± 7.2
system
9 Brake valve mounting bolt M8×1.25 2.5 ± 0.5 18.1 ± 3.6
10 Control lever mounting bolt M10×1.5 5.0 ± 1.0 36.2 ± 7.2
11 Hydraulic oil tank mounting bolt M16×2.0 21.9 ± 3.3 158 ± 23.9
12 Transmission mounting bolt M16×2.0 21.9 ± 3.3 158 ± 23.9
13 Transmission mounting bolt (bracket) M12×1.75 9.03 ± 1.8 65.3 ± 13.0
14 Torque converter housing mounting bolt M10×1.5 5.0 ± 1.0 36.2 ± 7.2
15 Power Front axle mounting bolt, nut M24×2.0 79.9 ± 12.0 578 ± 86.8
16 train Rear axle mounting bolt, nut M24×2.0 79.9 ± 12.0 578 ± 86.8
17 Tire mounting nut M20×1.5 60.7 ± 5.6 439 ± 40.5
M14×1.5 21.0 ± 3.1 152 ± 22.4
18 Drive shaft joint mounting bolt, nut
M12×1.25 13.3 ± 2.7 96.2 ± 19.5
19 Counterweight mounting bolt M24×3.0 100 ± 15 723 ± 108
20 Others Operator seat mounting bolt M8×1.25 3.4 ± 0.8 24.5 ± 5.8
21 Cab mounting bolt (4EA) M27×3.0 70 ± 10 506 ± 72.3

-
5. TIGHTENING TORQUE

Use following table for unspecified torque.

1) BOLT AND NUT

(1) Coarse thread


8T 10T
Bolt size
kg·m lb·ft kg·m lb·ft
M 6×1.0 0.85 ~ 1.25 6.15 ~ 9.04 1.14 ~ 1.74 8.2 ~ 12.6
M 8×1.25 2.0 ~ 3.0 14.5 ~ 21.7 2.73 ~ 4.12 19.7 ~ 29.8
M10×1.5 4.0 ~ 6.0 28.9 ~ 43.4 5.5 ~ 8.3 39.8 ~ 60
M12×1.75 7.4 ~ 11.2 53.5 ~ 79.5 9.8 ~ 15.8 71 ~ 114
M14×2.0 12.2 ~ 16.6 88.2 ~ 120 16.7 ~ 22.5 121 ~ 167
M16×2.0 18.6 ~ 25.2 135 ~ 182 25.2 ~ 34.2 182 ~ 247
M18×2.5 25.8 ~ 35.0 187 ~ 253 35.1 ~ 47.5 254 ~ 343
M20×2.5 36.2 ~ 49.0 262 ~ 354 49.2 ~ 66.6 356 ~ 482
M22×2.5 48.3 ~ 63.3 350 ~ 457 65.8 ~ 98.0 476 ~ 709
M24×3.0 62.5 ~ 84.5 452 ~ 611 85.0 ~ 115 615 ~ 832
M30×3.0 124 ~ 168 898 ~ 1214 169 ~ 229 1223 ~ 1655
M36×4.0 174 ~ 236 1261 ~ 1703 250 ~ 310 1808 ~ 2242

(2) Fine thread


8T 10T
Bolt size
kg·m lb·ft kg·m lb·ft
M 8×1.0 2.17 ~ 3.37 15.7 ~ 24.3 3.04 ~ 4.44 22.0 ~ 32.0
M10×1.25 4.46 ~ 6.66 32.3~48.2 5.93 ~ 8.93 42.9 ~ 64.6
M12×1.25 7.78 ~ 11.58 76.3 ~ 83.7 10.6 ~ 16.0 76.6 ~ 115
M14×1.5 13.3 ~ 18.1 96.2 ~ 130 17.9 ~ 24.1 130 ~ 174
M16×1.5 19.9 ~ 26.9 144 ~ 194 26.6 ~ 36.0 193 ~ 260
M18×1.5 28.6 ~ 43.6 207 ~ 315 38.4 ~ 52.0 278 ~ 376
M20×1.5 40.0 ~ 54.0 289 ~ 390 53.4 ~ 72.2 386 ~ 522
M22×1.5 52.7 ~ 71.3 381 ~ 515 70.7 ~ 95.7 512 ~ 692
M24×2.0 67.9 ~ 91.9 491 ~ 664 90.9 ~ 123 658 ~ 890
M30×2.0 137 ~ 185 990 ~ 1338 182 ~ 248 1314 ~ 1795
M36×3.0 192 ~ 260 1389 ~ 1879 262 ~ 354 1893 ~ 2561

-5
2) PIPE AND HOSE (FLARE type)
Thread size (PF) Width across flat (mm) kgf·m lbf·ft

1/4" 19 4 28.9
3/8" 22 5 36.2
1/2" 27 9.5 68.7
3/4" 36 18 130
1" 41 21 152
1-1/4" 50 35 253

3) PIPE AND HOSE (24 cone type with O-RING)


Thread size (UNF) Width across flat (mm) kgf·m lbf·ft

1/4" 19 1.6 11.6


3/8" 22 3.7 26.8
1/2" 27 4.7 34.0
3/4" 36 11.8 85.3
1" 41 13.9 100.5
1-1/4" 50 23.1 167

4) FITTING

Thread size Width across flat (mm) kgf·m lbf·ft

1/4" 19 4 28.9
3/8" 22 5 36.2
1/2" 27 9.5 68.7
3/4" 36 18 130
1" 41 21 152
1-1/4" 50 35 253

-6
6. RECOMMENDED OILS
Use only oils listed below or equivalent.
Do not mix different brand oil.

Kind of Ambient temperature˚C(˚F)


Capacity
Service point
fluid ℓ (U.S. gal) -50 -30 -20 -10 0 10 20 30 40
(-58) (-22) (-4) (14) (32) (50) (68) (86) (104)
★1
SAE 5W-40
SAE 30
Engine
Engine oil 16 (4.2) SAE 10W
oil pan
SAE 10W-30

SAE 15W-40

Transmission Gear oil 43 (11.4) AFT DEXRON III

Front : 18 (4.8) SAE 80W-90


Axle Gear oil
Rear : 18 (4.8) SAE 85W-90

Tank; ★1
ISO VG 15
Hydraulic 90 (23.8)
Hydraulic tank ISO VG 46
oil System;
160 (42.3) ISO VG 68

★1
ASTM D975 NO.1
Fuel tank Diesel fuel 155 (40.9)
ASTM D975 NO.2

★1
NLGI NO.1
Fitting
Grease As required
(grease nipple)
NLGI NO.2

Mixture of
Radiator antifreeze Ethylene glycol base permanent type (50 : 50)
34 (9.0)
(reservoir tank) and soft ★1
Ethylene glycol base permanent type (60 : 40)
water★2

Brake Front : 1.0 (0.3)


Brake oil DOT-3 synthetic brake fluid
(air booster) Rear : 1.0 (0.3)

SAE : Society of Automotive Engineers ★1 Cold region


API : American Petroleum Institute Russia, CIS, Mongolia
ISO : International Organization for Standardization ★2 Soft water

NLGI : National Lubricating Grease Institute City water or distilled water


ASTM : American Society of Testing and Material
UTTO : Universal Tractor Transmission Oil

-
GROUP 3 OPERATIONAL CHECKOUT RECORD SHEET

·Owner :
·Date :
·Hours :
·Serial No. :
·Technician :

※ Use this sheet to record operational


checkout results.
Perform the operational check before 830S2SE03
installing any test equipment.

OK NOT
Item Comments
OK

1. Cluster indicator and gauge checks (engine OFF)

· Gauge check □ □
· Battery check □ □
· Cluster indicator circuit check □ □
· Cluster turn signals and warning indicator check □ □

2. Transmission checks

· Transmission control lever and neutral □ □

3. Cluster indicator and gauge checks (engine running)

· Cluster display and alternator output checks □ □


· Transmission temperature gauge check □ □
· Transmission oil pressure gauge check □ □
· Brake air pressure gauge check □ □
· Engine coolant temperature gauge check □ □

1-18
4. Brake system and clutch cut off checks

· Park brake capacity check □ □


· Park brake transmission lockout check □ □
· Service brake capacity check □ □
· Brake system leakage check □ □
· Service brake pedal check □ □
· Service and park brake system drag check □ □

5. Driving checks

·Transmission noise check □ □


·1st and 2nd speed clutch pack drag check □ □
·Transmission pressure, pump flow and leakage check □ □
·Torque converter check □ □
·Engine power check □ □

6. Hydraulic system checks

·Hydraulic system warm up procedure □ □


·Hydraulic pump performance check □ □
·Control lever boom float check □ □
·Bucket rollback circuit relief valve check □ □
·Bucket dump circuit relief
Low pressure check □ □
High pressure check □ □
·Boom and bucket cylinder drift check □ □

7. Steering system checks

·Steering unit check □ □


·Steering system leakage check □ □

1-19
8. Accessory checks

·Operating lights check □ □


·Work light check □ □
·Brake light check □ □
·Cab light check □ □
·Horn circuit check □ □
·Windshield washer and wiper check □ □
·Defroster blower check □ □
·Heater/Air conditioner blower check □ □
·Heater functional check □ □
·Air conditioner functional check □ □

9. Cab components and vandal protection checks

·Cab door latch check □ □


·Cab door hold, open latch check □ □
·Cab door release button check □ □
·Cab door lock check □ □
·Cab door window check □ □
·Cab window latch check □ □
·Seat and seat belt check □ □
·Air intake filter door check □ □
·Side door check □ □
·Frame locking bar check □ □
·Service decal check □ □

1-20
SECTION 2 POWER TRAIN SYSTEM

Group 1 Structure and function --------------------------------------------------------------------------------------- 2-1


Group 2 Transmission ------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------ 2-2
Group 3 Torque converter ------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------ 2-19
Group 4 Axle --------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------- 2-25
SECTION 2 POWER TRAIN SYSTEM
GROUP 1 STRUCTURE AND FUNCTION

1. POWER TRAIN COMPONENT OVERVIEW

Ttansmission Torque converter Engine

Front axle

Front drive shaft Center drive shaft Rear drive shaft Rear axle

The power train of the following components: 830SPT01

· Transmission and torque converter


· Front, center and rear drive shafts
· Front and rear axles
Engine power is transmitted to the transmission through the torgue converter.
The transmission is a hydraulically engaged four speed forward, two speed reverse countershaft type
power shift transmission. A disc type parking brake is located on the transmission.
The Transmission outputs through universal joints to three drive shaft assemblies. The front drive shaft
is a telescoping shaft which drives the front axle. The front axle is mounted directly to the loader frame.
The rear axle is mounted on an oscillating pivot.
The power transmitted to front axle and rear axle is reduced by the pinion gear and ring gear of
differential. It been passes from the differential to the sun gear shaft (axle shaft) of final drive.
The power of the sun gear is reduced by a planetary mechanism and is transmitted through the
planetary hub to the wheel.

2-1
GROUP 2 TRANSMISSION

1. FEATURES AND USE


This transmission features simple structure, stable operation, easy operation and high efficiency.
This transmission is used for transmission of four-wheel drive type wheel loaders which need
frequent change of load and speed after mounting a hydraulic torque converter.

2. TECHNICAL DATA
Maximum input 2500 rpm
Maximum input torque 950 N.m
Maximum input power 74 kW
Torque ratio of torque converter 3.0~3.6
Type Countershaft, constant mesh, power shifting transmission
Forward I 3.82 II 2.08 III 1.09 IV 0.59
Ratio
Backward I 3.05 II 0.87
Fluid AFT (DEXRON III )
Pump CB32 (Not accompanying with transmission)
Operating pressure 1.2~1.5 Mpa
Allowable pan oil temperature 100˚C
Brake relief valve operating pressure >0.55 Mpa

2-2
1) WORKING PRINCIPLE OF TRANSMISSION SYSTEM
The transmission has four shafts and five shifting clutches, which transmission principle is
illustrated in figure 2, see page 2-4.
When first hydraulic clutch is engaged with low clutch, the power from torque converter is
transmitted in following course: 1-7-9-3-11-13-4, which is first gear.
When second hydraulic clutch is engaged with low clutch, the power is transmitted in following
course: 1-8-10-3-11-13-4, and second gear is gained.
Other shifting gears can be obtained by analogy referencing table as below.

1 Input shaft
2 Reverse gear shaft
3 Countershaft
4 Output shaft
5 Reverse rack
6 Reverse pinion
7 Input shaft I, III gear
8 Input shaft II, IV gear
9 Countershaft I, III gear
10 Countershaft II, IV gear
11 Countershaft low gear
12 Output shaft high gear
13 Output low gear

Figure 1

Transmission system diagram


Clutch I II Backward Low gear High gear
Gear
Forward I
II
III
IV
Reverse I
II

Remarks : Each gear needs two clutches engaged, separating either of which will be neutral gear. Low
and high gear can’t be engaged simultaneously while they can be separated simultaneously.

2-3
TRANSMISSION DIAGRAM

F A F A F A

Input G Input G Input G


B B B

H I H I H I
C C C
Output D Output D Output D
J J J
Output Output Output

Forward I gear Forward III gear Forward II gear

F A F A F A

Input Input Input


G G G
B B B

H I C H I C H I C
Output D Output D Output D
J J J
Output Output Output

Forward IV gear Reverse I gear Reverse II gear

Figure 2 Transmission diagram (The illustration is a view from input side)

F Reverse clutch IV I Low gear clutch


G I, III clutch I J High gear clutch
H II, IV clutch II

2-4
Figure 3 Structure of transmission

1 Casing 5 Input shaft 9 Oil pan


2 Reverse clutch pack 6 Intermediate shaft 10 Parking brake
3 Reverse shaft 7 Flange 11 Flangel
4 Flange of input shaft 8 High low sliding tooth set 12 Control valve

2-5
(1) Hydraulic clutch
Transmission’s input shaft assembly, countershaft assembly and reverse shaft assembly have
similar construction, each of which has a key unit, hydraulic clutch, with the same construction.
Figure 4 is a diagram of hydraulic clutch. This unit consists of drive shaft (1), clutch case (2),
piston (3), powder metallurgy friction plate (4), friction plate (5), return spring (6), drain valve (7).
Hydraulic oil from transmission’s control valve is directed to the tube inside the case and large
end cover, then into the way (8) of drive shaft (1), then piston cavity, pushing the piston forward
to to press the active and passive plate (4) and (5). Therefore, drive shaft (1) rotates along with gear
(9), hydraulic oil is cut off, drain valve opens, the piston quickly returns by the force of spring (6),
active and passive plate part, and gear (9) idles.

1 2 3 7

10

9 4 5 6 11

Figure 4 Diagram of hydraulic clutch

Active plate is made of copper-based metal powder, total 6 pcs. Passive plate is made of 65Mn,
total 5 pcs. Concavity is 0.5 mm, convexity should face piston side as assembling. After assembly,
turn the friction plate with hand to check and, if you feel tight, the spacing is too small and you
need to change with a thinner one.
Poor installation of piston ring (10) and (11) and wear appeared in use adversely affects sealing
condition and further operation of clutch. Therefore, it’s required to pay attention in installation of
packing ring.

2-6
When the compression ring of compressor is used in the clutch, a 50 degree bevel is on the outer
side of the groove on the shaft (figure 5). That would result in pressure difference between T1 and
T2 of two sides of the ring, by which a small ring near point A is pressed tightly to to achieve oil
sealing, and relative rotation and friction near point A occurs. The outer annulus of piston ring
receives tension force from piston ring to apply pressure on the inside surface of ring.
Before setting the piston ring, be sure to grind its opening making the width of opening being within
0.05~0.1 mm. Piston ring with too small opening is vulnerable and may be broken as fitting while
the too large allows too much oil leakage to result in low pressure.
0.05~0.1

A T2
T1

Hydraulic
oil

T1 T2
A

Figure 5 Piston sealing diagram

(2) High low sliding sleeve


When the high low sliding sleeve is down in figure 3, it's low gear I , II and reverse I gear. It is high
gear III , IV and reverse II gear. There is no output in intermediate position.
Its control lever is as shown in figure 1. There are three places for staying, high, empty and low.
The shift of high low sliding sleeve must be taked in neutral case and after the parking of machine.
Otherwise the impact will occur.

2-7
3) WORKING PRINCIPLE AND CONSTRUCTION OF CONTROL SYSTEM
Working principle of control system for hydraulic transmission is illustrated in figure 6. The
components on the right to the double dot dash line in the figure are configured with torque
converter. The left part consists of transmission control valves, cylinder (clutch), strainer and oil
tank (consists of pan and case)

Part of transmission
Control valves

Part of torque
converter
Torque
converter

From brake master


Radiator

cylinder

Transmission
Spraying combination valve

Lubrication

Figure 6 Oil way system schematic diagram

1 Oil suction filter 4 Outlet pressure valve 7 Brake relief valve


2 Main oil pump 5 Oil inlet pressure valve
3 Shift pressure valve 6 Shift valve

When torque impeller runs, the drive gear drives oil pump (2) to operate, sucking in hydraulic fluid,
which is then directed to torque converter’s combination valve. Torque converter’s combination
valve consists of pressure control valve (3), input pressure valve (5) and baffle. Transmission
pressure valve (3) assures supply of hydraulic fluid in combination valve for control use in priority,
which then is directed to torque converter via transmission pressure valve (3). Control pressure and
torque converter inlet pressure of fluid is controlled by transmission pressure valve (3) and inlet
pressure valve (5). The pressure is 1.1~1.5 Mpa and 0.3~0.6 Mpa, respectively (torque converter
inlet pressure is 0.1~0.2 Mpa as shifting). When torque converter’s inlet pressure exceeds the set
value of inlet pressure valve (5), the valve opens and fluid flows out to be supplied to transmission
and torque converter. Torque converter’s outlet pressure valve (4) controls its outlet pressure to be
0.05~0.15 Mpa. The fluid leaving outlet pressure valve (4) runs through radiator and then is directed
to transmission lubricating system.

2-8
4) CONTROL VALVES

cooling

reverse

breake valve

Figure 7 Control valve body

Control valve includes brake relief valve and shift valve. Orifice A on the valve body is connected to
combination valve of transmission. When the shift spool of moved, the fluid from torque converter is
directed to orifice D, E or F, respectively to allow shifting of transmission forward or backward.
When brake pedal is pressed, a part of fluid from brake master cylinder is directed to brake spool
pushing the spool stem to cut off oil way to make transmission in idle to ensure reliable braking.

2-9
3. MAINTENANCE AND REPAIR
1) MAINTENANCE
Five levels of maintenance service including daily service (approx. 8h), weekly service (approx.
50h), month service (approx. 200h), quarterly service (approx. 500h), yearly service (approx.
2400h) should be performed.
· Daily Service : Check oil level in transmission, operation of clutches, noise of gear, bolt-nut
fastening.
· Weekly service : Check oil level and control unit of transmission.
· Monthly service : Check operation of transmission and noise, clean strainer.
· Quarterly service : Change oil, replace strainer.
· Yearly service : Check operation, input power, noise, oil temp and oil leaks, clean vent cap, and
fasten up each screw and tube joints.

2) REPAIR
Problem Cause Remedy
Too low oil pressure or Insufficient oil, air entered Replenish
zero Clogged strainer Clean, replace
Failed gear pump Replace
Failed shift pressure valve of bypass valve Repair
Stuck control valve spool Check, repair
Broken oil seals of transmission or piston of oil inlet Replace
has caused oil leaks
Clutch drain valve steel ball is missing Repair
Too high oil pressure Oil distributor failure Repair
Impurities in oil way, blocked oil way Clean
Incorrect oil is used Change oil
Too high oil temperature Oil cooler is blocked Clean
Water entered into oil way Change oil
Insufficient oil in transmission Replenish oil
Inappropriate gear selection Select low gear
Handbrake can’t be released well Adjust
Scuffing friction plate of clutch or incomplete oil Replace
separation
Engine runs but vehicle Too low oil pressure See “Too low oil pressure”
will not travel Gear is not engaged in place Re-engage
Brake valve spool has not returned Check brake valve spool
Scuffing friction plate Replace
Control valve failure Repair
Weak traction force Too low oil pressure See “Too low oil pressure”
Transmission clutch does not disengage completely Repair
Lacking oil Replenish oil

2-10
4. STRUCTURE
1) OUTPUT SHAFT ASSEMBLY

1 Bolt 9 Bolt 19 Gear


2 Lock washer 10 washer 21 Hand brake hub
3 Press plate 11 Bearing 22 Nut
4 O-ring 12 Thrust ring 23 Spring washer
5 Output flange 13 Bush 24 Bolt
6 Output flange 15 Gear
7 Oil seal 16 High sliding gear sets
8 Back cover 18 Output shaft

2-11
2) INPUT SHAFT ASSEMBLY

1 Nut 12 Outside cover 25 Lock washer


2 Washer 13 Friction disc 26 Bolt
3 Washer 14 Friction disc 28 Shaft sleeve
4 Input flange 15 Snap ring 29 Inner cover
5 Bearing 16 Spring retainer 30 Piston ring
6 Input shaft 17 Spring 31 Retaining part
7 Plug 18 Piston 32 Lock washer
8 Snap ring 19 Spacer ring 33 Bolt
9 Bearing 20 O-ring
10 Gear 21 Clutch shell assembly
11 Snap ring 24 Gear

2-12
3) INTERMEDIATE SHAFT ASSEMBLY

1 Bolt 11 Bearing 21 Spacer ring


2 Lock washer 12 Gear 22 O-ring
3 Retaining part 13 Snap ring 23 Clutch shell assembly
4 Piston ring 14 Outside cover 26 Gear
5 Inner cover 15 Friction disc 27 Lock washer
6 Bearing 16 Friction disc 28 Bolt
7 Gear 17 Snap ring
8 Plug 18 Spring retainer
9 Intermediate shaft 19 Spring
10 Snap ring 20 Piston

2-13
4) REVERSE SHAFT ASSEMBLY

1 Bolt 11 Bearing 21 Spacer ring


2 Lock washer 12 Gear 22 O-ring
3 Retaining part 13 Snap ring 23 Clutch shell assembly
4 Piston ring 14 Outside cover 26 Gear
5 Spacer ring 15 Friction disc 27 Lock washer
6 Bearing 16 Friction disc 28 Bolt
7 Shaft sleeve 17 Snap ring
8 Plug 18 Spring retainer
9 Shaft 19 Spring
10 Snap ring 20 Piston

2-14
5) CONTROL VALVE ASSEMBLY

1 Screw 11 Adjust washer 21 Plug


2 Washer 12 Control slide valve 22 Valve body
3 Spring 13 Dust cover 23 Gasket
4 Steel ball 14 Plug 24 Bottom plate
5 Dust cover 15 O-ring 25 Socket bolt
6 Test connector 16 Cup 26 Gasket
7 Washer 17 Break slide valve 27 Bolt
8 Plug 18 Spring 28 Washer
9 Snap ring 19 O-ring
10 Oil seal 20 Spring seat

2-15
6) PARKING BRAKE

3
7
4

1
8
2 10

13 12

14 11
9
16 15
10
17 9

18

1 Brake disc 7 Fixed shaft 13 Pull shaft


2 Pin 8 Bracket 14 Pin-split
3 Brake pad 9 Bolt 15 Bracket
4 Bracket 10 Washer 16 Spring
5 Adjust bolt 11 Support 17 Pulling
6 Return spring 12 Brake pad 18 Nut

2-16
7) HIGH-LOW SPEED SHIFT FORK

1 Iron wire 6 Washer 11 Washer


2 Screw 7 Bolt 12 Steel ball
3 High-low speed shift fork 8 Oil seal 13 spring
4 Gasket 9 Fork shaft
5 Forkt bracket 10 Plug

2-17
8) T/M HOUSING

1 Housing 18 Cover 35 Plug 53 Ventilation cover


2 Mark 19 Gasket 36 O-ring 54 Nut
3 Rivet 20 Gesr oil cap adjust ring 37 Tube assembly 55 Ventilation tablet
4 Bracket 21 Nut 38 Bolt 56 Copper cover
5 Bolt 22 Washer 39 Pipe cover assembly 57 Maze tablet
6 Spring washer 23 Connector 40 Gasket 58 copper spacer
7 NUT 24 Gasket 42 Cover 59 Long screw
8 Bolt 25 Fillter 43 Bush 60 Housing
9 Wsher 26 Bolt 44 GASKET 61 Gasket
10 Cover 27 Flange connector 45 Outer oil seal cap 62 Cover
11 Gasket 28 Bolt 46 Cover 63 Gear oil cap
12 Adjustment ring 29 O-ring 47 Pin 64 Rivet
13 Adjustment screw 30 Gasket 48 Socket bolt 65 Gasket
14 Bolt 31 Oil pan 49 Front output shaft shims 66 Bolt
15 Stopper pad 32 Suction pipe 50 Fr output shaft seal oil cap 67 Plug
16 Input shaft cover 33 Permanent magent 51 Oil seal 68 Plug
17 Oil seal 34 O-ring 52 Bolt

2-18
GROUP 3 TORQUE CONVERTER

1. FEATURES AND USE


Hydraulic torque converter is a single stage, single phase radial turbine hydraulic converter. This
hydraulic torque converter features advanced structure, reliable operating, easily matching with
engine, and convenient maintenance. It can be combined with an engine with rated rpm 2000~2400
and rated power approximately 80kW. In addition to the structural features of general hydraulic torque
converter, this product features two output shafts and thus it can drive a hydraulic pump and another
unit to meet the requirements of engine.

1) CONSTRUCTION AND OPERATING PRINCIPLE


Hydraulic torque converter is a single stage, single phase and three components hydraulic converter.
This series of torque converter consists of energy converting components (pump pulley, turbine and
guide pulley), power input and output components (elastic plate, cover wheel, turbine shaft and
output flange), supporting component (casing), hydraulic components and other accessories.
· Operating principle
The pump pulley (1) connects to engine flywheel by power input components. Driven by mechanical
energy from engine, the unit transforms the energy into hydraulic power MB by centrifugal force. The
fluid does not only turn around the supporting shaft in high velocity, but also make a circulating
current along circulating way consisting of the ways of pump pulley (1), turbine (3) and guide pulley
(2), which drives the turbine (3) to be transformed into mechanical energy MT and outputted by
power output members (7). The flow out from turbine (3) drives the guide pulley (2), which has
functions to change direction of operating flow to direct it again to pump pulley (1). Since the guide
pulley is fixed, the flow receives a counter torque MD from the guide pulley as it effects onto the guide
pulley, which drives the turbine (3) to change the value of torque of turbine, therefore the output
torque will be MT=MB+MD.

1
2
3
4

6
7

7352PT10

1 Pump pulley 4 Guide pulley seat 7 Output flange


2 Guide pulley 5 Elastic plate
3 Turbine 6 Turbine shaft

2-19
The function of oil inlet valve is to compensate pressure for the system, and automatically control the
flow passing through the torque converter in line with working status and varying internal fluid
pressure of torque converter, to control heat dissipating capacity of torque converter and, at the
same time, to protect the torque converter against overpressure as the outlet of it is clogged. The
function of return valve is to ensure entire the hydraulic system being in required operating state.

With such special construction and functions, hydraulic torque converter has following benefits as a
transmitting component in comparison with mechanism:

(1) With automatic torque control feature of a hydraulic torque converter, the machine can well adapt to
sudden changes in load from outside, preventing from engine stall due to sudden increase of
external load, to meet operating needs of operating equipment.
(2) Since the unit uses liquid as operating medium, it can decrease and isolate vibration, saving the life
of engineering machine. According to statistic data, the unit may increase the life of engine by 47%,
and that of transmission box by 400%.
(3) Trafficability and adaptability of vehicle can be enhanced.
(4) Operating system of vehicle can be simplified.

2. TECHNICAL DATA
Item Specification

Diameter of circular circle 315 mm


Nominal torque at zero-speed loading 5.8±0.29 kgf·m (42.0±2.1 lbf·ft)
Nominal torque at high efficiency loading 6.1±0.3 kgf·m (44.1±2.2 lbf·ft)
Torque ration at zero-speed loading 3.0±0.15
Max. efficiency 83%
Rated input 2200 rpm
Weight 179 kg
Dimensions 470×530×530 mm

2-20
3. USAGE AND MAINTENANCE
1) Before starting hydraulic torque converter, check each rotating part for smooth rotation and that if
there is seizure and collision. Mount the hydraulic torque converter on the machine and add a
suitable amount of hydraulic oil to the tank.
2) Start the engine and make the hydraulic torque converter to run for 1~2 minutes at low speed. Add
oil to the tank again. Oil level should reach indicator line in running of hydraulic torque converter.
Keep in mind to bleed air for the oil supply system when adding oil.
3) After starting hydraulic torque converter, run it in low speed and moderate speed in sequence, then
under load. Frequently watch its running and check if there is abnormal noise. Immediately stop
and check if abnormal. During operation, frequently check for variation of oil pressure and
temperature and ensure that are within normal range. When the hydraulic torque converter is in
use, be sure to check it at least once a week and, if oil level is below the line, add adequate
amount of oil promptly.
4) It’s required to renew oil for hydraulic torque converter after 100 hours of operation. After that,
renew oil in the interval of 500 hours.
5) For mechanic transmission, the driver should make timely gear shift to prevent the engine from
dying by sound heard during operation. No engine dying will occur if transmission of hydraulic
torque converter is matched rationally. However, the driver still needs to change gear timely by oil
temperature readings to prevent from overheated oil in low efficiency region of torque converter
that may cause damage to sealing pack.

2-21
4. OIL SUPPLY SYSTEM
In hydraulic torque converter, to prevent from adverse effect from cavitation corrosion and continued
increase of temperature of operating fluid due to hydraulic loss which will result in too high fluid
temperature and fluid leakage loss during compensating the torque converter, and to always ensure
sufficient operating fluid inside hydraulic torque converter, it’s required to use a make-up pump and
continuously lead the fluid out of the torque converter for cooling. Then, the make-up pump needs to
deliver the operating fluid again to the circulating circle at a certain pressure to prevent from decrease
of pressure in the circulating circle due to fluid leakage loss, and deteriorated torque transmission
performance of the torque converter due to air penetration through the sealings.

Opening pressure
2 1.3~1.4 Mpa

Q = 80 lpm

3
1
4
Opening pressure
0.6~0.65 Mpa

7352PT11
Schematic diagram for fluid supply system

1 Cooler 3 Main pressure valve


2 Hydraulic torque converter 4 Overflow valve

2-22
5. TROUBLESHOOTING
The hydraulic torque converter may encounter various malfunctions during operation, which may
cause serious accident if not remedied timely. Therefore, you need to be careful to any abnormal
situation occurring during use, and make through analysis to the malfunctions, then take appropriate
actions to remedy with reference to below table.

Problem Cause Remedy


Insufficient power output Engine rpm drops. Increase engine rpm.
Gas exists in hydraulic oil. Check transmission oil level.
Check for tightness of tubing system.
Check for deteriorated hydraulic oil
Too high hydraulic oil temperature. Lower oil temperature
Too low pressure of inlet/outlet valve of Check for sensitivity of motion of each
hydraulic torque converter. valve and hydraulic oil leaks.
Too high oil temperature Too long time of operation in low Decrease external load or increase
efficiency region engine rpm.
Too low oil level in oil tank or gas exists Add hydraulic oil, check for tightness of
in hydraulic oil. the connections of piping, and check
for deteriorated oil.
Oil does not meet requirements. Use oil as recommended in operator's
manual.
Too low oil pressure in oil supply Repair hydraulic valve, increase oil
system. pressure.
Low water level in cooling system. Repair water tank.
Insufficient oil supply. Check oil supply system.
Too low oil pressure in oil Back pressure valve failure. Replace back pressure valve.
supply system Clogged oil feed tube. Check oil tubing.
Insufficient oil supply of transmission Check and repair oil pump, or replace.
oil pump.
Damaged or severely worn oil seal Replace oil seal.
inside hydraulic torque converter.
Too low oil level in oil tank. Add hydraulic oil.
Clogged suction filter. Clean or replace the filter.
Failed pressure gauge. Replace the pressure gauge.
Oil leakage Damaged reinforced oil seal. Replace the oil seal.
Damaged O-ring. Replace the O-ring.
Aluminum dust exits in fluid Damaged bearing Replace bearing.

2-23
7352PT12
M16
Driving oil pump A
PF 1/4
Pressure
regulator Driving oil
M24
1.5 port A
Oil inlet
PF1/8
Oil level
PF3/4
Oil inlet
PF 3/8

2-24
Hydraulic
oil inlet
Driving oil
PF1 port B
Oil
inlet
Driving oil
port B
6. OUTSIDE VIEW
GROUP 4 AXLE

1. OUTLINE
1) PRODUCT SURVEY
The axle has two stages reduction structure. It has rational design structure, reliable use
performance, long duration of life, etc. It adopts caliper disc brake by pneumatic braking. Braking
moment is large and braking is stable and reliable.
2) MAIN PERFORMANCE AND TECHNICAL PARAMETERS
Main technical parameters
Axle model Max. input Wheel-end Braking
Max. load Total ratio Main ratio Oil pressure
torque ratio moment

235 kgf·m 979 kgf (7080


ZL30 18500 kg 20.26 4.222 4.8 9.8 MPa
(1700 lbf·ft) lbf·ft)

3) THE STRUCTURAL CHARACTERISTICS AND WORKING PRINCIPLE


(1) Main structural
structural characteristics
The drive axle is two stages reduction transmission device. The first grade device adopts spiral
bevel gear to transmit. Drive axle bears large input torque and has capability of high transmission
efficiency and stable working. The second grade device adopts planetary reduction transmission
structure (NGW) type. Rigidity of whole movement of drive axle is well and output speed is
smooth. Between two grades device, we adopt full-floating axle shaft to connect and transmit
power. The structure has overcome that axle housing in the course of working distortion brings
the influence to axle shaft transmission.
(2) Working principle

830K2AX100

2-25
Power torque of vehicle is inputted by drive shaft from input flange of drive axle. Final drive changes
rotary direction to drive driven spiral bevel gear and differential case to rotate after it does reduction
and differential. Differential case drives cross pin and planet bevel gears to transmit power to axle
shaft gears. Axle shaft gears transmit power to two sides wheel-end reductors by axle shafts, finally
transmit power to planet carriers after wheel-end reductors do reduction, thereby drive wheels to roll
ahead.
Transmission route of drive axle as follows:
Transmission
Power torque of vehicle → Input flange → Final drive → Differential → Axle shafts → Wheel-end
reductors → Wheels.

4) MAINTENANCE
(1) Must lubricate for new drive axle before it is mounted on vehicle.
Recommended the lubricant: SAE85W-90.
When refuel oil, should separately refuel it from oil inlets at bowl of the middle of axle housing and
at two sides wheel-end.
· Oil amount
Front axle : 18ℓ(4.8 U.S.gal)
Real axle : 18ℓ(4.8 U.S.gal)
(2) Maintenance per 250 hours
① Inspect wear condition of braking discs and whether there are destructive wear on them.
② Inspect wear condition of braking plates. When the grooves on friction lining have been worn
down and don’t meet the requirement, should immediately replace.
③ Inspect whether oil level at axle housing meets the requirement. If oil level lowers, should refuel
oil in time.
(3) Maintenan
Maintenancece per 1000 hours
Lubricant in drive axle work per 1000 hours to replace once new oil.
(4) Maintenance per
per 2000 hours
Should disconnect drive axle to inspect when it has worked for 2000 hours.
① Inspect spiral bevel gear pair backlash, mesh and wear condition of final drive.
② Inspect wear condition of differential gears and bevel gear washers.
③ Inspect wear condition of wheel-end gears.
④ Inspect wear condition of wheel-end planet gear needle rollers and bearings.

2-26
(6) Requirement of inspection and debugging projects in the course of use
① Spiral bevel gear pair backlash is 0.2~0.3 mm. Mesh is >50% both face width and tooth depth.
Mesh is at teeth middle. Mesh leans to little end at empty load. Backlash and mesh are adjusted
by adding and reducing adjust shims at bearing seat and by adjust nuts at two sides bearings of
differential.
② Adjustment of bearing clearance on wheel-end hub: Turn locknut tight until hub only rotates with
difficulty, then reverse locknut 1/10 turn. Here, hub can rotate freely without jammed phenomenon,
obvious axial clearance and oscillatory phenomenon, turn locknut tight with screw last.

2-27
5) TROUBLESHOOTING
Parts names Problem Cause Remedy
Final drive Loud noise 1. Gear backlash is oversize Adjust gear backlash.
and 2. Bearing is worn. Replace bearing.
differential Housing body Lubrication is bad. No Refuel lubricant to oil level.
early heats lubricant or lubricant is
excessive.
Periodic unusual sound 1. Gear appears tooth Replace gear.
breakage.
2. There is eyewinker inside. Bleed the oil port to inspect.
3. Fasteners loose. Turn fasteners tight.
Differential failure Cross pin breakage. Replace cross pin.
Leakage 1. Oil seal ages and wears. Replace oil seal.
2. Sealant loses its efficiency. Scrape off old sealant and smear
afresh.
3. Fasteners loose Turn fasteners tight.
Wheel-end Wheel-end doesn't rotate 1. Axle shaft breakage. Replace axle shaft.
reductions 2. Differential system failure. Adjust and replace differential
system.
There is 1. Gear appears tooth Replace gear.
unusual sound breakage.
2. There is eyewinker inside. Bleed the oil port to inspect.
Housing body early heats Lubrication is bad. No Refuel lubricant to oil level.
lubricant or lubricant is
excessive.
Brake Braking failure 1. Oil line disconnects or is Connect or replace oil line.
clogged.
2. Piston O-ring ages and Replace O-ring.
wears.
3. Piston and piston cylinder Replace brake.
jam.
4. Hydraulic pressure isn't Inspect oil pump and exhaust gas in
enough. oil line.
Friction lining doesn't 1. Piston seal ring ages and Replace seal ring.
release wears.
2. Oil inlet joint looses. Turn oil inlet joint tight.
3. There is casting defect on Replace brake body and repair.
brake body.

6) TRANSPORTATION AND DEPOSIT


(1) Strictly prohibit to deposit drive axle in the open air. It should be deposited in the room with good
ventilation. If lubricant has molded and deteriorated, when use drive axle, should replace new oil.
(2) Can’t knock and savagely handle drive axle in the course of carry and turnover.

2-28
8) STRUCTURE
(1) Drive axle assembly

830KPT14

1 Wheel-end reductor 7 Screw plug 13 Nut


2 Axle housing assy 8 Screw plug 14 Washer
3 O-ring 9 O-ring 15 Bolt
4 Screw plug 10 Final drive assy 16 Bolt
5 Exhaust plug 11 Double end studs 17 Washer
6 O-ring 12 Washer 18 Disc brake assy

2-29
(2) Wheel-end reductor

830KPT15

1 Screw plug 13 Steel ball 25 Ring gear


2 O-ring 14 Washer 26 Bearing
3 Bolt 15 Needle roller 27 Hub
4 Washer 16 Spacer 28 Rim bolt
5 Cover 17 Planetary pin 29 Straight pin
6 Retaining plate 18 Planetary gear 30 Washer
7 Adjusting mainstay 19 Washer 31 Bolt
8 Screw plug 20 Short axle shaft 32 Bearing
9 O-ring 21 Criclip 33 O-ring
10 Rim nut 22 Sun gear 34 Braking disc
11 Planetary carrier 23 Screw 35 Washer
12 O-ring 24 Lock nut 36 Bolt
37 Oil seal

2-30
(3) Final drive assembly

830KPT16

1 Cover 17 Bearing 33 Bolt


2 Nut 18 Adjust shim 34 Adjust nut
3 Washer 19 Adjust nut 35 Bearing
4 Baffle plate 20 Bearing 36 Bolt
5 O-ring 21 Nut 37 Right differential case
6 Input flange 22 Lock plate 38 Thrust washer
7 Oil seal 23 Lock plate 39 Axle shaft gear
8 Oil seal 24 Lock plate 40 Thrust washer
9 Thrust washer 25 Differential case 41 Cross pin
10 Bolt 26 Driven bevel gear 42 Planetary bevel gear
11 Washer 27 Bolt 43 Final drive housing
12 Bolt 28 Diff bearing cap 44 Criclip
13 Bearing 29 Left differential case 45 Bearing
14 Adjust shim 30 Bolt 46 Driving gear
15 Spacer 31 Lock plate 46 Driving gear
16 Bearing seat 32 Lock plate

2-31
(4) Brake assembly

830KPT17

1 Outside brake 6 O-ring 11 Washer


2 Piston 7 Inside brake 12 Bolt
3 Square seal ring 8 Washer 13 Split pin
4 Dust shroud 9 Joint 14 Bolt pin
5 Braking plate 10 Exhaust plug

2-32
SECTION 3 BRAKE SYSTEM

Group 1 Structure ------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------- 3-1


Group 2 Components specification and function ----------------------------------------------------------- 3-2
SECTION 3 BRAKE SYSTEM
GROUP 1 STRUCTURE

3
6

3 4
2

1 Air brake valve 5 Safety valve


2 Air tank 6 Front axle
3 Air booster 7 Rear axle
4 Oil and water separator
GROUP 2 COMPONENTS SPECIFICATION AND FUNCTION

1. BRAKE VALVE
1) USE AND STRUCTURE
As a main device of foot brake, this unit adopts high technology and can be applied to single circuit
braking system of machines.

2) WORKING PRINCIPLE
When the brake pedal (2) is pressed, the rod (3) presses the equalizing spring (4) to produce a
pressure, which then pushes the piston (6) to move down to make intake valve (7) to open allowing
compressed air to flow from inlet to outlet port. When brake pedal (2) is released, return spring (5)
pushes the piston (6) to move up to make intake valve to return to original position to close air flow
between inlet and outlet. Remaining pressure at outlet is vented through exhaust port.

3) TECHNICAL DATA
(1) Operating air pressure : 784 kPa
(2) Working temperature : -30 ~ +80˚C
(3) Working medium : air

4) MOUNTING AND CONNECTION SIZE


(1) Connection screw : M22×1.5 (3EA)
(2) Mounting : 4-ø9
(3) Dimensions : 136×136×335

5) CORRECT USE AND MAINTENANCE


(1) Notes in using
① Before mounting, remove the plugs for inlet and outlet, and be sure to have the pedal and valve
body are securely assembled. Valve clearance should be adjusted properly with adjusting screw
(pressure of surplus for the roller to press the rod should be less than 0.5 mm) and fasten up the
nut.
② Insert M8 bolts through 4-ø9 holes to make secure assembly.
③ When connecting with piping, distinguish inlet port from outlet. Marking “1” means, inlet, “2”
means outlet and “3” exhaust port.
(2) Notes in Maintenance
① There should be water draining and filtering devices in air circuit to secure a clean air source.
Anti-rust process is required for the brake tubes and air cylinder.
② A space should be secured for freely moving of the pedal.
③ When replacing a wearing part, use a part same with the worn, the damaged fastening pieces
(such as stop ring, bolt) must also be replaced. All parts should be assembled in correct position
securely and no other part be damaged. After replacing, do not assemble to the machine before
completing test.
④ The moving part of air brake valve should be served grease. If the brake doesn’t grip properly or
grips weakly, check the wearing parts of air brake valve and braking system.

3-2
6) TROUBLESHOTTING
Trouble Cause Remedy
Air leaks under no work. Worn rubber. Replace rubber or assembly.
Air leaks under work. Worn rubber. Replace rubber or assembly.
Unsmooth exhaust. Seizing of piston. Replace the assembly.
Improper adjustment of pedal Adjust the adjusting screw manually to the
roller and rod. extent that pedal roller is just contacting the rod.
(Pressure of surplus for the roller to press the
rod should be less than 0.5 mm)

7) STRUCTURE AND MOUNTING SIZE

View A

Air outlet

Air
intlet

Air outlet

850KBS10

1 Bolt 4 Equalizing spring 7 Intake valve


2 Pedal 5 Spring
3 Rod 6 Piston

3-3
2. SAFETY RELIEF VALVE
1) USE AND STRUCTURE
Safety relief valve automatically drains condensate inside the air cylinder of brake line and manual
drainage is also available.
2) WORKING PRINCIPLE
Safety relief valve is used to automatically drain condensate inside the air cylinder of brake line by
variation of air pressure (air pressure drops 0.03~0.1 MPa) and manual drainage is also available
after parking for fast drainage.
3) TECHNICAL DATA
(1) Rated operating air pressure : 800 kPa
(2) Working temperature : -30 ~ +80˚C
(3) Weight : 0.1 kg
4) MOUNTING AND CONNECTION SIZE
(1) M22×1.5-6g
(2) Exhaust port down.
5) STRUCTURE AND MOUNTING SIZE

To connect air cylinder

Manual drainage button

Exhaust port

3-4
3. SAFETY VALVE
1) USE AND STRUCTURE
Safety valve is used to ensure that charge pressure of air brake line does not exceed 900 kPa.
2) WORKING PRINCIPLE
Compressed air flows in through air inlet and, when the pressure at inlet exceeds 850 kPa, the
safety valve A is actuated for air relief to protect the air brake line.
3) TECHNICAL DATA
(1) Safety operating pressure : 850~900 kPa
(2) Working temperature : -40 ~ +80˚C
4) MOUNTING AND CONNECTION SIZE
Inlet M16×1.5 is connecting screw.
5) NOTES IN USING
Adjusting bolt of safety valve has been already set as delivery and user is not permitted to adjust or
remove the part as his/her wish.
6) TROUBLESHOOTING
Problem Cause Remedy
Leaks at valve port Damaged rubber of safety valve stem Replace safety valve assy
assy.

7) STRUCTURE AND MOUNTING SIZE

Adjusting bolt

Air outlet

Air inlet

3-5
4.OIL AND WATER SEPARATOR
1) STRUCTURE
Oil and water separator combined valve is applicable to brake system. This device features
automatic control of working pressure in brake system and auto drainage of oil and water after
filtering. Since the unit has a built-in protector, safe pressures can be guaranteed.
2) WORKING PRINCIPLE
Air under pressure from compressor flows into the valve through air inlet and water and impurities
can be filtered off through a strainer. After filtering, the compressed air reaches the outlet through
one-way valve to charge the cylinder. When the pressure inside cylinder reaches opening pressure,
air that enters into top head overcomes resistance of pressure spring to push control valve assy to
move upward to open the exhaust valve at the lower part to discharge the air along with filtered
impurities and water into atmosphere and compressor becomes idle state. When the pressure
inside air cylinder drops to exhaust stop value and the air inside cavity of top head can not
overcome the pressure spring, control valve moves down, and the exhaust valve moves up by the
action of spring to stop exhaust valve and air supply to cylinder is restarted.
3) TECHNICAL DATA
(1) Opeing pressure : 784±20 kPa
(2) Exhaust stop pressure : 685 ~ 750 kPa
(3) Working temperatures : -30 ~ +100˚C
(4) Weight : 1.5 kg
4) MOUNTING AND CONNECTION SIZE
(1) Mounting size : 2-M8×40 double end stud,distance of bolt :70±0.2
(2) Connection size : Inlet (M55×1.5-6g), outlet (M22×1.5-6H)
(3) Dimensions : 150.5×128.5×220
5) CORRECT USE AND M MAINTENANCE
AINTENANCE
(1) Notes in using
① Before mounting, remove the plugs for inlet and outlet.
② Mount the unit on the mount plate with outlet down.
③ Tires should be inflated joint outward, easy inflated operation
④ Pressure regulator screw and safety valve have been set as delivery and user is not permitted to
adjust or remove by his/her self.
(2) Notes in maintenance
① The length of pipe from air compressor to combined valve should not be less than 2 m, aperture
not less than ø12 to ensure fully cooling of hot air and condensing moisture in air.
② If severely worn wearing part or air leaks is found, immediately replace the wearing part.
③ When replacing a wearing part, use a part same with the worn, the damaged fastening pieces
(such as bolt and nut) must also be replaced. All parts should be assembled in correct position
securely and no other part be damaged. After replacing, do not assemble to the machine before
completing test.

3-6
6) TROUBLESHOOTING
Problem Cause Remedy
Leaks
eaks at exhaust port. Polluted exhaust valve. Clean pipe line.
Damaged exhaust valve. Replace exhaust valve.
Leaks
eaks at top head vent Damaged diaphragm. Clean pipe line.
Damaged control piston O-ring. Replace control piston O-ring.

7) STRUCTURE AND MOUNTING SIZE

Air
outlet

Air inlet

3-7
SECTION 4 STEERING SYSTEM

Group 1 Hydraulic circuit --------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------- 4-1


Group 2 Structure and function ----------------------------------------------------------------------------------------- 4-2
Group 3 Operational check and troubleshooting ------------------------------------------------------------ 4-16
Group 4 Test and adjustments ------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------ 4-22
SECTION 4 STEERING SYSTEM
GROUP 1 HYDRAULIC CIRCUIT

HL830S4SE01

1 Main pump 8 Return filter


9 Bypass valve
6 Priority valve 10 Air breather
7 Steering unit 11 Hydraulic tank
GROUP 2 STRUCTURE AND FUNCTION
STEERING
1. S T EERING UNIT

15
2
16
3

4 24
17

18
5

6 19

7
20
25
8
21

26 22
9
10

11
23
12
13

14 HL830S4SE02

1 Spool 10 X-ring 19 O-ring


11 O-ring 20 Gerotor
2 Centering spring
3 Sleeve 12 Front cap 21 O-ring
4 Seal 13 Spring washer 22 Drive
5 Bearing 14 Bolt 23 Plate
6 Seal 15 Cap screw 24 Pin
7 O-ring 16 Washer 25 Orifice
8 Housing 17 End cap 26 Plug
9 O-ring 18 Spacer
OVERLOAD VALVE(FKBR)

31
27

32 28

33
29

34

30

35

36
29
37 28

36

29 27

33

38

33

29
36

37

36
32

HL830S4SE03
31

27 Ball retainer 31 Plug 35 O-ring


28 Washer 32 O-ring 36 O-ring
29 Ball 33 Poppet 37 Spool
30 Body 34 Plug 38 Spring
2. STREERING UNIT STRUCTURE AND FUNCTION
1) STRUCTURE

Load port

850S4SE02

1 Coupler 7 Snap ring 13 Rear cover 19 Ball


2 Front cover 8 Bearing 14 Bolt 20 Stop bolt
3 Screw 9 Slip ring 15 Stopper 21 O-ring
4 Spring washer 10 O-ring 16 Drive 22 Spring
5 O-ring 11 Plate 17 Spool-sleeve 23 Pin
6 X-ring 12 Stator-rotorunit 18 Body 24 FK combination valve

4-4
2) PRINCIPLE
(1) This steering unit has the function of flow amplification as well as load sensing. Besides
flow amplification, this unit works in a same manner as normal load-sensing unit, com-
-bined with priority valve, consistute the load-sensing system. Once the steering wheel
is turned, the spool of priority valve would be pushed due to a pressure signal from
sensor, which would open new oil channel to steering unit and realize the function of
turning. When the steering wheel is not being operated, oil would not flow into steering
unit at all.

(2) When the power steering system is applied, the pressure oil would partially flow into the
stator-rotor unit with a certain ratio (flow amplification) and drive the rotor rotating along
with the wheel column, the oil would correspondingly be pushed into a certain chamber
of cylinders by this stator-rotor unit.
When the mechanical steering system is applied, the stator-rotor unit plays a role as a
pump, which would push the oil in steering cylinders from one chamber to another. The
mechanical steering system provides limited turning torque.

(3) FK combination vavle struture

1 Plug 7 Plug 13 Base 2


2 Washer 8 Washer 14 O-ring
3 Body 9 Overload-vavle base 15 Port check valve
4 Plug 10 seal 16 Nut-lock
5 Spring 11 Spring
6 Safety 12 Overload fill valve

4-5
3) SPECIFICATION
Maximum system pressure 172 bar
Maximum operating back-pressure 21 bar
Maximum operating temperature 93˚C
Maximum allowable temperature diff from system 28˚C
Power steering torque (6.3 bar back-pressure) 1.7~2.8 NM
Magnification 1.6
Maximum torque allowable for mechanical-steering 136 NM
Recommended hydraulic oil ISO VG32, 46, 68
FK combination valve pressure Depend on system requirement

4) INSTALLATION
(1) Layout

1 Tank 3 Steering unit 5 Priority valve


2 Steering pump 4 Steering cylinder

(2) Installation requirements


Keep clean and avoid contaminating steering unit and hydraulic system.
Keep clean of couplings, do not seal them with thread tapes.
Make sure the ports are correctly paired.
Avoid axial load on input end of unit when installing.

4-6
(3) Troubleshooting

Problem Phenomenon Cause Remedy


Leakage Junction leakage Junctions polluted. Check junctions and clean them up.
Front cover leakage Seals worn out. Replace seals.
Bolts (plugs) leakage Insufficient pre-tightening torque. Tighten bolts (plugs).
Heavy Heavy steering when quick Insufficient flow. Check pump and circuit.
steering steering Spool of priority valve was stuck. Check priority valve.
Cylinder crawling Air in the system. Release the air.
Foam in fluid Check air leakage of pump.
Sounding
Heavy steering, Damage on check valve of Check existence of steel ball.
no reactions of steering mechanical steering. Check whether the check valve is
cylinders stucked by dirt.
No reactions of steering Leakage on overload valve of Check internal leakage.
cylinders combination valve. Replace combination valve.
Internal leakage of cylinders.
Easy steering on light load Safety valve gasket leak or valve. Check and clean the safety valve in
Heavy steering on heavy spring failure. the priority valve.
load
Heavy steering High viscosity of fluid.
Streering Spool cannot move back Invalid spring. Replace spring.
doesn't to neutral when not being
work operated
Severe pressure wave, Pin bended or fracture. Replace pin or coupler.
even malfunction Damage on slot of coupler.
Counter-steering or sway Dislocation of shaft and rotor. Reassemble.
Drifting and no reaction Two-way overload valve stucked Check overload valve.
by dirt.
Invalid spring.
No reaction Priority valve stucked, no oil flows
into steering unit through port
"CF".

4-7
2. FKBR VAVLE STRUCTURE AND CHARACTERISTIC
1) STRUCTURE AND WORKING PRINCIPLE
(1) Structure

(2) Working principle


The FKBR valve consists of a one-way valve and two-way buffer valve.
① One-way valve has a taper structure, consists of a valve seat, spool and spring and is fitted to
inside of oil inlet of valve body. This valve features light resistance and good sealing. High
pressure oil from hydraulic pump must pass through one-way valve to reach steering valve body.
This one-way valve is designed to prevent operation of hydraulic system from being broken due
to deflection of steering wheel because of return of oil to pump due to oil pressure in cylinder
being higher than operating oil pressure that is caused by obstruction to steering wheel in
special situations. One-way valve needs not adjustment in normal use, but reverse oil leaks
should be prevented.

Two-way buffer valve includes two direct-acting overflow valves and consists of a spring, two ball
valve seats and two steel balls. This device is attached to the valve body to the each port of two
chambers of steering cylinder. The ports are connected to return port. The product features
simple structure and easy manufacture and repair, and functions as two safety valves to unload
and make oil returning when pressure in a chamber of cylinder increases as speedy steering or
vehicle travel encounters sudden variation in resistance to protect the oil circuit between steering
cylinder and steering gear, assuring safe and reliable steering. Opening pressure of the valve is
5~6 MPa higher than operating pressure of steering gear.

2) INSTALLATION AND REQUIREMENTS IN USEING


(1) Installation
Be sure to make correct connection of four ports, i.e., P, T, A and B when installing the valve block
on the flange at the steering gear side.
Be careful to keep clean junction surface of flange and prevent dirt from entering into the system.
Four O-seal rings in between valve block and steering gear flange should be laid flat, two screws
fastened at even fastening torque, 40~50 N.m. Be sure that valve block is not twisted.

4-8
(2) Oil temperature range : -20 ~ 80˚C
Normal oil temperature : 30 ~ 60˚C
Hydraulic oil in high temperature for long time causes the oil to be prematurely deteriorated.

(3) Oil selection: Viscosity index of 17~33cst at normal temperature and viscosity index of over 100
are suitable and N32,N46 oil is recommended.

(4) Filtering : Maintain clean operating fluid and have filtering precision of system not less than 30
µm.

(5) Pressure of two-way buffer valve is already set as delivery and, if adjustment is required, be
sure to make on a test bed.

3) TROUBLESHOOTING

Problem Cause Remedy


Steering is light under no Pressure of overflow valve inside valve Regulate the pressure in overflow
load (or little load) but block is lower than required steering valve.
heavy as load is increased. pressure.
Overflow valve is seized by dirt, or Clean overflow valve, replace spring or
spring or oil seal failed. seal ring.
Vehicle travel is deflected, Failed two-way buffer valve (steel ball Clean two-way buffer valve, replace
or cylinder will not move (or is stuck by dirt or spring failed), failed spring or seal ring.
slowly) when turning wheel. seal ring.
P r e s s u r e c o u l d n o t b e Broken spring. Replace spring.
r e g u l a t e d ( i n c r e a s e o r Poor sealing at valve port causes valve Set the spool and seat, or replace part.
decrease). constant open.
Valve spool is stuck due to burr or oil Remove, inspect and repair.
stain.
Unstable pressure, with Poor contact between valve spool and Set the valve spool and seat, or
f r e q u e n t n o i s e a n d seat. replace part.
vibration. Poor spool motion. Check valve spool for being stuck by
dirt.
Bent or too weak spring. Replace spring.
Dirty oil, clogged damping hole Change fluid, clean damping hole
Flow exceeds specified value. Replace with a larger flow valve.

4-9
3. PRIORITY VALVE
1) INTRODUCTION
The priority valve can, in accordance with the requirement of the oil circuit, allocate
and prioritize the flow in full amount, no matter how high the load pressure is and
how fast the steering disc speed is, so the steering movement is constantly smooth
and reliable.
The flow from the oil pump will partially be distributed to the steering oil circuit, so
as to maintain its norma l operation needs, and the remaining part may be supplied
all to the auxiliary oil circuit, thereby counteracting the power loss due to the
excessive flow to the steering oil circuit and improving the system efficiency.

When the oil for hydraulic steering system is supplied by the load sensing pump, the
output flow and pressure of the pump can match with the load requirement, which
ensures a higher system efficiency.

2) Working principle
Seeting this graphic system as an example to explain the working principle of load
sensing steering system.

The steering body LS port

inclued in the priority vavle LS inclued in the


priority valve spool priority valve spool
Spool

Intermediate position End

inclued in the
priority valve spool
Spool

Steering Hydraulic schematics

Priority vavle needs to be used in conjunction with the diverter.In this system,priority
valve is adifferentical pressure relief element. Weather load pressure and pump fuel
supply has changed. Priority valve can maintain to port C1 at both ends of the pressure
difference within the therestrictor is basically unchanged. Keep a supply of the product
is always equal to theflow speed the steering wheel and steering engines.

4-10
(1) When steering unit don't work, if engine stop, the oil pump don't supply the oil, the priority
valve spool move to right by control spring , CF port (Steering unit port) will be connected.
Now the oil can't flow.
If engine start, the hydraulic oil flow from gear pump to priority valve, littler hydraulic oil flow
from CF port to LS port through dynamic signal throttle. Pre-heater and maintain the system
neutral state, Meanwhile, the pressure of dynamic signal throttle will push the priority valve
spool to the pilot position, the oil flow to the steering unit, and the other oil flow to the
attachment through EF port.

(2) When the steering system is started ,oil of load sensing steering connect to LS system
through the load sensing steering throttle port. The oil flow to steering control valve and
steering cylinder at the same time, it enter the working state, at this point, the difference
pressure on the both end of priority spool push the spool to the required flow because the
pressure of load sensing steering is falling. The oil which is used for the steering unit control
into the distributor. Residual hydraulic oil flow to the other hydraulic system.
If the steering wheel rotation speed is accelerated, the required flow is increase, the pr-
-essure of supply oil is reduced. So the dynamic signal control valve spool move to right.
CF port open more. There is more oil into the load sensing steering unit. In order to co-
-mpensate the requirement of the pressure difference.

(3) When the steering system don't working , one liter oil into the steering unit, the other hy-
-draulic oil flow to the other system.

(4) When the spool of load sensing steering in the median, if engine flameout, the oil pump
can't supply the oil, the spring of dynamic signal priority control valve push the spool to the
left , the EF port is connected , the steering unit is on the waiting state.

(5) When the steering cylinder arrive at the terminal, if you continue turn the steering wheel ,
the steering cylinder can't work, so the pressure rise ,the differential pressure on the both
end of priority spool is decreased, when the steering oil pressure is more than the setting
pressure. Steering relief valve is opened, at the moment, the priority valve spool move
to the left because of difference pressure, oil through the steering unit is reduced, and
more oil flow to the other system through EF port.

(6) When the engine flame out and hydraulic pump have some troubles , the driver can use
steering metering pump to supply the oil to steering system as a manual pump. In order to
achieve human steering.

4-11
3) THE STRUCTURE OF PRIORITY VALVE

9
7

10
6

15
5

11

12
4

13

14

1
HL830S4SE04

1 Plug 6 O-ring 11 Spring


2 O-ring 7 Valve block 12 Sleeve
3 Spool 8 Poppet seat 13 Adjust shim
4 Body 9 O-ring 14 Plug
5 Spring 10 Poppet 15 Spring

4-12
4. TROUBLESHOOTING FOR LOAD SENSING STEERING SYSTEM WHICH FORMED WITH
Bzz5(TLF1) AND YXL PRIORITY VAVLE
1) HARD STEERING
(1) Hard and stiff steering :
Turn the steering wheel with engine off and then release immediately to check the wheel for
returning. If no, you have a stuck valve in steering column. You can unscrew the bolt connecting
steering rod and steering gear and add washer. The principle is that the structure of steering
column must guarantee no transmission of axial load to input shaft of steering gear. Assembly of
steering rod must ensure that the steering gear can return to neutral position after completion of
operation.
(2) Clogged orifice by dirt, stuck stem or deformed main spring of priority valve :
Clean the orifice and stem of priority valve.
(3) Safety valve pressure of steering system is on the low side :
Light steering while travelling normally and heavy steering while parked means low pressure of
safety valve (increase the pressure of safety valve properly).
(4) Decreased oil pump efficiency or lacking of oil supply :
Diagnosis is made by throttle position and hot or cold hydraulic fluid.
(5) Steering wheel will not move (fallen out steel ball or spool of one-way valve has, stuck input port,
or clogged oil way) :
Check the steel ball for existing, and the one-way spool at P port of valve block for fallen out and
caused the oil way blocked, and check the system tubing for normal flow.
(6) Premature opening of safety valve on the priority valve (stuck by impurities) :
Open the return way of safety valve on the priority valve to check the safety valve for premature
opening before steering to the dead point. If open, steering will be hard. Normally, the safety valve
should open after steering to the dead point and hydraulic fluid flowing out. In case of premature
opening, you need to clean the safety valve on the priority valve or replace the safety valve assy.
(7) Troubles such as worn hydraulic oil pump :
Repair or replace the oil pump.

2) STOPPING POINT IS NOT SENSED


(1) Two-way buffer valve pressure is on the low side :
Safety valve pressure can be increased to a proper value.
(2) Too high pressure value set for safety valve of steering system :
Pressure set for safety valve on the priority valve can be increased to a proper value.
(3) Return tube of priority valve is blocked :
Disassemble the return tube of safety valve and steer to the dead point. No returning oil means
blocked oil tube.
(4) Low pretightening force on the bolt at the end of steering gear :
Increase the pretightening force properly.
(5) Too much wheel play :
Replace the stator/rotator or grind the end surface of stator to decrease the play between the
rotator and stator.

4-13
3) NO SENSING OF STOPPING POINT ON ONE SIDE
(1) One cavity pressure of two-way buffer valve is too low :
Increase the two-way buffer valve pressure properly.
(2) Buffer valve port is clogged by dirt :
Clean the port of buffer valve.

4) STEERING WHEEL TURNS BY ITSELF


(1) Axially stuck steering gear and steering lever shaft :
Diagnose by referring to the first item of hard steering.
(2) Valve malfunction due to dirt in oil :
Clean the valve.
(3) Too hot oil causing malfunction of valve :
Clean the valve.
(4) Broken spring :
Replace the spring piece.

5) STEERING WHEEL SHIMMY


(1) Too low two-way buffer valve pressure:
Increase two-way buffer valve pressure properly.
(2) Weak or broken spring piece:
Broken spring piece and noncentering valve spool and sleeve. Replace spring piece.

6) STEERING PULL
(1) Weak or broken spring piece :
Weak or broken spring piece and noncentering valve spool and sleeve. Replace spring piece.
(2) Too low pressure in one cavity of two-way buffer valve :
Broken or deformed spring. Replace spring. Increase the pressure for two-way buffer valve.

7) WHEEL WON’T TURN, STEERING WHEEL DOES


(1) Lack of oil in oil tank :
Add oil in oil tank.
(2) Worn steering cylinder :
Replace steering cylinder.
(3) Too much play between stator and rotator due to wear :
Replace stator and rotator pair or grind the stator to decrease the play.

4-14
5. STEERING CYLINDER

11
12
10
4
3

7
5
6
8
9

20

19
20 21
22

18 1

17

16
15
13
14

1 Tube assy 8 Dust wiper 15 Piston seal


2 Rod assy 9 Snap ring 16 Wear ring
3 Gland 10 O-ring 17 Lock nut
4 DU bushing 11 O-ring 18 Set screw
5 Rod seal 12 Back up ring 19 Pin bushing
6 Back up ring 13 Piston 20 Dust seal
7 Buffer ring 14 O-ring 21 Bearing
22 Retaining ring

4-15
GROUP 3 OPERATIONAL CHECKS AND TROUBLESHOOTING

This procedure is designed so the service man can make a quick check of the steering system using
a minimum amount of diagnostic equipment. If you need additional information, prefer to structure
and function in group 2.
A location will be required which is level and has adequate space to complete the checks.
The engine and all other major components must be at operating temperature for some checks.
Locate system check in the left column and read completely, following this sequence from left to right.
Read each check completely before performing.
At the end of each check, if no problem is found (OK), that check is complete or an additional check
is needed. If problem is indicated (NOT OK), you will be given repair required and group location.
If verification is needed, you will be given next best source of information :
Chapter 2 : Troubleshooting
Group 4 : Tests and adjustments

4-16
※Hydraulic oil must be at operating temperature for these checks.
Item Description Service action
Steering unit check Run engine at low idle. OK
Check completed.
Turn steering wheel until frames

A
are at maximum right (A) and NOT OK

B
then left (B) positions. Go to next check.
LOOK : Frames must move
smoothly in both directions.
When steering wheel is stopped,
frames must stop.
FEEL : Excessive effort must not
be required to turn steering
wheel.
NOTE : It is normal for steering
to drift from stops when steering
wheel is released.
Steering system leakage Turn steering wheel rapidly until OK
check Right frames are against stops. Check completed.
Heat hydraulic oil to oper- Left
Hold approximately 2kgf on NO NOT T OK
ating temperature.
steering wheel. Do steering system leak-
Run engine at high idle.
age test in group 3 to
Count steering wheel revolutions
isolate the leakage.
for 1 minute.
Repeat test in opposite direction.
LOOK : Steering wheel should
rotate less than 5rpm.
NOTE : Use good judgment;
Excessive steering wheel rpm
does not mean steering will be
affected.

4-17
2. TROUBLESHOOTING
※ Diagnose malfunction charts are arranged from most probable and simplest to verify, to least
likely, more difficult to verify. Remember the following steps when troubleshooting a problem :
Step 1. Operational check out procedure (see group 3 in section 1)
Step 2. Operational checks (in this group)
Step 3. Troubleshooting
Step 4. Tests and adjustments (see group 4)

Problem Cause Remedy


No steering Low oil level. Add recommended oil.
Restricted suction line. Check.
Failed hydraulic pump. Remove and inspect return filter for
metal pump particles.
Stuck steering valve spool. Remove and inspect steering valve spool.
Relief valve in steering unit stuck open. Do relief cartridge leakage test.
Failed hydraulic lines. Check.
Slow or hard steering Too much friction in the mechanical Lubricate bearings and joints of frame
parts of the machine. or cylinders or repair if necessary.
Check steering column installation.
Cold oil. Warm the hydraulic oil.
Worn hydraulic pump. Do hydraulic pump performance check.
Low system relief valve setting. Test and adjust if necessary.
Low overload relief valves setting. Test and adjust if necessary.

4-18
Problem Cause Remedy
Constant steer ing to Air in system. Check for foamy oil.
maintain straight travel
Leakage in steering system. Do steering system leakage check.
Worn steering unit. Do steering unit neutral leakage test in
group 4.
Spring without spring force or broken. Replace springs.
Spring in overload relief valve broken. Replace overload relief valve.
Gear wheel set worn. Replace gear wheel set.
Cylinder seized or piston seals worn. Replace defects parts.
S l ow s t e e r i n g w h e e l Leakage in steering system. Do steering system leakage check.
movement will not cause
Worn steering unit gerotor. Do steering unit leakage check.
any frame movement
Steering wheel can be Leakage in steering system. Do steering system leakage check.
turned with frames
against steering stop
Steer ing wheel tur ns Broken steering column or splined of Remove and inspect.
with no resistance and steering unit.
causes no frame
Lack of oil in steering unit. Star t engine and check steering
movement
operation.
Leakage in steering system. Do steering system leakage test in
group 4.
Erratic steering Air in oil. Check for foamy oil.
Low oil level. Add recommended oil.
Loose cylinder piston. Remove rod to inspect piston.
Damaged steering unit. Remove and inspect.
Spongy or soft steering Air in oil. Check for foamy oil.
Low oil level. Add recommended oil.
Free play at steering Loose steering wheel nut. Tighten.
wheel
Worn or damaged splines on steering Inspect.
column or valve.
Steering unit binding or B i n d i n g i n s t e e r i n g c o l u m n o r Inspect.
steering wheel does not misalignment of column.
immediately return to
High return pressure. Check for a pinched or damaged return
neutral when released
line.
Contamination in steering unit. Inspect hydraulic filter for contamination.
Repair cause of contamination. Flush
hydraulic system.

4-19
Problem Cause Remedy
Steering unit locks up Large particles of contamination in Inspect hydraulic filter for contamination.
steering unit. Repair cause of contamination. Flush
hydraulic system.
Worn or damaged steering unit. Repair or replace steering unit.
Abrupt steering wheel Improperly timed gerotor gear in steering Time gerotor gear.
oscillation unit.
Steering wheel turns by Lines connected to wrong port. Reconnect lines.
itself
Worn or damaged steering unit. Repair or replace steering unit.
Neutral position of Steering column and steering unit out of Align the steering column with steering
steering wheel cannot line. unit.
be obtained, i.e. there
Too little or no play between steering Adjust the play and, if necessary,
is a tendency towards
column and steering unit input shaft. shorten
"motoring"
the splines journal.
Pinching between inner and outer
spools. Contact the nearest service shop.
"Motoring" effect. Leaf springs are stuck or broken and Replace leaf springs.
The steering wheel can have therefore reduced spring force.
turn on its own
Inner and outer spools pinch, possibly Clean steering unit or contact the
due to dirt. nearest service shop.
Return pressure in connection with the Reduce return pressure.
reaction between differential cylinder
and steering unit too high.
Backlash Cardan shaft fork worn or broken. Replace cardan shaft.
Springs without spring force or broken. Replace springs.
Worn splines on the steering column. Replace steering column.

4-20
Problem Cause Remedy
"Shimmy" effect Air in the steering cylinder. Bleed cylinder.
The steered wheels Find and remove the reason for air
vibrate collection.
(Rough tread on tires
Mechanical connections or wheel Replace worn parts.
gives vibrations.)
bearings worn.
Steering wheel can be Oil is needed in the tank. Fill with clean oil and bleed the system.
turned the whole time
Steering cylinder worn. Replace or repair cylinder.
without the steered
wheels moving Gear wheel set worn. Replace gear wheel set.
Spacer across cardan shaft forgotten. Install spacer.
Steering wheel can be One or both anticavitation valves are Clean or replace defect or missing
turned slowly in one or leaky or are missing in overload relief valves.
both directions without the valves.
steered wheels turning
One or both overload relief valves are Clean or replace.
leaky.
Steering is too slow and Insufficient oil supply to steering unit, Replace pump or increase number of
heavy when trying to turn pump defective or number of revolutions revolutions.
quickly too low.
Relief valve setting too low. Adjust valve to correct setting.
Relief valve sticking owing to dirt. Clean the valve.
"Kick back" in steering Fault in the system. Contact authorized man or shop.
wheel from system
Kicks from wheels
H e a v y k i c k - b a c k i n Wrong setting of cardan shaft and gear- Correct setting.
steering wheel in both wheel set.
directions
Turning the steering wheel Hydraulic hoses for the steering Connect lines to correct ports.
activates the steered cylinders have been switched around.
wheels opposite
Hard point when starting Oil is too thick (cold). Let machine run until oil is warm.
to turn the steering wheel
Too little steering force Pump pressure too low. Correct pump pressure.

4-21
GROUP 4 TESTS AND ADJUSTMENTS

1. HYDRAULIC OIL CLEAN UP PROCEDURE USING PORTABLE FILTER CADDY


※ Service equipment and tool.
·Portable filter caddy
·Two 3658 mm (12 ft) × 1" I.D. 100R1
hoses with 3/4 M NPT ends
·Quick disconnect fittings
·Discharge wand
·Various size fittings and hoses
※ Steering system uses oil from hydraulic
oil tank. Flush all lines in the steering
system.
Disassemble and clean major compon-
ents for steering system.
Steering components may fail if steering
system is not cleaned after hydraulic oil
tank contamination.
1) If hydraulic system is contaminated due to a
major component failure, remove and dis-
assemble steering cylinders to clean debris
from cylinders.
2) Install a new return filter element. Clean fil-
ter housing before installing new element.
※ For a failure that creates a lot of debris,
remove access cover from hydraulic oil
tank. Drain and clean hydraulic oil tank of
fill the specified oil to hydraulic oil tank
through upper cover.
3) To minimize oil loss, pull a vacuum in
hydraulic oil tank using a vacuum pump.
Connect filter caddy suction line to drain
port at bottom of hydraulic oil tank using
connector. Check to be sure debris has not
closed drain port.
4) Put filter caddy discharge line into hydraulic
oil tank filter hole so end is as far away from
drain port as possible to obtain a through
cleaning of oil.

4-22
5) Start the filter caddy. Check to be sure oil
is flowing through the filters.
Operate filter caddy approximately 10 min-
utes so oil in hydraulic oil tank is circulated
through filter a minimum of four times.
※ Hydraulic oil tank capacity 95ℓ(25.0 U.S.
gal).
Leave filter caddy operating for the next
steps.
6) Start the engine and run it at high idle.
※ For the most effective results, cleaning
procedure must start with the smallest
capacity circuit then proceed to the next
largest capacity circuit.
7) Operate all functions, one at a time, through
a complete cycle in the following order:
clam, steering, bucket, and boom. Also
include all auxiliary hydraulic functions.
Repeat procedure until the total system
capacity has circulated through filter caddy
seven times, approximately 30 minutes.
Each function must go through a minimum
of three complete cycles for a through
cleaning for oil.
※ Filtering time for machines with auxiliary
hydraulic functions must be increased
because system capacity is larger.
8) Stop the engine. Remove the filter caddy.
9) Install a new return filter element.
10) Check oil level in hydraulic oil tank ; Add oil
if necessary.

4-23
2. TEST TOOLS
1) CLAMP-ON ELECTRONIC TACHOMET-
ER INSTALLATION
· Service equipment and tools
Tachometer B
A : Clamp on tachometer.
Remove paint using emery cloth and
connect to a straight section of injec- C
tion line within 100 mm (4in) of pump.
Finger tighten only-do not over tighten.
D
B : Black clip (-). Connect to main
frame. A
C : Red clip (+). Connect to transducer.
D : Tachometer readout. Install cable.
75795SE32

2) DIGITAL THERMOMETER INSTALLATION


· Service equipment and tools
Digital thermometer
A : Temperature probe.
Fasten to a bare metal line using a A
C
tie band. Wrap with shop towel.
B
B : Cable.
C : Digital thermometer.

75795SE33

4-24
3. STEERING SYSTEM RESTRICTION TEST
· SPECIFICATION
Oil temperature 45±5˚C (113±9˚F)
Engine speed High idle
Maximum pressure 3.0MPa (30 bar, 430psi)
at steering unit
· GAUGE AND TOOL
Gauge 0~7 MPa (0~70 bar, 0~1000 psi) 2EA
· This test will check for restrictions in the
steering system which can cause overheat-
ing of hydraulic oil.
1) Install temperature reader.
(see temperature reader installation proce-
dure in this group).
P

2) Heat hydraulic oil to specifications.


(see hydraulic oil warm up procedure at
A
page 5-27).
3) Connect fitting (A) and install gauge.
Do not operate steering or loader funct-
ions or test gauge may be damaged.
4) Run engine at specification and read pres-
sure gauges.
If pressure is more than specification at the
steering unit, inspect steering unit.

850KSE37

4-25
4. STEERING UNIT LEAKAGE TEST
· SPECIFICATION
Oil temperature 45±5˚C (113±9˚F)
Engine speed High idle
Maximum leakage 15ℓ/min (4 gpm)
· GAUGE AND TOOL Cap fitting
Temperature reader
Measuring container (approx. 20ℓ) T
L
Stop watch R

1) Install frame locking bar to prevent machine


from turning.
2) Install temperature reader.
(see temperature reader installation proce-
dure in this group).
3) Heat hydraulic oil to specifications.
(see hydraulic oil warm up procedure at
page 5-27).
4) Disconnect return hose from fitting.
Install cap fitting.
5) Run engine at specifications. Rotate steer-
ing wheel against locking bar using approxi-
mately 1.2 kgf·m of force.
Measure oil flow from return hose for 1 min-
ute.
6) Leakage is greater than specifications, Safety lock bar
repair or replace steering unit.

830KSE38

4-26
5. STEERING UNIT PRESSURE TEST
· SPECIFICATION
Oil temperature 45±5˚C (113±9˚F)
Engine speed High idle
Oil pressure 16 MPa
(160 bar, 1160 psi)
· GAUGE AND TOOL
Gauge 0~35 MPa (0~350 bar, 0~5000 psi)
Temperature reader
1) Connect gauge to test port.
2) Install temperature reader (see installation
procedure in this group). Test port

3) Install frame locking bar.


Steering cylinder
4) Heat hydraulic oil to specifications (see
hydraulic oil warm up procedure at page Relief valve
5-27).
5) Run engine at specifications and turn steer-
A
ing wheel rapidly hold approximately 22N B
(5lb force) pressure on wheel with frames
locked.
※ If steering wheel is turned slowly, it will
continue to with the frames locked.
This will give an incorrect pressure read-
ing.
If steering wheel continues to turn rapidly
with the frames locked, steering system
leakage is indicated.
6) Read pressure gauge. This is the steering
valve relief pressure.
7) If pressure in not to specification, remove
the plug (A) from steering unit. Turn adjust- Safety lock bar
ing screw (B) in relief cartridge using a hex
head wrench to adjust pressure.
If pressure cannot be adjusted to specifica-
tion, disassemble and inspect steering unit. 830KSE39

4-27
SECTION 5 WORK EQUIPMENT

Group 1 Hydraulic circuit --------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------- 5-1


Group 2 Structure and function ---------------------------------------------------------------------------------------- 5-3
Group 3 Operational checks and troubleshooting ---------------------------------------------------------- 5-15
Group 4 Test and adjustments ------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------ 5-25
SECTION 5 WORK EQUIPMENT
GROUP 1 HYDRAULIC CIRCUIT

1. HYDRAULIC CIRCUIT

HL830S5WE01

1 Main pump 7 Steering unit


2 Main control valve 8 Return filter
3 Boom cylinder 9 Bypass valve
4 Bucket cylinder 10 Air breather
5 Steering cylinder 11 Hydraulic tank
6 Priority valve
2. WORK EQUIPMENT HYDRAULIC CIRCUIT

Steering system Steering system

HL830S5WE02

1 Main pump 8 Return filter


2 Main control valve 9 Bypass valve
3 Boom cylinder 10 Air breather
4 Bucket cylinder 11 Hydraulic tank
GROUP 2 STRUCTURE AND FUNCTION

1. MAIN PUMP
1) STRUCTURE

HL830S5WE03

1 Snap ring 7 Seal 13 Driven gear


2 Oil seal 8 Gasket 14 Rivet
3 Rolling bearing 9 Seal 15 Decal
4 Seal 10 Seal 16 Rear cover body
5 Front cover 11 Side plate 17 Bolt
6 Bearing 12 Drive gear

5-3
2) MOUNTING REQUIREMENTS FOR GEAR PUMP
(1) Entry of gear pump should keep clean and no pollution. Interfacing surface of entry and discharge
should not be damaged and good sealing with O-ring seal should be guaranteed.
(2) Check if the depth of mounting hole for gear pump is longer than the length of the shaft of pump
so to prevent potential impact to the shaft and gear pump from burning out. Key shaft should be
assembled normally.

3) NOTES IN USING
(1) It’s strictly prohibited for user to disassemble the product, or the manufacturer will not guarantee
the performance of product.
(2) Viscosity of oil is dependant to temperature. When oil temperature increases, its viscosity
decreases. Therefore, oil temperature should be maintained under 80°C. To secure the gear pump
working normally under different operating temperature, selected oil should feature little change
by variation of temperature, and have good chemical durability and foam resistance. Use of L-
HM46 (GB11118.1-94) anti-wear hydraulic oil is recommended.
(3) No impurities from machine and corrosive substance should be in oil. There should be filtering
devices with a precision of 25 µm in the system where the gear pump is working for.
(4) For transmission of gear pump, the manners that may produce radial force to pump (such as
direct geared and pulley transmission) are not permitted. Shaft bushing or elastic coupling can be
used. Requirements for concentricity: not more than 0.5 mm for shaft bushing type, no more than
0.1 mm for coupling type. Axial force is not permitted.
(5) The entry and discharge of gear pump should be assembled securely and sealing be reliable. Or
air may be included and oil leaks caused to lower the performance of gear pump.
(6) Max. pressure and max. rate of gear pump means momentary peak values permitted during
operation. Long time of continued use of gear pump may shorten its life span.
(7) Check if the depth of mounting hole for gear pump is longer than the length of the shaft of pump
so to prevent potential impact to the shaft and gear pump from burning out.
(8) Before mounting the gear pump, check the rotating direction of pump meets requirement.
(9) Installation position of the pump as possible the pump oil inport below the oil tank level, if the oil
inport installed must be above the oil level, it should not exceed the height difference is generally
0.5m, pump inlet velocity should not exceed 2.5m / s, inport pressure: -0.05 ~ +0.1 Mpa,
connection the outlet of the pump inlet tank, if neel to install filters, strainers installed only allowed
50 or less, otherwise it will cause early damage to the pump.

5-4
4) TROUBLESHOOTING

Problem Cause Remedy


Noise in pump Air in system. Fasten up all the connectors.
Insufficient oil supply. Refill oil to an adequate level.
Cold oil. Run slowly.
Contaminated suction filter. Clean or replace the filter.
Too thin suction pipe. Use a larger pipe.
Suction pipe is clogged. Remove the obstruction.
Clogged air filter in oil tank. Clean or replace the air filter.
Poor concentricity of pump and Inspect.
input shaft.
Severe resonance with tank, Check piping, elements and bolts for
peripheral parts of piping. being securely fastened.
Pump lags in response or no Insufficient oil supply. Refill oil to an adequate level.
response Improper pressure setting of Regulate the pressure of relief valve.
relief valve.
Worn or damaged pump. Repair or replace.
Worn, leaking or stuck valve. Repair or replace.
High oil temperature Too low pressure setting at Regulate pressure of overflow valve.
overflow valve.
Too low viscosity of hydraulic oil. Use recommended hydraulic oil.
Too low oil level. Refill oil to an adequate level.
Small tank. Add an oil cooler or replace with larger
tank.
Worn or damaged pump. Repair or replace.
Foam forms in oil Air has entered into oil tank Fasten up all the connectors.
through suction pipe.
Incorrect selection of oil. Use recommended oil.
Too low oil level. Refill oil to an adequate level.
Tank baffle design is
Correction baffle design
unreasonable
The return pipe installed under the
Return pipe above the oil level
oil level
Worn or damaged lip seal for
Replace the lip seal for main shaft.
main shaft.

5-5
Problem Cause Remedy
Insufficient flow of pump or Damaged side plate. Replace side plate.
pressure
Overload valve failure Replace the overload valve
Air has entered into the system. Fasten up all the connectors.
Too high viscosity of oil. Use recommended oil.
Leaks occur even after replacing Contaminated oil. Change all the oil.
lip seal for main shaft Damaged lip seal for main shaft Replace drive gear shaft.
has damaged the sealing area of
drive gear.

Worn or damaged seal ring. Replace seal ring.

5) NOTICE IN PLACING ORDER

TURN RIGHT TURN LEFT


(CLOCKWISE) (COUNTER CLOCKWISE)

5-6
2. MAIN CONTROL VALVE
1) STRUCTURE

HL830S5WE04

1 Bolt 14 Spring 27 O-ring kit


2 End cover 15 Poppet 28 Plug
3 Stopper 16 Plug 29 Body
4 Spring retaine 17 O-ring kit 30 Spool
5 Spring 18 Spring 31 Spacer
6 Spring retaine 19 Poppet 32 Spring
7 Spacer 20 Bolt 33 Ball
8 O-ring kit 21 Dust seal 34 Spool positioner
9 Spool 22 End cap
10 Relief valve 23 O-ring kit
11 Overload valve 24 Pin
12 Plug 25 Plug
13 O-ring 26 O-ring

7
2) OVERVIEW
The valve has the following characteristics,
1. T he ultra-low leakage to prevent excessive sedimentation.
2. Reduce the deformation of the stem of high temperature and high pressure and reduce the
operating force and avoid hydraulic clamping.
3. Valve body structure design more optimized to increase the capacity to accept the pressure.
4. Lower pressure loss.
Multi-way directional valve is of integrated slide valve structure which includes 2 spools valve
(bucket and boom spool) and triple multi-way valve (service spool, bucket spool, boom spool). Oil
ways include parallel and series connection. Multi-way valve has also various service valves
(overflow valve, overload valve, makeup valve) attached. As a hydraulic device for main equipment
of large and medium loader, the valve features compact structure, reliable functions, high
performance, good sealing, and convenient repair.

3) MODEL IDENTIFICATION AND TECHNICAL DATA

(1) Model identification

G DF - XX XX
Product code

Inner diameter

Series code

Product number

(2) Technical data

Product series GDF-25 Series

Nominated flow L / min 160

Nominated pressure Mpa 20

Pressure regulating range Mpa 8-20


Pressure regulating range of overload valve Mpa 8-25

4) STRUCTURE AND WORKING PRINCIPLE


(1) Structure
See figure 1 in the next page.
2) Working Principle
((2)
This valve is designed with serial-parallel conception (figure 2). It changes the directions of
flow to control bucket cylinder and boom cylinders or leave the specific components at a
certain position so that it can fullfil the basic requirement of construction equipment.

8
Lift Retract (roll back)
Neutral
Lower Neutral
Float Dump

9
Pressure taps

Figure 1 Connection and size


Port
Port
Figure 2 Hydraulic circuit

Boom spool has 4 positions and 6 ways . It can realize the function of raising, holding,
lowering and floating.
Main relief valve control the whole pressure of the system. Once the pressure exceeds the
rated pressure, the valve would open a way direct to tank to protect the system against over
pressure.
In the multi-way directional valve, port P is flow inlet , T is flow return. A1 and B1 connect
to the large chamber and small chamber of bucket cylinder respectively. A2 and B2 connect
to the large chamber and small chamber of boom cylinders respectively. Check valve is used
to prevent pressure oil flowing back to the tank so that fix the “nodding” problem.
(1) Neutral position:
When bucket spool and boom spool are at neutral positions, oil from pump returns to tank
directly through port P.
(2) Boom raising:
When the boom spool is pulled out, the oil way from P to T is closed. Fluid flows directly to A2
which is connected to the large chamber of boom cylinders. The oil in the small chamber
would return to tank through B2.Then the boom raises.
(3) Boom lowering:
When the boom spool is pushed in at the first position, the oil way from P to T is closed too.
Fluid flows directly to B2 which is connected to the small chamber of the boom cylinders. The
oil in the large chamber would return to tank through A2. Then the boom lowers.

(4) Boom floating:


When the boom spool is pushed in further more, all the inlet port P and large chamber and
small chamber of boom cylinders are connected to tank. The cylinders become floating by the
weight of equipment and bearing the force from ground.

(5) Bucket roll back:


When the bucket spool is pulled out. The oil way from P to T is closed. Fluid flows directly to
A1 which is connected to the large chamber of bucket cylinder. The oil in the small chamber
would return to tank through B1. Then the bucket rolls back.
(6) Bucket dumping:
When the bucket spool is pushed in. The oil way from P to T is closed too. Fluid directly to B1
which is connected to the small chamber of bucket cylinder. The oil in the large chamber
would return to tank through A1. Then the bucket dumps.

10
When the external force is not applied to the bucket spool. The spring would push or pull the
spool back to the neutral position.
(7) Overload-make-up valve:
Overload and make-up valves are applied in both side of bucket cylinder.(Based on
requirement). It would keep the system safety when the bucket receives external impact or
interfered with by other mechanisms. Besides, it would make up oil for cylinder to prevent a
chamber to be evacuated.
5) MOUNTING AND USING
(1) When transporting, mounting, and storing the product, be careful that the product does not
receive impacts that may damage the machined surface or flange face.
(2) Mounting plate should be level, mounting screws fastened in even torque.
(3) Never disassemble the product in dust before assembling to machine to prevent dust from
entering.
(4) Operating fluid should be clean, cleanliness meeting ISO4406 19/16 or NAS1638 11 grade
and up.
(5) The oil viscosity index V>9%, the best viscosity for work(recommended) is 20-30m ㎡/S.
(6) The user without pressure detection conditions, it is strictly prohibited to adjust the safety valve
and overload valve pressure.
6) TROUBLESHOOTING

No. Problem Cause Remedy


Insufficient operating 1. Pressure of main relief valve is on 1. Regulate pressure of main relief
pressure low side. valve.

2. Spool of main relief valve is stuck. 2. Remove and clean, or replace


valve spool.
1 3. Damaged pressure regulating 3. Replace with new product.
spring.

4. Too much pressure loss in system 4. Replace piping, or regulate


line. pressure of main relief valve within
the allowable range of pressure.

Insufficient operating 1. Oil supply to system is insufficient. Check oil source and repair oil pump.
flow 2. Too much leaks inside valve.
a. Too high oil temperature, low a. Take measures to reduce oil
2 viscosity temperature.

b. Improper hydraulic oil. b. Change hydraulic oil.


c. Too much clearance between c. Replace slide valve to keep a
slide valve and valve body. reasonable clearing.
Malfunction in return. 1. Damaged or deformed return 1. Replace with new product.
spring.
2. Reset parts have different 2.Reassemble,remain concentricity
3 concentricity

3. Dirt between valve lever and valve 3. Clean part.


body.

11
No. Problem Cause Remedy
1.Overload valve is stuck with dirt. 1.Clean and install.
2.Oil is not clean. 2.Change oil.
4
3.Damaged O - ring. 3.Replace with new product.

4.Leak of cylinder. 4.Check and repair cylinder.


External seeps and 1. Damaged seal ring. 1. Replace with new product.
leaks
2. Poor sealing on flange 2. Check fastening and sealing of
5 surface. related parts.

3. Loose fastening pieces. 3. Fasten related fastening piece.

7) NOTES IN DISASSEMBLY
(1) Keep clean field for assembly. Dust and dirt shall be strictly prevented.
(2) Never clean rubber sealing pieces with gasoline.
(3) To prevent from damage to part, never knock a part with an iron object when disassembling.
(4) Be sure to clean all the parts with kerosene or cleaner before assembling.
(5) After assembling, be sure to perform test and only passed product can be used.

5-12
3. BOOM CYLINDER

14
13
17
15
16

18

19
1
25 22
21
26

23

22
2
25
24
27
29
28 26
10
9
7
6
8 3

12
20 11
5

HL830S5WE05

1 Tube assy 11 O-ring 21 Bushing


2 Rod assy 12 Snap 22 Dust seal
3 Cylinder head 13 Piston 23 Pipe assy - R
4 Bushing 14 O-ring 24 Pipe assy - B
5 Snap ring 15 Piston ring 25 O-ring
6 Snap ring 16 Wear ring 26 Hexagon screw
7 Snap 17 Dust seal 27 Clamp
8 Buffer ring 18 Nut 28 Bolt
9 Dust seal 19 Screw 29 Spring Washer
10 Snap ring 20 Hexagon screw

3
4. BUCKET CYLINDER

22
21

22 2

10
9
7
6
8 3
17
13

15 12

11
14

16 19 4
5
18

1
22

21

22
23

24
26
28
27

25
HL830S5WE06

1 Tube assy 10 Snap ring 19 Screw


2 Rod assy 11 O-ring 20 Hexagon screw
3 Cylinder head 12 Snap ring 21 Bushing
4 Bushing 13 Piston 22 Dust seal
5 Snap ring 14 Piston ring 23 Base pipe assy
6 Snap ring 15 Dust seal 24 O-ring
7 Snap ring 25 Hexagon screw
16 Wear ring
26 Clamp
8 Buffer ring 17 O-ring 27 Bolt
9 Dust seal 18 Nut 28 Washer

4
GROUP 3 OPERATIONAL CHECKS AND TROUBLESHOOTING

1. OPERATIONAL CHECKS
This procedure is designed so the mechanic can make a quick check of the system using a minimum
amount of diagnostic equipment. If you need additional information, read structure and function,
Group 2.
A location will be required which is level and has adequate space to complete the checks.
The engine and all other major components must be at operating temperature for some checks.
Locate system check in the left column and read completely, following the sequence from left to right.
Read each check completely before performing.
At the end of each check, if no problem is found (OK), that check is complete or an additional check is
needed. If problem is indicated (NOT OK), you will be given repair required and group location.
If verification is needed, you will be given next best source of information:

·Chapter 2 : Troubleshooting
·Group 4 : Tests and adjustments

5-15
※ Hydraulic oil must be at operating temperature for these checks.

Item Description Service action


Hydraulic system warm-up Hold a hydraulic function over OK
procedure relief to heat oil (don't keep relief Check completed.
condition over 5 seconds at a
Run engine at high idle.
time).
Refer to page 5-27.
Periodically cycle all hydraulic
functions to distribute warm oil.
Repeat procedure until oil is at
operating temperature.
FEEL : Hydraulic reservoir must
be uncomfortable to hold your
hand against.
(approximately 40 ~50˚C)
Hydraulic pump With bucket flat on ground, OK
performance check actuate boom raise. Time how Check completed.
long it takes to raise boom to full
Heat hydraulic oil to NOT OK
height.
operating temperature. C h e ck t h e hy d r a u l i c
Run engine at high idle. LOOK : Boom must raise to full pump.
height in less than 6~7 seconds.
IF OK
Do steering system
leakage check at page
4-21.
IF OK
Do main hydraulic pump
flow test at page 5-28.
Control valve lift check With bucket partially dumped, OK
Run machine at low idle. lower boom to raise front of Check complete.
machine.
NOT OK
Slowly move boom control lever Repair lift checks in
to boom lower position. loader control valve.
Slowly move bucket control lever
to bucket dump position.
LOOK : Boom must not raise
before moving down.
Bucket must not rollback before
dumping.

5-16
Item Description Service action
Bucket rollback circuit relief Position bucket at a 45˚ angle OK
valve check against an immovable object. Check complete.
Engage transmission in 2nd NOT OK
speed forward. Replace boom lower
check valve.
LOOK : Bucket angle must not
change.
Bucket dump circuit relief Raise front of machine which OK
valve low pressure check bucket at 45˚ angle. Go to next check.
Backdrag with bucket while NOT OK
observing bucket angle. Do loader system and
circuit relief valve test at
LOOK : Bucket must not rollback
page 5-29.
Boom cylinder and bucket S e t t h e b o o m a n d bu cke t OK
cylinder drift check horizontal, then stop the engine. Check complete.
H e a t hy d r a u l i c o i l t o Stop the engine, wait for 5 NOT OK
operating temperature. minutes, then start measuring. Go to next check.
B
Measure the amount the lift and
dump cylinder rods retract during
A
15 minutes. (unloaded bucket)
A : Retraction of boom cylinder
rod
B : Retraction of bucket cylinder
rod
B Boom cylinder must drift less
than 36 mm
A Bucket cylinder must drift less
than 33 mm

5-17
Item Description Service action
Boom cylinder leakage Dump bucket until teeth or cutting OK
check edge is perpendicular to the Drift is approximately the
ground. same between first and
H e a t hy d r a u l i c o i l t o
second measurement.
operating temperature. Raise boom until cutting edge is
about 1 m (3 ft) above ground.
Repair loader control
Stop engine. Measure drift from valve or circuit relief valve.
tooth or cutting edge to ground
for 1 minute. NOT OK
If drift is considerably less
Wait 10 minutes.
on second measurement,
Measure drift from tooth or repair cylinder.
cutting edge to ground for 1
minute.
LOOK : Compare the drift rate
between the first measurement
and the second measurement.
Bucket cylinder leakage Raise bucket about 1 m (3 ft) off OK
check ground with bucket level. Drift is approximately the
same between first and
H e a t hy d r a u l i c o i l t o Stop engine. Place a support
second measurement.
operating temperature. under boom.
Measure drift from tooth or Repair loader control
cutting edge to ground for 1 valve or circuit relief valve
minute. at page 5-30.
Wait 10 minutes.
NOT OK
Measure drift from tooth or Drift is considerably less
cutting edge to ground for 1 on second measurement.
minute.
Repair cylinder.
LOOK : Compare the drift rates
between the first measurement
and the second measurement.
Check valve of safety valve Put bucket level and position OK
leakage check about 1.2 m (4 ft) above ground. Check complete.
H e a t hy d r a u l i c o i l t o Place a piece of tape on cylinder
NOT OK
operating temperature. rod at least 51 mm (2 in) from rod
Check or replace safety
guide.
valve.
Run engine at low idle in safety-
release position.
LOOK : Bucket must not drift up.
Control lever check Stop engine. Turn key switch to OK
OFF position. Check completed.
Move bucket control lever to roll
NOT OK
back, dump positions and then
Repair bucket control
release.
lever.
LOOK : Lever must return to
neutral when released from roll
back, dump positions.

5-18
Item Description Service action
Cycle time check Function Operating condition. Maximum cycle time
H e a t hy d r a u l i c o i l t o Boom raise Bucket flat on ground to full 5.4 sec
operating temperature. height.
Run engine at high idle.
Boom lower Full height to level ground. 2.7 sec
Bucket dump Boom at full height. 1.1 sec
Bucket rollback Boom at full height. 1.5 sec
Steering [No. of Frame stop to frame stop. 3.4 turns
turns]
OK
Check complete.
NOT OK
Go to slow hydraulic
functions in group 3.

5-19
※ MEASURING BOOM AND BUCKET CYCLE TIME
1) MEASUREMENT CONDITION
·Coolant temperature : Inside operating range
·Steering position : Neutral
·Hydraulic temperature : 40~50˚C
·Bucket : Unloaded
·Engine speed : High idling
2) MEASU
MEASURING
RING TOOL
· Stop watch (1EA)

3) MEASURIN
MEASURING G PROCEDURE
(1) Lifting time of boom Lifting time of boom
Set the bucket near the maximum tilt back
position and at the lowest position on the
ground. Raise the bucket and measure
the time taken for bucket to reach the
maximum height of the boom.

HL830S5WE07

(2) Lowering time of boom


Set the bucket horizontal with the boom at Lowering time of boom
the maximum height, lower the bucket
and measure the taken for the bucket to
reach the lowest position on the ground.

HL830S5WE08

(3) Dumping time of bucket


Raise the boom to the maximum height Dumping time of bucket
Rollback time of bucket
and measure the time taken for the bucket
to move from the maximum tilt back
position to the maximum dump position
(4) Roll back time of bucket
Raise the boom to the maximum height
and measure the time taken for the bucket
to reach the maximum tilt back position. HL830S5WE09

5-20
2. TROUBLESHOOTING
※ Diagnose malfunction charts are arranged from most probable and simplest to verify, to least likely,
more difficult to verify. Remember the following steps when troubleshooting a problem :

Step 1. Operational check out procedure (see section 1)


Step 2. Operational checks (see group 3)
Step 3. Troubleshooting
Step 4. Tests and adjustments (see group 4)

Problem Cause Remedy


Noisy hydraulic pump Low oil supply or wrong viscosity. Fill reservoir with recommended oil.
Plugged or pinched suction line. Clean or replace line.
Air in oil. Check for foamy oil.
Tighten connections.
Replace O-rings and or lines.
Plugged suction line. Inspect and clean suction line.
Loose or missing hydraulic line clamps. Tighten or replace clamps.
Hydraulic lines in contract with frame. Inspect and repair.
Worn or damaged pump. Do hydraulic pump performance check
in group 3. Do hydraulic pump flow test
in group 4.
No or Slow hydraulic Failed or worn hydrualic pump. Do performance check.
functions
Cold oil. Warm oil up.
Slow engine speed. Adjust engine speed.
Check high idle speed.
Suction line air leak. Check for foamy oil.
Low oil supply. Add recommended oil.
Wrong oil viscosity. Use recommended oil.
Oil leaking past cylinders or control Check cylinder drift in group 3.
valve.
Blocked or damaged line. Inspect lines.

Binding loader control valve (MCV) Inspect valve.


spool.

5-21
Problem Cause Remedy
No steering or hydraulic Low oil level. Add recommended oil.
function
Failed hydraulic pump. Remove and inspect return filter for
metal pump particles.
No hydraulic functions Failed hydraulic pump. Remove and inspect return filter for
steering normal metal pump particles, or replace the
pump.
Stuck open port relief valve. Replace relief valve.
Boom float function Loader control valve (MCV) spool Do pressure reducing valve pressure
does not work binding in bore. test.
One hydraulic function Stuck open port relief valve. Replace relief valve.
does not work.
Oil leaking past cylinder packings. Do boom and bucket cylinder leakage
test in group 4.
Inspect lines for damage.
Blockage in oil lines or valve.
Disconnect and inspect lines for internal
blockage.
Loader control valve (MCV) spool stuck Inspect and repair valve.
in bore.
Low hydraulic power Leakage within work circuit. Do cylinder drift check in group 3.
Low system relief valve (main relief Do loader system and port relief valve
valve) setting. pressure test in group 4.
Low port relief valve setting. Do loader system and port relief valve
pressure test in group 4.

Leaking system relief valve. Remove and inspect valve.


Worn hydraulic pump. Do hydraulic pump performance check
in group 3.

5-22
Problem Cause Remedy
Function drifts down Leaking cylinders. Do cylinder leakage checks in group 4.
Leaking seals in circuit relief valve (port Inspect seals. Replace relief valve.
relief valve) or valve stuck open.
Leaking loader control valve (MCV). Repair or replace valve section.
Boom drifts up Leakage in boom down spool. Remove and inspect boom down spool.
Boom down does not MCV spool stuck. Inspect and repair valve.
work (engine off)
Oil overheats Low oil viscosity in hot weather. Use recommended oil.
Excessive load. Reduce load.
Holding hydraulic system over relief. Reduce load.
Leakage in work circuit. Do boom and bucket cylinder leakage
test in group 4.
Plugged fins in oil cooler. Inspect and clean oil cooler.
Internally plugged oil cooler. Do hydraulic oil cooler restriction test.
Incorrect system or circuit relief valve Do loader system and circuit relief valve
setting. pressure test in group 4.
Restriction in oil lines or loader control Inspect for dented or kinked lines.
valve (MCV).
Malfunctioning steering unit. Do hydraulic system restriction test in
group 4.
Leaking system main relief valve. Do hydraulic system restriction test in
group 4.
Remove and inspect valve and seals.
Worn hydraulic pump (internal leakage). Do hydraulic pump performance check
in group 3.
Hydraulic oil foams Low oil level. Add recommended oil.
Wrong oil. Change to recommended oil.
Water in oil. Change oil.
Loose or faulty suction lines (air leak in Tighten or install new lines.
system).

5-23
※ Followings are general precautions for the hydraulic system and equipment.
1) Every structure has its limit of strength and durability. The relief valve is installed to limit the
pressure on the hydraulic equipment and protect various parts of the wheel loader from possible
damage. Therefore, never change the preset pressure of the relief valve unless absolutely
necessary.
2) Since the hydraulic equipment is built with precision, the presence of only the slightest amount of
dust and / or other particles in the hydraulic circuit might cause wear and/or damage, resulting in
unstable functions and/or damage, resulting in unstable functions and/or unexpected accidents.
Therefore, always keep hydraulic oil clean. Periodically, check the filter in the return circuit and
replace the element as necessary.
3) Extract about 200cc of hydraulic oil from the tank as a sample every 6 months. If possible, have it
analyzed by a specialist to confirm that the oil can still be used. Never extract the oil for sampling
until the oil temperature has become the normal operating temperature. Since the replacement
period varies depending on operating conditions, refer to Operator's Manual and change oil.
4) Should the equipment get damaged due to the presence of metal particles and/or foreign matter in
the circuit drain out the hydraulic oil and carry out flushing. Also, replace the filter element and
clean the hydraulic tank. Change the hydraulic oil entirely.
5) When checking the filter, if found metal particles in the element, drain out the hydraulic oil entirely,
flush the whole circuit, and then fill with new oil. The presence of metal particles may indicate
internal damage to the equipment. In such a case, check carefully before flushing, and repair or
replace as required.
6) To add and/or change the hydraulic oil, always use recommended oil. (Refer to the list of
recommended oils and lubricants at page 1-17, Recommended lubricants.)
lubricants. Never mix oil of
different makes of kinds.
7) To change the hydraulic oil, use a clean vessel and funnel for pouring it into the tank. Never use
cloth because it might cause the presence of lint in the circuit.
8) When removing the hydraulic equipment, be sure to put plugs or caps on hoses, tube lines and
ports. Also, enter mating marks for later identification.
9) Disassemble and/or assemble the hydraulic equipment only in a clean place free of dust. When
disassembling, be careful about the interchangeability of parts, and clean the disassembled parts
with pure and clean mineral cleansing oil. Clean the internal passages as well. After the parts
have dried, wipe them off with a clean lint-free cloth.
10) When overhauling the hydraulic equipment replace all O-rings, backup rings, etc. with new ones.
Assemble O-rings with grease or vaseline applied.
11) After installing the equipment, add more hydraulic oil to make up for that lost during disassembly.
12) Tighten joints correctly. Loose joints will cause the hydraulic oil to leak. If the oil leaks, the tank oil
level drops and air gets sucked in, so the pump will break down. Also loose joints in suction lines
will take air in and might cause abnormal noise, malfunction or damage to pumps.

5-24
GROUP 4 TESTS AND ADJUSTMENTS

1. HYDRAULIC OIL CLEAN UP PROCEDURE USING PORTABLE FILTER CADDY


※ Service equipment and tool
·Portable filter caddy
·Two 4000 mm × 1in 100R1 Hoses
·Quick disconnect fittings.
·Discharge wand
·Various size fittings.
※ Flush all lines in the steering system and
cut off system. Disassemble and clean
major components for steering system.
Steering components may fail if steering
system is not cleaned after hydraulic oil
tank contamination.
1) If hydraulic system is contaminated due to a
major component failure, remove and
disassemble steering cylinders to clean
debris from cylinders.
2) Install a new return filter element. Inspect
filter housing before installing new element.
※ For a failure that creates a lot of debris,
remove access cover from hydraulic oil
tank. Drain and clean hydraulic oil tank of fill
the specified oil to hydraulic oil tank through
upper cover.
3) To minimize oil loss, pull a vacuum in
hydraulic oil tank using a vacuum pump.
Connect filter caddy suction line to drain
port at bottom of hydraulic oil tank using
connector. Check to be sure debris has not
closed drain port.
4) Put filter caddy discharge line into hydraulic
oil tank filler hole so end is as far away from
drain port as possible to obtain a thorough
cleaning of oil.

5-25
5) Start the filter caddy. Check to be sure oil is
flowing through the filters.
Operate filter caddy approximately 10
minutes so oil in hydraulic oil tank is
circulated through filter a minimum of four
times.
※ Hydraulic oil tank capacity : 90ℓ(23.8 U.S.
gal)
Leave filter caddy operation for the next
steps.
6) Start the engine and run it at high idle.
※ For the most effective results, cleaning
procedure must start with the smallest
capacity circuit then proceed to the next
largest capacity circuit.
7) Operate all functions, one at a time, through
a complete cycle in the following order :
Steering, bucket, and boom. Also include all
auxiliary hydraulic functions.
Repeat procedure until the total system
capacity has circulated through filter caddy
seven times, approximately 30 minutes.
Each function must go through a minimum
of three complete cycles for a through
cleaning for oil.
※ Filtering time for machines with auxiliary
hydraulic functions must be increased
because system capacity is larger.
8) Stop the engine. Remove the filter caddy.
9) Install a new return filter element.

10) Check oil level in reservoir; Add oil if


necessary.

5-26
2. TEST TOOLS
1) CLAMP-ON ELECTRONIC TACHOMETER
INSTALLATION
·Service equipment and tools
Tachometer B
A : Clamp on tachometer.
Remove paint using emery cloth and
connect to a straight section of injection C
line within 100 mm (4 in) of pump. Finger
Tighten only-do not over tighten.
D
B : Black clip ( - ). Connect to main frame.
C : Red clip (+). Connect to transducer. A
D : Tachometer readout. Install cable.
75795SE32

2) DIGITAL THERMOMETER INSTALLATION


·Service equipment and tools
Digital thermometer
A : Temperature probe.
Fasten to a bare metal line using a tie A
band. Wrap with shop towel. C
B : Cable. B
C : Digital thermometer.

75795SE33

3. HYDRAULIC OIL WARM UP PROCEDURE


1) Install temperature reader (see temperature
reader installation procedure in this group).
2) Run engine at high idle.
3) Hold a hydraulic function over relief to heat
the oil.
4) Periodically cycle all hydraulic functions to
distribute warm oil.
5) Heat oil to test specification (approx. 45˚C).

5-27
4. MAIN HYDRAULIC PUMP FLOW TEST
· SPECIFICATION
Oil temperature 45±5˚C (113±9˚F)
Engine speed 2200±25 rpm
Test pressure 173±5 bar (2461 psi)
Maximum pump flow 221ℓ/min (58.4 gpm)
· FLOW METER AND TOOL
Flow meter 300ℓ/min (79.3 gpm) Flow meter
Temperature reader
1) Make test connections. To MCV
2) Install temperature reader.
(see temperature reader installation
procedure in this group)
3) Heat hydraulic oil to specifications.
(see hydraulic oil warm up procedure in this
group)
4) Run engine at test specifications.
5) Close flow meter loading valve to increase Main pump
pressure to test specifications.
6) Read flow meter.
7) If flow is below specifications, check suction
line and suction pressure for abnormality
before removing pump. 830KWE33

5-28
5. LOADER
L ADER SYSTEM AND PORT RELIEF
VALVE PRESSURE TEST
· SPECIFICATION
Oil temperature (40~50˚C)
Relief valve Engine speed Relief pressure
System 173±5 kg/cm2 M
Low
(M) (2461±70 psi)
Bucket 203±5 kg/cm2
Low
rollback (R) (2887±70 psi)
Bucket 122±5 kg/cm2
Low
dump (D) (1740±70 psi)
Bucket
· Gauge and tool Boom
Gauge 0~35 MPa (0~350 bar, 0~5000 psi) D
R
M : System (main) relief valve
R : Bucket rollback relief
D : Bucket dump relief
1) Install fitting and pressure gauge to test port
in pump delivery line.
2) Install temperature reader.
(see temperature reader installation
procedure in this group)
MCV
3) Heat hydraulic oil to specifications.
(see hydraulic oil warm up procedure in this
group)
4) To check the system relief (M), run engine
at low idle. Lower boom to bottomed
position.
Slowly activate boom down function while
Hyd tank
watching pressure gauge. If pressure is not
to specification, loosen lock nut on system
relief valve (M) and adjust to specification.
※ Do not adjust the system relief valve above
173 kg/cm2 (2461 psi). Damage to the pump
will result from excessive pressure settings. 830KWE34

5-29
6. HYDRAULIC SYSTEM RESTRICTION
TEST
· SPECIFICATION
Oil temperature 45±5˚C (113±9˚F)
Engine speed High idle
Maximum pressure
3 MPa (30 bar, 43 psi) at steering unit
Maximum pressure at main control valve
1 MPa (10 bar, 145 psi)
· GAUGE AND TOOL
Gauge 0~7 MPa (0~70 bar, 0~1000 psi) 2EA
This test will check for restrictions in the
hydraulic system which can cause
overheating of hydraulic oil.
1) Install temperature reader. T

(see temperature reader installation


procedure in this group)
Steering unit
2) Heat hydraulic oil to specifications.
(see hydraulic oil warm up procedure in this
group)
3) Connect fitting and gauge to steering valve.
4) Connect fitting and gauge to main control
valve.
Do not operate steering or loader funct- MCV
ions or test gauge may be damaged.
5) Run engine at specification and read
pressure gauges.
If pressure is more than specification at the
loader control valve, check for a kinked,
dented or obstructed hydraulic line. Check
loader control valve for a binding spool.
If pressure is more than specification at the
steering unit, inspect neutral condition of
the steering unit and priority valve for a
stuck spool. Make sure orifice plugs are
installed in ends of priority valve spool.
Check for plugged orifice in priority valve LS
port and dynamic signal orifice on the spool
of priority valve. 830KWE42

5-30
7. LOADER CYLINDER DRIFT TEST
· SPECIFICATION
Oil temperature 45±5˚C (113±9˚F)
Boom horizontal
Bucket horizontal
Bucket unloaded
Item Standard value
Retraction of boom
8 mm
cylinder rod
B
Retraction of bucket
8 mm
cylinder rod

· GAUG
GAUGE E AND TOOL
Stop watch A
Temperature reader
A : Retraction of boom cylinder rod
Put the safety lock lever in the lock
B : Retraction of bucket cylinder rod
position.
Do not go under the work equipment.

1) Set the boom and bucket horizontal, then


stop the engine.
2) Stop the engine, wait for 5 minutes, then
start measuring.
3) Measure the amount the boom and bucket
7577AWE31
cylinder rods retract during 5 minutes.

5-31
8. BOOM AND BUCKET CYLINDER LEAKAGE TEST
· SPECIFICATION
Oil temperature 45±5˚C (113±9˚F)
Engine speed Low idle
Maximum leakage 15 mℓ/min (1/2 oz/min)
· GAUGE AND TOOL
Temperature reader
Stop watch
Measuring container
1) Fasten temperature sensor to head end
port of cylinder to be tested. Cover sensor
with a shop towel.
2) Heat hydraulic oil to specifications (see
hydraulic oil warm up procedure in this
group).
Never work under raised equipment
unless it is supported with a hoist or
support stands.
3) Full extend the cylinder to be tested. If
testing the boom cylinders, restrain boom in
the fully raised position using a hoist or a
stand.
※ Check cylinders for leakage in the fully
extended position only. In the retracted
position contacts the end of the cylinder
and seals off piston seal leakage.
4) Remove and plug cylinder rod end hose or
line.
5) Run engine at slow idle. Activate control
lever to extend cylinder for 1 minute over
relief while measuring leakage for open
port.
If leakage is within specification, excessive
cylinder drift is caused by leakage in the
loader control valve or circuit relief valve. (770-3ATM) 6-56

5-32
9. CYCLE TIME TEST
· SPECIFICATION
Oil temperature 45±5˚C (113±9˚F)
Engine speed High idle
Function Operating conditions Maximum cycle time (seconds)
Boom raise Bucket flat on ground to full height 5.4
Boom lower (float) Full height to ground level 2.7
Bucket dump Boom at full height 1.1
Bucket rollback Boom at full height 1.5
Steering (number of turns) Frame stop to stop 3.4 turns

5-33
10. HYDRAULIC OIL FILTER INSPECTION
PROCEDURE
1) Lower the bucket to the ground, stop the
engine, move the control lever back and
forth several times, and clean all over the
upper surface of the hydraulic oil tank.
2) Remove the bolts and take out the filter
case cover and O-ring.
3) Remove the spring and bypass valve.
4) Remove the filter element from the tank.
Cover
5) Check the element and the filter case O-ring
bottom for debris. Excessive amounts of Spring
brass and steel particles can indicate a By-pass valve
failed hydraulic pump or a pump failure in
Return filter
process. A rubber type of material can
indicated cylinder packing or other packing
failure.
※ The hydraulic oil filter in the filter case of
the hydraulic oil tank should be replaced
every 1000 operating hours or more
often. When the filter element is replaced,
please keep as follows.
(1) Clean the inside of the filter case.
(2) Place new element in the proper positions
inside the filter case.
(3) Install the bypass valve and spring. Make
sure the element stand upright, and check
for complete contact of the element
bottom with the filter case bottom.
(4) Install the O-ring and filter case covers.
Tighten them with bolt. Replace the O-ring
with new one if damaged. 830KWE40

5-34
SECTION 6 ELECTRICAL SYSTEM

Group 1 Component Location ----------------------------------------------------------------------------------------- 6-1


Group 2 Electrical Circuit -------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------- 6-3
Group 3 Monitoring System --------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------- 6-4
Group 4 Connectors --------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------- 6-11
SECTION 6 ELECTRICAL SYSTEM
GROUP 1 COMPONENT LOCATION

1. LOCATION 1

1
3
9
12

2 11

13

10

6 7 8
45

830S3CD02

1 Head lamp switch 6 Dashboard 11 Aircon and heater switch


2 Work lamp switch 7 Multi function switch 12 Starting Switch
3 Beacon switch (option) 8 Horn button 13 Engine stop switch
4 Gear selector lever 9 Electric fan
5 Hazard switch 10 Radio and MP3 player

6-1
6-2
2. LOCATION 2

5 4 6

1 3
2

7 8

12
9 10 11

830S6EL01

1 Head lamp 6 Electric fan 11 Power switch


2 Horn 7 Coolant temperator sensor 12 Rear combi lamp
3 Multi function switch 8 Engine oil pressure sensor
4 Work lamp 9 Reverse warning tone
5 Beacon lamp 10 Battery

6-2
GROUP 2 ELECTRICAL CIRCUIT

6-3
GROUP 3 MONITORING SYSTEM
1. CLUSTER
The gauges panel consists of gauges and monitors as shown below, to warn the operator in case
of abnormal machine operation or conditions for the appropriate operation and inspection.
·Gauges : Indicate operating status of the machine.
·Warning lamp : Indicate abnormality of the machine.
·Pilot lamp : Indicate operating status of the machine.
※ The monitor installed on this machine does not entirely guarantee the condition of the
machine. Daily inspection should be performed according to chapter 6, Maintenance.
※ When the monitor provides a warning immediately check the problem, and perform the
required action.

Hour meter Parking brake warning lamp


High beam pilot lamp Right turning pilot lamp

Left turning pilot lamp

Battery charging warning lamp Engine oil pressure


Brake air pressure warning warning lamp
lamp

Engine coolant temperature gauge


T/M oil pressure gauge
Brake air pressure gauge T/M oil temperature gauge

850S3CD02

6-4
HOUR METER
This gauge indicates the working time of engine. It's reading can
be used as repair and maintenance basis.

850S3CD03

ENGINE COOLANT TEMPERATURE GAUGE

Operating range
This gauge indicates the temperature of coolant.
Red range : Above 100˚ C
Red
If the indicator is in operating range, it is normal.
60 100
50 115 Keep idling engine at low speed until the indicator is in the
operating range.
850K3CD05 If the indicator is in the red range, keep idling engine at low sp-
eed for 5 minutes, turn off the engine and check the radiator and
engine.

TRANSMISSION OIL TEMPERATURE GAUGE

Operating range This gauge indicates the temperature of transmission oil.


Red range : Above 120˚C
Red
If the indicator is in operating range, it is normal.
Keep idling engine at low speed until the indicator is in the
operating range.
850K3CD07
If the indicator is in the red range, it means the transmission is
overheated. Be careful that the indicator does not move into
the red range.

TRANSMISSION OIL PRESSURE GAUGE


g This gauge indicates the pressure of transmission oil.
tin
era ge Red
Op ran If the indicator is in operating range, it is normal.
If the indicator is in the red range, stop the engine and check
the transmission system.

850K3CD08

-
5) BRAKE AIR PRESSURE GAUGE
Oper (1) This gauge indicates the air pressure of service brake.
ating
range · Red range : Below 0.4 MPa
Red
(2) If the indicator is in operating range, it is normal.
(3) If the indicator is in the red range, keep idling engine at low
speed until the operating range indicates.
850K3CD06

6) DIRECTION PILOT LAMP


(1) This lamp flashes when the signal indicator lever is moved.
(2) When the lamp lights up, the alarm (50 dB) sounds.

77073CD10

7) HIGH BEAM PILOT LAMP


(1) This lamp works when the illuminating direction is upward.

(2) This lamp comes ON when the dimmer switch is operated,


e.g., when passing another vehicle.

77073CD12

8) PARKING BRAKE WARNING LAMP


(1) When the parking brake is actuated, the lamp lights ON.
※ Check the lamp is OFF before driving.

77073CD13

9) BRAKE AIR PRESSURE WARNING LAMP


(1) The lamp lights ON when the air pressure of service brake
drops below the normal range.
(2) When the lamp is ON, stop the engine and check for its cause.
※ Do not operate until any problems are corrected.

850K3CD16

6-6
10) ENGINE OIL PRESSURE WARNING LAMP
(1) In the oil pump pressure supply every part will be lubrication
at the same time. This lamp is comes ON after starting the
engine because of the low oil pressure.When the engine
starts normally will automatically turn off the lamp.
(2) If the lamp comes ON during engine operation, shut OFF
engine immediately. Check oil level.
77073CD18

11) BATTERY CHARGING WARNING LAMP


(1) This lamp is ON when key ON, it is turned OFF after starting
the engine.
(2) Check the battery charging circuit when this lamp comes ON
during engine operation.

77073CD22

6-7
2. SWITCHES

Beacon switch
(option)
Main light switch
Work lamp switch
Engine stop switch
Starting switch

Horn button
Multi function switch
Hazard switch

733S3CD04

STARTING SWITCH
There are three positions, OFF, ON and START.
· (OFF) : None of electrical circuits activate.
· (ON) : All the systems of machine operate.
· (START) : Use when star ting the engine. Release key
immediately after starting.
77073CD41

6-8
2) HAZARD SWITCH
OFF
(1)Use for parking, or roading machine.
ON (2) Both turn signal lights will flash simultaneously.
※ If the switch is left ON for a long time, the battery may be
discharged.

77073CD42

3) WORK LAMP SWITCH


(1)This switch use to operate the front and rear work lamps by two step.
·First
First step : Front work lamp located on the cab comes ON.
·Second
Second step : Rear work lamp located on the cowl comes ON.

77073CD46

4) MAIN LIGHT SWITCH


(1)The switch use to operates the clearance lamp and head light by two
step.
·First
First step : Clearance lamp and cluster illumination lamp comes
ON. Also, all indicator lamp of switches come ON.
·Second
Second step : Head light comes ON.

77073CD45

5) BEACON SWITCH (option)


(1)This switch turns ON the rotary light on the cab.

77073CD50

6) HORN BUTTON
(1)
If you press the button on the top of the multifunction switch, the horn
Horn button
will sound.

830K3CD28A

-
7) CAB LAMP SWITCH
(1) This switch turns ON the cab room lamp.
(2) Press ON or OFF can control the lamp.

73033CD24

8) MULTI FUNCTION SWITCH


OⅠⅡ (1) Front wiper and washer switch
① When placed in Ⅰ or Ⅱ position, the wiper moves continuously.
② If you press a button at the end of the lever, washer liquid will be
II I 0

sprayed and the wiper will be activated 2-3 times.


※ Check the quantity of washer liquid in the tank. If the level of
7613CD33
the washer liquid is LOW, add the washer liquid (In cold, winter
days) or water. The capacity of the tank is 2.5 liter.

(2) Dimmer switch


Up
① This switch is used to turn the head lights direction.
② Switch positions
Down
·Up : Head lights low beam ON
·Down : Head lights high beam ON
733S3CD51 ③ If you release the switch when it's in up position, the switch will
return to middle.

Left turning (3) Turning switch


① This switch is used to warn or signal the turning direction of the
machine to other vehicles or equipment.
② Push the lever up for turning left, pull the lever down for turning
Right turning
right.
7613CD50

9) ENGINE STOP SWITCH


(1) If the switch is pressed, the engine stops immediately.

830K3CD37

-
GROUP 4 CONNECTOR

1. MAIN HARNESS
Connector No. of
Type Destination Connector part no.
number pin
CN-35 3 DJ7031-7.8-11
CN-36 10 DJ7101-6.3-11
J/C TO FUSE BOX
CN-37 12 DJ7121-6.3-11
CS-2 KET 6 START SWITCH MG610335
CN-171 J/C 2 SERVICE SOCKET DJ7028-6.3-21
CR-3
CR-40
CR-2
CR-26
CR-27
J/C 5 FUSE BOX DJJ7051-6.3-21
CR-30
CR-55
CR-63
CR-79
CR-56
CR-11 J/C 2 FLASHER UNIT RELAY DJJ7058A-6.3-21
CN-26 TYW 2 WARNING BUZZER 174198-1
CN-1 J/C 3 REAR FRAME SIDE 1 DJ7031-7.8-11
CN-2 J/C 14 REAR FRAME SIDE 2 DJ141-6.3-21
CN-3 J/C 8 REAR FRAME SIDE 3 DJ7081-6.3-21
CN-11 J/C 8 HEATER SIDE DJ7021A-7.8-21
EARTH4 J/C 2 - Y10-10
CN-9A J/C 10 TO FRONT HARNESS DJ7021A-7.8-21
CN-7 J/C 8 TO CAB HARNESS DJ7081-6.3-21
CN-4 TYCO 16 TO DASHBOARD HARNESS 368047-1
CN-5 TYCO 15 TO DASHBOADR HARNESS 85223-1
CN-21 ILL & HEAD LAMP
CS-36 SWF 10 WORK LAMP SWF593757
CS-79 DIODE

6-11
2. CAB HARNESS
Connector No. of
Type Destination Connector part no.
number pin
CN-7 J/C 8 TO MAIN HARNESS DJ7081-6.3-11
CL-7 TYCO 2 BEACON 174198-1
CN-23
KET 2 SPEAKER 7123-1520
CN-24
CL-1 J/C 2 ROOM LAMP DJ7021-6.3-21
CN-27 - 16 RADIO & MP3 player PK145-16017
CL-5 J/C 2 WORK LAMP, FRONT-LH DJ7021-1.5-20
CL-6 J/C 2 WORK LAMP, FRONT-RH DJ7021-1.5-20
CL-23 SWF 10 BEACON SWITCH 593757
EARTH J/C 1 RING TERMINAL DJ431-10
AC-3 J/C 2 FAN DJ7021-6.3-10
CL-22 J/C 2 WORK LAMP,REAR-LH DJ7021-1.5-20
AC-3 J/C 2 WORK LAMP,REAR-RH DJ7021-1.5-20

3. DASHBOARD HARNESS
Connector No. of
Type Destination Connector part no.
number pin
CS-11 J/C 8 TURN LEVER DJ70818-6.3-21
CN-21 J/C 6 FRONT WIPER DJ7061-6.3-21
CS-41 SWF 10 HAZARD SWITCH 593757
CN-56 TYCO 16 GAUGE BOARD SIDE 368047-1
CN-4 TYCO 16 TO MAIN HARNESS 368050-1
CN-5 TYCO 15 TO MAIN HARNESS 2-85262-1
CS-35 SWF 10 WIPER SWITCH 593757
CS-36 SWF 10 WORK LAMP SWITCH 593757
CS-45 J/C 2 BACK-UP SWITCH DJ7021-6.3-21
EARTH1
J/C 1 RING TERMINAL Y10-10
EARTH2
CN-9A J/C 8 TO MAIN HARNESS DJ7081-6.3-11
CD-4 J/C 1 STOP LAMP HARNESS DJ431-5
CS-26 J/C 3 PARKING LEVER DJ7031-6.3-21
CS-12 J/C 6 TURN LEVER DJ70658-6.3-11
CN-9 J/C 8 TO FRONT HARNESS DJ7081-6.3-21

6-12
4. REAR FRAME HARNESS
Connector No. of
Type Destination Connector part no.
number pin
CD-49 J/C 1 TM TEMP DJ431-5
CD-48 KSC 2620 1 TM OIL PRESSURE R1.25-4
CD-3 J/C 1×2 AIR PRESSURE DJ431-5
EARTH2 J/C 1 RING TERMINAL Y10-10
GROMMET HHI - - 21LB-34020
CN-65 DEUTSCH 2 BACK BUZZER DT06-2S
CL-16A 3 DJ7031-1.5-21
J/C REAR COMBI-RH
CL-16B 2 DJ7031-1.5-21
CL-15A 3 DJ7031-1.5-21
J/C REAR COMBI-LH
CL-15B 2 DJ7031-1.5-21
03.21000
MTA - - 03.01080
CN-95
03.21210
HHI PARTS - - 21LM-03180
CN-1 J/C 3 - DJ7031-7.8-11
CN-2 J/C 14 - DJ7141-6.3-21
CN-3 J/C 8 - DJ7081-6.3-11
CN-12 J/C 12 - DJ7021-6.3-21
CN-74 J/C 1×2 MASTER SWITCH Y10-10
CR-1A
KET 4 POWER RELAY MG612017
DR-1B

5. FRONT HARNESS
Connector No. of
Type Destination Connector part no.
number pin
CN-9 J/C 8 FRONT FRAME SIDE DJ7081-6.3-11
CL-3 TYCO 3 COMBI-FRONT, LH 174200-1
CL-24 TYCO 2 HEAD LIGHT, LH 174198-1
CN-20 MOLEX 2 HORN-LOW 36825-0211
CN-25 MOLEX 2 HORN-HIGH 36825-0211
CL-4 TYCO 3 COMBI-FRONT, RH 174200-1
CL-25 TYCO 2 HEAD UGHT, RH 174198-1
EARTH3 J/C 1 RING TERMINAL DJ431-10

6-13
6. ENGINE HARNESS
Connector
Type No. of pin Destination Connector part no.
number
CN-79 J/C 2 ENGINE STOP SOLENOID DJ70217-6.3-20
CD-18 KSC 2620 1 ENGINE OIL PRESSURE R1.25-4
CD-8 KSC 2620 1 COOLANT TEMP R1.25-4

KSC 2620 1 R14-8


CN-45 STARTER
KET 1 ST710197

KSC 2620 1 R14-8


CN-74 ALTERNATOR
KSC 2620 1 R1.25-4

KSC 2620 1 POWER R2.0-4


CN-96
KSC 2620 1 EARTH R2.0-12

CN-12 J/C 12 ENGINE SIDE DJ7121-6.3-11


CN-97 KSC 2620 1 FAN CLUTCH 282080-1
EARTH 6 KSC 2620 1 EARTH R3.0-14
RS-1 - 2 - 21Z2-30160

6-14
8. CONNECTION TABLE FOR CONNECTORS
1) 58-L TYPE CONNECTOR
No. of
Receptacle connector (female) Plug connector (male)
pin

1 1

S813-030100 S813-130100

1 2 1 2

S813-030200 S813-130200

6-15
2) PA TYPE CONNECTOR
No. of
Receptacle connector (female) Plug connector (male)
pin

2 5 1 3

1 3 2 5

S811-005002 S811-105002

3 7 1 4

1 4 3 7
S811-007002 S811-107002

4 9
1 5

1 5
4 9
S811-009002 S811-109002

5 11 1 6

11

1 6 5 11
S811-011002 S811-111002

6-16
No. of
Receptacle connector (female) Plug connector (male)
pin

6 13 1 7

13

1 7 6 13
S811-013002 S811-113002

1 9
8 17

17

1 9 8 17
S811-017002 S811-117002
10
1 21 1 11

21

1 11 1
10 21

S811-021002 S811-121002

6-17
3) J TYPE CONNECTOR
No. of
pin Receptacle connector (female) Plug connector (male)

1 2
1

2 12
S816-002001 S816-102001

2 3 1

3 1 2
S816-003001 S816-103001

3 1 4 2

4 2 3 1

S816-004001 S816-104001

8 5 2
6 3 1

8 5 2 6 3 1
S816-008001 S816-108001

6-18
4) SWP TYPE CONNECTOR
No. of
Receptacle connector (Female) Plug connector (male)
pin

1 1

S814-001000 S814-101000

2 1

1 2

S814-002000 S814-102000

3 1

2 1 23

S814-003000 S814-103000

2 4 1 3

1 3 2 4

S814-004000 S814-104000

6-19
No. of
pin Receptacle connector (female) Plug connector (male)

3 6 1 4

3 6
1 4
S814-006000 S814-106000
4 8 1 5

4 8
1 5
S814-008000 S814-108000

4 12 1 9

12

4 12
1 9

S814-012000 S814-112000

3 14 11
1

14

1 11 3 14

S814-014000 S814-114000

6-20
5) CN TYPE CONNECTOR
No. of
pin Receptacle connector (female) Plug connector (male)

1 1

S810-001202 S810-101202

2 2

1 1

S810-002202 S810-102202

3 2

1 2 1 3

S810-003202 S810-103202

2 4 1 3

1 3 2 44

S810-004202 S810-104202

6-21
No. of
pin Receptacle connector (female) Plug connector (male)

3 6 1 4

1 4 3 6
S810-006202 S810-106202

4 8 1 5

1 5 4 8
S810-008202 S810-108202

6-22
6) ITT SWF CONNECTOR
No. of
pin Receptacle connector (female) Plug connector (male)

2
10

1 10

9
SWF593757

7) MWP NMWP CONNECTOR


No. of
pin Receptacle connector (female) Plug connector (male)

1
1

NMWP01F-B

6-23
8) DEUTSCH DT CONNECTORS
DT 06 - 3S - ★★★★

Modifications (see below)


Number of contacts (P : Pin, S : Socket)
04 : Receptacle, 06 : Plug
Deutsch connetors
※ Modification
E003 : Standard end cap - gray
E004 : Color of connector to be black
E005 : Combination - E004 & E003
EP04 : End cap
EP06 : Combination P012 & EP04
P012 : Front seal enhancement - connectors color to black for 2, 3, 4 & 6pin

No. of
pin Receptacle connector (female) Plug connector (male)

1 2 2 1
2

DT06-2S DT04-2P

2 1 1 2

3 3

DT06-3S DT04-3P

4 1 1 4

3 2 2 3

DT06-4S DT04-4P

6-24
No. of
pin Receptacle connector (female) Plug connector (male)

6 1 1 6

4 3 3 4

DT06-6S DT04-6P

4 5 5 4

1 8
8 1

DT06-8S DT04-8P

7 6
6 7

12

1 12 12 1

DT06-12S DT04-12P

6-25
9) ECONOSEAL J TYPE CONNECTORS
No. of
pin Receptacle connector (female) Plug connector (male)

S816-001002 S816-101002

1 2 1
2

S816-002002 S816-102002

S816-003002 S816-103002

S816-004002 S816-104002

6-26
No. of
pin Receptacle connector (female) Plug connector (male)

S816-006002 S816-106002

S816-008002 S816-108002

10

S816-010002 S816-110002

12

S816-012002 S816-112002

6-27
No. of
pin Receptacle connector (female) Plug connector (male)

15

368301-1 2-85262-1

10) KET 090 CONNECTOR


No. of
pin Receptacle connector (female) Plug connector (male)

1
2

MG610070

6-28
11) KET 090 WP CONNECTORS
No. of
pin Receptacle connector (female) Plug connector (male)

1
2

MG640605

2 1

MG640795

12) CHINA CONNECTORS


No. of
pin Receptacle connector (female) Plug connector (male)

2 1 1 2

4 3 3 4
DJ7041-6.3-11 DJ7041-6.3-21

8 4
5

8
DJ7081-6.3-21

6-29
13) TYCO CONNECTOR
No. of
pin Receptacle connector (female) Plug connector (male)

2 1

282080-1

2
174198-1

5 11

11

1 6

172497-1

6-30