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Diseño de Plantas Químicas

Docente Camilo Monroy Peña


sPhD Msc Ing. Químico
OPEN SIMULATION FILE

Propylene Glycol Production Process

C:\Program Files (x86)\AspenTech\Aspen HYSYS


V10.0\Samples

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Scope of this course is to:

• Phases in product design and project execution


• Illustrate pipe characteristics, rating and standard. Illustrate
and resume hydraulic calculation theory and formulas. Define
input parameters for pipe sizing. Illustrate calculation tools
• Block diagrams
• Process flow diagrams (PFD)
• Material balances
• Piping and instrumentation diagram/drawing (P&ID)

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PHASES IN PRODUCT DESIGN

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PHASES IN PRODUCT DESIGN

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PHASES IN PRODUCT DESIGN

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PHASES IN PRODUCT DESIGN

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Definiciones de ingeniería conceptual


básica y de detalle. Alcance de cada
una.
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Estudio de Factibilidad

Se determina del grado de inversión y maduración de


proyectos, que definan su viabilidad.

Se revisan las ideas y oportunidades de negocio desde el


punto de vista de ingeniería y procesos, para tener una visión
general y definir algunas alternativas que deben ser
estudiadas en las fases siguientes de ingeniería.

Evaluación de costos que permita reducir el grado de


incertidumbre desde las primeras etapas de un proyecto.
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Ingeniería Conceptual

Se definen parámetros tales como: características del


proceso; equipos, áreas y distribución de equipos (Plot Plan).
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INGENIERÍA CONCEPTUAL

Se definen parámetros tales como: características del


proceso; equipos, áreas y distribución de equipos (Plot Plan).

Durante esta etapa es usual que se defina la tecnología de los


procesos que tendrá la nueva planta. Esta selección es de
vital importancia, pues permite optimizar el capital necesario
para la ejecución y operación proyecto y definir la garantía de
la tecnología, en términos de confiabilidad y resultados.
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INGENIERÍA BÁSICA

Se afina el costo del proyecto realizando un diseño con un mayor


grado de precisión → Determina la viabilidad
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INGENIERÍA DE DETALLE

Se finaliza con el diseño del proceso.


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INGENIERÍA DE DETALLE

Los entregables de la ingeniería de detalle deben ser suficientes para:


• Definir los materiales, conjuntos prefabricados y equipos a
adquirir de tal modo que su cotización y proveedores sea inequívoca.
• Definir los métodos constructivos, criterios de aceptabilidad,
pruebas, ensayos, etc. de las instalaciones a construir.
• Definir todos los aspectos geométricos y dimensionales necesarios
para la fabricación y montaje de los componentes del proyecto.
• Definir todos los requerimientos de ensayos y pruebas de equipos
y sistemas que comprenden las instalaciones.
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ALCANCES
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ENTREGABLES

Estudio de factibilidad

Ingeniería conceptual
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ENTREGABLES IB
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ENTREGABLES ID
Block diagrams
BLOCK DIAGRAMS

The block diagram is the simplest (but least descriptive) of


the schematic diagrams.
It consists of rectangular blocks, connected by arrows
indicating the flow sequence.

The blocks may represent:


- a single unit operation in a plant or
- an entire section of the plant or
- a whole unit in the refinery/petroch. complex

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BLOCK DIAGRAMS

Block diagram of FCC unit / LPG treatment

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BLOCK DIAGRAMS

The block diagram is extremely useful:


- in the early stages of a process study
- in presenting the results of economic or operating studies
In fact, the block diagram allows:
• an easy visualisation even of most complex plants
• a simplified balance, in terms of feedstocks and products

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BLOCK DIAGRAMS

Block diagram of a desulphurization unit


Balance on hydrocarbon basis

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PROCESS FLOW DIAGRAMS
PROCESS FLOW DIAGRAMS

In a Process Flow Diagram (PFD) the sequence of the main


equipment of the plant is shown, so that process flow and
operations are immediately apparent.
This is accomplished by:
• omitting all but the essential details
• using frequent arrows to indicate direction of flow
• employing heavy lines for major flow lines
• indicating temperatures, pressures and flow quantities at
various significant points in the diagram.

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PROCESS FLOW DIAGRAMS

Main guidelines:
1. Equipment relative proportions to be (indicatively) respected
2. Vessels / columns / reactors to be allined at the same height
(approx. one third of sheet height from bottom)
3. Pumps and compressors to be shown on the same line (below
relevant drums)
4. Equipment relative location to be (indicatively) respected
PFD shall not be strictly representative of real equipment
location on lay-out, but it shall give a first schematic
idea of items and piping arrangement.

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PROCESS FLOW DIAGRAMS

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PROCESS FLOW DIAGRAMS

Some more “rules of thumb”:


1. Try to fit each section of the process unit into one single PFD.
2. Do not show more than 6-8 pieces of equipment into one
PFD.
3. Process streams entering or exiting from PFD are identified by
different types of arrows:
if the stream comes/goes from/to another PFD
if the stream is a feedstock entering into the
process unit from OSBL
if the stream is a product exiting from the
process unit to OSBL

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PROCESS FLOW DIAGRAMS

In more details:
• Spare equipment is omitted (e.g. spare pumps)
• Simplified graphic symbol is used for heat exchangers
• Minor equipment (as silencers, condensate pots, etc) is
omitted
• Each stream of the material balance is identified by a
“diamond”
• Instrumentation: only instruments essential to the control of
the process are shown, in a simplified way. No PSV is shown.
• Piping details: none (no manual block valves – except where
needed to clarify the process- no check valves, etc.)

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PROCESS FLOW DIAGRAMS

Details to be shown on a Process Flow Diagram (PFD):


• Columns: trays number (but not the trays type)
• Reactors: number of catalyst beds
• Machinery: type of pump / compressor (i.e. centrifugal or
reciprocating), identified by proper symbol.
Main graphic rules:
• Feedstocks enter from the left side
• Products exit to the right side
• Main process stream: in bold
• Recycles: from right side to left side

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PROCESS FLOW DIAGRAMS

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PROCESS FLOW DIAGRAMS

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PROCESS FLOW DIAGRAMS

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MATERIAL BALANCES
MATERIAL BALANCES

In the Material Balance, total and single components flowrates,


together with main physical properties of the streams are
listed.
Notes:
• Minimize number of streams listed in the material balance
• Engineering unit: kg/h, usually with 1 decimal digit maximum
• Physical properties to be listed (as minimum):
• pressure and temperature
• fluid state (liquid, vapor or mixed)
• density @ flow conditions, for liquid streams
• molecular weight for vapor streams
• viscosity @ flow conditions, for all streams
• Composition

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MATERIAL BALANCES

Material Balance report in HYSYS

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PIPING AND INSTRUMENT
DIAGRAM-P&ID
PIPING AND INSTRUMENT DIAGRAM

A diagram showing the interconnection of process equipment


and instruments used to control the process.

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PIPING AND INSTRUMENT DIAGRAM

They play an important role in:

• Control of process
• Process security
• Start-up and maintenance
• Safety and Operability Studies.
• Process Modifications
• Operation of the process

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PIPING AND INSTRUMENT DIAGRAM

EQUIPMENT

• Description.
• Tangent line elevation.
• Main interns
• Details drains, vents, lubrication.
• Equipment list.
• Isolation
• Cleaning connections

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PIPING AND INSTRUMENT DIAGRAM

INSTRUMENTATION

Instruments (Symbology ISA S.5.1).

Control and auxiliary loops.

Stop logic system and security.

Safety valves

Communication identification

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PIPING AND INSTRUMENT DIAGRAM

PIPELINE
• Numbering of lines
• Reference to the continuation in
other diagrams
• Identification of industrial services
• Special elements of pipe
• Drains.
• Indications of Pipe Arrangement.
• Buried Lines
• Isolations

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Pipe Characteristics

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Why?

The optimal diameter is determined by


• The economic balance between investment in pipes and
valves from investment in the pump or compressor and
operating costs.
• For minimum and maximum velocities. Under a maximum
speed to prevent problems like erosion, noise and vibration.
• The fluid also should remain above a minimum value of
speed to minimize the surging and to carry sand and other
solids

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Pipe represent 30% on weight of plant and 15% on
value

Pipeline

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STANDARD

Commercial pipe is defined by international standard, the most


used are:

•ANSI:
– English units, world wise used
– Ref. ASME B36.10M for CS pipes
– Ref. ASME B36.19M for SS pipes

•UNI:
– Metric units, rarely used and preferentially in Europe
– Ref. DIN and ASME

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MAIN CHARACTERISTICS:

• Material: CS, 5-Cr, 9-Cr, SS-304/316/317, alloy 625, 825 etc


• Diameter (outside)
•NPS = Nominal Pipe Size
• Thickness
•Calculated
•Identification : STD, XS, XXS, etc
•Schedule
• Roughness

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THICKNESS

•Calculated
DIN - NE-EN 13480-3:

Do, outside diameter [mm].


Pc, Design pressure [N/mm2].
z, blench coeficient, section 4.5 of UNE-EN 13480-3
f, design stress of UNE-EN 13480-3

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THICKNESS

•Calculated
ANSI - ASME B31.1:

tm, minimum thickness


Do, outside diameter [mm].
P, Design pressure [kPa].
SE, admissible material tension
y, material coeficient

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REPASO HIDRAULICA Y CRITERIOS

Para los equipos que contienen líquido se los suma la presión hidrostática al máximo
nivel de líquido que pueda contener en operación
REPASO HIDRAULICA Y CRITERIOS
THICKNESS

•Example!!!

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All international standard define the outside diameter because
this parameter affects all supports and fittings
For hydraulic calculation the key parameter is the inside
diameter, therefore it is important to know how to convert the
calculated ID into the OD and vice versa
The pipe thickness, that fix the ID, is directly related to the
pressure level inside the pipe, in particular the design/test
pressure
For low size pipe small thickness variations can have big impact
in the free area

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DIMENSIONS

• Extract from ASME B36.10M-2004

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TABLE
• ID vs Identifier/Schedule/Class Table
NPS 1/2 3/4 1 1 1/2 2 2 1/2 3 4 6 8 10 12 14
DN 15 20 25 40 50 65 80 100 150 200 250 300 350
Outside [in] 0.840 1.050 1.315 1.900 2.375 2.875 3.500 4.500 6.625 8.625 10.750 12.750 14.000
Diamet [mm] 21.336 26.670 33.401 48.260 60.325 73.025 88.900 114.300 168.275 219.075 273.050 323.850 355.600
STD 15.799 20.930 26.645 40.894 52.502 62.713 77.927 102.260 154.051 202.717 254.508 304.800 336.550
Identif.

XS 13.868 18.847 24.308 38.100 49.251 59.004 73.660 97.180 146.329 193.675 247.650 298.450 330.200
XXS 6.401 11.024 15.215 27.940 38.176 44.983 58.420 80.061 124.384 174.625 222.250 273.050 ---
5 18.034 23.368 30.099 44.958 57.023 68.809 84.684 110.084 162.738 213.538 266.243 315.925 347.675
10 17.120 22.454 27.864 42.723 54.788 66.929 82.804 108.204 161.468 211.557 264.668 314.706 342.900
20 --- --- --- --- --- --- --- --- --- 206.375 260.350 311.150 339.750
CS Schedule

30 16.510 21.844 27.610 41.910 53.975 63.475 79.350 104.750 --- 205.003 257.454 307.086 336.550
40 15.799 20.930 26.645 40.894 52.502 62.713 77.927 102.260 154.051 202.717 254.508 303.225 333.350
Internal Diameter [mm]

60 --- --- --- --- --- --- --- --- --- 198.450 247.650 295.300 325.425
80 13.868 18.847 24.308 38.100 49.251 59.004 73.660 97.180 146.329 193.675 242.875 288.900 317.500
100 --- --- --- --- --- --- --- --- --- 188.900 236.525 280.975 307.950
120 --- --- --- --- --- --- --- 92.050 139.725 182.550 230.175 273.050 300.025
140 --- --- --- --- --- --- --- --- --- 177.825 222.250 266.700 292.100
160 11.786 15.545 20.701 33.985 42.850 53.975 66.650 87.325 131.750 173.050 215.900 257.200 284.175
SS Sched.

5S 18.034 23.368 30.099 44.958 57.023 68.809 84.684 110.084 162.738 213.538 266.243 315.925 347.675
10S 17.120 22.454 27.864 42.723 54.788 66.929 82.804 108.204 161.468 211.557 264.668 314.706 346.050
40S 15.799 20.930 26.645 40.894 52.502 62.713 77.927 102.260 154.051 202.717 254.508 304.800 336.550
80S 13.868 18.847 24.308 38.100 49.251 59.004 73.660 97.180 146.329 193.675 247.650 298.450 330.200
01CS1S 13.868 18.847 24.308 38.100 49.251 62.713 77.927 102.260 154.051 205.003 257.454 307.086 339.750
01CS1U 13.868 18.847 24.308 38.100 49.251 62.713 77.927 102.260 154.051 205.003 257.454 307.086 339.750
Class

01CS1U-U 13.868 18.847 24.308 38.100 49.251 62.713 77.927 102.260 154.051 205.003 257.454 307.086 339.750
01CS2C 11.786 15.545 20.701 38.100 49.251 62.713 77.927 102.260 154.051 202.717 254.508 --- ---
01CS2P-A 13.868 18.847 24.308 38.100 49.251 62.713 77.927 102.260 154.051 205.003 257.454 307.086 339.750
01CS2P-K 13.868 18.847 24.308 38.100 49.251 62.713 77.927 102.260 154.051 205.003 257.454 307.086 339.750

NPS 1-1/4”, 2-1/2”, 3-1/2”, 5”, and 22” shall not be used
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PIPE CHARACTERISTICS

1.8

1.7

1.6

1.5

1.4
OD / NPS

1.3

1.2

1.1

1.0

0.9

0.8
0 2 4 6 8 10 12 14 16 18 20 22 24 26 28 30 32 34 36 38 40 42 44 46 48

NPS
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PIPE CHARACTERISTICS

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Pipe Rating and Fittings

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PIPE RATING

Pipe Rating is defined in ASME B16.5, it affects flanges and


fittings, not pipe

Extract from ASME


B16.5-2003
CS Ratings Data

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60

Rating curves
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Rating curves
Ratings 300 Curves
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CS
50
1 1/4 Cr
45
P5
40
P9
Press [bar]

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SS 304
30

25 SS 316 /
317

20 SS 304L /
316L
15 SS 321

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SS 347

5
0 50 100 150 200 250 300 350 400 450 500 550

Temp [°C] 62
FITTINGS – ELBOWS AND TEE
FITTINGS - FLANGES

Types

Flat face (FF) : INA, UT,


PW, etc

Raised face (RF):


process service

Ring Type Joint


(RTJ): High pressure

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FITTINGS – MANUAL VALVES

Ball valve Gate valve Plug valve

Butterfly valve Angle valve Diaphragm valve Globe valve

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FITTINGS – CHECK VALVES

Ball valve Globe lift check valve

Vetical lift check valve

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FITTINGS – ELBOWS AND TEE

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THEORY
PARAMETERS

In the industrial plants all fluids are normally considered as


Newtonian in adiabatic condition.

The parameters to be evaluated for pipe size selection are:

• Specific Pressure Drops


• Pressure Drops
• Velocity
• v2
• Flow pattern (mixed phase)

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PRESSURE PARAMETERS

Pressure Drops
If the pressure source is fixed and the final requirement also, then you
must install a minimum diameter to satisfy these needs.

Specific Pressure Drops


All fluid requires a source of pressure to move from one place to
another. There are recommendations given by the experience of how
much should be the maximum allowable pressure drop per to maintain
a balance between the cost of the pressure source and the cost of the
pipe.

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FLOW PATTERN (MIXED PHASE)

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Expansion Loop on offsite pipeline

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Leq - By Isometric
• From Sketch (detailed calculation): FITTING SPECIFICATION L/D
GLOBE PERPENDICULAR TO RUN 340
• sum all straight length pipe GLOBE Y PATTERN 145
ANGLE 145
• count all types of fittings: GATE 13
PIPE LINE GATE, BALL, PLUG 3
• elbows (standard, long radius VALVES (FULLY OPEN) CHECK VALVES CONVENTIONAL 135

etc) CHECK VALVES CLEARWAY


BUTTERFLY
50
40
• tee
THREE WAY STRAIGHT THROUGH 44
• valves THREE WAY THROUGH BRANCH 140
90 DEGREE STANDARD 30
• enlargement / reducer 45 DEGREE STANDARD 16
90 DEGREE LONG RADIUS 20
• for each type of fittings find:
ELBOW
90 DEGREE STREET 50
45 DEGREE STREET 26
• L / D or SQUARE CORNER 57

• K = f  L / D (Re dependent) TEE THREE WAY STRAIGHT THROUGH 20


THROUGH BRANCH 60
– (Values tabulated on Crane) final diameter in
ENLARGEMENT final diameter in
• Calculate fittings equiv. length CONTRACTION final diameter in
final diameter in
• Sum the above terms NOZZLE
ENTRANCE 50
EXIT 100

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SOFTWARES
Visual flow
• VISUAL FLOW® is a fluid flow simulator that
aids engineers in the design, modeling and
regulatory documentation of oil & gas flare
networks.
• VISUAL FLOW provides fast, reliable, and
accurate solutions for applications that
range from line sizing and vessel
depressurization to the rating of complex
relief systems. Process and safety
engineers can design, rate, and analyze
processes with this rigorous, steady state
simulator.
• Applications include relief networks, systems
containing any configuration of multiple
flares, relief valves, knock-out drums, and
loops.

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Pipephase
• PIPEPHASE provides a comprehensive and
rigorous modeling capability for steady-
state, multiphase flows in oil and gas
gathering networks and pipeline systems. It
offers the power and flexibility to model
applications ranging from single well
sensitivity analyses of key parameters, to a
multi-year planning study for an entire
production field.
• PIPEPHASE uses proven solution
algorithms, modern production methods and
software analysis techniques to create a
robust and efficient oil field design and
planning tool. With an extensive physical
property data bank, PIPEPHASE covers the
complete range of fluids encountered in the
petroleum industry, including single phase or
black oil, as well as compositional mixtures.
The software may also be applied to single-
component steam or CO2 injection
networks.

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Inplant
• INPLANT is a powerful, steady-state
simulator for designing, rating, and
analyzing plant piping systems. Engineers
can quickly rate and analyze the safety of
plant piping systems using INPLANT.
INPLANT also enables the design of new
piping systems or the upgrade of a wide
variety of existing piping systems.
• Applications range from simple, single pipe
sizing and rating calculations to large,
multiphase fluid piping networks with
complex, nested-loop topology. Relief
system problems involving networks with
single or multiphase fluids at high velocities
or in critical flow can also be solved using
INPLANT.
• INPLANT helps engineers quickly identify
the cause of poor hydraulic performance in
process piping systems and aids in
formulation of cost-effective solutions.

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