Vous êtes sur la page 1sur 51

JMJ Marist Brothers

NOTRE DAME OF MARBEL UNIVERSITY


City of Koronadal, South Cotabato
Senior High School Department

Chapter I
INTRODUCTION

This chapter provides the background and the framework of the study, presents

problem, the significance, the purpose of the capstone research and defines some

terminologies that are significantly used in the study.

Background of the Study

Carica papaya (papaya) is one of the best fruit that has a lot of nutrition. It is a

small branched tree usually with a single stem growing from 5 to 10 cm tall. Papaya

was the first transgenic fruit tree to have its genome sequence. Papaya contains 88%

water, 11% carbohydrates, and is negliable fat and protein. The ripe fruit of the papaya

are usually eaten raw without skin and also the seeds. Aside from fruit, the seed of the

papaya is also useful even many people throw it away or set it aside. Actually, the seed

of papaya have surprising health benefit in the body even though it has a sharp and

spicy taste.

According to the reports of Okeniyi et al. (2007), the papaya fruit and seeds have

antihelminthic and antimoeboic activities. Externally, the latex (papain) is irritant,

dermatogenic and vesicant. The roots extracts have been reported to inhibit fungal

growth, especially Candida albicans (Giordani and Siepai, 1991). From previous

studies, papaya leaves have been reported to contain carpaine which has high

antioxidant content that may be helpful for the prevention of atherosclerosis, diabetic

heart disease, heart attacks and strokes. Pawpaw (C. papaya L.) improves the immune

1
JMJ Marist Brothers
NOTRE DAME OF MARBEL UNIVERSITY
City of Koronadal, South Cotabato
Senior High School Department

system and prevents illnesses such as recurrent ear infections, colds and flu. Pawpaw

(C. papaya L.) extracts have exhibited inhibi-tory effects on gram-positive bacteria and

gram-negative bacteria. These organisms include: Bacillus subtilis, Escherichia coli,

Salmonella typhi, Staphylococcusaureus, Enterobacter cloacae and Proteus vulgaris

(Emeruwa, 1982). In humans, following treatment with antibiotics, papaya juice helps to

restore normal intestinal flora destroyed by the antibiotics. Pawpaw (C. papaya L.) peels

serve as poultice for treatment of skin wounds that are not heal quickly. Pawpaw fruit

stimulates milk production in weaning mothers, prevents constipation, nausea, morning

sickness, motion sickness, cataract formation, chronic obstructive pulmonary

diseasdiverticulosis and hypertension. C. papaya L. contains enzymes such as papain,

lipase and chymopapain. The papain and chymopapain can induce allergies when

inhaled accidentally and Lipase, a hydrolase, is considered as a “naturally immobilized”

biocatalyst. The levels of these enzymes vary in the fruit, latex, seeds, leaves and roots.

As with many tropical crops, pawpaw fruits are beset with problems of field and storage

rot. C. papaya L. is host to various species of pests and pathogens. Plant pathologists

have reported about 39 arthropods that infest papaya (Singh and Sirohi, 1977; Morton,

1987). Papaya fruit fly (Toxotrypanacurvicauda) is one of the principal insect pests that

affect C. papaya throughout the tropical and sub-tropical areas. Others include

Tetranychusurticae, Brevipalpauscarlifornicus which cause damage by penetrating plant

tissue. Nematodes namely Rotylenchulusreniformis, Meloidogynespp,

Helicotylenchusdihysteria, have been reported to cause root disease in papaya. Fungal

pathogens such as Phytophthorapalmivora causes root and fruit rot in papaya,

2
JMJ Marist Brothers
NOTRE DAME OF MARBEL UNIVERSITY
City of Koronadal, South Cotabato
Senior High School Department

Collectricumgloerosporoides causes anthracnose, Asperisporiumcaricae causes black

spot in papaya. Since the mid-1950s bacterial species such as Pseudomonas

caricapapayae have been known to cause small circular to angular dark green water

soaked lesions on the lower surface of papaya leaves. Erwinia cloacae a gram negative

rod shaped facultative anaerobe causes internal yellowing of leaves.In developing

countries, post-harvest losses have been reported to be between 40 - 100%

(Oludemokun, 1976). The losses are mainly due to decay, physiological disorders and

mechanical injury. According to Kuthe and Spoerhase (1974), Gupta and Pathak (1986),

Baiyewu (1994), Aspergillusniger, Rhizopusnigricans, Aspergillusflavus, Rhizopusoryzae

and Fusariummoniliforme of fungal origin are responsible for post-harvest losses in

pawpaw. Besides the economic losses to pawpaw fruit marketers, the rotten fruits could

cause serious health hazards to consumers (Eaton and Groopman, 1994). Some of the

harmful metabolites produced by pawpaw spoilage organisms include: Ochratoxins,

Fumonisins and Aflatoxins produced by Aspergillus spp. These toxins when ingested by

humans may cause severe effects in respiratory tract which may lead to bronchitis and

liver dysfunction (Funnell et al., 1973; Krogh, 1992; Prasad, 1992; Eaton and

Groopman, 1994). Thus the effects of these toxins are of serious global consequence

particularly in the developing countries where there are shortages of food and medical

infrastructures. According to F. A. O. (2004), C. papaya L. is mainly grown (> 90%) and

consumed in developing countries. It is fast becoming an important fruit internationally

both as a fresh fruit and as processed products. Thus, spoilage of such fruits further

undermines the food scarcity and health of such percentage of the human population

3
JMJ Marist Brothers
NOTRE DAME OF MARBEL UNIVERSITY
City of Koronadal, South Cotabato
Senior High School Department

that rely on it as a source of vitamins. Chemical pesticides and fungicides have been

used to increase yield and protect pawpaw fruits crops. However, chemicals pose

hazards to ecosystem through induced resistance against target organisms and undue

inundation of the environment with organic pollutants. Biological control presents a

better alternative with relative amount of cheapness, no side effects and reduced

resistance (Okigbo and Ikediugwu, 2000; Okigbo, 2003; Okigbo, 2004; Okigbo, 2005;

Okigbo and Nmeka, 2005).

In line with this, the purpose of this project is to create an ointment by the use

of Carica Papaya seeds extract. By this study, it could be a big help for those people

who disposed papaya seeds. It can also help to improve the health of human beings

especially those suffering from skin related complications. The possible health benefits

of consuming papaya seed herbal ointment includes; (1) Acne and Skin Infections , (2)

Wound Healing, (3) Anti-aging, (4) Reduce wrinkles, and (5) moisturize the skin.

Statement of the Problem

The general purpose of the study is to find out if the Carica papaya seeds extract

be used as an herbal ointment.

Specifically, it seeks to answer the following questions:

1. Can papaya seeds be used for herbal ointment?

2. Is there a significant difference between the Carica papaya seed ointment and

generic antibacterial drug?

4
JMJ Marist Brothers
NOTRE DAME OF MARBEL UNIVERSITY
City of Koronadal, South Cotabato
Senior High School Department

Significance of the Study

This study deals with making the Carica papaya seed extract as an herbal

ointment. Through this study, the following would be the expected benefactors of this

study:

Consumers. The result of the study will benefit the consumers who are fund of using

ointments. Through this, they can use another herbal product made/came of Carica

papaya seeds extract. Consumers would also like scent of the papaya ointment

because of its soothing effect properties.

Farmers. The result of the study will provide papaya farmers with a wide plantation to

have another product to sell aside from their main product. The raw material to be used

is coming from their own plantation which could help them lessen the loss of profit.

Vendors. This result of the study could benefit the vendors to provide a new product to

make use and to sell. The vendors could also use this product for international import.

Future researchers. This study is benefit to them to provide a base line data for their

research. The future researchers could also improve this study and redo the project but

use different raw products or different processes of making coffee.

Scope and Delimitation

This study discusses on making Carica papaya seeds as herbal ointment in

which the researchers would limit only with making use of the seeds of the fruit. The

5
JMJ Marist Brothers
NOTRE DAME OF MARBEL UNIVERSITY
City of Koronadal, South Cotabato
Senior High School Department

researchers would take their raw material (papaya) in the City of Koronadal since the

country of the Philippines is a tropical country. In relation to the topic, the researchers

will compare other herbal ointment products to the papaya seed ointment. The

experimentation will be done in the Science laboratory of Notre Dame of Marbel

University especially in the biology and chemistry laboratories. The specialists in the

field of Biology and Pharmacology will be asked of assistance and supervision in the

conducting of the experiment.

6
JMJ Marist Brothers
NOTRE DAME OF MARBEL UNIVERSITY
City of Koronadal, South Cotabato
Senior High School Department

Chapter II
REVIEW OF THE RELATED LITERATURE

Papaya

According to PCARRD (1984), sixty percent of papaya fruit is edible. The latter is

an excellent source of vitamin C (ascorbic acid) a slice of which can meet an adult’s

daily requirement of 70 to 75 mg vitamin C. The fruit also contains vitamins A and B,

thiamine, riboflavin and niacin.

Papaya seeds contained in the cavity of the fruit with a mass about 15% of the

mass of fruit (Malacrida, 2011), contains antioxidants (Panzarini et al, 2014 and Zhou et

al, 2011), protein, carbohydrates, calcium, and beta-carotene (Nwofia et al, 2012); fatty

acids, benzylisothiocyanate, benzylglucosinolate, glucotropacolin, benzylthiourea,

-sitosterolcaricin, and enzyme myrosin (Bruneton, 1999; Bhattacharjee, 2001; and

Krishna et al, 2008).

Carica papaya belongs to the family of Caricaceae, and several species of

Caricaceae have been used as remedy against a variety of diseases (Alabi et al., 2012).

Papaya is a neutraceutical plant having a wide range of pharmacological activities.The

whole plant has its own medicinal value. Papaya is a powerhouse of nutrients and is

available throughout the year. It is a rich source of threes powerful antioxidant vitamin

7
JMJ Marist Brothers
NOTRE DAME OF MARBEL UNIVERSITY
City of Koronadal, South Cotabato
Senior High School Department

C, vitamin A and vitamin E; the minerals, magnesium and potassium; the B vitamin

pantothenic acid and folate and fiber (Aravind et al., 2013).

Carica papaya was the first transgenic fruit tree to have its genome sequence.

Papaya contains 88% water, 11% carbohydrates, and is negliable fat and protein. The

ripe fruit of the papaya are usually eaten raw without skin and also the seeds. Aside

from fruit, the seed of the papaya is also useful even many people throw it away or set it

aside. Actually, the seed of papaya have surprising health benefit in the body even

though it has a sharp and spicy taste. The fruits, leaves, seeds, and latex are used

(Akah et al., 1997; Enoet al., 2000) as a cure for many tropical diseases hencethe

common name “medicine tree” or “melon of health.” The major active ingredients

(carpine, chymopapain, papain, bactericidal aglycone of glucotropaeolin benzyl

isothiocyanate, aglycoside, sinigrin, the enzyme myrosin, and carpasemine) are in the

black seeds. (Akah et al., 1997)

The black seeds of the papaya are edible and have a sharp, spicy taste. They

are sometimes ground and used as a substitute for black pepper. Dried papaya seeds

actually look quite similar to peppercorns and can be used in just the same way.

Grinding a couple over a meal, especially protein rich meals, is a simple way to add

extra enzymes to your diet and improve your digestive health. The papaya seeds are

very pungent and peppery, making them almost unpalatable. However the seeds seem

to have more potent medicinal values than the flesh. Papaya seeds have antibacterial

properties and are effective against E. coli, Salmonella and Staphylococcus infections.

8
JMJ Marist Brothers
NOTRE DAME OF MARBEL UNIVERSITY
City of Koronadal, South Cotabato
Senior High School Department

The seed of papaya has antimicrobial activity against Trichomonas vaginal

istrophozoites. It could also be used in urinogenital disorder like trichomoniasis with

care to avoid toxicity. The seeds, irrespective of its fruit maturity stages have

bacteriostatic activity on gram positive and negative organisms which could be useful in

treating chronic skin ulcer. (Aravind et al., 2013) Other compounds present in seeds are

carpaine, benzyl isothiocynate, benzyl glucosinolate, beta-sitosterol, caricin, enzyme

myrosin. The well-studied proteinases from papaya are papain, chymopapain, caricain,

and glycylendopeptidase. Papain occurs in all parts of the tree except the root

(Anonymous, 1992). Fruit and seed extracts have antibacterial activity against

Staphylococcus aureus, Bacillus cereus, Escherischiacoli, and Pseudomonas

aeuroginosa (Tang et al., 1972; Emeruwa, 1982).

Pawpaw (Carica papaya) is a common man's fruits available throughout the year

in the Tropics. The fruits, leaves, seeds, and latex are used (Akah et al., 1997; Eno et

al., 2000) as a cure for many tropical diseases hence the common name “medicine tree”

or “melon of health.” The major active ingredients (carpine, chymopapain, and papain,

bactericidal aglycone of glucotropaeolin benzyl isothiocyanate, aglycoside, sinigrin, the

enzyme myrosin, and carpasemine) are in the black seeds (Akah et al., 1997; Eno et

al., 2000; Wilson et al., 2002). The fleshy part of the fruits (mesocarp) is a delicacy and

nutrient-rich drinks of high demand are produced from them. However, some of the

active substances (e.gcarpine and papain) from pawpaw are toxic (Eno et al., 2000).

Carpine are present in traces in the black seeds of papaya. Papain can induce asthma

9
JMJ Marist Brothers
NOTRE DAME OF MARBEL UNIVERSITY
City of Koronadal, South Cotabato
Senior High School Department

and rhinitis. The acid fresh latex can cause severe conjunctivitis and vesication. Carpine

and papain also have anti-fertility properties (Lohiya et al., 1999).

According to Okiniyi et al. (2008) many biologically active phytochemical(s) have

been isolated from papaya and studied for their action, recently an antifungal chitinase

has been gene cloned and characterized from papaya fruit. The chitinase is classified

as class IV chitinase based on its amino acid sequence homology with other plant

chitinases. The recombinant papaya chitinase also has antibacterial activity. The

purified chemopapain from commercially available spray dried latex of the fruits has

shown immunological properties. The anthelmintic activity of papaya seed has been

variously ascribed to carpaine (an alkaloid) and carpasemine (later identified as benzyl

thiourea) and benzyl isothiocyanate, cysteine proteinases from papaya fruit have also

been reported. Carpaine, an alkaloid with an intensively bitter taste and a strong

depressant action on the heart, has been obtained from the fruit and seed, but

especially from the leaves. Various pharmacological action(s) and medicinal uses of

different parts of papaya are well reported in the ancient literature. Some of them

especially Ayurvedic have been summarized in Table 3. Biological activities of papaya

are reported with the crude extracts and different fractions from latex, seed, leaf, root,

stem bark and fruit. However, crude extracts of different parts of papaya have been

used as traditional medicine for the treatment of various diseases. However, apart from

these, there are several reports on the therapeutic properties and pharmacological

actions of papaya based on modern scientific investigations. Some have been

discussed below

10
JMJ Marist Brothers
NOTRE DAME OF MARBEL UNIVERSITY
City of Koronadal, South Cotabato
Senior High School Department

Antimicrobial

The seed of papaya has antimicrobial activity against Trichomonas vaginal

istrophozoites. The report suggests the use of papaya seed in urinogenital disorder like

trichomoniasis with care to avoid toxicity. The seed and pulp of papaya was shown to be

bacteriostatic against several enteropathogens such as Bacillus subtilis, Enterobacter

cloacae, Escherichia coli, Salmonella typhi, Staphylococcus aureus, Proteus vulgaris,

Pseudomonas aeruginosa and Klebsiellapneumoniae by the agar cup plate method.

Purified extracts from ripe and unripe fruits also produces very significant antibacterial

activity on S. aureus, Bacillus cereus, E. coli, P. aeruginosa and Shigellaflexneri. The

aqueous extract of fruit exhibited antimicrobial activity and promoted significant wound

healing in diabetic rats. The seeds of irrespective stage of fruit maturity have

bacteriostatic activity on Gram positive and Gram negative organisms, which could be

useful in treating chronic skin ulcers. The papaya seed macerate has a clinical potential

on conjugal R plasmid transfer from Salmonella typhimurium to Escherichia coli, on in

vitro and in the digestive tract of genotobiotic mice. Herbal formulations containing

papaya leaves and root or leaves alone as one of the constituent has antibacterial

activity against Salmonella typhi, S. paratyphi and S. typhimurium; however, water,

acetone and ethanol extract of papaya leaves showed no microbicidal activity.

Antihelmintic

The air dried papaya seeds given as elixir with honey has shown significant

effect on the human intestinal parasites, without significant side effects. It is reported

11
JMJ Marist Brothers
NOTRE DAME OF MARBEL UNIVERSITY
City of Koronadal, South Cotabato
Senior High School Department

that their consumption offers a cheap, natural, harmless, readily available monotherapy

and preventive strategy against intestinal parasitosis, especially in tropical communities.

Preliminary pharmacological report on anthelmintic activity of papaya seed is also

available. Benzyl isothiocyanate, present in seeds is the chief or sole anthelmintic. The

latex of papaya has anthelmintic efficacy against Heligmosomoidespolygyrus in

experimentally infected mice, which suggests its potential role as an anthelmintic

against potent intestinal nematodes of mammalian hosts. It also has anthelmintic

activity against natural infection of Ascarissuum in pigsand found to be 100% effective

at the dose of 8g/kg body weight36. The plant extracts of papaya possesses a dose

dependent significant effect on the egg, infective larvae and adult worms of

Trichostrongyluscolubriformis. Alcoholic extracts of papaya shows potential in vitro anti-

parasitic action, which affects eggs, infective larvae and adult Haemonchuscontortus.

Anti-amoebic

The cold macerated aqueous extract of matured papaya seeds has shown anti-

amoebic activity against Entamoebahistolytica.

Antimalarial

The petroleum ether extract of the rind of raw papaya fruit exhibits significant

antimalarial activity. There may be significant commercial potential in extracting the

active element from this plant, which grows abundantly throughout the tropics and the

rind of which is discarded as waste, can be exploited for antimalarial activity.

Antifungal

12
JMJ Marist Brothers
NOTRE DAME OF MARBEL UNIVERSITY
City of Koronadal, South Cotabato
Senior High School Department

The latex of papaya and Fluconazole has synergistic action on the inhibition of

Candida albicans growth. This synergistic effect results in partial cell wall degradation

(as indicated by transmission electron microscopy observations). Latex alone is

statically effective on C. albicans when added to a culture during the exponential growth

phase and approximately 60% was achieved. This fungistatic effect is the result of cell

wall degradation due to a lack of polysaccharides constituents in the outermost layers of

the fungal cell wall and release of cell debris into the culture medium.Latex proteins

appear to be responsible for antifungal action and minimum protein concentration for

producing a complete inhibition was reported as about 138mg/ml 43.

Effect on smooth muscles

Ethanol extract of papaya seeds at 0.1-6.4mg/ml showed concentration

dependent inhibition of jejunal contractions and found significantly irreversible. Thus,

seed extract is capable of weakening the contractile capability of isolated rabbit

jejunum44. Pentane extract of papaya seeds has shown relaxation action on strips of

dog carotid artery that had been pre-contracted with Phenylephrine. At the higher

concentration, these are reported to be cytotoxic due to increasing the membrane

permeability to Ca2+. A crude ethanol extract of unripe fruit produces a significant

depression of mean arterial pressure but the extract has about 28% more depression

action than hydrallazine in the hypertensive rats. Fruit juice of papaya probably contains

antihypertensive agent(s), which exhibits mainly alpha adenoreceptor activity 46,47.

Papaya leaves extracts exhibited more than 50% relaxing effect on aortic ring

preparations. This property demonstrates that many edible plants common in Asian

13
JMJ Marist Brothers
NOTRE DAME OF MARBEL UNIVERSITY
City of Koronadal, South Cotabato
Senior High School Department

diets possess potential health benefits, affording protection at the vascular endothelium

level48. Rat uterine contractile activity was remarkably increased by different doses of

papaya latex extract in proestrus and estrus stages compared to metestrus and diestrus

stages of the estrous cycles. Crude papaya latex contain a uterotonic principle which

might be a combination of enzymes, alkaloids and other substances which can evoke

sustained contraction of the uterus acting mainly on the alpha adrenergic receptor

population of the uterus at different stages49. Ethanol extract (80%) of seeds causes a

concentration dependent tocolysis of uterine strips isolated from gravid and non-gravid

rats. High concentration extract is capable of causing irreversible uterine tocolysis

probably due to the damaging effect of benzylisothiocyanate on the myometrium50.

Diuretic

Aqueous root extract of papaya when given orally at a dose of 10 mg/kg to rats

produces significant increase inurine output and shows similar profiles of urinary

electrolyte excretion to that of Hydrochlorothiazide

Hepatoprotective

The ethanol and aqueous extracts of the fruit possess remarkable

hepatoprotective activity against CCl4 induced hepatotoxicity. But hepatoprotective

mechanism as well as active principles responsible for hepatoprotective activity of this

plant is not yet known52. Topical use Papaya fruits are used as topical ulcer dressings

by registered nurses in the Spanish Town Hospital, Kingston Public Hospital and the

University Hospital of the West Indies, Jamaica, which promotes desloughing,

14
JMJ Marist Brothers
NOTRE DAME OF MARBEL UNIVERSITY
City of Koronadal, South Cotabato
Senior High School Department

granulation and healing; it also reduces the odour in chronic skin ulcers. It is cost

effective and is considered to be more effective than other topical applications in the

treatment of chronic ulcers. It is currently used in The Gambia at the Royal Victoria

Hospital, Banjul in the Paediatric Unit as the major component of burns dressings,

where it is well tolerated by the children. Economic and widely available, the pulp of the

papaya fruit is mashed and applied daily to full thickness onto the infected burns. It

appears to be effective in desloughing necrotic tissue, preventing burn wound infection

and providing a granulating wound suitable for the application of a split thickness skin

graft. Possible mechanisms of action include the activity of proteolytic enzymes

chymopapain and papain, as well as an antimicrobial activity.

Male antifertility

Seed extract showed pronounced hypertrophy and hyperplasia of pituitary

gonadotrophs. Whereas the male rats treated with seed extract revealed gradual

degeneration of Germ, Sertoli and Leydig cells as well as germinal epithelium, which

confirmed it’s antifertility. Aqueous extract of papaya seeds, 3 weeks after

commencement of administration showed that the lumina of the seminiferous tubules

were more prominent and empty in the experimental animals with no evidence of

spermatids and spermatozoa. Verma et al have reported its effect on caudaepididymal

microenvironment. The benzene chromatographic fraction of the chloroform extract of

the seeds possesses reversible male contraceptive potential and the effect appears to

be mediated through the testis58 and may be directly rendered on the spermatozoa

without adverse toxicity. Another study revealed inhibition of sperm motility due to other

15
JMJ Marist Brothers
NOTRE DAME OF MARBEL UNIVERSITY
City of Koronadal, South Cotabato
Senior High School Department

epididymal factors rather than the sub-cellular characteristics of testis and epididymis. A

possible mechanism of action and preliminary studies on the antifertility effect of crude

seeds on the gonads of male albino rats has been done by Udoh and Kehinde. A recent

report revealed that it has good contraceptive efficacy in langur monkey and the action

is mediated through inhibition of sperm motility. The chloroform extract of seeds has

shown contraceptive efficacy and reversibility in decreasing the sperm concentration in

male adult rabbits. It produces gradual decline in the sperm concentration, reached

severe oligospermia (fewer than 20 million/ml) after 75 days treatment and attained

uniform azoospermia after 120 days of treatment. It also affects the sperm motility and

viability after 45 days of treatment and reached less than 1% after 75 days of treatment.

It may selectively act on the developing germ cells, possibly mediated via Sertoli cells,

leading to azoospermia64. The crude chloroform extract of seed causes suppression of

caudaepididymal sperm motility, which reduces fertility to zero % within 40 to 60 days of

treatment65. Reversible sterility could be induced in male rats using seed’s aqueous

extract without adverse effects on libido and toxicological profile66 and it could serve as

an effective male contraceptive in rodents. Even aqueous extract of papaya bark has

potential contraceptive activity. However, aqueous extract of the seeds of papaya failed

to exhibit contraceptive effects at any of the dose regimens tested on male rabbits,

contrary to the observations made in the previous studies. Unaltered toxicological

profiles indicated that the drug was free of side effects. Papaya seed extract changes

the biochemical parameters (except cholesterol levels) and the contractile pattern of vas

deferens. The distal vas deferens will affect more than the proximal vas and recovery

16
JMJ Marist Brothers
NOTRE DAME OF MARBEL UNIVERSITY
City of Koronadal, South Cotabato
Senior High School Department

will be slower probably due to its higher threshold requirement for androgen. A short

term administration of an aqueous extract of papaya seed manifests an androgen

deprived effect on the target organs and thereby causes antifertility effect in adult male

albino rats. The data revealed that functional sterility could be induced in male rats by

papaya seed extract treatment, which promises to be a potential male contraceptive as

also supported by its traditional use in different parts of Assam.

Female antifertility

Sharma and Mahanta have reported that the composite root extract containing

papaya root extract as one of the constituent, induces morphological changes in the

endometrial surface epithelium in albino rat uterus. The characteristic smooth regular

pattern of normal epithelium appears to have changed at places by haphazardly

oriented groups of cells and loss of microvilli indicating a disorganized picture. Whereas

seeds aqueous extract has shown abortifacient properties on female Sprague Dawley

rats and the petroleum ether, alcoholic and aqueous extracts inhibits ovulation in

rabbits75. The papaya seed extracts did not exhibit anti-zygotic, antiimplantation, early

abortifacient or antifertility activity. Normal consumption of ripe papaya during

pregnancy may not pose any significant danger. However, the unripe or semi-ripe

papaya (which contains high concentration of the latex that produces marked uterine

contractions) could be unsafe in pregnancy.

Histaminergic

17
JMJ Marist Brothers
NOTRE DAME OF MARBEL UNIVERSITY
City of Koronadal, South Cotabato
Senior High School Department

Crude latex causes contraction of the isolated guinea pig ileum strips, which is

mediated via H1-receptor and dependent on extracellular Ca2+ influx78. Papaya flower

pollen is able to induce respiratory IgE-mediated allergy. The existence of common

allergens among papaya flower pollen, fruit and papain has been demonstrated by

RAST inhibition.

Immunomodulatory

The involvement of oxidative stress mechanisms in several biological and

pathological processes including ageing, cancer, cardiovascular and neurodegenerative

diseases has continued to fuel suggestions that processes can potentially be modulated

by treatment with free-radical scavengers and antioxidant. The fermented papaya

preparation has shown its ability to modulate oxidative DNA damage due to H2O2 in rat

pheochromocytoma cells and protection of brain oxidative damage in hypertensive

rats80. It has also exhibited potential supportive role on oxidative inflammatory damage

in cirrhosis caused by hepatitis C virus. The safety and antioxidative stress potential of

papaya juice is found to be comparable to the standard antioxidant compound α-

tocopherol. The preparation containing yeast fermented papaya as one of the

constituent has antioxidant actions and that it may be prophylactic food against age

related and neurological diseases associated with free radicals. Bacteriostatic activity of

papaya could be correlated to its scavenging action on superoxide and hydroxyl

radicals, which could be part of the cellular metabolism of such enteropathogens. Bio-

catalyzer, which contains yeast fermented papaya, may be useful as health foods

against neural lipid peroxidation, traumatic epilepsy and ageing. Consumptions of guava

18
JMJ Marist Brothers
NOTRE DAME OF MARBEL UNIVERSITY
City of Koronadal, South Cotabato
Senior High School Department

and papaya fruits reduce oxidative stress and alter lipid profile. Thus, it could reduce the

risk of disease caused by free radical activities and high cholesterol in blood. Papaya

seed extract is currently being marketed as a nutritional supplement with purported

ability to rejuvenate the body condition and to increase energy. The product claims to

improve immunity against common infection and body functioning. This provides

theevidence for its immunomodulatory and antiinflammatory actions. Fermented papaya

preparation exerts both immunomodulatory and antioxidant activity in the macrophage

cell line RAW 264 and it is a macrophage activator, which augments nitric oxide

synthesis and TNF-alpha secretion independently of lipopolysaccharides86. The

antioxidant cocktail derived from fermentation of unpolished rice, papaya and seaweeds

with effective microorganisms of lactic acid bacteria, yeast and photosynthetic bacteria

has shown inhibition of lipid peroxidation in vivo, a point dependent on the

concentrations of bioactive flavonoids.

19
JMJ Marist Brothers
NOTRE DAME OF MARBEL UNIVERSITY
City of Koronadal, South Cotabato
Senior High School Department

Chapter III
METHODOLOGY
This chapter presents the research design, ethical concerns, and materials in

carrying out the study.

Research Design

This study utilized the experimental-descriptive research design. The papaya

seeds will undergo scientific processes that includes taking the extracts from the

papaya seeds through evaporation and then will be compared to a negative control and

a positive control through antibacterial procedures.

Theoretical Framework

Figure 1. Theoretical Framework of the study


R1
X-Variable
R2
Y-Variable
Carica Papaya R3
Seeds R4
(Dependent)
R5
R6

R1
X-Variable
R2 20
Negative Control R3
R4
(Distilled Water) R5
R6
JMJ Marist Brothers
NOTRE DAME OF MARBEL UNIVERSITY
City of Koronadal, South Cotabato
Senior High School Department

Zone of Inhibition

Legends:
X-Variable R1 R1 = Replication 1
R2
Positive Control R3 R2 = Replication 2
R4
(Amoxicillin) R3 = Replication 3
R5
R6

Materials, Equipment and Ingredients


Table 1. Table of the Materials, Equipment and the Ingredients of the study

Raw Material Preparation Extraction Antibacterial Production (With


Experiment Ingredients)

 Strainer  hot plate  Test tubes  Petroleum Jelly


 Spoon  water bath  Petri dishes  Essential oil
Papaya seeds of  Knife  Conical  Alcohol lamp  Molder/container
the papaya fruit  Plate Flask  Spreader  Stirring rod
(Carica Papaya).  Beakers  Beakers  Syringe  Spatula
(500mL) (250mL)  Test tube rack  Hot plate
 Digital  Stirring rod  Filter paper (discs)  Water bath
balance  Glass  Colony counter  Beaker (250mL)
 Mortar and funnel  Ruler  Gauze
pestle  Filter paper  Lysol spray
 Spatula

Usage

 Strainer- used to separate he papaya seeds from any unnecessary materials

needed in the experiment and production


 Spoon- used in order to remove the papaya seeds from its fruit
 Knife- used to open the fruits and to easily remove the seeds
 Plate- used to place the fruit on after it was washed

21
JMJ Marist Brothers
NOTRE DAME OF MARBEL UNIVERSITY
City of Koronadal, South Cotabato
Senior High School Department

 Beakers (500mL)- used to place the seeds with 600ml of ethanol and 250g of

papaya seeds. Also as placement for the papaya seeds when not yet in use
 Digital balance- used to weigh solid materials
 Mortar and pestle- used to crush and pound the papaya seeds before they are

soaked in the ethanol. Also used to weigh other solid materials


 Hot plate- used to heat objects with using beakers but with the water bath
 Water bath- used on top of the hot plate. Used for heating. Must contain water.
 Conical Flask-used to place liquid materials in like papaya seed extracts, ethanol,

etc,.
 Beakers (250mL)- used to place materials within 250mL.
 Stirring rod-used to stir mixtures.
 Glass funnel-used in order for proper and exact placement of liquids. To avoid

spillage.
 Filter paper- used to separate liquids from other solid contaminants
 Spatula- used to scoop up solid or liquid materials
 Test tubes- used to place agar for bacterial enculturation
 Petri dishes- used for bacterial enculturation with the extracts, distilled water and

amoxicilin
 Alcohol lamp- used in aseptic process of culturing bacteria. To ward off other

unwanted bacteria
 Spreader- used to spread the cultured bacteria in the Petri dish
 Syringe- used to remove a small amount of cultured bacteria and transfer it to Petri

dishes
 Test tube rack- used to place the test tubes in order to let it stand upright
 Filter paper (discs)- used to soak the extract, water and amoxicillin
 Colony counter- used in order to see clearly if there is any zone of inhibition
 Ruler- used to measure the zone of inhibition
 Lysol spray- used in order to decontaminate the place
 Petroleum Jelly- used as binding agent for the extracts
 Essential oil- used in order to bring about a relaxing scent and remove the strong

odor from the papaya seeds


 Molder/container-used in order to place the extract and petroleum jelly.
 Gauze- used to separate the papaya seeds and the petroleum jelly

Experimental Procedure Flowchart

22
JMJ Marist Brothers
NOTRE DAME OF MARBEL UNIVERSITY
City of Koronadal, South Cotabato
Senior High School Department

Figure 2. Procedures of the


Collection of Raw Materials
Experimentation
Washing of Raw Materialas

Preparation of Raw Materials

Sterilization of Materials and


Equipment

Gowing Bacteria

Preparation of Treatments

Experimentation

Observation & Gathering of


Data

Processing of Data

Drawing of Conclusion
Experimental Procedures

1. Collection of Raw Materials

The Papaya seeds were collected at Brgy. Lambayong, Tampakan, South Cotabato.

This location is far away from the pollution of the city and it is abundant. The petroleum

jelly were bought at KCC Mall of Marbel. The papaya seeds were placed in a clean

plastic container in order to preserve freshness and the juice.

2. Washing of Raw Materials

23
JMJ Marist Brothers
NOTRE DAME OF MARBEL UNIVERSITY
City of Koronadal, South Cotabato
Senior High School Department

Before doing the extraction process, the Papaya seeds was washed with tap water

and placed in a strainer to remove the water. It was then placed in a clean 500mL

beaker.

3. Preparation of Raw Materials

Using a mortar and pestle, the seeds of Papaya were smashed and ground into

small pieces and were placed in clean containers before extracting so that it will be easy

to for the ethanol to incorporate with the extracts.

4. Sterilization of Materials & Equipment

The researchers make sure that the apparatuses were clean before doing the

extraction and experimental process, so all the apparatuses were wrapped in paper and

put inside the autoclave machine to be sterilized for 30 minutes.

5. Preparation of Treatments

During the extraction process, the researchers wore masks and gloves to protect

their hands from chemicals and to protect their nose from the extreme smell of the

chemicals.

The Papaya seed extract was obtained from the weighed 200g of grounded

Papaya seeds using the weighing scale and placed it in a 1000ml beaker. Soaked it in

ethanol overnight then filtered with gauze in order to separate the seeds and ethanol

plus its extracts. Afterwards, using the graduated cylinder, they measured 600mL of

ethanol and poured it on the grounded Papaya seeds. This means that the ratio of them

24
JMJ Marist Brothers
NOTRE DAME OF MARBEL UNIVERSITY
City of Koronadal, South Cotabato
Senior High School Department

Papaya seeds and ethanol is 1:3.The beaker was covered with newspaper tightly so

that the ethanol won’t evaporate.

After soaking the Papaya seeds on the ethanol for less than 24 hours, the

researchers separated the plant from the ethanol using the strainer. They put it in a

bottle through the use of a funnel so that the extract will not spill. All in all there was

more than 450mL of extract and ethanol.

The extracts then underwent evaporation process in order to remove the ethanol

from the extracts. The extracts were divided into two with 225mL and placed in two

conical flasks so when it would boil, it won’t spill. The hot plates was first plugged in and

then put to high heat and then the water baths was placed containing ½ water in order

to avoid spoilage when it boils. For more than 2 hours of evaporation, from 450mL of

ethanol and papaya seed extracts, only the papaya seed extracts were left which is less

than 100mL.

6. Growing Bacteria

Before doing the experiment, the researchers make sure that the apparatuses

were put onto the autoclave machine for 30 minutes so that it will be sterilized and no

other bacteria will contaminate. In growing the bacteria, first the researchers prepared

the agar. The easiest type of agar for this experiment is a nutrient agar which comes in

a powder form. The researchers used 0.5grams of peptone and 0.9grams of beef

extract and then placed in a 500mL conical flask with a cover. The agar was dissolved in

an Erlenmeyer flask with a 100ml of Distilled water and was heat up using the hot plate

25
JMJ Marist Brothers
NOTRE DAME OF MARBEL UNIVERSITY
City of Koronadal, South Cotabato
Senior High School Department

and water bath. The agar should be stirred while heating up and should not over boil.

After dissolving, the agar was cooled for a couple of minutes and was poured evenly in

3 (three) test tubes and placed in the test tube rack.

The researchers got their sample from themselves. To get the sample, the

researchers used 2 (two) cotton swabs to swipe over their arms, face and legs. After

getting the sample, the cotton swabs was soaked in separate test tube, then the cotton

swabs was soaked into the Lysol disinfectant to prevent the bacteria from spreading.

They labelled the test tube with the name of the bacteria and was put into the incubator

with a temperature of 37˚C to let the bacteria grow for 2-4 days.

7. Experimentation

The researchers tested the extracts, distilled water and Amoxicillin to the body

bacteria. To start the experimentation, first the researchers prepared the nutrient agar.

They dissolved the agar and distributed it for they have six (6) petri dishes. They

dissolved the agar in a 100ml water and was heat up using the electric stove. While

heating up, they make sure that they are stirring it with the stirring rod and they also

make sure to not over boil it. As the agar was completely dissolved, they poured the

warm agar into the petri dishes and let it harden.

While waiting for the agar to solidify, the researchers then soaked the filter paper

disks into 3 separate treatments: 1) Papaya seed extracts, 2) Distilled Water, and 3)

Amoxicillin. Afterwards, they used the syringe to get a sample from the cultured

bacteria. Before getting the sample from the cultured bacteria, the syringe and the

26
JMJ Marist Brothers
NOTRE DAME OF MARBEL UNIVERSITY
City of Koronadal, South Cotabato
Senior High School Department

opening of the test tube where the cultured bacteria is, were passed by into the flame of

the Bunsen burner which functions as a sterilizer during the experiment. Afterwards, the

petri dish cover was half opened and was also passed by in the flame of the Bunsen

burner so that the bacteria won’t spread out. The syringe containing .02mL of cultured

bacteria was dropped in one place and then the researchers used a spreader after it

was passed in the flame was streak into the surface of the agar. This process was

repeated until six (6) petri dishes already has bacteria. The researchers had 6 (six)

replications in each treatment so they put three filter paper disk in each petri dish which

was divided into 3 (three) parts. The filter paper disks were put inside the petri dish

quickly so that airborne bacteria will not contaminate. The petri dishes were labelled

with the different treatments and were placed inside the incubator to let the bacteria

grow for 24 hours. After 24 hours, the one of inhibition would be clear and will be the

basis for the data and results of the researchers.

8. Observation and Gathering of Data

The researchers used a colony counter in order to see clearly the zone of

inhibition of each and every treatment of each and every petri dishes. During the

experiment, the researchers took down notes and after the observation recorded the

zone of inhibition of each treatment for the basis of their conclusion. The researchers

used a ruler to accurately get the zone of inhibition.

9. Processing of Data

27
JMJ Marist Brothers
NOTRE DAME OF MARBEL UNIVERSITY
City of Koronadal, South Cotabato
Senior High School Department

The researchers took the mean from the treatments and the replications. Then

the data was compared between the papaya seed extracts, distilled water and the

Amoxicillin.

10. Drawing of Conclusion

The researchers drew their conclusion in accordance to the preferred formulas

and processes needed by the study. The conclusion was drawn out base from the

results taken from the outcome of the experiment and statistical calculations.

Product Making Flowchart

28
JMJ Marist Brothers
NOTRE DAME OF MARBEL UNIVERSITY
City of Koronadal, South Cotabato
Senior High School Department

Figure 3.
Collection of Papaya Seeds
Flowchart
of Product
Making Preparation of Materials and
Equipment

Mixing of Binding Agent and Papaya


Seeds

Addition of essential Oils

Placement

1. Collection of Papaya Seeds

The Papaya seeds were collected at Brgy. Lambayong, Tampakan, South Cotabato.

This location is far away from the pollution of the city and it is abundant. The petroleum

jelly were bought at KCC Mall of Marbel. The papaya seeds were placed in a plastic

container so the seeds and juice would be kept fresh. The petroleum jelly was placed in

a 250mL beaker using a spatula.

2. Preparation of Materials and equipment

The hot plate and water bath was first cleaned before use. The hot plate was

plugged in and then put to low heat then the water bath was filled with water but half

only so it wouldn’t spill upon boiling.

3. Mixing of Binding Agent and Papaya Seeds


29
JMJ Marist Brothers
NOTRE DAME OF MARBEL UNIVERSITY
City of Koronadal, South Cotabato
Senior High School Department

After the hot plate was placed in high heat, the beaker with petroleum jelly was

placed inside the water bath. As the petroleum jelly melts, constant stirring with the

stirring rod was done to equally distribute heat. When the petroleum jelly melts, the

papaya seeds were added was stirred in for 30 minutes so the extracts would fully

incorporate in the mixture.

4. Addition of essential Oils

After 30 minutes, the hot plate was put to low heat and then was plugged out. The

lavender scented essential oil was then added to the mixture and stirred to evenly

distribute its contents to the mixture. The 100% lavender scented essential oil would

replace the strong odor from the papaya seeds and replace it with a relaxing and

fragrant scent.

5. Placement

Since the petroleum jelly would harden when it cools, the mixture was first filtered by

a gauze and then placed in plastic moulders. The moulders were left to cool till the

petroleum jelly with papaya seeds extract solidifies. After so, product would be ready for

distribution.

Ethical Concerns
Practice Safety Precautions

30
JMJ Marist Brothers
NOTRE DAME OF MARBEL UNIVERSITY
City of Koronadal, South Cotabato
Senior High School Department

Researchers doing their research study in the laboratories face potential risks

including itchiness of the skin, wounds and irritation of the eye. These risks can be

lessen or minimized by adopting universal precautions when using the laboratory.

 Wear protective safety glasses, gloves and laboratory coat when doing the

experiment or the laboratory works.


 Do not eat, drink, smoke, apply cosmetics/manipulate contact lenses in work area.
 Decontaminate work surface at least once a day and after any spills of potentially

infections material.
 If you have outs or abrasions on the skin of your hands, cover them with adhesive

dressing.
 If you use any sharp instruments, dispose of them in a sharps container for

decontamination.
 Remove gloves and wash your hands after completing any task.

Precautions and Warnings

Despite all of their beneficial properties, papaya seeds do have some side effects

to be aware of. These apply to you before applying Carica papaya seeds on skin.

 As a precaution, do not apply papaya seed extract herbal ointment onto fresh

wounds. Let the wound dry up and then apply generously.

 The herbal ointment is not for oral consumption.

 Keep away from children.

 Keep in a dry cool place to avoid spoilage and liquefaction.

31
JMJ Marist Brothers
NOTRE DAME OF MARBEL UNIVERSITY
City of Koronadal, South Cotabato
Senior High School Department

Chapter IV
Results and Discussion

32
JMJ Marist Brothers
NOTRE DAME OF MARBEL UNIVERSITY
City of Koronadal, South Cotabato
Senior High School Department

This chapter shows the data gathered by the researchers and be interpreted. This

chapter also explains the data and summarizes the findings. The data will then undergo

statistical analysis.

Table 2. This table shows the different measurements of zone of inhibition in each

treatment with six (6) replications.

Number of Replications

Treatments Mean
R1 R2 R3 R4 R5 R6
Papaya Seed 19.0m 21.0mm 20.0mm 18.0m 21.0m 20.0m 19.83mm
Extracts
m m m m
Distilled 6.0mm 6.0mm 6.0mm 6.0mm 6.0mm 6.0mm 6.0mm
Water
Amoxicillin 18.0m 17.0mm 19.0mm 15.0m 20.0m 19.0m 18.0mm
m m m m

This table shows that over 6 (six)as replications, the papaya seed extracts has

the highest zone of inhibitions with 21.0mm , 20.0mm, and 18.0mm which is higher

than the zone of inhibition of the positive control: amoxicillin with 20.0mm, 19.0mm,

18.0mm 17.0mm and 15.0mm. The negative control has a constant zone of inhibition of

6.0mm. The papaya seeds has higher mean than the positive control by 1.83mm.

Table 3. Disk diffusion method (Kirby-Bauer method)

33
JMJ Marist Brothers
NOTRE DAME OF MARBEL UNIVERSITY
City of Koronadal, South Cotabato
Senior High School Department

Zone Diameter (mm)


Antimicrobial Interpretative Standard
Agent Resistant Intermediate Susceptible
Amikacin ≤14 15-16 ≥17
Chloramphenicol ≤12 13-17 ≥18
Penicillin ≤28 - ≥29
Staphylococci ≤10 11-12 ≥13

The table here shows that the basis for classification of the data made in table 1.

The mean of the papaya seed extract is 19.83mm which is Intermediate. The mean of

the Distilled water is 6.0mm which would be classified into resistant. Lastly the positive

control is classified in the Resistant because the mean is 18.0mm.

Table 4. Analysis of Variance

Source Degrees Sum of Mean F P Decision Remarks


of Square Square
Freedom s
Between 1 10.08 10.08 4.42 0.062
Reject the Null
Within 10 22.83 2.28 Hypothesis Significant

Total 11 32.92

*<o.o5 level of significance


The result above presents that there is a significant difference between the papaya

seeds extract and the generic antibacterial drug meaning the researchers will reject the

null hypothesis.

Chapter V

Summary, Conclusions and Recommendations

34
JMJ Marist Brothers
NOTRE DAME OF MARBEL UNIVERSITY
City of Koronadal, South Cotabato
Senior High School Department

This chapter shows the summary and conclusions of the researchers on the

study with basis of the data gathered from the results and discussions on the previous

page. Recommendations are also presented in order to help the future researchers.

Summary

After the extracts were taken from the papaya seeds, the experiment began. First

the bacteria was grown and placed in the three (3) separate test tubes and was left to

culture for 2-4 days. After so, the nutrient agar was made and distributed in six (6)

separate petri dishes with cover and divided into three (3) divisions. The filter paper

discs were then soaked in the papaya seed extract treatment, the distilled water

treatment for the negative control and the Amoxicillin treatment for the positive control.

Finally, the bacteria was transferred to the petri dished with the use of a syringe in

accordance to the aseptic process and used a spreader to evenly distribute the

bacteria. The treatments were placed in their proper divisions and then was left to

culture for 24 hours. The data was achieved after the researchers measured the zone of

inhibition. The mean of the papaya seed extracts on the zone of inhibition was

19.83mm, the mean of the distilled water is 6mm and lastly, the mean of the Amoxicillin

is 18.0mm.

After gathering the data and concluding that the papaya seed extracts can be a

herbal ointment, the researchers made their product. First, the researchers took the

fresh papaya seeds and then in the laboratory, the researchers melted the petroleum

jelly and mixed the seeds. After 30 minutes of stirring, the researchers added 100%

35
JMJ Marist Brothers
NOTRE DAME OF MARBEL UNIVERSITY
City of Koronadal, South Cotabato
Senior High School Department

lavender-scented essential oil and then removed from the heat. The mixture was filtered

and placed in their molder ready to be distributed.

Conclusions

According to the data gathered from the experimentations, the researchers

concluded the following:

 Papaya seed extracts can be used as herbal ointment.


 The papaya seed extracts is comparable to the antibacterial drug: Amoxicillin.
 The papaya seed extract made as herbal ointment can have an impact in our

society if the product was mass produced. It would give plenty of job

opportunities.

Recommendations

The following would be the recommendations of the researchers in order to further

improve the study:

 Use different methods in getting the extract from the papaya seeds.
 Use different raw material that also have antibacterial properties.
 Test the extracts in different bacteria like E. coli
 Provide more seeds of the Carica Papaya to produce more extract.
 Dried or raw seeds can be used as a treatment in this research stu

REFERENCES

Blalock, T. (2015). The nutritional value of papaya seeds. Retrieved:

November 28, 2017, from www.livestong.com/article/543510-the-nutrirional-

36
JMJ Marist Brothers
NOTRE DAME OF MARBEL UNIVERSITY
City of Koronadal, South Cotabato
Senior High School Department

value-of-papaya-seed/.

Bhattacharjee SK. (2001). Carica papaya in handbook of medical plants, 3rd Revised

Edn, by Sashi Jain (Ed), Pointer publisher, Jaipur, 2001, pp. 1-71.

Chota, A. (2010). Carica papaya, in pharmacology, phytochemistry of medical

plants. Retrieved (November 28, 2017), from https://www.plantsjournal.com.

Dr. Health Benefits. Retrieved November 28, 2017, from https://drhealth

benefits.com/food-beverages/fruits/benefits-of-papaya-seeds/.

Hurt, D.E. (2003). The scoop on papaya. This sweet tropical fruit is packed

with something you might not expect. Fort Lauderdale, Fla: Tribune Interactive,

LLC

Krishna, K., Paridhavi, M., & Patel, J. (2008). Review on nutritional, medicinal and

pharmacological of papaya (Carica papaya Linn.). Journal of Natural Products

Radiance, 7 (4): 364-373.

Lowe, M. (2002). The triglyceride lipases of the pancreas. Journal Lipid Res, 43,

pp. 2007-2016.

Nwofia, G., Ojimelukwe, P., & Eji, C. (2012). Chemical composition of leaves, fruit pulp,

and seeds in some Carica Papaya (L) Morphotypes. International Journal Med.

Arom. Plants, 2 (1): 200-206.

Panzarini, E., Dwikat, M., Mariano, S., Vergallo, C., & Dini, L. (2014). Administration

dependent antioxidant effect of Carica papaya seeds water extract. pp. 1-13

Step to Health. Retrieved November 28, 2017, from https://steptohealth.com/

discover-5-huge-benefits-eating-papaya-seeds/.

37
JMJ Marist Brothers
NOTRE DAME OF MARBEL UNIVERSITY
City of Koronadal, South Cotabato
Senior High School Department

The African Government. (November 28, 2017). Papaya seed, papaya tea. Retrieved

from www.theafricangovernment/.com/2009/04/papaya seed.tea.html.

Zhou, K. et al. (2011). Antioxidant activity of papaya seed extracts. Molecules Journal,

16: 6179-6192.

38
JMJ Marist Brothers
NOTRE DAME OF MARBEL UNIVERSITY
City of Koronadal, South Cotabato
Senior High School Department

APPENDICES

APPENDIX A
Permission Letter
January 23, 2018

MR. MARZOKIE MOCSIR, PhD

39
JMJ Marist Brothers
NOTRE DAME OF MARBEL UNIVERSITY
City of Koronadal, South Cotabato
Senior High School Department

Dean, Natural Science Department


Notre Dame of Marbel University

Dear Sir:

The Science, Technology, Engineering and, Mathematics (STEM) Strand includes a core subject
of Working Immersion for the 2nd semester. As a partial fulfillment for this subject, the Grade 12
students are required to conduct a Capstone Research. We, the researchers from the class of
Grade 12-STEM 7, are planning to conduct a study entitled papaya seeds extract
“PHARMACOLOGICAL DEVELOPMENT OF PAPAYA SEEDS EXTRACT AS
HERBAL OINTMENT”. This study aims to discover the effectiveness of Papaya seeds as
ointment against skin microorganisms. In line with this, we are asking permission from your
good office to allow us to use the Chemistry Laboratory and Biology Laboratory of Notre Dame
of Marbel University for us to conduct this research study.

We are hoping for your kind consideration and positive response.

Respectfully Yours,
SGD SGD
ALQUISAR, FREZIL M. CASIPE, RENZ ADELE P.
SGD SGD
GALAURA, MARIA LEILA A. GESTUPA, JEVAN M.
SGD SGD
JUANZO, BELLIE JANE N. MARGIN, ROBIE JEAN V.
Researchers

Noted by:
SGD
JULIET C. ARELLANO, MAEd
WI Adviser
SGD
ROGELIO B. TUBURAN, MA
Project Mentor
SGD
LEANN JESTER D. ROSALI, MS
SHS Principal

APPENDIX B
Cost Analysis

40
JMJ Marist Brothers
NOTRE DAME OF MARBEL UNIVERSITY
City of Koronadal, South Cotabato
Senior High School Department

The price of Flora Majika’s Healing Ointment is based on the cost of the product
itself; the ingredients that were used in making the product, the laboratory charge and
the labor of the workers.

Item Cost per Unit Quantity Actual Cost

Papaya seeds ₱15.00/kg 2kg ₱30.00


Petroleum Jelly ₱ 86.50/100g 200g ₱173.00
Ethyl Alcohol ₱1.00/mL 600mL ₱600.00
Empty Containers ₱10.00/pieces 20 pcs. ₱200.00
Labor ₱ 295.00/day 1 day ₱295.00
Total ₱1,298.00
Mark up Amount (9%) ₱5.84
Selling Price ₱70.75

APPENDIX C
Ethical Concerns

Practice Safety Precautions

41
JMJ Marist Brothers
NOTRE DAME OF MARBEL UNIVERSITY
City of Koronadal, South Cotabato
Senior High School Department

Researchers doing their research study in the laboratories face potential risks

including itchiness of the skin, wounds and irritation of the eye. These risks can be

lessen or minimized by adopting universal precautions when using the laboratory.

 Wear protective safety glasses, gloves and laboratory coat when doing the

experiment or the laboratory works.


 Do not eat, drink, smoke, apply cosmetics/manipulate contact lenses in work area.
 Decontaminate work surface at least once a day and after any spills of potentially

infections material.
 If you have outs or abrasions on the skin of your hands, cover them with adhesive

dressing.
 If you use any sharp instruments, dispose of them in a sharps container for

decontamination.
 Remove gloves and wash your hands after completing any task.

Precautions and Warnings

Despite all of their beneficial properties, papaya seeds do have some side effects

to be aware of. These apply to you before applying Carica papaya seeds on skin.

 As a precaution, do not apply papaya seed extract herbal ointment onto fresh

wounds. Let the wound dry up and then apply generously.

 The herbal ointment is not for oral consumption.

 Keep away from children.

 Keep in a dry cool place to avoid spoilage and liquefaction.

42
JMJ Marist Brothers
NOTRE DAME OF MARBEL UNIVERSITY
City of Koronadal, South Cotabato
Senior High School Department

43
JMJ Marist Brothers
NOTRE DAME OF MARBEL UNIVERSITY
City of Koronadal, South Cotabato
Senior High School Department

CURRICULUM VITAE

FREZIL MAYGAY ALQUISAR


freilmaygayalquisar@gmail.com
----------------------------------------------------------------------------------
PERSONAL INFORMATION
Age: 18

44
JMJ Marist Brothers
NOTRE DAME OF MARBEL UNIVERSITY
City of Koronadal, South Cotabato
Senior High School Department

Birthday May 09, 1999


Birthplace: Koronadal City, South Cotabato
Present Address: Poblacion, Bagumbayan, South Cotabato
Ethnic Group: Ilonggo
Languages: Tagalog, Ilonggo, English
Nationality: Filipino
Religion: Roman Catholic
Parents: Ms. Nenita Alquisar

EDUCATIONAL ATTAINMENT

Junior High School Education


Bagumbayan National High School
Poblacion, Bagumbayan, Sultan Kudarat
SY: 2015 – 2016

Elementary Education
Bagumbayan Central Elementary School
Poblacion, Bagumbayan, Sultan Kudarat
SY: 2011 – 2012

Kindergarten
Bagumbayan Alliance Learning Center
Poblacion, Bagumbayan, Sultan Kudarat
SY: 2005 – 2006

RENZ ADELE PASCUA CASIPE


renzadelepascua@gmail.com
---------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------
PERSONAL INFORMATION
Age: 18

45
JMJ Marist Brothers
NOTRE DAME OF MARBEL UNIVERSITY
City of Koronadal, South Cotabato
Senior High School Department

Birthday: December 24, 1998


Birthplace: Koronadal City, South Cotabato
Present Address: Kipalbig, Tampakan, South Cotabato
Ethnic Group: Ilonggo, Ilocano
Languages: Hiligaynon, Ilocano
Nationality: Filipino
Religion: Roman Catholic
Parents: Mr. Ismael Dasmarinas Casipe
Mrs. Reynalda Pascua Casipe

EDUCATIONAL ATTAINMENT

Junior High School Education


Notre Dame of Marbel University – Integrated Basic Education Department
Special Science Curriculum Class
City of Koronadal, South Cotabato
SY: 2015 – 2016

Elementary Education
Tampakan SPED Center
Tampakan, South Cotabato
SY: 2011 – 2012

Kindergarten
Alliance Pre School Center
Tampakan, South Cotabato
SY: 2005 – 2006

MARIA LEILA ALEGRE GALAURA

46
JMJ Marist Brothers
NOTRE DAME OF MARBEL UNIVERSITY
City of Koronadal, South Cotabato
Senior High School Department

mariagoodie9599@gmail.com
----------------------------------------------------------------------------------
PERSONAL INFORMATION
Age: 18
Birthday: September 05, 1999
Birthplace: Koronadal City, South Cotabato
Present Address: Koronadal City, South Cotabato
Ethnic Group: Ilonggo
Languages: Ilonggo, Tagalog, English
Nationality: Filipino
Religion: Roman Catholic
Parents: Mr. Ronald Coronacion Galaura
Mrs. Melanne Alegre Galaura

EDUCATIONAL ATTAINMENT

Junior High School Education


Notre Dame of Marbel University – Integrated Basic Education Department
Special Science Curriculum Class
Koronadal City, South Cotabato
SY: 2015 – 2016

Elementary Education
Marbel 1 Central Elementary School
Koronadal City, South Cotabato
SY: 2011 – 2012

Kindergarten
Star Kids Learning Center
Koronadal City, South Cotabato
SY: 2005-2006

JEVAN MONDIDO GESTUPA

47
JMJ Marist Brothers
NOTRE DAME OF MARBEL UNIVERSITY
City of Koronadal, South Cotabato
Senior High School Department

jevangestupa@gmail.com
-------------------------------------------------------------------------------
PERSONAL INFORMATION
Age: 17
Birthday: March 09, 2000
Birthplace: Kabankalan, Negros Occidental
Present Address: Lambayong, Tampakan, South
Cotabato
Ethnic Group: Cebuano
Languages: Bisaya and Tagalog
Nationality: Filipino
Religion: Assembly of God (AG)
Parents: Mr. Segundito Lazarte Gestupa, Jr.
Mrs. Emie M. Gestupa

EDUCATIONAL ATTAINMENT

Junior High School Education


Maltana National High School
Maltana, Tampakan, South Cotabato
SY: 2015 – 2016

Elementary Education
Lambayong Elementary School
Lambayong, Tampakan, South Cotabato
SY: 2011 – 2012

Kindergarten
Lambayong Daycare Center
Lambayong, Tampakan, South Cotabato
SY: 2005-2006

48
JMJ Marist Brothers
NOTRE DAME OF MARBEL UNIVERSITY
City of Koronadal, South Cotabato
Senior High School Department

BELLIE JANE NAVARRO JUANZO


bellejuanzo@gmail.com
----------------------------------------------------------------------------------
PERSONAL INFORMATION
Age: 18
Birthday: May 21, 1999
Birthplace: Koronadal City, South Cotabato
Present Address: Koronadal City, South Cotabato
Ethnic Group: Ilonggo
Languages: Ilonggo, Tagalog, English
Nationality: Filipino
Religion: Roman Catholic
Parents: Mr. Johnny Panes Juanzo
Mrs. Annabel Navarro Juanzo

EDUCATIONAL ATTAINMENT

Junior High School Education


Notre Dame of Marbel University – Integrated Basic Education Department
Koronadal City, South Cotabato
SY: 2015 – 2016

Elementary Education
Campus Evangelization Learning Center
Koronadal City, South Cotabato
SY: 2011 – 2012

Kindergarten
Star Kids Learning Center
Koronadal City, South Cotabato
SY: 2005-2006

ROBIE JEAN VILLACASTIN MARGIN


49
JMJ Marist Brothers
NOTRE DAME OF MARBEL UNIVERSITY
City of Koronadal, South Cotabato
Senior High School Department

robiejeanmargin@gmail.com
----------------------------------------------------------------------------------
PERSONAL INFORMATION
Age: 18
Birthday October 18, 1999
Birthplace: Dumadalig, Tantangan, South Cotabato
Present Address: Dumadalig, Tantangan, South Cotabato
Ethnic Group: Ilonggo
Languages: Tagalog, Ilonggo, English
Nationality: Filipino
Religion: Roman Catholic
Parents: Mr. Robert Siva Margin Sr.
Mrs. Noemi Villacastin Margin

EDUCATIONAL ATTAINMENT

Junior High School Education


Notre Dame of New Iloilo
New Iloilo, Tantangan, South Cotabato
SY: 2015 – 2016

Elementary Education
Dumadalig, Elementary School,
Dumadalig,Tantangan, South Cotabato
SY: 2011 – 2012

Kindergarten
Dumadalig Daycare Center
Dumadalig, Tantangan, South Cotabato
SY: 2005 – 2006

Carpain seems to be able to kill certain parasites, and it might affect the central nervous

system. Papaya also seems to have antibacterial, antifungal, anti-inflammatory, antioxidant,

50
JMJ Marist Brothers
NOTRE DAME OF MARBEL UNIVERSITY
City of Koronadal, South Cotabato
Senior High School Department

and immune-stimulating effects.

PAPAYA LEAVES

51