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MIT International Journal of Mechanical Engineering Vol. 1 No. 2 Aug 2011, pp 93-100 93

ISSN No. 2230 – 7699 © MIT Publications

Manoj Kumar Shukla Rajeev Jain

Lecturer, KNPC, Jabalpur (MP), India HOD, Mechanical Engineering Department,

(Email: mksmact@gmail.com) KNPC, Jabalpur (MP), India

Professor, Problem Oriented Research Laboratory, General Manager, R&D Division,

MANIT, Bhopal (MP), India Kirloskar Brothers Limited, Pune, India

Abstract: Computational Fluid Dynamics (CFD) analysis is very requirement of the prevailing site conditions, a unique

useful tool for predicting hydraulic machinery performance at performance prediction has to be made for a separate turbine.

various operating conditions. For designers, prediction of This can be done either by theoretical methods, experimental

operating characteristics performance is most important task. methods or by computational method (i.e. CFD). Among all

All theoretical methods for predicting the performance merely

methods CFD stands its unique importance, since by this

gives a value, and one is unable to determine the root cause for

the poor performance. Due to the development of CFD code, method study of the flow inside turbine space can be made.

one can get the performance value as well as observe actual Flow pattern in intricate portions of the component can also

behaviour of flow in the domain. Analysis and variation of be analysed and variation of the results can be known with

performance can be find out by using CFD analysis. the varying conditions. CFD method consumes less money,

less gestation period in comparison to the experimental

In the present work 3-Dimensional (3-D) real flow analysis is

done for experimentally tested turbine and the characteristics method which requires model fabrication and test rig set up.

of prototype turbine were predicted in actual operating regimes. CFD approach is a combination of numerical technique and

Aim of the work is validation of CFD results with the computational power. With the help of CFD technique even

experimental output .The operating conditions considered are complex flow pattern inside hydraulic turbine parts can be

in accordance with that, where actual prototype turbine is to be analysed in detail and modifications can be implemented.

installed. Flow structure inside the machine is analysed and it It can be used for increasing the efficiency by making

showed the scope of improvement in the design (for example necessary modification in the design of hydraulic turbine

casing tip portion). Results obtained by Computational tool were and checking relevancy of alternate optimizatimised design

very close to experimental results. This provides confidence on

before the turbine is finally manufactured. However in

Computational tools. Present paper elaborates model selection

for prototype turbine, details of methodology used, visualization order to check the reliability of selected optimized design,

of results in CFX-post & then validation of Computational validation of the results is to be done with experimental results.

results. CFD technique has lead to significant enhancement in

efficiency of hydraulic turbine. CFD can also be used to check

Keywords: Computational fluid dynamics (CFD), francis turbine,

efficiency of alternate design of hydraulic turbine for

Efficiency, Head, Unit discharge, unit speed, unit power, pressure,

unit discharge, specific speed, flow parameter. optimization before final testing is done. To improve reliability

of CFD technique, validations of results are required with

experimental results. In present work Francis turbine

I. INTRODUCTION considered with Horizontal axis. CFD analysis is done on

Among all hydraulic turbine machines used for energy varying working conditions and tabulations of results are done

conversion, vast operating regime of Francis turbine enables to get the clear picture of changes in the results.

it to be used for varying range of small to large hydro power In the present paper emphasis is given on predicting the

plant. This makes Francis turbine most popular and hence it turbine performance in actual condition for a prototype turbine

is used in maximum number of hydro power plants. In order and then to validate the results. Hydraulic turbine which is

to develop a reliable machine for this highly demanding considered for validation of results is a actual turbine which

operation, the behaviour of the flow in the entire turbine is to be manufactured and installed at the site. For this turbine

regime has to be predicted by a reliable computational method head and discharge available are known. With the help of

like CFD which is very economical method. The prediction these known quantities other necessary parameters for study

of prototype turbine performance in actual prevailing like power available, specific speed, diameter of runner, unit

conditions is very important for engineers. In order to know speed, unit power and scale ratio are calculated. These

the feasibility of the turbine, it is essential to project the results quantities are useful for final modelling of prototype hydraulic

in advance. Since turbines are tailor made as per the turbine components. Feasibility of working turbine at actual

MIT International Journal of Mechanical Engineering Vol. 1 No. 2 Aug 2011, pp 93-100 94

ISSN No. 2230 – 7699 © MIT Publications

product by research engineering. Visual flow pattern around The inlet and outlet boundary conditions are to be specified

turbine space is obtained by solving continuity and momentum for each run and the accuracy of solution depends on the

equation with the help of computational fluid dynamics to location and manner, these conditions are specified.

study fluid flow properties. The losses in various parts of the Magnitude of mass flow rate and direction are specified at

turbine at critical regions of turbine are also investigated. The

the casing inlet as inlet boundary condition and reference

performance prediction and assessment are well validated by

pressure is specified at outlet of draft tube as outlet boundary

many investigators for hydraulic turbine.

condition.

II. GEOMETRIC MODELLING, BOUNDARY CONDITIONS In present analyses, the mass flow rates as 7305 Kg/s at

& COMPUTATIONAL PARAMETERS 80.93 mm guide vane opening (GVO) is given as inlet

boundary conditions at stay vane inlet. Guide vane opening

Geometric Modelling considered for the present case is 80.93 mm (75.2 % wrt full

Pro-E Software is used for the generation of model which guide vane opening) which is near peak efficiency regime.

is further imported in ANSYS ICEM for mesh generation. Full Guide vane opening is 107.6 mm. The static pressure as

After properly meshing the geometry physical to use the most 0 Pa is specified as outlet boundary condition at the draft

appropriate mesh. CFX-11 includes the following features: tube outlet.

An advanced coupled solver, which is both reliable and The reference pressure is taken as 1 atmosphere i.e.105 Pa.

robust. The rotational speed of runner is specified as 600 rpm as per

Full integration of problem definition, analysis and guide vane opening. The stay vane, guide vane and draft tube

results presentation. domains are taken as stationary. The shear stress transport

(SST), k e turbulence model has been used and the walls

An intuitive and interactive setup process, using menus

of all domains are assumed to be smooth with no slip.

and advanced graphics.

The unstructured tetrahedral mesh is generated in ANSYS Computational flow parameters

ICEM CFD software for all domains which are later Computational analysis provides pressure and velocity

assembled for further study. The accuracy of solution is distribution across whole turbine region in the form of

greatly affected by the size of elements [Guoyi Peng et pressure and velocity profile. Head, discharge and efficiency

al(2002)].

variations are computed for the presentation of results. Losses

Francis turbine design consists of 18 stay vanes, 18 guide in various domains are calculated on the basis of pressure

vanes and 13 runner vanes. Casing and draft tube are also difference at inlet and outlet boundary of domains. Various

considered as per original dimensions to be manufactured. formulae used for computation of different parameters are

Therefore the simulated design consists assembly of casing, given below:

runner and draft tube as our interest is to get complete

performance of the prototype turbine. Each component is Specific speed Ns = NÖP/H5/4

modelled separately and then assembled to get the complete Available power P=rgQH

assembly through proper interfaces. Mesh with scale factor

1.2 is used for importing to ANSYS CFX Pre. 3D real flow Unit speed N11= ND / ÖH

simulation analysis is done for experimentally tested Francis Unit discharge Q11= Q / D 2ÖH

turbine using ANSYS CFX 11 software. The rotational speed

Unit discharge Q11= P11 / (9810*Efficiency)

of runner is specified, stay vane and guide are kept at frozen

state. All inner boundary of turbine space are considered Unit power P11= P / D2H 3/2

smooth with no slip. Pressure Pr = r g H

Table 1: Summary of mesh data (Head loss) domain H loss

= (Pr inlet Pr ) / 9810

outlet

- Outlet Pressure draft tube

)/9810

nodes elements element

Total head loss

Casing 204447 1605723 Tetrahedron

Htotal loss = H1 loss + H2 loss + H3 loss + .. Hn loss

(including stay

vanes & guide (For n number of domains)

vanes)

Turbine efficiency

Runner 98741 382088 Tetrahedron

Draft tube 121845 35961 Tetrahedron hexp. = Havailable*100 / (Havailable - Hloss)

MIT International Journal of Mechanical Engineering Vol. 1 No. 2 Aug 2011, pp 93-100 95

ISSN No. 2230 – 7699 © MIT Publications

Table 2: Turbine specification site condition where prototype turbine is to be installed. For

the selection of prototype turbine, first of all model turbine is

Turbine model Francis Turbine selected (satisfying specification as per Table 2) which is

Shaft alignment Horizontal Axis homologous to the prototype turbine. Based on these data,

efficiency of prototype turbine is calculated. Also all the

Ns of turbine 266.19 m-kW

parameters are calculated for the prototype turbine based on

Model selected F280 the selected model. For present study conditions available at

Desired P generator output 3000 kW the actual site conditions are given in Table 2.

Rated head available 48 m The integrated and cross sectional view of assembled hydro

Desired P turbine output 3142 kW turbine is shown in Figure 2 and Figure 3.

Rated flow 7.25 m3/s

Rated N of turbine 600 rpm

Prototype runner diameter 1.01 m

Model runner diameter 0.35 m

Scale up ratio 2.88

Site elevation EL 143 m

Turbine overload 10 % Prated

Complete process comprised from AutoCAD drawing to the

CFX post covers following steps:

Figure 2: Assembled Francis Turbine

As per the selection of model, drawings for prototype

turbine is made by scaling up model drawings

3-D model of all the parts (as per the scaled up

geometry) is made in Pro-E.

Modelled figures are imported in ANSYS ICEM for

mesh generation. The volume occupied by the fluid is

divided into discrete cells (the mesh).

Meshed part are then taken to CFX-pre to define the

physical condition prevailing. The boundary conditions

are defined.

The equations are solved iteratively by running CFX

Solver to get the results.

Analysis and visualization of the resulting solutions.

Validations of results are done.

The selection of model turbine is made according to the

specific speed calculated for that turbine. Specific speed is

calculated on the basis of head and discharge available at the Figure 4: Assembled 3D Cross-sectional view of Turbine

MIT International Journal of Mechanical Engineering Vol. 1 No. 2 Aug 2011, pp 93-100 96

ISSN No. 2230 – 7699 © MIT Publications

V. EXPERIMENTAL INVESTIGATION

Experimental tested results of turbine at reduced scale

(CRED-KBL) are projected w.r.t. model whose specific speed

resembles with the prototype turbine. The geometrical

specifications of experimentally tested Francis turbine model

are given in Table 2.

There is a vast number of iterations available depending

upon the guide vane opening of the turbine. Initially for best

guide vane opening results are calculated which are tabulated

in the Table 2. These Data are obtained by scaling up the

models results of various parameters obtained after conducting

the experimental wind tunnel testing.

Runner diameter of prototype turbine is calculated

satisfying the specifications mentioned in Table 1, depending

upon the diameter of prototype turbine, scale ratio is

calculated. Respective model drawings are scaled up as per

scale up ratio. Obtained results for prototype turbine are

tabulated in Table 3. An iterative method is used to find that Figure 5: Variation of head & efficiency wrt

optimum efficiency can be obtained when diameter of runner discharge of prototype turbine

is 1010 mm which is duty point. For duty point and rated

turbine speed of 600 rpm, value of N11 is 87.50. Head and Table 4: Model details

efficiency variations wrt discharge for prototype turbine are

shown in Figure 5. For broader visualisation of results, Axis of turbine vertical

experimental and CFD investigation is done at design and Type of draft tube elbow tube

off-design points.

Model head 28 m

Table 3: Experimental results of prototype Specific speed of turbine 266.19 m-kW

Sl. N11 P11 hexp. H Pr. P Q Q11 Runner diameter 0.35 m

No. % (m) (Pa) (kW) (m3/s) No. of runner blades 13

1 70 9.00 89.00 74.95 735221.46 5956.75 9.10 1.03 No. of guide vanes 18

2 80 9.30 92.80 57.38 562903.93 4123.57 7.89 1.02 PCD of guide vanes 0.40 m

3 87.5 9.28 93.10 47.97 470541.74 3144.74 7.18 1.01

No. of stay vanes 18

4 90 9.22 93.00 45.34 444763.60 2864.98 6.93 1.01

Best efficiency 92.10 %

5 100 8.70 89.50 36.72 360258.52 1975.06 6.13 0.99

N11 at best efficiency point 83.8

P11 at best efficiency point 8.85

MIT International Journal of Mechanical Engineering Vol. 1 No. 2 Aug 2011, pp 93-100 97

ISSN No. 2230 – 7699 © MIT Publications

and draft tube domain are 204447, 98741, and 121845

respectively. The tests were carried out for different head and

flow rate across the turbine. Qualitative results of the test are

given in the form of Figures 8, 11, 12 and 13.

Computational results obtained are given in Table 5 and

compared with experimental results in Table 6.

No. Casing Runner Draft Losses Developed

Tube (m) (m)

Figure 7: Draft tube mesh

1 70.00 2.336 4.464 1.360 8.160 68.84

Properties are defined in CFX pre and after running 2 80.00 0.499 3.751 0.015 4.265 57.34

solver final results are visualized and analysed in CFX post. 3 87.50 0.347 2.485 0.342 3.175 49.42

CFX-11 is a general purpose Computational Fluid Dynamics

(CFD) code, combining an advanced solver with powerful 4 90.00 0.192 2.154 0.678 3.024 45.92

pre and post-processing capabilities. The next-generation 5 100.00 1.490 2.091 0.692 4.273 40.05

physics pre-processor, CFX-Pre, allows multiple meshes to

be imported, allowing each section of complex geometries to Table 6: Computational & Experimental Results

use the most appropriate mesh.

Sl. N11 Head (m) Efficiency (%)

VI. RESULTS AND DISCUSSIONS No. Hexp. Hcfd hexp. hcfd

The numerical simulation is done in ANSYS CFX 11.

Experimental results are shown in Table 2 which are obtained 1 70 74.95 68.84 89.00 88.15

by scaling up the results of model turbine as per the scale 2 80 57.38 57.34 92.80 92.56

ratio of 2.88. For prototype turbine available head and 3 87.5 47.97 49.42 93.10 93.58

discharge for which turbine will operate maximum period of

4 90 45.34 45.921 93.00 93.41

time is known quantity from the detailed project report

(Table 1). 5 100 36.72 40.05 89.50 89.33

Rotational speed of turbine is taken as the rated speed i.e.

600 rpm, specific speed calculated is 266 m-kW with the help In the calculation of experimental efficiency of prototype

of which runner diameter is calculated as 1010 mm, N11 and turbine step factor taken by moody's formula is 1%.

P11 is also computed with these results. Generator efficiency Computational results show increase in efficiency at design

is assumed to be 95.50% which is fairly good in this case. point wrt experimental results. However at off design point

The experimental results for prototype turbine are obtained there is variation in efficiency with both methods. Possible

by projecting the results of homologous model turbine in reason for this increase in efficiency is the change in the tip

proportion to the computed scale ratio. Then efficiency of portion design of the casing. Change in casing tip portion

prototype turbine is calculated at rated head of 48 m and rated improves passage of water from casing to runner inlet. The

flow of 7.25 m3/s, subsequently efficiency of turbine at other best efficiency point is obtained when head is made available

unit speeds are also computed to get broader visualization of near 48 m and Guide vane opening of 75.2%. Losses in various

operation of turbine at design and off design operating domains are shown in table 5, which shows that optimum

regimes. Experimental results for prototype turbine are losses occur when unit speed of turbine is near 87.5.This

tabulated in Tables 5 and 6. It is well known that all these supports that for efficient and optimum performance of turbine

parameters could be combined to unit quantities to carry out unit speed of turbine should be near 87.5 and accordingly

data reduction. This approach is followed to present the other factors should be decided for the design of prototype

results. The assembly of turbine considered here comprised turbine.

of Casing, Stay vane, Guide Vane, runner and Draft tube Streamline flows are shown indicating maximum turbulence

(shown in Figures 5, 6 and 7 respectively).Three number of in the runner which is converted into head loss. Runner is the

domains are made viz. casing domain (Stationary), runner major component of turbine for energy conversion, therefore

domain (Rotating) and draft tube domain (Stationary). As the runner part plays critical role for deciding the efficiency of

dimension of whole assembly is big, therefore meshing of turbine. Table 5 illustrates losses occurring in casing, runner

the domains are done separately and then merged together. and draft tube domains. For this casing tip portion design

Number of grid points in casing domain, runner domain was modified to make smooth entrance of flow which resulted

MIT International Journal of Mechanical Engineering Vol. 1 No. 2 Aug 2011, pp 93-100 98

ISSN No. 2230 – 7699 © MIT Publications

studied which can be a part of optimization process.

Experimental and computational efficiency of turbine is fairly

matching which indicates the robustness of the method

followed as shown in Table 6.

The blade loading chart is showing pressure variation in

mid span of runner blade from leading edge (LE) to trailing

edge (TE). Cavitation is another important design aspect

for Turbine. Turbine should be free from cavitation effect.

To know whether our Turbine design is free from cavitation

effect, we should know pressure distribution on two sides

of blades.

This can be done by plotting Blade loading of runner at

different span location i.e. 66.7% span. Blade Loading from

Leading edge to trailing edge is shown in the Figure 12.

Static pressure (Guage) is gradually decreasing at every

span location and there is no abrupt changes observed. As Figure 9: Variation head & discharge

they are not falling below the vapour pressure of water, we

can conclude that they are free from cavitation.

Different sets of operating points were selected to get the

performance characteristics of the actual turbine to be made.

Experimental and Computational results are compared in the

Figures 9 & 10. Since head is calculated after computational

investigation for design and off design points, therefore

comparative study is made between head, discharge and

efficiency off turbine.

The scatter in the experimental data was relatively small

and hence a trend line was used to represent the curve using

a polynomial series. Results obtained from the solver are used

to get the real picture inside the geometry and to know the

velocity and pressure variations across the whole domain.

Graphs shows that the results obtained by CFD are fairly

matching with the results obtained from the experimental data.

Points where variation occurs is due to the extra losses in the Figure 10: Variation efficiency & discharge

domains, which should be minimized.

Figure 8: Pressure contour in casing domain to trailing edge

MIT International Journal of Mechanical Engineering Vol. 1 No. 2 Aug 2011, pp 93-100 99

ISSN No. 2230 – 7699 © MIT Publications

From Tables 5 and 6 it is seen that for maximum efficiency can be used for investigating the actual performance of

total losses is minimum. Pressure contour and velocity contour prototype turbine, to get possible sources of improvement in

shown in Figure 12 and 13 respectively describes the flow the design geometry with cost effective technique in lesser

structure inside various components of francis turbine. time. Validation of results done by this method will lead to

Velocity profile from Figure 12 inside the turbine assembly become very good source of optimization technique for

indicates that casing and runner domain has smooth velocity hydraulic turbine performance.

profile whereas as soon as water enters draft domain velocity Results from experimental evaluation and Simulation

starts decreasing and profile becomes non uniform. Similarly performed at different unit speed range for optimum guide

from Figure 13 it becomes clear maximum energy conversation vane opening and at rated speed of runner 600 rpm. Results

takes place inside the casing domain where pressure is highest show that optimum turbine performance at actual site will

and as water moves further its pressure decreases gradually. occur when the unit speed of turbine is near 87.5 working

The best operating regimes, losses and flow pattern can be under a head of 48 m and accordingly other parameters are

investigated from the calculated flow parameters of numerical available. On the basis of computational results design

simulation. Thus it can be concluded that CFD simulation analysis of prototype turbine can be done accordingly.

The paper brought out the validation of experimental results equations in computational methods. The total computed losses

with the computational investigation. The maximum are observed to be minimum at best operating point.

efficiency regime indicated by both approaches is nearly same. Hence the results obtained are fairly matching, however

Reason for slight difference of efficiency computed by streamline flow in some reasons have more turbulence which

experimental and computational method can be because of is due to occurrence of losses. Difference in results at off

instrumental and human errors in experimental testing and peak conditions between experimental and computational

MIT International Journal of Mechanical Engineering Vol. 1 No. 2 Aug 2011, pp 93-100 100

ISSN No. 2230 – 7699 © MIT Publications

results is due to error in discretising the governing equations Reports on Turbine Testing Problem Oriented Research

and flow domain. Losses not considered very precisely. There Laboratory (Fluid Mechanics and Hydraulic Mechanics Lab)

can be human and instrumental error in experimental Bhopal, India.

calculations. Prediction of turbine performance by CFD gives [3] P. Krishnamachar, Dr. V.V. Barlit (Russia), M.M. Deshmukh,

the idea to know the flow behaviour inside the turbine Manual on Hydraulic Turbine (MANIT, Bhopal).

model and get the information about the intricacy of flow [4] Guoyi Peng, Shuliang Cao, Masaru Ishizuka, Shinji Hayama

pattern, since the flow inside the turbine in actual is very (2002); Design optimisation of axial flow hydraulic turbine

complicated. CFD results gives the qualitative information. runner: Part II-Multiobjective Constrained Optimzation

It provides the tool to simulate the flow conditions with Method, International Journal for Numerical Methods in

different geometries in lowest possible time, thus providing Fluids, Vol. 39, Issue 6, pp. 533-548.

reduction in design analysis and yet developing robust [5] Guoyi Peng (2005): A practical combined combined

technology along with aiding in reducing gestation computation method of mean through-flow for 3D inverse

period. design of hydraulic turbine machinery blades, ASME Journal

of fluid engineering.

NOMENCLATURE [6] V. Prasad, CFD approach for design optimization and

validation for axial flow hydraulic turbine, Indian J of Eng

H = Net head (m)

and Materials Sciences, Vol. 16, August 1999, 229-236.

Q = Discharge through turbine (m 3/s)

[7] Bernard M., Maryse P., Robert M. and Anne. M. G., Proc.

N = Rotational speed of turbine (rpm) ASCE Water Power Conference, Las Vegas, USA 1999.

h = Mass density of water (kg/m3) [8] Peng G., Cao S., Ishizuka M. and Hayama S., Int. J. Numer

g = Gravitational acceleration (m/s 2) Methods Fluids, 39(6) (200) 533-548

P = Turbine power (kW) [9] Daniel B, Romeo R., and Sebastian M, Proc. Int. conf. on

CSHS03, Belgrade, (2003) 29-36.

Prated = Power output of turbine at rated condition (kW)

[10] Liplej A., Proc. Inst. Mech. Eng., Pt. A. J. Power and Energy,

Pgeneratoroutput = Power output of generator (kW) 218 (2004) 43-50.

EL = Elevation level wrt mean sea level. [11] Guoyi P., J. Fluids Eng., 27 (2005) 1183-1190

PCD = Pitch circle diameter (mm) [12] C.A.J. Fletcher, Computational Techniques for Fluid

N11 = Unit speed Dynamics Vol. 1, Springer Pub. 1991.

Q11 = Unit discharge [13] Lewis RI, Turbo machinery performance analysis (Arnold,

P11 = Unit power Londan), 1996.

Pr. = Pressure (Pa) [14] CFX 11, User Manual, Ansys Inc. 2004.

Hexp. = Head by experimental testing (m) [15] Liplez A., Proc. Inst. Mech. Eng., Pt. A. J. Power and Energy,

218 (2004) 43-50.

Hcfd = Head by CFD testing (m)

[16] Guoyi P., J. Fluids Eng., 27 (2005) 1183-1190.

hexp. = Efficiency obtained by experimental testing

[17] Shukla M., CFD Analysis of 3-D flow and it's validation for

hcfd = Efficiency obtained by CFD testing francis turbine, 34th National Conference on FMFP, BIT

Mesra (2007) 732-737.

ACKNOWEDGEMENTS [18] Wu J., Shimmel K., Tani K., Niikura K. and Sato J. J., Fluid

Author would like to express sincere gratitude towards all Engg., 127(2007) 159-168.

related to MANIT, Bhopal and KBL Pune, for continuous [19] Rao, V. Shrinivas, Tripathi, S.K. (2007): Role of CFD analysis

encouragement and cooperation made available to do the in hydraulic design optimization of hydro turbines, Proceeding

associated paper work. of National Seminar on CFD-The 3rd Dimension in Flow

Analysis & Thermal Design, Bhopal(India), pp.196-201.

REFERENCES [20] Vishnu Prasad; V.K. Gahlot, P. Krishnamachar (2009) CFD

[1] Kirloskar Brothers Limited Data for Francis turbine model, approach for design optimization and validation for axial flow

Corporate Research and Engineering Division (CRED-KBL), hydraulic turbine, Indian Journal of Engineering and

Pune, India. Material Sciences, pp. 229- 236 .

[2] Maulana Azad National Institute of Technology, Project

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