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a b c

 a + 0 = a a + S(b) = S(a + b)

a + b = b + a

 a + (b + c) = (a + b) + c a + b = a + c b = c a + b = c + b a = c

a a + b

a b a = S(b)

a + b = 0 a = b = 0

a b c

a a

 a ≤ b b ≤ c a ≤ c a ≤ b b ≤ a a = b ≤ a < b a b a + c ≤ b + c S(a) ≤ b

a < b c a + c = b a < b a = b a > b

m 0 P (m) m m 0

P (m ) m m 0 m < m

P (m) P (m) m

a b c

ab = ba

ab a b a(b + c) = ab + ac (a + b)c = ac + bc

(ab)c = a(bc)

ac = bc c a = b ab = ac a b = c

1 · a = a

ab = 0 a = 0 b = 0

a < b c ac < bc

a b b q

r a = bq + r 0 r < b

A B C X

A B = B A A B = B A

 (A ∪ B) ∪ C = A ∪ (B ∪ C) (A ∩ B) ∩ C = A ∩ (B ∩ C) A ∪ ∅ = A A ∩ ∅ = ∅ A ∪ X = X A ∩ X = A A ∩ A = A ∪ A = A A ∩ (B ∪ C) = (A ∩ B) ∪ (A ∩ C) A ∪ (B ∩ C) = (A ∪ B) ∩ (A ∪ C) A ∪ (X \ A) = X A ∩ (X \ A) = ∅ X \ (A ∪ B) = (X \ A) ∩ (X \ B) X \ (A ∩ B) = (X \ A) ∪ (X \ B) A B

 A ⊆ B A ∩ B A ∪ B = A = B A ∩ B ⊆ A A ∩ B ⊆ B C ⊆ A C ⊆ B C ⊆ A ∩ B A ⊆ A ∪ B B ⊆ A ∪ B A ⊆ C B ⊆ C A ∪ B ⊆ C A ∩ (A ∪ B) = A ∪ (A ∩ B) = A

(a, b) (a, b) := {{a}, {a, b}} (a, b) = (c, d) a = c b = d

f : A B g : B C

g f : A C f g g f : A C g f

f : A B f g : B A

g f = A

f : A B f g : B A

f g = B

f

:

X

Y

X i X

 f ( i X i ) = f −1 ( i Y i ) = i f(X i ) f ( i X i ) ⊆ f −1 ( i Y i ) = i f(X i ) i f(Y i ) i f(Y i )

Y j

Y

|A × B| = |B × A| A B

A = {1, 2, 3, 4} A × A

 {(1, 1), (2, 2), (3, 3), (4, 4), (1, 2), (2, 1), (3, 4), (4, 3)} {(1, 1), (2, 2), (3, 3), (4, 4), (1, 2), (1, 3), (1, 4), (2, 3), (2, 4), (3, 4)}

 {(1, 1), (2, 2), (3, 3), (4, 4), (1, 2), (3, 4)} {(1, 1), (2, 2), (3, 3), (4, 4), (1, 2), (2, 3), (3, 4)}

A × A

 A = Z aRb a | b A = N aRb a | b A = Z aRb a | b b | a A = Z × (Z \ {0}) (a, b)R(c, d) ad = bc A = R 2 \ { 0} uRv v = αu α ∈ Q ¯ A = R 2 \ { 0} uRv v = αu α ∈ Z ¯ A = Z aRb 4 | a − b

A R, Q A × A

R Q R Q R Q R Q

R A × A Q A × A aQb aRb bRa Q