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# Chapter IV

## PRESENTATION, ANALYSIS AND INTERPRETATION OF DATA

This chapter presents the findings of the study with the corresponding analysis
and interpretation of the data. Included here are the following sub-topics: profile of the
students in Grade 11 Celsius of Eastern Visayas Regional Science High School;
mathematical learning performance of the grade 11 students in terms of: learning
response, mental response, and social response; factors affecting the student’s
performance in Mathematics; and relationship between the learning, mental and social
response.

## Profile of the Student – Respondents

The table below presents the profile of the Respondents, the grade 11 Celsius of
EVRSHS in terms of Age and Sex.

Age and Sex. Table 2 presents the age and sex of the Respondents.

Table 2

## Age and Sex Distribution of Administator-Respondents

Sex
Age
F %
Distribution Male Female

13 - 14 1 0 1 2.38
15 – 16 10 10 20 47.62
17 - 18 9 12 21 50.00
Total 20 22 42 100.00
% 47.62 52.38 100.00
Mean 15.5
S.D. 9.32
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From the table, it can be gleaned that 21 of the respondents or 50 percent were
aged 17 – 18 years old, 20 or 47.62 percent of the students were aged from 15 – 16, and 1
or 2.38 percent of the respondents were aged between 13 – 14. The values were
distributed in the age brackets identified in this study.

The mean age of the respondents, the grade 11 Celsius of EVRSHS was pegged at
15.5 years old with a standard deviation of 9.32 years. The respondents of the study were
at their 17’s, relatively young and still active in their academic performances as well as in
their socialization and interaction within the class. Moreover, majority of the respondents
in this study were female students, accounting for 22 or 52.38 percent, while the male
counterpart was composed of 20 students or 47.62 percent.

The data showed female dominance among the respondents of this study, the
grade 11 Celsius students of EVRSHS. This is expected considering that more female
students are enrolled in the Grade 11 Celsius of EVRSHS; thus, the probability of the
students’ mathematical learning performance is high.

## Table 3 to 5 contain the mathematical learning performance of the Grade 11

Celsius students of Eastern Visayas Regional Science High School in terms of their
learning response; mental response and social response.

Learning Response

Table 3 provides information on the learning response of the respondents; the data
were gathered and got the totality. These were the results of their 1st to 3rd grading
performances in their Mathematics subject.

Table 3

## Learning Response of the Respondents in their Every Grading Performance

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Respondents
1 M 87 90 85
2 M 85 87 85
3 M 87 90 86
4 M 89 92 91
5 M 87 90 85
6 M 85 88 88
7 M 86 89 84
8 M 87 90 84
9 M 85 89 85
10 M 90 90 90
11 M 91 88 83
12 M 88 92 88
13 M 89 92 90
14 M 86 90 87
15 M 87 90 88
16 M 88 88 85
17 M 88 89 88
18 M 88 89 88
19 M 88 90 90
20 M 89 91 89
21 F 90 91 88
22 F 92 89 86
23 F 88 92 85
24 F 87 93 91
25 F 85 90 87
26 F 88 89 87
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Table 3 Continued
27 F 89 87 87
28 F 91 90 88
29 F 90 90 90
30 F 87 92 92
31 F 88 92 92
32 F 87 89 87
33 F 88 89 86
34 F 85 87 85
35 F 91 93 91
36 F 89 92 87
37 F 86 88 87
38 F 89 89 89
49 F 85 87 86
40 F 89 91 90
41 F 85 88 86
42 F 88 90 89
Mean 87.78 89.81 87.5

Table 3 shows the data, grades of the respondents, wherein, in the first grading,
the mean grades of the respondents were 87.78 which passed the passing grade. It shows
that in the first grading of the class, the learning performance of the respondents were
great and interactive. On the other hand, on the second grading of the classes in their
Mathematic subject, the data results portrayed a mean grade of 89.81, which means that
they performed well in their second grading than in their first grading. Meanwhile, on
their third grading, the latter showed a mean of 87.5, presented the performance of the
students of Grade 11 Celsius that even though the result decreased, and shows the least
learning response, they’ve still performed well in the grading.
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Mental Response

The data below shows the mental response of the Grade 11 Celsius students on
their Mathematics subject. Some are in tabular value and some are stated and analyze
base from the questionnaire used by the researchers.

Table 4.1

## Students Preferred Passing Students Preferred Higher

Sex
Score Score
Male 13 5
Female 15 6
Total 28 11
% 71.79 28.21

The table showed that out of 39 students in grade 11 Celsius, there were 28 or
71.79 percent preferred having a passing score in their Mathematics quizzes, while there
were 11 students or 28.21 percent who preferred having a higher scores than the passing
score. Students who preferred having a passing score reasoned out in the questionnaires
taken from the researchers that they chose to have them for compliance and for at least
they’ve passed the test even though they didn’t get higher scores. Whereas, the students
who favored having a higher score than the passing score coherently states that they
prefer higher grades, since higher scores is equal to having a higher grades. Some of them
also like it higher since they want to challenge themselves to learn much better and
review often to enhance their learning abilities in Mathematics subject.

Table 4.2

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## Students Preferred Step- Students Preferred

Sex
by-Step Solutions Shortcut Methods
Male 8 10
Female 13 8
Total 21 18
% 53.85 46.15

The data in table 4.2 revealed that with 39 respondents, 21 or 53.85 percent of the
students chose to have a step-by-step solution, while 18 of them or 46.15 percent favored
to shortcut methods. It can be gleaned that most of the boys chose to have a shortcut
methods; however, female students mostly chose to have step-by-step solutions than
having shortcut methods. Those 53.85 percent of students who preferred having step-by-
step solutions articulately said that they prefer a more detailed and in order solutions of
answers, since it is more easier to understand and analyze according to them. On the right
side, the 46.17 percent of the students chose to have shortcut methods because they prefer
having an easier accessibility, they said, in shortcut methods, they can fastly answer the
problems, hence it is time-saving method than the step-by-step one.

## Furthermore, the results of the questionnaire showed that reviewing lessons in

their Mathematics subject affects their participation and learning in class. The
relationship is directly proportional, the more they review their notes, the more they can
participate and cooperate in class discussion. In that way, they reasoned out that their
mind are refreshed if they’re reviewing their lessons, making them more accessible to
their past knowledge and lessons discussed already.

In able for them to catch up with their discussions of their instructor, they eagerly
listen with the class discussions, some of them gathered outside and external information
such as the internet, the books from their own or borrowed books and even power points
from trusted and reliable source. And they try to analyze as much as they can for them to
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understand their lessons. Most of the respondents in the Grade 11 Celsius answered by
listening to the discussions tentatively.

## One of the questions in the questionnaire was about clarifying misunderstandings.

They mostly clarify by asking questions to their instructor if they have confuses and
misapprehensions with the topics. Some answered inquiring with their classmates for an
easier access. Some preferred consulting sources such as books and any other literature
for a clearer picture of the discussions of the topics.

Social Response

Tables and data that were gathered below are from the results of the respondents’
social response. The results are based from the answers of the respondents on their
questionnaires.

Table 5.1

## Students Preferred Students Preferred Group

Sex
Reviewing Alone Study
Male 6 12
Female 13 8
Total 19 20
% 48.72 51.28

The table 5.1 above displayed the results gathered from the respondents’ answers.
As it was seen, most of the male students preferred having a group study. 12 of them or
66.67 percent of the boys chose to have a group study over the other 6 or 33.33 percent of
the students who answered having a review alone. On the other hand, female students of
grade 11 Celsius mostly answered reviewing alone. 13 or 61.90 percent of them voted
reviewing alone, while the other 8 students, 44.44 percent, favored having their group
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study. Generalizing, students from grade 11 Celsius of EVRSHS preferred having group
study, the results revealed, 20 students or 51.28 percent chose them. The reason is that
they became more interactive when it comes to lessons since they’ve got their classmates
to ask to or to clarify things. They become more interested of the discussions when
they’re having a group review, whereas, 19 or 14.72 students preferred reviewing alone
for a better focused and concentration.

Table 5.2

## Sex Students Preferred Yes Students Preferred No

Male 4 14
Female 10 11
Total 14 25
% 35.90 64.10

The results on the table shows that 4 male students or 10.26 percent agreed on
having a competitive learning while 14 of them, or 35.90 percent answered no. Therefore,
most of the male students favored on not being in a competitive learning. While on the
female part, 10 answered yes or 25.64 percent and 11 or 28.21 answered no. In general,
the 14 students or the 35.90 students who answered yes are the one who are into
challenges and tests but mostly of the students preferred no competition at all, out of 100
percent, 64.10 percent or 25 students are on this side. It is because, from them, they are
studying in order to gain knowledge not to gain competition. They may be honored but
without any rivalry. They became more interactive with their way and it is more effective
for them to perform well in their Math subject.

## The respondents assess their classmates with their misunderstandings by teaching

them their knowledge and clarifying things. Most are able to motivate them and inspired.
The respondents as observed are participating always during the group activities and class
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discussion. They contribute knowledge and information regarding the topic or problem
and solving or analyzing the problem. This result proves that they are more interactive
when they are in social instances, wherein, they can discuss with their classmates and
group mates their answers, clarifying them and correcting.

It is also garnered in the study based from the results, that learning performance
affects students’ social interaction making them more open to the social world while
concentrating on their academic study, their mathematical learning performance as well.

## Factors Affecting Student’s Performance in Mathematics

This study also showed the factors affecting the student’s performance in their
Mathematics subject. The data below are the observed factors based on the grade 11
Celsius performance in their Mathematics subject.

Table 6.1

## Instructional Factors on Students’ Mathematic Achievement

Instructional Teacher
School Context
Curriculum Strategies and Competency in
and Facilities
Methods Math Education
 The concerns  Being  The results  In a study by
here are not that successful in showed that Harner (1974),
students should math involves teachers know temperatures
never learn to the ability to and believe above 23° C
compute, but understanding about (74° F)
that students one’s current mathematics are adversely
must learn how state of directly affected
to critically knowledge, connected to mathematics
analyze build on it, their skills.
mathematical improve it, and instructional  Another finding
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## problems and make changes choices and indicated that a

produce or decisions in procedures. high population
effective the face of  In mathematics of students had a
solutions. This conflicts. To do education negative effect
requires them to this requires research, it on student
learn, how to problem seems to be achievement.
make sense of solving, undisputed that
complex math abstracting, the teacher's
concepts and inventing, and philosophy of
how to think proving. mathematics
mathematically.  Instructional has a significant
 Research has strategies and influence on the
also revealed methods that structure of
evidence that provide students mathematics
curricula in with learning classes.
which students’ situations where
knowledge and they can
skills grow is develop and
significantly apply higher-
connected to order operations
their learning, are critical for
and therefore mathematics
their achievement.
achievement

Table 6.2

## Individual Factors on Students’ Mathematic Achievement

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Motivation or
Self-Directed Learning Arithmetic Ability
concentration
 Mathematics learning  Arithmetic ability  The challenges of
requires a deep includes the skills such mathematics learning
understanding of as manipulating for today’s education
mathematical concepts, mathematical are that it requires
the ability to make knowledge and disciplined study,
connections between concepts in ways that concentration and
them, and produce transform their meaning motivation.
effective solutions to ill- and implications.  In helping students
structured domains.  Students with high become motivated
 Self-directed students arithmetic ability or learners and producers
can take the initiative in mathematical reasoning of mathematical
their learning by can engage in tasks knowledge
diagnosing their needs, such as solving complex successfully, the
formulating goals, problems, discovering teacher’s main
identifying resources for new meanings and instructional task is to
learning, and evaluating understanding, and create a learning
or monitoring learning arriving at logical environment where
outcomes. conclusions. students can engage in
mathematical thinking
activities and see
mathematics as
something requiring
“exploration,
conjecture,
representation,
generalization,
verification, and
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reflection”

The tables 6.1 and 6.2 shows significant factors in math instruction and student
achievement, which includes curriculum, instructional strategies, methods, teacher (math)
competency, school context and facilities. The mathematics curriculum contains specific
subject-matter and instructional design principles to enable students to develop logical
and mathematical skills needed to understand fundamental mathematical concepts. In
other words, designing an instruction based on a curriculum that is in harmony with
instructional design can scaffold student learning and promote their achievement in
mathematics. Instructional strategies and methods are important for the achievement of
students. The literature suggests that learning situations ought to be selected and
implemented in a way that allows students to apply higher order operations.

## Another important factor math achievement is teacher competency. Similar

studies reported that teachers should have good understanding of subject domain to
improve the math achievement of students (Ball, 1993; Grossman, et. al., 1989; Rosebery
et. al., 1992). School context and facilities are also reported to influence math
achievement in this study. School safety and facilities, temperature of the class features
of the school buildings, and crowdedness of school, were also reported to influence the
achievement of students. Collectively, these results point out that attention should be
given to school context and facilities to improve the math achievement of students.

## Relationship Between the Learning, Mental, and Social Response

The relationship between the learning, mental, and social response are directly
proportional to each other. The results gathered showed that the respondents, grade 11
Celsius students performed well in their mathematics subject, reasons for the good grades
and learning performance. This great learning performance of the respondents in
Mathematics resulted to great mental performance. The processes and the absorption of
knowledge and performance with the mental factors are higher. This measures how good
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they’ve absorbed information and abilities in solving and analyzing the problems in their
Mathematics. Aside from the learning and mental response, the respondents’ social
response was presented a good performance as well.