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Examples

Single Phase :
1. An inductive load takes 2.5 kW at 0.71 lagging power factor (PF) when connected
to a 230 V, 50 Hz supply. Calculate the value of capacitor (C) to be connected in
parallel, such that the resultant power factor of the input current is 0.866 lagging.
Solution:
Supply voltage, V = 230 V; Supply frequency, f = 50 Hz
Power factor, cos φ = 0.71 (lag)
The phase angle, φ = cos−1 (0.71) = 44.77◦
Power consumed by the load, P = 2.5 kW= 2.5 × 103 = 2500 W
P = V IL cos φ
Therefore,
P 2500
Load current,IL = = = 15.3A
V cos φ 230 × 0.71
Reactive power, Q = V IL sin φ = 230 × 15.3 × sin(44.77) = 2478.3 var
With the addition of capacitor, the real power remains the same, as the capacitor
does not consume any power, but the reactive power in the system changes. Hence
P = 2500W and reactive power changes to Q1 .
Power factor after the addition of the capacitor (C), cos(φ1 ) = 0.866 (lag) Let the
new current be IL1 .
Power, P = V IL1 cos(φ1 ) = 2500W

P 2500
Hence,IL1 = = = 12.55A
V cos φ 230 × 0.866

The phase angle, φ1 = cos−1 (0.866) = 30◦


Reactive power, Q = V IL sin φ = 230 × 12.55 × sin(30) = 1443.25 var
The difference between original reactive power (Q) and the new reactive power
(Q1 ), has to be supplied by the capacitor (Qc ).
Reactive power provided by the capacitor,

Qc = Q − Q1 = 2478.3 − 1443.25 = 1035.05 var

1
V2
Also, Qc =
Xc
The reactance of the capacitor (C) is,

1 V2
Xc = = 1/(2π × 50 × C ) =
2π f C Qc

Therefore,

Qc 1035.05
capacitance, C = 2
= = 62.28 × 10−6 F = 62.28 µF
2π × f × V 2π × 50 × 2302

2. For the circuit given in Fig.1, where a series connected resistance of 30 Ω and
inductive reactance of 10 Ω are connected across a 200 V, 60 Hz power supply.
(a) Calculate the current drawn from the supply
(b) Calculate the real and reactive power taken from the supply
(c) Calculate the apparent power and complex power
(d) Calculate the size of capacitor to be connected in parallel to correct the power
factor to unity

Figure 1: Circuit diagram

Solution:

Supply voltage, V = 200 + j0 V = 200∠0◦ V; frequency, f = 60 Hz


Resistance, R = 30Ω
Inductive Reactance, X L = 10Ω
Impedance, Z = R + jX L = 30 + j10 = 31.62∠18.43 Ω

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(a) Current drawn from the supply,

V 200∠0◦
I= = = 6.32∠ − 18.43A
Z 31.62∠18.43

Figure 2: Phasor diagram

(b) Real power, P = V I cos φ = 200 × 6.32 × cos 18.43 = 1199.17 W


Reactive power, Q = V I sin φ = 200 × 6.32 × sin 18.43 = 399.6 var
(c) Apparent power, S = V I = 200 × 6.32 = 1264VA
Complex power, S = V I ∗ = P + jQ = (1199.17 + j399.6) VA
(d) To correct the power factor to unity capacitor should provide an equal amount
of the reactive power that is being taken from the supply i.e Qc = Q = 399.6
var

Figure 3: Circuit diagram after power factor improvement

V2
Reactive power provided by the capacitor, Qc = Ic2 Xc = = 399.6var
Xc
2002
Hence, Xc = = 100.1Ω
399.6
1 1
Xc = = = 100.1
2π f C 2π × 60 × C
Therefore, size of the capacitor, C = 26.5µ F

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Three Phase :
1. A 3-phase star connected RL load is fed by a star connected sinusoidal voltage
source of voltage 127 V per phase at a frequency 50Hz. The per phase resistance
and inductance of the load are 12 Ω and 33.54 mH, respectively.
(a) Calculate the per phase voltage and current of the load
(b) Calculate the line voltage and current
(c) Calculate the power factor
(d) Calculate the per phase active and reactive power
(e) Calculate the three phase apparent power
Solution:
Supply voltage/phase VaN = 127∠0◦ V
Supply frequency, f = 50 Hz; Per phase load resistance, R ph = 12Ω
Per phase load inductance, L ph = 33.54 mH
Per phase inductive reactance of the load, X Lph = 2π × f × L ph
= 2π × 50 × 33.54 × 10−3 = 10.54Ω
Per phase impedance of the load, Z ph = R ph + jX Lph
Z ph = (12 + j10.54)Ω = 15.97∠41.29◦ Ω
(a) Load phase voltage, VLa = 127∠0◦ V

Vph 127∠0◦
Load phase current,Ia = = ◦
= 7.95∠ − 41.29◦ A
Z ph 15.97∠41.29

(b) Line voltage, Vab = VaN × 3∠30◦ = 219.97∠30◦ V
In star connected system, line current = phase current
(c) Power factor, = cos φ = cos 41.29 = 0.75 (lag)
(d) Per phase active power, Pph = VaN Ia cos φ = 757.23 W
Per phase reactive power, Q ph = VaN Ia sin φ = 666.24var
q
(e) Three phase apparent power, S = 3 × Pph 2 + Q2 ≈ 3028 VA
ph

2. Two wattmeter method is used for the measurement of power consumed by a bal-
anced three-phase delta connected load connected to a 3-phase 3-wire AC supply
with a line voltage of 240V, 50Hz. The readings of two wattmeters are 2200 W and
800 W, respectively.
(a) Calculate the active 3 phase load power
(b) Calculate the power factor
(c) calculate the impedance per phase of the ∆ connected load

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Solution:
Line voltage and phase voltage are same for a ∆ connected system.
Voltage per phase, Vph = 240 V
Reading of wattmeter 1, W1 = 2200W
Reading of wattmeter 2, W1 = 800W

(a) Three phase load power, P = W1 + W2 = 3000W


(b)
√ !
3(W1 − W2 )
Phase angle, φ = tan−1 = 38.94◦
W1 + W2

Power factor, cos φ = cos(38.94) = 0.78


(c) Three phase load power, P = 3Vph I ph cos φ = 3000W

3000
Phase current,I ph = = 5.36A
3 × 240 × 0.78
Vph
Per phase impedance Z ph = = 44.79Ω
I ph

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