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Logic & Islam

Part I: Faith issues


Answers to current questions

Prof. Dr. Magd Abdel Wahab


The use of logic flowcharts

 Oval mirror blocks  start or


the end of the logic flowchart
 Rectangular block  a process,
task or operation
 Diamond block  decision
making with two options: yes or
no.
The use of Laws of Logic

The Law of Identity  a statement has been


determined to be true, then the statement is true  a
statement telling a fact is a true statement and any
other statement telling the opposite to this fact
violates the Law of Identity and is a not logical
statement.
The Law of Non-Contradiction  nothing can both
be and not be  two statements contradicting one
another cannot be both true at the same time  if an
idea is described by two contradictory statements,
then it violates the Law of Non-Contradiction and is
not logical.
Logic flowchart 1: Existence of Almighty God

What is the logic in


the existence of
Almighty God?

Example 1: A building
Logic flowchart 2: Existence of Almighty God

What is the logic in


the existence of
Almighty God?

Example 2: Machine
elements
Logic flowchart 3: Existence of Almighty God

What is the logic in


the existence of
Almighty God?

Example 3: Why don’t


we see Almighty God
Logic flowchart 4: Nature

Is nature god?

Example 1: Nature
Logic flowchart 5: Nature

Is nature god?

Example 2: Time

Nature depends on
time  Time has a
beginning and an end
Logic flowchart 6: Nature

Is nature god?

Example 3: Nature

Nature is only
physical  God
should be physical
and spiritual
Logic flowchart 7: Design of life
Can life be designed by chance or without a designer?

Example 1: Sun,
earth and moon

Larger or smaller
distance between earth
and sun  changes in
temperature  life is
not possible
Smaller distance between
earth and moon  huge
tidal forces and flood 
life is not possible
Logic flowchart 8: Design of life
Can life be designed by chance or without a designer?

Example 2: Oxygen
and density of
water

% oxygen in air (20.95%)


 if higher  fires
spread faster  if lower
 irregular respiration

Density of water is in its solid


state, ice, less than in its
liquid state  if opposite,
rivers and seas consolidate
Logic flowchart 9: Design of life
Can life be designed
by chance or without
a designer?

Example 3: DNA
code

A computer program code


 110010101011000

DNA code 
CGTGTGACTCGCTCCTGAT
Logic flowchart 10: Design of life
Can life be designed
by chance or without
a designer?

Example 4: Genome

A genome consists of 3.2


billion bases of DNA repeated
in specific sequences

Every person has a unique


genome, i.e. unique DNA
sequences

The probability to arrange DNA


in the correct order is
approximately 1/(3×10)9!=
1/1×2×3×….×(3×10)9 ≈ 10-27
Logic flowchart 11: Who created Almighty God

Example 1: Is god
created by
another god?
Logic flowchart 12: Who created Almighty God

Example 2: is god
begotten?
Logic flowchart 13: Only one god

Example 1: Every
living thing is based
on water

Water in an adult human body


is estimated as 60%
A cell contains most of
water in a human body
All cells in all living things
have the same structure
Logic flowchart 14: Only one god

Example 2: Similarity
in creations

At atom level  electrons


revolve around the nucleus

At astronomical level 
planets revolve around the
sun, stars revolve around
the centre of galaxy

More than one god 


disagree  fight  destroy
the whole universe
Logic flowchart 15: Creation of life
Whom should we serve?

Example 1: Everything
is serving us

Humans  the master of the


heavens and earth  everything
is subservient and beneficial to us

All plants, trees and palms


on earth  made available
for our use
Animals, both on earth and in
sea  made for our benefit

Sun, moon, starts and galaxies


 subservient for us  know
time and directions
Logic flowchart 16: Creation of life
Does Almighty God need us?
Example 2: Completeness
of Almighty God
Logic flowchart 17: Creation of life
Does Almighty God need us?
Example 3: Completeness
of Almighty God
Logic flowchart 18: Creation of life

Example 4: Humans’
Lives

A baby in the mother’s womb


of his mother  7 to 9
months
This life  70 – 100 years

The hereafter  eternal


life

For spirit, it is only one


continues endless life
Logic flowchart 19: Creation of evil
Why has Almighty God
created evil?

Example 1: Human’s test


Logic flowchart 20: Creation of evil
Why has Almighty
God created evil?

Example 2: This life is


not eternal

Without death or evil 


Life has no end  paradise
Logic flowchart 21: Creation of evil
Why has Almighty
God created evil?

Example 3: Importance
of good

How would we know the


importance of health, if there
was no illness?

How would we know the


importance of peace if
there were no wars?
Logic flowchart 22: Creation of evil
Why has Almighty God created evil?

Example 4: Completeness of
Almighty God
Logic flowchart 23: Science does not create
Can science create?

Example 1: Human’s
fabrication

A real creation  make


things from nothing  without
materials, substances,
machines and equipment

Almighty God  creates


universe from nothing  big-
bang theory  infinitesimally
tiny matter million billion
billion times smaller than a
single atom.
Logic flowchart 24: Science does not create
Can science create?
Example 2: Genetic
engineering

Producing a living
organism from non-
living organism 
materials and
equipment should be
used  fabrication
experiment of an
organism
Logic flowchart 25: Science does not create
Can science create?

Example 3: Human’s
soul
Logic flowchart 26: Science does not create
Can science
create?

Example 4: The
greatest being is the
creator

In science and in
mathematics  no
greater being could
be imagined
Logic flowchart 27: The soul
What is the
difference between
the soul and the
spirit?
Example 1: Soul and
spirit

The difference between


the soul and the spirit is
not in the identity, but
rather in the characteristic
Logic flowchart 28: The soul

Does the Soul exist?

Example 2: Independence
of the physical body

Dreams during sleeping  without


physical body  with spiritual soul
Logic flowchart 29: The soul

Does the Soul exist?

Example 3: Restriction to
time and space
Logic flowchart 30: The soul
Does the Soul
exist?
Example 4: Relativity
of motion

We cannot see the


motion unless we are
outside of it

Our physical part cannot feel


the time unless a part of us is
outside the time  the
spiritual soul
Logic flowchart 31: The soul
Which one controls the other;
physical body and spiritual soul?
Example 5: Soul
controls body

When we decide to fast  the outer body is


hungry and wants to eat  the inner soul
decides not to eat

When we wake up in the morning  the inner


soul starts to plan the day  the outer body
follows the plan during the day

In the time of war, a solder may decide to


sacrifice his outer body by the command
from his inner soul

Brain is a part of the physical body  a mediator


between the physical body and the soul
Logic flowchart 32: The proof of the hereafter
What is the proof of the
hereafter?
Example 1: human's
cells

Human body  37.2 trillion cells 


dying and being replaced in a period of
7 to 15 years

Spiritual soul  no changes  same


knowledge, ideas, concepts, style, etc.
 feeling the same person
Logic flowchart 33: The proof of the hereafter

What is the proof of


the hereafter?
Example 2: The need
for justice
Logic flowchart 34: The proof of the hereafter

What is the proof of


the hereafter?
Example 3: The need
for justice
Logic flowchart 35: The paradise and hell
Do paradise and
hell exist?

Example 1: Human’s
test
Logic flowchart 36: The paradise and hell
Do paradise and hell exist?

Example 2: Creation
of paradise and hell

We practise the paradise and hell in


each moment in our daily life
Logic flowchart 37: Non-Muslims
Will non-Muslims be in
paradise or hell?
Example 1: Different
circumstances

Only Allah SWT decides over


his creatures and judges
between them.

His judgement on any person


will be based on all the unique
factors associated with that
person
Logic flowchart 38: Non-Muslims
Will non-Muslims be
in paradise or hell?

Example 2: Different
tests

Different tests  different


model answers
Logic flowchart 39: Non-Muslims
Will non-Muslims be in paradise or hell?
Example 3: Types of non-
Muslims
Logic flowchart 40: Non-Muslims
Will non-Muslims be in paradise or hell?

Example 4: Level of
tests
Logic flowchart 41: Non-Muslims
Will non-Muslims be in
paradise or hell?
Example 5: Level of
tests
Logic flowchart 42: The destiny
Do we choose our deeds or are they written for us?

Example 1: Human’s
life
Logic flowchart 43: The destiny
Do we choose our deeds or are they written for us?

Example 2: This life


versus the hereafter
Logic flowchart 44: The destiny
Do we choose our
deeds or are they
written for us?

Example 3: Human’s
evaluation
Logic flowchart 45: The destiny
Do we choose our
deeds or are they
written for us?

Example 4: Human’s
judgement
Logic flowchart 46: The holy Quran
Has prophet
Mohammed PBUH
copied Bible and
Torah?
Example 1: Modern
science
Bible  earth and the heaven were created
in six days  a day is 24 hours

Holy Quran  only six days  a day is a


period of time of the past
Bible  creation  day and night  stars and
sun
Bible  two sources of light  sun and moon
Holy Quran  sun is the source of light 
moon is a reflected light
Logic flowchart 47: The holy Quran
Why is there
similarity between
the holy Quran,
Bible and first
testament?
Example 2: Similarity
Logic flowchart 48: The holy Quran

What is the miracle of


the holy Quran?

Example 3: Holy
Quran’s language

Challenge  about the rhetorical,


literary and scientific miracles in
the holy Quran

Style of the holy Quran 


knowledge's, secretes and perfect
Arabic language  beyond human
being.
Logic flowchart 49: The holy Quran

Has prophet Mohammed


PBUH written the holy
Quran?
Example 4: Prophet's
life

Holy Quran  no mention


about prophet’s problems,
troubles and sadness during
his life

Holy Quran  blame and


correct actions of the
prophet PBUH
Logic flowchart 50: The holy Quran
What is the proof that the
holy Quran is revealed by
Almighty God?
Example 5: Holy
Quran’s predictions
Holy Quran  predicted victory for
Muslims
Holy Quran  predicted victory of
Roman Empire over Persian empire

Holy Quran  predicted more


than 50 scientific facts
Probability for guessing 50 scientific
facts correctly  every fact has 4
possibilities  0.2550= 7.89×10-31
Logic flowchart 51: The Islam

Why Islam as religion?

Example 1: Original
message
Logic flowchart 52: The Islam

Why is Mohammed PBUH


chosen to be prophet?

Example 2: Prophet
Mohammed PBUH
Logic flowchart 53: The Islam
Why is prophet
Mohammed
PBUH the last
messenger of
Almighty God?

Example 3: The last


prophet
Logic flowchart 54: The Islam

Is the Tawaf a sort


of worshiping
stones?

Example 4: The Tawaf


At atom level  electrons
revolve around the
nucleus.
At astronomical level 
planets revolve around the
sun, stars revolve around
the centre of galaxy.

Revolving around the


Kaaba  a symbolic sort
of praying  submitting
to Almighty God