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UNIT IV APPLICATIONS OF PARTIAL DIFFERENTIAL

EQUATIONS
PART – A

Problem 1 What are the conditions assumed in deriving one dimensional wave
equation?
Solution:
i. The motion takes place entirely in one plane.
ii. We consider only transverse vibrations, the horizontal displacement of
the particles of the string is negligible.
iii. The tension T is constant at all times and at all points of the deflected
string.
iv. Gravitational force is negligible.
v. The effect of friction is negligible.
vi. The string is perfectly flexible.
vii. The slope of the deflection curve at all points and at all instants is so
small that sin α can be replaced by α , where α is the inclination of
the tangents to the deflection curve.

Problem 2 State the suitable solution of the one dimensional heat equation.
Solution:
∂u ∂ 2u
One dimensional heat equation is = a 2 2 and the suitable solution is
∂t ∂x
− a 2 p 2t
u ( x, t ) = ( A cos px + B sin px ) e .

Problem 3 State the wave equation and give the various possible solutions.
Solution:
∂2 y ∂2 y
The wave equation is 2 = a 2 2
∂t ∂x
The various possible solutions are
1. y ( x, t ) = ( A1e px + A2 e− px )( A3e pat + A4 e − pat )
2. y ( x, t ) = ( A5 cos px + A6 sin px )( A7 cos pat + A8 sin pat )
3. y ( x, t ) = ( A9 x + A10 )( A11t + A12 )

Problem 4 Write all variable separable solutions of the one dimensional heat equation
ut = α 2u xx .
Solution :
The various possible solutions of one dimensional heat equation are
2 2
1. u ( x, t ) = ( A1e px + A2 e − px ) A3eα p t
2
p 2t
2. u ( x, t ) = ( A4 cos px + A5 sin px ) A6 e−α

1
3. u ( x, t ) = ( A7 x + A8 ) A9

Problem 5 A string is stretched and fastened to two points l distance apart. Motion is
πx 
started by displacing the string into the form y = y0 sin   from which it is released at
 l 
time t = 0 . Formulate this problem as a boundary value problem.
Solution :
The one dimensional wave equation is
∂2 y 2
2 ∂ y
=a
∂t 2 ∂x 2
The boundary conditions are
i. y (0, t) = 0
ii. y ( l , t) = 0
∂y
iii. ( x, 0) = 0
∂t
πx 
iv. y ( x, 0 ) = y0 sin  .
 l 

Problem 6 A rod of length 20 cm whose one end is kept at 30oC and the other end is
kept at 70oC is maintained so until steady state prevails. Find the steady state
temperature.
Solution:
In the steady state temperature the temperature will be a function of x alone
∂ 2u
∴ 2 =0
∂x
u ( x ) = ax + b
when x = 0 , u ( 0 ) = 30
when x = 20 , u ( 20 ) = 70
u ( x ) = ax + b
u ( 0 ) = a0 + b
30 = b
u ( 20 ) = a 20 + 30
70 = 20a + 30
20a = 40
a=2
∴ u ( x ) = 2a + 30

Problem 7 State two dimensional Laplace equation.


Solution :

2
∂ 2u ∂ 2u
+ =0
∂x 2 ∂y 2
Problem 8 Write any two solutions of the Laplace equation U xx + U yy = 0 involving
exponential terms in x .
Solution :
The correct solutions are
1. u ( x, y ) = ( c1 cos px + c2 sin px ) ( c3e py + c4 e − py )
2. u ( x, y ) = ( c5 cos py + c6 sin py ) ( c7 e px + c8 e − px )

Problem 9 A square plate is bounded by the lines x = 0, y = 0, x = 20 and y = 20 . Its


faces are insulated. The temperature along the upper horizontal edge is given by
u ( x, 20 ) = x ( 20 − x ) , 0 < x < 20 while the other three edges are kept at 00 C . Formulate
the problem to find the steady state temperature in the plate.
Solution :
∂ 2u ∂ 2u
The two dimensional heat equations is 2 + 2 = 0 with the boundary conditions
∂x ∂y
1. u ( 0, y ) = 0, 0 < y < 20
2. u ( 20, y ) = 0, 0 < y < 20
3. u ( x, 0 ) = 0, 0 < x < 20
4. u ( x, 20 ) = x ( 20 − x ) , 0 < x < 20

Problem 10 A string is stretched between two fixed points at a distance 2l apart and the
points of the string are given velocity given by f ( x ) , x being the distance from one end
point. Formulate the problem to find the displacement of the string at any time.
Solution:
∂2 y 2
2 ∂ y
= a with the boundary conditions
∂t 2 ∂x 2
1. y ( 0, t ) = 0, ∀t
2. y ( 2l , t ) = 0, ∀t
3. y ( x, 0 ) = 0 ∀x ∈ ( 0, 2l )
∂y
4. ( x, 0) = f ( x )
∂t

Problem 11 A string of length 2l stretched to a constant tension T , is fastened at both


the ends and hence fixed. The mid point of the string is taken to a height ‘b’ and then
released from rest in that position. Formulate the problem to find the transverse
vibrations of the string.
Solution :

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∂2 y 2
2 ∂ y
The P.D.E. is = a
∂t 2 ∂x 2
The boundary conditions are
i. y ( 0, t ) = 0 V t≥0
ii. y ( 2l, t ) = 0 V t≥0
 ∂y 
iii.   =0 0 < x < 2l
 ∂t ( x ,0 )
 bx
 l , 0< x<l
iv. y ( x, 0 ) = 
 b ( 2l − x ) , l < x < 2l
 l

Y
B

b X
o ( l , b ) A ( 2l , 0 )

b
Equation of OB is y = x
l
 2l − x 
Equation of BA is y = b  .
 l 

Problem 12 What are the assumptions made before deriving the one dimensional heat
equation?
Solution :
(i) Heat flows from a higher to lower temperature.
(ii) The amount of heat required to produce a given temperature change in a body is
proportional to the mass of the body and to the temperature change.
(iii) The rate at which heat flows through an area is proportional to the area and to
the temperature gradient normal to the area.

Problem 13 Classify the equations.


i. u xx − y 4u yy = 2 y 3u y .
ii. x 2 f xx + (1 − y 2 ) f yy = 0 , −1 < y < 1 , −∞ < x < ∞
Solution :
(i). u xx − y 4u yy = 2 y 3u y
A = 1 , B = 0 , C = − y4
B 2 − 4 AC = 0 − 4 × 1× ( − y 4 )

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= 4 y4 > 0 V y
∴ The equation is hyperbolic equation.
(ii). x 2 f xx + (1 − y 2 ) f yy = 0
A = x2 , B = 0 , C = 1 − y 2
B 2 − 4 AC = 0 − 4 x 2 (1 − y 2 )
= 4 x 2 ( y 2 − 1)
Since −1 < y > 1, y 2 < 1 ∴ B 2 − 4 AC < 0
⇒ The equation is elliptic for x ≠ 0
If x = 0 , the equation is parabolic.

Problem 14 Find the nature of the PDE


i. 4u xx + 4u xy + u yy + 2u x − u y = 0 .
ii. x 2u xx + 2 xyu xy + (1 + y 2 ) u yy − 2u x = 0 .
Solution :
(i) A = 4, B = 4, C=1
2 2
B − 4 AC = ( 4 ) − 4 ( 4 )(1) = 0
⇒ the equation is parabolic.
(ii) A = x2 B = 2xy C = (1 + y2)
B 2 − 4 AC = 4 x 2 y 2 − 4 x 2 (1 + y 2 )
= 4x2 y2 − 4x2 − 4x 2 y2
= −4 x 2 < 0 V x
⇒ The equation is elliptic.

Problem 15 Classify the following P.D.Es


∂ 2u ∂ 2u
i. =
∂x 2 ∂y 2
∂ 2u  ∂u   ∂u 
ii. =     + xy
∂x∂y  ∂x   ∂y 
Solution :

(i). A = 1, B = 0, C = -1
2
B − 4 AC = 0 − 4 (1)( −1) = 4 > 0
The equation is hyperbolic.
(ii) A = 0, B = 1, C=0
2
B − 4 AC = (1) − 4 ( 0 )( 0 ) = 1 > 0
⇒ The equation is hyperbolic.

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PART – B

One dimensional wave equation

Problem 16 A tightly stretched string of length ‘ l ’ has its ends fastened at x = 0 and
x = l . The mid point of the string is then taken to a height ‘ b ’ and then released from
rest in that position. Obtain an expression for the displacement of the string at any
subsequent time.
Solution :
x−0 y−0
Equation of AC is =
l 0−b
0−
2
2bx l
y= ,0 < x <
l 2
l
x−
Equation of BC is 2 = y −b
l
−l b−0
2
2b l
y = (l − x ) , < x < l
l 2
 2bx l
 l , 0 < x < 2
y ( x, 0 ) = 
 2b ( l − x ) , l < x < l
 l 2
2 2
∂ y 2 ∂ y
Wave equation is 2 = a
∂t ∂x 2
The boundary conditions are
i. y ( 0, t ) = 0 V t >0
ii. y ( l, t ) = 0 V t >0
∂y
iii. ( x, 0 ) = 0 V x ∈ ( 0, l )
∂t
 2bx l
 l , 0 < x < 2
iv. y ( x, 0 ) = 
 2b ( l − x ) , l < x < l
 l 2
Suitable solution is
y ( x, t ) = ( A cos px + B sin px )( C cos pat + D sin pat ) - (1)
Apply (i) in (1)
y ( 0, t ) = ( A1 + B ( 0 ) ) ( C cos pat + D sin pat ) = 0
⇒ A=0
Equation (1) becomes

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y ( x, t ) = B sin px ( C cos pat + D sin pat ) - (2)
Apply (ii) in (2)
y ( l , t ) = B sin pl ( C cos pat + D sin pat ) = 0
⇒ sin pl = 0
⇒ pl = nπ

⇒ p=
l
Thus (2) becomes
 nπ x   nπ at nπ at 
y ( x, t ) = B sin   C cos + D sin - (3)
 l  l l 
∂y ( x, t )  nπ x    nπ at  nπ a  nπ at  nπ a 
= B sin   C  sin  + D cos    - (4)
∂t  l   l  l  l  l 
Apply (iii) in (4)

( x, 0 ) = B.sin 
∂y nπ x   −Cnπ a Dnπ a 
 sin 0 + cos ( 0 )  = 0
∂t  l  l l 
nπ x  nπ a 
⇒ B sin D =0
l  l 
⇒D=0
How (3) becomes
 nπ x  nπ at
y ( x, t ) = B sin   C cos
 l  l
Most general solution is

nπ x nπ at
y ( x, t ) = ∑ bn sin cos -(4)
n =1 l l
Apply (iv) to equation (4)

nπ x
y ( x, 0 ) = ∑ bn sin
n =1 l
But condition (iv) implies
 2b l
 l x 0< x<
2
y ( x, 0 ) = 
2 b
 (l − x ) l
< x<l
 l 2
This can be expended as a half range sine series
nπ x
i.e. y ( x, 0 ) = ∑ cn sin
l
l
2 nπ x
where Cn = ∫ y ( x, 0 ) .sin dx
l 0 l

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l l

2  2 2bx  nπ x  2b  nπ x  
= ∫ sin   dx + ∫ ( l − x ) sin   dx
l 0 l  l  l l  l  
 2

 l l 
    nπ x    2
 nπ x  2

2  2b    
− cos   − sin  
=  x  l    − 1 l 

l l   nπ   n 2 2
π  
 
   l 
 0  l2 0 
 
l
   nπ x    nπ x  
  − cos    − sin 
2b
+ ( l − x )   l   − −1  l

( )  2 2 
l     nπ 
    
  l   l 2
  l
2

2  2b  −l 2 nπ l2 
=   cos − 0 + 2 2 sin nπ − 0  
l  l  2nπ 2 nπ 
2b   −l 2 nπ l2 nπ 
+ ( 0 − 0 ) −  cos − 2 2 sin 
l   2nπ 2 nπ 2 
2  2b  2l 2  nπ  
=   2 2 sin   
l  l n π  2  
8b nπ
= 2 2
sin
nπ 2
But bn = cn

8b nπ nπ x  nπ at 
∴ y ( x, t ) = ∑ 2 2
sin sin cos  .
n =1 n π 2 l  l 

Problem 17 A tightly stretched flexible string has its ends fixed at x = 0 and x = l. At
time t = 0, the string is given a shape defined by f(x) = kx2 (l – x), where ‘k’ is a
constant, and then released from rest. Find the displacement of any point x of the string
at any time t > 0
Solution:
∂2 y 2
2 ∂ y
Equation of Motion is 2 = a
∂t ∂x 2
Boundary conditions are
(i) y ( 0, t ) = 0, V t
(ii) y ( l , t ) = 0, V t
∂y
(iii) ( x, 0 ) = 0, 0 < x < l
∂t
(iv) y ( x, 0 ) = kx 2 ( l − x ) ,0 < x < l

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The suitable solution is
y ( x, t ) = ( A cos px + B sin px )( C cos pat + D sin pat )
As in the previous problem, using conditions (i), (ii) and (iii) we get the most

 nπ x   nπ at 
general solution as y ( x, t ) = ∑ bn sin   cos  
n =1  l   l 

 nπ x 
y ( x, 0 ) = ∑ bn sin  2
 = kx ( l − x ) by (iv)
n =1  l 
Now y ( x, 0 ) can be expressed as a half range sine series
 nπ x 
y ( x, 0 ) = ∑ cn sin  
 l 
l
2 nπ x
Where Cn = ∫ kx 2 ( l − x ) sin dx
l 0 l
l
2k  nπ x 
∫ ( lx − x 3 ) sin 
2
=  dx . This bn = cn
l 0  l 
l
 nπ x 
∫ ( lx − x 3 ) sin 
2
Now dx
0  l 
   nπ x     nπ x  
  − cos  l    − sin  l  
= ( lx 2 − x3 )     − 2lx − 3x 2   
  n π 
( )  n 2 2
π 
  l   2 
    l 
l
  nπ x     nπ x   
 cos  l    sin  l   
+ ( 2l − 6 x )     − ( −6 )  4 4   
3 3
 nπ   nπ 
   
  0
3 4
 l   l
 4l 4   2l 4  
=  0 + 0 − 3 3 cos nπ + 0  −  0 + 0 + 3 3  
 nπ   n π 
n
−4l 4 ( −1) 2l 4
= − 3 3
n3π 3 nπ
−2k  2l 4 
Cn = 
l n π 3 3 ( n
2 ( −1) + 1 

)
3
−4kl
= 3 3 1 + 2 ( −1) 
n

nπ  

−4kl 3  nπ x   nπ at 
∴ y ( x, t ) = ∑ 3 3 1 + 2 ( −1)  sin 
n
   cos  .
n =1 n π  l   l 

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Problem 18 If a string of length l is initially at rest in its equilibrium position and each
∂y ( x, 0 ) π x 
of its points is given the velocity = v0 sin 3   , 0 < x < l . Determine the
∂t  l 
displacement function y ( x, t ) .
Solution:
∂2 y 2
2 ∂ y
The wave equation is 2 = a
∂t ∂x 2
The boundary conditions are
(i) y ( 0, t ) = 0 V t >0
(ii) y ( l, t ) = 0 V t >0
(iii) y ( x, 0 ) = 0 V x ∈ ( 0, l )
∂y πx
(iv) ( x, 0 ) = v0 sin 3 V x ∈ ( 0, l )
∂t l
The suitable solution is
y ( x, t ) = ( C1 cos px + C2 sin px )( C3 cos pat + C4 sin pat )
Condition (i) y ( 0, t ) = 0 ⇒ C1 = 0
∴ The solution is y ( x, t ) = C2 sin px ( C3 cos pat + C4 sin pat )
Condition (ii) y ( l , t ) = 0 ⇒ C2 sin pl ( C3 cos pat + C4 sin pat ) = 0
⇒ pl = nπ

⇒ p=
l
∴ The solution is
nπ x  nπ at nπ at 
y ( x, t ) = C2 sin  C3 cos + C4 sin 
l  l l 
Condition (iii) y ( x, l ) = 0 implies
nπ x
y ( x, l ) = C2 sin ( C3 ) = 0 ⇒ C3 = 0
l
nπ x nπ at
∴ y ( x, t ) = C2C4 sin sin
l l

nπ x nπ at
Most general solution is y ( x, t ) = ∑ Cn sin sin
n =1 l l
∂y ∞
nπ x nπ at  nπ a 
( x, t ) = ∑ Cn sin cos  
∂t n =1 l l  l 
∂y ∞
nπ x  nπ a 
( x, 0 ) = ∑ Cn sin  
∂t n =1 l  l 

nπ a nπ x
= ∑ Cn sin
n =1 l l

10
( x, 0 ) = v0 sin 3   = 0 3sin − sin 
∂y πx v πx 3π x
But condition (iv) gives
∂t  l  4 l l 
πa π x 2π a 2π x 3π a 3π x
C1 sin + C2 sin + C3 sin + .....
l l l l l l
3v π x v0 3π x
= 0 sin − sin
4 l 4 l
π a 3v0 3v0 l
∴ C1 = ⇒ C1 = ×
l 4 4 πa
3π a −v0
C2 = 0, C3 = =
l 4
−v0l
⇒ C3 =
12π a
remaining Cn’s are zero
π a π x π at 3π a 3π x 3π at
∴ y ( x, t ) = C1 sin sin + C3 sin sin
l l l l l l
3v l π x π at v0l 3π x 3π at
y ( x, t ) = 0 sin sin − sin sin
4π a l l 12π a l l

Problem 19 A string is stretched between two fixed points at a distance of 60 cm and


points of the string are given initial velocities v, where
 λx 
v=  in 0 < x < 30
 30 
λ 
=   ( 60 − x ) in 30 < x < 60 , x being the distance from an end point.
 30 
Find the displacement of the string at any time.
Solution:

The equation of motion is


∂2 y 2
2 ∂ y
= a
∂t 2 ∂x 2
The boundary conditions are
(i) y ( 0, t ) = 0 V t >0
(ii) y ( 60, t ) = 0 V t >0
(iii) y ( x, 0 ) = 0 0 ≤ x ≤ 60
λx
∂y  30 , 0 < x < 30
(iv) ( x, 0 ) = v = 
∂t  λ ( 60 − x ) , 30 < x < 60
 30
The suitable solution is
y ( x, t ) = ( A cos px + B sin px )( cos p at+ D sin pat )

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As in previous problem, Using the boundary conditions (i), (ii) & (iii), we get the
most general solution as

nπ x nπ at
y ( x, t ) = ∑ Cn sin sin
n =1 60 60

∂y nπ x nπ at nπ a
( x, t ) = ∑ Cn sin cos ×
∂t n =1 60 60 60
By Condition (iv)
λx
, 0 < x < 30
∂y ∞
nπ a nπ x  30
( x, 0 ) = ∑ Cn sin =
∂t n =1 60 60  λ x
 30
( 60 − x ) , 30 < x < 60
This can be expanded as a half range sine series

 nπ x 
v = ∑ bn sin  
n =1  60 
60
2  nπ x 
Where bn =
60 0 ∫ v sin 
 60 
 dx
Then
nπ a
bn = Cn
60
60bn
⇒ Cn =
nπ a
Now,
1  λx nπ x 
30 60
nπ x λ
bn = ∫ sin dx + ∫ ( 60 − x ) sin dx 
30  0 30 60 30
30 60 
  nπ x   nπ x  
30


1× λ    
− cos  − sin
 60  −  60   +
=   x
nπ  2 2
30 × 30      n π 


   60   60 2
  0

nπ x   
60
  nπ x  
  − cos 60   − sin   
( 60 − x )  60  
nπ  − ( −1)  2 2
    nπ  
  
 60   60   30 
λ  −1800 nπ 3600 nπ 
=   cos + 2 2 sin  − (0 − 0) + (0 − 0)
900  nπ 2 nπ 2 
 −1800 nπ 3600 nπ  
− cos − 2 2 sin 
 nπ 2 nπ 2  
λ  7200 nπ  8λ nπ
=  2 2
sin  = 2 2 sin
900  n π 2  nπ 2

12

60 × bn 60 × 8λ sin 2
∴ Cn = =
nπ a n 2π 2 .nπ a
480λ  nπ 
= 3 3 sin  
nπ a  2 
0 if n is even

=  480λ nπ
 n3π 3 a sin 2 if n is odd
480λ ∞ 1 nπ nπ x nπ at
∴ y ( n, t ) = 3 ∑ 3 sin .sin sin
π a n =1,3,5 n 2 60 60

Problem 20 The points of trisection of a tightly stretched string of length l with fixed
ends are pulled aside through a distance ‘ d ’ on opposite sides of the position of
equilibrium, and the string is released from rest. Obtain an expression for the
displacement of the string at any subsequent time and show that the mid point of the
string always remains at rest.
Solution:
l 
D ,h
3 

Y
 2l 
h C  ,0
3 
A (l, 0) X
l 
B ,0 h
3 
 2l 
E  ,h
3 

Let B and C be the point of trisection of the string OA. The initial position of the
string is shown by the lines ODEA.
Let BD = CE = h
∂2 y ∂2 y
The equation of motion is 2 = a 2 2
∂t ∂x
The boundary conditions are
(i) y ( 0, t ) = 0 V t≥0
(ii) y ( l, t ) = 0 V t≥0

13
∂y
(iii) ( x, 0 ) = 0 V x ∈ ( 0, l )
∂t
Let us find the initial position of the string
3hx
Equation of OD is y =
l
3h
Equation of DE is y = ( l − 2 x )
l
3h
Equation of EA is y = ( x − l )
l
 3hx l
 l , 0≤x≤
3

 3h l 2l
∴ ( iv ) y ( x, 0 ) =  ( l − 2 x ) , ≤ x ≤
 l 3 3
 3h 2l
 l ( x − l ), 3 ≤ x ≤ l

As in problem (1) using the boundary condition (i) (ii) & (iii) we get he most
general solution

nπ x nπ at
y ( x, t ) = ∑ Bn sin cos
n =1 l l

nπ x
y ( x, 0 ) = ∑ Bn sin
n =1 l
Condition (iv) gives
 3hx l
 l , 0≤ x≤
3

 3h l 2l
y ( x, 0 ) =  ( l − 2 x ) , ≤x≤
l 3 3
 3h 2l
 l ( x − l ), ≤ x≤l
 3

nπ x
Now y (x, 0) can expended as a half range sine series y ( x, 0 ) = ∑ Cn sin
n =1 l
l
2 nπ x
Where Cn = ∫
l 0
y ( x, 0 ) sin
l
dx

Then Bn = Cn
Now,
l 2l
l

2  3 3hx nπ x 3
3h nπ x 3h nπ x 
Cn =  ∫ sin dx + ∫ ( l − 2 x ) sin dx + ∫ ( x − l ) sin dx 
l 0 l l l l l 2l l l
 3 3


14
l
   nπ x     nπ x    3
− cos   − sin   
6h    l 
 
 l 

= 2 x  − (1)  
l   nπ x   n2π 2 
  l 



2 
  0
 l
2l
   nπ x    nπ x   3
− cos  
6h   
− sin
+ 2 ( l − 2 x )   l   − −2  l 
( ) 
l   nπ   nπ
2 2

    
  l   l 2
  l
3
l
   nπ x    nπ x  
  − cos     − sin 
6h
+ 2 ( x − l )   l − 1 l 
( ) 
l   nπ   nπ
2 2

    
  l   l 2
  2 l
3

6 h  −l
2
nπ l 2
nπ 
= 2 
cos + 2 2 sin − ( 0 + 0)
l  3nπ 3 nπ 3 
6 h  l 2 2nπ 2l 2 2nπ   −l 2 nπ 2l 2 nπ 
+ 2  cos − 2 2 sin − cos − 2 2 sin 
l  3nπ 3 nπ 3   3nπ 3 nπ 3 
6h   l2 2nπ l2  2nπ
+ 2  ( 0 + 0 ) −  cos + 2 2 
sin
l   3nπ 3 nπ  3
6h  l 2 nπ 2l 2  nπ  2l 2 nπ l2  nπ 
= 2  2 2 sin − 2 2 sin  nπ −  + 2 2
sin − 2 2
sin  nπ − 
l n π 3 nπ  3  nπ 3 nπ  3 
6h  l 2 nπ 2l 2  nπ nπ 
= 2  2 2
sin − 2 2 
sin nπ cos − cos nπ sin 
l n π 3 nπ  3 3 
2l 2 nπ l 2  π π 
+ 2 2 sin 2 2 
sin nπ cos n − − cos nπ sin n 
nπ 3 nπ  3 3 
6h  l 2 nπ 2l 2 n nπ 2l 2 nπ l2 n nπ 
= 2  2 2
sin + ( − 1) sin + sin + 2 2 (
−1) sin
l n π 3 nπ2 2
3 nπ2 2
3 nπ 3 
6h  nπ n nπ nπ n nπ 
= 2 2 
sin + 2 ( −1) sin + 2sin + ( −1) sin
nπ  3 3 3 3 
6h  nπ n nπ 
= 2 2 3sin + 3 ( −1) sin 
nπ  3 3 
18h nπ 
−1) + 1
n
= 2 2 sin (
nπ 3  

15
0 when n is odd

=  36h
 n 2π 2 when n is even

36h 1 nπ nπ x nπ at
∴ y ( x, t ) =
π 2 ∑n
2,4,6
2
sin
3
sin
l
cos
l

36h 1 2nπ 2nπ x 2nπ at
y ( x, t ) =
π 2 ∑ 2
sin sin cos
n =1 ( 2n ) 3 l l
9h ∞
2nπ 1  2nπ x  2nπ at
=
π n=1 2 ∑n 3 2
sin
sin 
 l 
 cos
l
 l
 2nπ × 
 l  9h ∞
1 2nπ 2 cos  2nπ at  = 0
y  , t  = 2 ∑ 2 sin sin    
 2  π n =1 n 3  l   l 
 
∴ mid point is maximum at rest.

One dimensional heat equation

Problem 21 A uniform bar of length l through which heat flows is insulated at its sides.
The ends are kept at zero temperature. If the initial temperature at the interior points of
the bar is given by k ( lx − x 2 ) , 0 < x < l , find the temperature distribution in the bar after
time t .
Solution:
∂u ∂ 2u
The one dimensional heat equation is = ∂2 2
∂t ∂x
The boundary conditions are
(i ) u ( 0, t ) = 0 V t≥0
(ii ) u (l, t ) = 0 V t ≥ 0 and the imital condition is
(iii ) u ( x, 0 ) = f ( x ) 0 < x < l , where f ( x ) = K ( lx − x 2 ) , 0 < x < l
2 2
The suitable solution is u ( x, t ) = ( A cos px + B sin px ) e− p α t

Condition
2 2
(i ) ⇒ Ae − p α t = 0 Vt
⇒ A=0
∴ solution is
n 2π 2
nπ x − l 2 α 2t
u ( x, t ) = B sin e
l
Condition
2 2
(ii ) ⇒ B sin ple − p α t = 0 V t

16

⇒ pl = nπ ⇒ p=
l
n 2π 2
nπ x − α 2t
l2
∴ solution is u ( x, t ) = B sin e
l
Most general solution is
∞ n 2π 2α 2 1t
nπ x −
u ( x, t ) = ∑ Bn sin e l2

n =1 l

nπ x
u ( x, 0 ) = ∑ Bn sin
n =1 l
But condition ( iii ) ⇒ u ( x, 0 ) = k ( lx − x 2 ) which can be expanded as a half range sine
series as
∞ l
nπ x 2 nπ x
u ( x, 0 ) = ∑ Cn sin where Cn = ∫ u ( x, 0 ) sin dx
n =1 l l 0 l
Now
l
2 nπ x
Bn = Cn = ∫ K ( lx − x 2 ) sin dx
l 0 l
l
2k nπ x
∫ ( lx − x ) sin
2
= dx
l 0
l
l
  nπ x   nπ x   nπ x  
2k   − cos   − sin   cos 
( lx − x 2 )  l − (l − 2x )  l  + ( −2 )  l 
=
nπ  2 2 3 3
l     nπ   n π 
    
 l   l2   l3   0
2 k  2l 3   2l 3  
=  0 + 0 − cos π −
  0 + 0 − 
l  n3π 3   n3π 3  
4kl 2 
= 3 3 1 − ( −1) 
n

nπ  
 8kl 2
 where n is odd
=  n3π 3
0
 where n is even
− n 2π 2α 2 1t

8kl 2 nπ x −
∴ u ( x, t ) = ∑ 3 3 sin e l2

n =1,3,5 n π l
2 2 2
2n − 1) π x − ( )l
2 n −1 π α t
8kl 2 ∞
1 (

2
= 3
sin e
π3 n =1 ( 2n − 1) l

17
Problem 22 A rod, 30 cm long has its ends A and B kept at 200 C and 800 C
respectively, until steady state conditions prevail. The temperature at each end is reduced
to 00 C suddenly and kept so. Find the resulting temperature function u ( x, t ) .
Solution:
2
∂u 2 ∂ u
The equation is =∂
∂t ∂x 2
In steady- state conditions, the temperature at any particular point does not varies
with time. This any particular point does not very with time. This means that u depends
only on x and not on time
∴ The P.D.E. recluses to
∂ 2u
= 0 ⇒ u = ax + b
∂x 2
The initial conditions is steady state and
u (0, t) = 20 and
u (30, t) = 80
Sine in steady state u is independent of time
u ( 0 ) = 20 & u ( 30 ) = 80
∴ we get a = 2, b = 20
i.e. u (x) = 2x + 20
When the temperature at A and B are reduced to zero, the temperature distribution
changes. For this transiat state the boundary conditions are
(i ) u ( 0, t ) = 0 V t≥0
(ii ) u (l, t ) = 0 V t≥0
and the initial temperature distribution is
(iii ) u ( x, 0 ) = 2 x + 20 0 ≤ x ≤ 30
Now we have to find u (x, t) satisfying the conditions (i), (ii) & (iii)
The suitable solution is
2
p 2t
u ( x, t ) = ( A cos px + B sin px ) e−α
Using (i) we get A = 0
2
p 2t
∴ solution is u ( x, t ) = B sin px e−α

Using (ii) get P =
30
2 2
π t
nπ x −α 2 n900
∴ u ( x, t ) = B sin e
30
The most general solution is
2 2
π t
nπ x −α 2 n900
u ( x, t ) = ∑ Bn sin e
30
sin nπ x
u ( x, 0 ) = ∑ Bn
30
But condition (iv) gives u (x, 0) =2x +20 which can be expended as a half range
Fourier sine series.

18
∞ l
sin nπ x 2 nπ x
u ( x , 0 ) = ∑ Cn , where Cn = ∫ u ( x, 0 ) sin dx
n =1 30 l 0 l
30
2 nπ x
Then Bn = Cn = ∫
30 0
( 2 x + 20 ) sin
30
dx
30
  nπ x   nπ x  
1   − cos 30   − sin 30  
= ( 2 x + 20 )   − ( 2)  
15  nπ nπ
    
  30   900   0
40 
1 − 4 ( −1) 
n
=
nπ  
∞ n 2π 2
40 nπ x −α 2 900 t
∴ u ( x, t ) = ∑ ( )
n
1 − 4 ( −1) sin .e
n =1 nπ 30

Problem 23 The temperature at one end of a bar 20 cm long and with insulated sides is
kept at 00 C until steady state conditions prevail. The two ends are then suddenly
insulated, so that the temperature gradient is zero at each end there after. Find the
temperature distribution in the bar.
Solution:
When steady state conditions prevail, the temperature boundary conditions for
steady state are
u (0) = 0, u (20) = 60
Solution is u (x) = ax + b
u (0) = a 0 + b
⇒0=b
u (20) = 60
60 = a ( 20 ) + b
= 20a + 0
a=3
∴ u ( x ) = Bx = 0 = 3x
Since the ends are insulated after the steady state is attended, the heat flow is transient
and the sub sequent temperature distribution is given by

∂u ∂ 2u
=α2 2
∂t ∂x
The corresponding boundary conditions are
∂u
(i ) ( 0, t ) = 0 V t ≥ 0
∂x
∂u
(ii ) ( 20, t ) = 0 V t ≥ 0
∂x

19
(iii ) u ( x, 0 ) = 3x 0 < x < 20
The suitable solution is
2 2
u ( x, t ) = ( A cos px + B sin px ) e− p α t
∂u 2 2
( x, t ) = ( − A sin pxp + Bp cos px ) e− p α t
∂x
Condition (1) gives
∂u ( 0, t ) 2 2
0= = Bpe− p α t = 0
∂x
Either B = 0 or P = 0
If P = 0, u (x, t) = A which is absurd
∴B=0
∴ Solution is
2 2
u ( x, t ) = A cos pxe − p α t

∂u 2 2
( x, t ) = − Ap sin pxe− p α t
∂x
Condition (ii) gives
∂u ( 20, t ) 2 2
0= = − Ap sin 20 pxe− p α t
∂x
either A = 0 or sin 20p = 0
A = 0 gives trivial solution
∴ sin 20 p = 0 ⇒ 20 p = nπ

p=
20
∴ The solution is
∞ n 2π 2α 2 t
nπ x −
u ( x, t ) = ∑ An cos e 400

n =0 20

nπ x
(iii) Condition ⇒ u ( x, 0 ) = ∑ An cos = 3x
n =0 20
u (x, 0) = 32 can be expanded as a half range cosine series

a nπ x
u ( x, 0 ) = 0 + ∑ An cos
2 n =0 20
Where
l
2 nπ x
an = ∫ u ( x, 0 ) cos dx
l 0 20
Then
20
2 nπ x
an =
20 0∫ 3x cos
20
dx

20
20
  nπ x   nπ x  
3   
sin   − cos
= x  20 − (1)  20  

10   nπ   nπ
2 2

  20   
 400   0
3  400 400   400  
=  sin nx + 2 2 cos nπ  −  0 + 2 2  
10  nπ nπ   n π 
3  400 n 400 
2 2 (
=  −1) − 2 2 
10  n π nπ 
120
= 2 2 ( −1) − 1
n

nπ  
 −240
 if n is odd
=  n 2π 2
0 if n is even
a0
Now A0 =
2
20
1  3x 2 
20
2
20 ∫0
a0 = 3 xdx =
10  2  0
3
= [ 400 − 0] = 60
10
60
∴ A0 = = 30
2
∞ n 2π 2α 2t
nπ x −
∴ u ( x, t ) = A0 + ∑ An cos e 400

n =1 20
2 2 2
240 ∞
1 ( 2n − 1) π x e− n π400α t
= 30 − 2 2

∑ 2
n =1,3,5 n
cos
20
2 2 2
240 ∞
1 ( 2n − 1) π x −( 2 n −400
1)π α t

= 30 −
π2
∑ 2
cos e
n =1 ( 2π − 1) 20

Problem 24 A bar, 10 cm long with insulated sides, has its ends A and B kept at 200 C
and 800 C respectively, until steady state conditions prevail. The temperature at A is
then suddenly raised to 500 C and at the same time that at B is lowered to 100 C . Find
the subsequent temperature function u ( x, t ) at any time.
Solution:
2
∂u 2 ∂ u
The P.D.E. is =α
∂t ∂x 2
In steady state

21
∂ 2u
=0
∂x 2
⇒ u = ax + b
The boundary conditions for steady state is
u ( 0 ) = 20 ⇒ 20 = a ( 0 ) + b ⇒ b = 20
u (10 ) = 40 ⇒ 40 = a (10 ) + 20 ⇒ a = 2
When the temperatures at A and B are changed, the state is no longer steady. The
boundary conditions are
u ( 0, t ) = 50 V t>0
u ( 0, t ) = 40 V t > 0 and the initial conditions is
u ( x, 0 ) = 2 x + 20 0 < x < 10
Since we have non-zero boundary conditions ,we adopt a modified procedure
We break up the required solution u (x, t) in to two parts as u ( x, t ) = us ( x ) + ut ( x, t )
Where us ( x ) is called the steady state solution and ut ( x, t ) is called the transient.
∂ 2us
Solution us ( x ) is given by =0
∂x 2
us (0) = 50 and have
us (10) = 10
Solving us (x) = 50 – 4x
Consequently,
ut ( 0, t ) = u ( 0, t ) − us ( 0 ) = 50 − 50 = 0
ut (10, t ) = u (10, t ) − us (10 ) = 10 − 10 = 0
and ut ( x, 0 ) = u ( x, 0 ) + us ( x ) = ( 2 x + 20 ) − ( 50 − 4 x )
= 6 x − 30
∂u ∂ 2u
Now we have to set ut ( n, t ) in such a way that ut ( x, t ) satisfies = α 2 2 with the
∂t ∂x
boundary conditions
(i ) ut ( 0, t ) = 0
(ii ) ut (10, t ) = 0
(iii ) ut ( x, 0 ) = 6 x − 30
2
p 2t
The suitable solution is ut ( x, t ) = ( A cos px + B sin px ) e−α
Condition (i) gives
2 2
0 = Ae −α p t
⇒ A=0
α 2 n 2π 2 t
nπ x − 102
∴ solution is ut ( x, t ) = B sin e
10
Most general solution is

22
∞ α 2 n 2π 2t
nπ x −
ut ( x, t ) = ∑ Bn sin e 102

n =1 10

nπ x
(iii) condition gives ut ( x, 0 ) = 6 x − 30 = ∑ Bn sin
n =1 10
ut ( x, 0 ) can be expanded in half range sine series

nπ x
ut ( x, 0 ) = 9 x − 30 = ∑ Cn sin
n =1 10
l
2  nπ x 
When Cn = ∫
l 0
f ( x ) sin 
 10 
 dx
Then
10

( 6 x − 30 ) sin 
2 nπ x 
Bn = Cn = ∫
10 0  10 
 dx
10
  nπ x   nπ x  
  − cos  − sin 
1
= ( 6 x − 30 )  10  − 6  10  
nπ  2 2
5    n π 

  10   10   0
1  −300 300 
=  cos nπ −
5  nπ nπ 
−60 
1 + ( −1) 
n
=
nπ  
 −120
 if n is even
=  nπ
0 if n is odd
2 2 2

−120 nπ x − α 100
nπ t
∴ ut ( x, t ) = ∑ sin e
n = 2,4,6 nπ 10

∞ α 2 n 2π 2 t
−60 1 2nπ x −
ut ( x, t ) = ∑
π n =1 n
sin
10
e 25

Problem 25 An insulated metal rod of length 100 cm has one end A kept at 00 C and the
other end B at 1000 C until steady state conditions prevail. At time t = 0 , the temperature
at B is suddenly reduced to 500 C and there after maintained, while at the same time
t = 0 , the end A is insulated. Find the temperature at any point of the rod at any
subsequent time.
Solution:
When the steady state conditions prevail, the portial differential equation is
2
∂u
=0
∂x 2

23
⇒ u ( x ) = ax + b
With the boundary conditions u (0) = 0, u (100) = 100
∴u ( x ) = x
Once the steady state condition is removed, then the temperature distribution in
2
∂u 2 ∂ u
the rod is given by =α and the corresponding boundary conditions are
∂t ∂x 2
∂u
(i ) ( 0, t ) = 0 V t > 0
∂x
(ii ) u (100, t ) = 50 V t > 0 and
(iii ) u ( x, 0 ) = x 0 < x < 100
Since the boundary value is non-zero, we adopt the modified procedure.
Let u ( x, t ) = us ( x ) + ut ( x, t )
∂ 2us
Where us ( x ) satisfies = 0 with the boundary conditions
∂x 2
∂u ( 0 )
us (100 ) = 50 and s =0
∂x
us ( x ) = ax + b
∂us ( x ) ∂u ( 0 )
=a⇒ s =a=0
∂x ∂x
us (100 ) = 100a + b = 50
⇒ b = 50
us ( x ) = 50
How the boundary conditions for ut ( x, t ) and
∂u ∂u ∂u
(i ) t ( 0, t ) = ( 0, t ) − s ( 0 ) = 0 − 0 = 0
∂x ∂x ∂x
(ii ) ut (100, t ) = u (100, t ) − us (100 ) = 50 − 50 = 0
(iii ) ut ( x, 0 ) = u ( x, 0 ) − us ( x )
= x − 50 0 < x < 100
Suitable solution is
2 2
ut ( x, t ) = ( A cos p n + B sin p x ) e −α p t - (1)
∂ut ( x, t ) 2 2
= ( − Ap sin px + Bp cos px ) e −α p t
∂x
Condition (1) gives
∂ut 2 2
( , t ) = 0 Bpe−α p t
∂x
⇒B=0
∴ solution (1)

24
2 2
⇒ ut ( x, t ) = ( A cos px ) e −α p t - (2)
condition (ii) gives
2 2
0 = ut (100, t ) = A cos100 pxe −α p t
cos100 px = 0
π π
⇒ 100 p = odd multiple of = ( 2n − 1)
2 2

p=
( 2n − 1) π
200
∴ solution is
( 2 n −1)2 π 2
ut ( x , t ) = A cos
( 2n − 1) π x e−α 2
2002
t

200
most general solution is

ut ( x, t ) = ∑ A2 n −1 cos
( 2n − 1) π x
n =1 200
But ut ( x, 0 ) = x − 50 can be expanded on a half range cosine series

∴ ut ( x, 0 ) = x − 50 = ∑ B2 n −1 cos
( 2n − 1) π x
n =1 200
2
100
( 2n − 1) π xdx
where B2 n −1 =
100 ∫0
( x − 50 ) cos
200
100
 ( 2n − 1) π x  − cos ( 2n − 1) π x 
1  sin  
= ( x − 50 ) 200 − 200 
50  ( 2n − 1) π  ( 2n − 1) π
2

  
200  200 2
  0

=
200
sin
( 2n − 1) π − 2002
2
( 2n − 1) π 2 ( 2n − 1) π 2 x
n +1
200 ( −1) 2002
= −
( 2n − 1) π ( 2n − 1)2 π 2
 200 ( −1) n +1

2002  (
2
2n − 1) π x n α 2 ( 2n − 1) π 2
∴ ut ( x, t ) = ∑  − 2  cos e 2
t
n =1  ( 2 n − 1) π
2
 ( 2 n − 1) π 
 200 200

Hence
u ( x, t ) = us ( t ) + ut ( x, t ) =
 ( −1)n =1 ( 2 n −1)2 π 2 t
200 
2
−α
200 ∞
( 2n − 1) π x
= 50 + ∑ −  cos
π n=1  ( 2n − 1) ( 2n − 1) π 2  200
e 2002

25
Two dimensional heat equation

Problem 26 An infinitely long metal plate in the form of an area is enclosed between
the lines y = 0 and y = π for positive values of x . The temperature is zero along the
edges y = 0 and y = π and the edge at infinity. If the edge x = 0 is kept at temperature
ky , find the steady state temperature distribution in the plate.
Solution:
The steady state temperature u (x, y) at any point (x, y) of the plate is given by the
equation
∂ 2u ∂ 2u
+ = 0 with the following boundary conditions :
∂x 2 ∂y 2
i. u ( x,0 ) = 0 V n>0
ii. u ( x, π ) = 0 V n>0
iii. u ( ∞, y ) = 0 V0 ≤ y ≤π
iv. u ( 0, y ) = ky 0≤ y ≤π

The three possible solutions of the PDE are


a. u ( x, y ) = ( C1e px + C2 e − px ) ( C3 cos py + C4 sin py )
b. u ( x, y ) = ( C5 cos px + C6 sin px ) ( C7 e py + C8 e− py )
c. u ( x, y ) = ( C9 x + C10 )( C11 y + C12 )
Consider (b)
u ( x, y ) = ( C5 cos px + C6 sin px ) ( C7 e py + C8 e− py )
by cond (i)
u ( x, y ) = ( C5 cos px + C6 sin px )( C7 + C8 ) = 0
⇒ C7 + C8 = 0 - (1)
u ( x, π ) = ( C5 cos px + C6 sin px ) ( C7 e pπ + C8e − pπ ) = 0 - (2)
Solving (1) and (2) we get C7 = C8 = 0 which will lead to trivial solution.
∴ is not the correct solution
The suitable solution is
u ( x, y ) = ( Ae px + Be − px ) ( C cos py + D sin py )
Condition (1)
⇒ u ( x, 0 ) = ( Ae px + Be − px ) C = 0
∴C = 0
∴ u ( x, y ) = ( Ae px + Be− px ) D sin py
Condition (ii)

26
u ( x, π ) = ( Ae px + Be − px ) D sin pπ = 0
⇒ sin pπ = 0
⇒ pπ = nπ
p=n
∴ Solution is
u ( x, y ) = ( Aenx + Be − nx ) D sin ny
Condition (iii)
u ( ∞, y ) = ( Ae∞ + Be−∞ ) D sin ny = 0
⇒ A=0
Solution is
u ( x, y ) = Be − nx D sin xy = 0
= BDe − nx sin xy = 0
Most general solution is

u ( x, y ) = ∑ Bne − nx sin ny
n =1
Condition (iv)

u ( 0, y ) = ky = ∑ Bn sin ny
n =1

Now u ( 0, y ) = ky can be expended as a half range sine series



u ( 0, y ) = ky = ∑ Cn sin ny
n =1
π
2
Where Cn =
π ∫ ky sin nydy .
0
Then sin = Cn
π
2k   − cos xy   − sin ny  
∴ Cn = y −
π   n   n2   0
2k n +1
Cn = ( −1)
n
n +1

∴ u ( x, y ) = 2 k ∑

( −1) e − nx sin ny
n =1 n

Problem 27 A plate is in the form of the semi infinite strip 0 ≤ x ≤ 10 , 0 ≤ y ≤ ∞ , whose


surfaces is insulated. If the temperature at short edge y = 0 is given by
 20 x, 0≤ x≤5
u=
20 (10 − x ) , 5 ≤ x ≤ 10
and all the other three edges are kept at 00 C . Find the steady state temperature at any
point of the plate.
Solution:

27
The three possible solutions are
a. u ( x, y ) = ( Ae px + Be − px ) ( C cos py + D sin py )
b. u ( x, y ) = ( A cos px + B sin px ) ( Ce py + De− py )
c. u ( x, y ) = ( Ax + B )( Cy + D )
∂ 2u ∂ 2u
The equation is + = 0 and the boundary conditions are
∂x 2 ∂y 2
i. u ( 0, y ) = 0
ii. u (10, y ) = 0
iii. u ( x, ∞ ) = 0
iv. u ( x, 0 ) = f ( x )
Consider (a)
u ( x, y ) = ( Ae px + Be − px ) ( C cos py + D sin py )
u ( 0, y ) = ( A + B )( C cos py + D sin py ) = 0
⇒ A= B=0 −(1)
u (10, y ) = ( Ae10 p
+ Be −10 p
) ( C cos py + D sin py ) = 0
⇒ Ae10 p + Be −10 p = 0
Solving (1) and (2), we get A = 0, B = 0
Which will give use the trivial solution
∴ (a) is not the correct solution.
Consider (C) u ( x, y ) = ( Ax + B )( Cy + D )
u ( 0, y ) = B ( Cy + D ) = 0 ⇒B=0
u ( 0, y ) = 0 10 A ( Cy + D ) = 0 ⇒ A = 0
Which will lead a to trivial solution
∴ The suitable solution is (b)
u ( x, y ) = ( A cos px + B sin px ) ( Ce py + De− py )
Condition (i) ⇒
u ( 0, y ) = A ( Ce py + De− py ) = 0 ⇒ A = 0
∴ Solution is u ( x, y ) = B sin px ( Ce py + De− py )
Condition (ii) ⇒
u (10, y ) = B sin10 p ( Ce py + De− py ) = 0

⇒ sin10 p = 0 ⇒ p =
10
nπ x  n10π y −
nπ y

∴ solution is u ( x, y ) = B sin  Ce + De 10

10  
Condition (iii) ⇒

28
nπ x  n10π∞ −
nπ∞

u ( x, ∞ ) = B sin  Ce + De 10

10  
⇒C =0
nπ x − n10π y
∴ solution is u ( x, y ) = B sin De
10
Most general solution is

nπ x − n10π x
u ( x, y ) = ∑ Bn sin e
n =1 10
condition (iv) gives


 nπ x 
u ( x, 0 ) = f ( x ) = ∑ Cn sin  
n =1  10 
where
10
2 nπ x
Cn = ∫ f ( x ).sin dx
10 0 10
1 nπ x 
5 10
nπ x
=  ∫ 20 x sin dx + ∫ 20 (10 − x ) sin dx 
5 0 10 5
10 
5
   nπ x    nπ x  
  − cos  10    − sin 
= 4 x  − 10  

  nπ x   nπ
2 2

    
 10   100   0
10
  nπ x   nπ x  
  − cos  − sin 
+4 (10 − x )  10  − ( −1)  10  
nπ  2 2
    nπ 
  
 10   100   5
 −50 nπ 100 nπ 50 nπ 100 nπ 
= 4 cos + 2 2 sin + cos + 2 2 sin
 nπ 2 nπ 2 nπ 2 nπ 2 

 800 nπ
 2 2 sin where n is odd
= n π 2
0 where n is even
∞ nπ y
800 1 nπ nπ x − 10
2 ∑ 2
∴ u ( x, y ) = sin sin e
π 1,3,5 n 2 10

29
Problem 28 A square plate of length 20 cm has its faces insulated and its edges are
along x = 0 , x = 20 , y = 0 , y = 20 . If the temperature along the edge x = 20 is given
 T 
  10  y, 0 ≤ y ≤ 10
  
by u=
 T  ( 20 − y ) , 10 ≤ y ≤ 20
 10 
while the other three edges are kept at 00 C , find the steady state temperature distribution
in the plate.
Solution:
∂ 2u ∂ 2u
The partial differential equation to be solved is 2 + 2 = 0
∂x ∂y
With the boundary conditions
(i ) u ( x, 0 ) = 0 0 ≤ x ≤ 20
(ii ) u ( x, 20 ) = 0 0 ≤ x ≤ 20
(iii ) u ( 0, y ) = 0 0 ≤ x ≤ 20
(iv) u ( 20, y ) = 0 0 ≤ x ≤ 20
since non-zero temperature is prescribed on the edge x = 20, in which y is varying, the
suitable solution is
u ( x, y ) = ( Ae px + Be − px ) ( C cos py + D sin py )
condition (i) gives

u ( x, 20 ) = ( Ae px + Be − px ) D sin 20 p = 0
⇒ 20 p = nπ

⇒ p=
20
∴ solution is
 n20 πx − nπ x
 nπ y
u ( x, y ) =  Ae + Be 20  D sin
  20
(iii) condition gives
nπ y
u ( 0, y ) = ( A + B ) D sin =0
20
⇒ A + B = 0 ⇒ B = −A
 nπ x − nπ x
 nπ y
∴ u ( x, y ) = A  e 20 − e 20  D sin
  20
Most general solution is

 nπ x − nπ x
 nπ y
u ( x, y ) = ∑ An  e 20 − e 20  sin
n =1   20
(iv) condition gives

30

 nπ y 
u ( 20, y ) = ∑ An ( e nπ − e− nπ ) sin  
n =1  20 
T
10 y 0 ≤ y ≤ 10
But u ( 20, y ) = 
 T ( 20 − y ) 10 ≤ y ≤ 20
10
Which can be expanded in a half range sine series

 nπ y 
u ( 20, y ) = ∑ Bn sin   where
n =1  20 
20
2 nπ y
Bn =
20 0 ∫ u ( 20, y ) sin
20
dy

T  nπ y 
10 20
nπ y
=  ∫ y sin dy + ∫ ( 20 − y ) sin dy 
100  0 20 10
20 
10
  nπ y   nπ y  
T   − cos   − sin 
y 20 −  20  
=
nπ  2 2
100  
   n π 

  20   20   0
20
  nπ y   nπ y  
T   − cos 20   − sin 
20  
+ ( 20 − y )   − ( −1) 
100  nπ  nπ
2 2

   
  20   20   0
T  −200 nπ 400 nπ   200 nπ 400 nπ  
=   cos + 2 2 sin + cos + 2 2 sin 
100  nπ 2 nπ 2   nπ 2 nπ 2  
8T nπ
= 2 2 sin
nπ 2
8T nπ
∴ Bn = 2 2 sin
nπ 2
8T nπ
An sinh nπ = Bn = 2 2 sin
nπ 2
8T nπ
But ∴ An = 2 2 sin
n π sinh nπ 2
8T 1 nπ nπ x nπ y
∴ u ( x, y ) = 2 ∑ 2 sin cos hnπ sinh sin
π n 2 20 20

Problem 29 Solve the following problem for a rectangle specified below :


u xx + u yy = 0
1. u ( 0, y ) = 0 ,

31
2. u ( x, 0 ) = f ( x ) ,
3. u ( a, y ) = 0 , 0 < y < b ,
πx 
4. u ( x, b ) = 0 , 0 < x < a . Where f ( x ) = sin 3  .
 a 
Solution:
∂ 2u ∂ 2u
The P.D.E. is 2 + =0
∂x ∂y
The boundary conditions in
(i ) u ( 0, y ) = 0 0< y<b
(ii ) u ( a, y ) = 0 0< y<b
(iii ) u ( x, b ) = 0 0< x<a
πx
(iv) u ( x, 0 ) = sin 3 ,0 < x < a
a
Solving equation (1) we get three types of solutions as given below:
( a ) u ( x, y ) = ( c1 cos px + c2 sin px ) ( c3e py + c4 e− py )
( b ) u ( x, y ) = ( c5 cos py + c6 sin py ) ( c7 e px + c8e− px )
( c ) u ( x, y ) = ( c9 x + c10 )( c11 y + c12 )
Out of these three solutions the correct solution which satisfies our boundary conditions (
as explained in Ex.[1] is
u ( x, y ) = ( c1 cos px + c2 sin px ) ( c3e py + c4 e − py ) .....(2)
Applying condition (i) in (2), we get,
u ( 0, y ) = c1 ( c3e py + c4 e− py ) = 0
i.e., c1 = 0 …….(3)
Substituting (3) in (2), we get,
u ( x, y ) = c2 sin px ( c3e py + c4 e − py )
Applying condition (ii) in (4), we get,
u ( a, y ) = c2 sin pa ( c3e py + c4 e− py ) = 0
Here c2 ≠ 0 since if c2 = 0 we get trivial solution.
Hence sin pa=0, i.e., pa = nπ

(or) p =
a
Substituting (5) in (4), we get,
nπ x  nπa y − nπ y

u ( x, y ) = c2 sin  3
c e + c4 e a
 .....(6)
a  
Applying condition (iii) in (6) we get,

32
nπ x  nπa b − nπ b

u ( x, b ) = c2 sin
 3
c e + c4 e a
=0
a  
nπ x
Here c2 ≠ 0 and sin ≠0
a
nπ b − nπ b
a a
Hence c3e + c4 e =0
− nπ b nπ b
a a
i.e., c4 e = −c3e
2 nπ b
i.e., c4 = −c3e a
Substituting (7) in (6), we get,
nπ x  nπa y 2 nπ b − nπ y

u ( x, y ) = c3c2 sin  e − e a
.e a  .....(8)
a  
nπ x  2 naπ y 2 nπ b
 − naπ y
  .e
a
= cn sin e − e
a  
The most general solution can be written as

nπ x − naπ y  2 naπ y 2 nπ b

u ( x, y ) = ∑ cn sin .e  e − e a
 .....(9)
n =1 a  
Applying condition (iv) in (9), we get,

nπ x  2 nπ b

u ( x, 0 ) = ∑ cn sin  1 − e a

n =1 a  
πx
= sin 3
a

nπ x  2 nπ b
 1 πx 3π x 
i.e., ∑ cn sin 1 − e
a
 =  3sin − sin 
n =1 a   4 a a 
πx 2π b
 2π x  4π b
 3π x  6π b

  2   3   + ...
a a a
c1 sin 1 − e + c sin 1 − e + c sin 1 − e
a   a   a  
1 πx 3π x 
=  3sin − sin 
4 a a 
 2π b
 3
Equating like coefficient we get, c1 1 − e a  =
  4
3
i.e., c1 = , c2 = 0
 2π b

4 1 − e  a

 
 6π b
 1
c3 1 − e a  = −
  4

33
1
i.e., c3 = , c4 = 0, c5 = 0,....
 6π b

4 1 − e a 
 
Substituting these values of c’ s in (9), we get
3 π x −πa y  2πa y 2πa b  3 3π x −3aπ y  6πa y 6π b

u ( x, y ) = sin e e −e − sin e e − e 
a
 2 bπ
 a   4 1 − e a
6 bπ
 a  
4 1 − e a   
   

Problem 30 A rectangular plate is bounded by the lines x = 0 , x = a , y = 0 and y = b .


Its surfaces are insulated the temperatures along x = 0 and y = 0 are kept at 00 C and the
others at 1000 C . Find the steady state temperature at any point of the plate.
Solution:
Let u ( x, y ) be the temperature satisfying the equation
∂ 2 u ∂ 2u
+ =0 − (1)
∂x 2 ∂y 2
Then the boundary conditions are given by
(i) u ( 0, y ) = 0 for 0 ≤ y < b
(ii) u ( x, 0 ) = 0 for 0 ≤ x < a
(iii) u ( a, y ) = 100 for 0 < x < b
(iv) u ( x, b ) = 100 for 0 < x < a
we split the solutions into two solution
i.e., u ( x, y ) = u ( x, y ) + u2 ( x, y )
where u1 ( x, y ) = 0 and u2 ( x, y ) are solutions of (1) and furthers u1 ( x, y ) is the
temperature at any point p with the edge BC maintained at 100o and the other three edges
at ooC . Where u2 ± ( x, y ) is the temperature at P with the edge AB maintained at 100o C
and the other edges at ooC .
Therefore the boundary conditions for the function u1 ( x, y ) and u2 ( x, y ) are as follows.
(i) u1 ( 0, y ) = 0 , 0 ≤ y ≤ b
(ii) u1 ( x, 0 ) = 0 , 0 ≤ x ≤ a
(iii) u1 ( a, y ) = 0 , 0 ≤ x ≤ b
(iv) u ( x, b ) = 100 , 0 ≤ x ≤ a

(i) u2 ( 0, y ) = 0 , 0 ≤ y ≤ b
(ii) u2 ( x, 0 ) = 0 , 0 ≤ x ≤ a
(iii) u2 ( a, y ) = 100 , 0 ≤ x ≤ b

34
(iv) u2 ( x, b ) = 0 , 0 ≤ x ≤ a

clearly both u1 and u2 satisfy the equation (1) solving (1) and choosing the suitable
solution we have, u1 ( x, y ) = (A cospx + B sin px ) ( ce py + De − py ) ………..(2)
using cond (i) in (2) u1 ( 0, y ) = A ( ce py + De − py ) = 0
= >A= 0
∴ u1 ( x, y ) = B sin px ( ce py + De − py ) ……………..(3)
using cond (iii) in (3)
u2 ( x, 0) = B sin pa ( ce py + De − py ) = 0
=>sin pa = 0
pa = nπ
nπ  a y − y 
nπ nπ

p= , n = 0,1, 2,3... Then (3) = B sin x  ce + De a  ……….(4)
a a  
by apply and (iii) to (4)
nπ x
u1 ( x, 0 ) = B sin (c + D) = 0
a
∴ B ≠ 0 C + D = 0 ⇒ D = −C
 nπ y −
nπ y

nπ x  e a − e a 
u1 ( x, y ) = 2 BC sin
a  2 

 
The most general solution is given by

 nπ y −
nπ y

nπ x  e a − e a 
u1 ( x, y ) = ∑ Bn sin By the condition
n −1 a  2 

 

 nπ y

nπ y

nπ x  e a − e a 
u1 ( x, y ) = ∑ Bn sin
n −1 a  2 

 

 nπ x  nπ x
= ∑ Bn  sinh  sin = 100
n −1  a  a
Which is half range some for f ( x ) = 100 (0.a)
a
nπ b 2 nπ x
∴ Bn sinh = ∫ 100 sin dx
a a0 a
a
 nπ x 
 − cos
200 a 
=  nπ 
a  
 a 0

35
200
=− [cos nπ − cos 0]

200 
1 − ( −1) 
n
=
nπ  
 400
 if n is odd
=  nπ
 0 if n is even
 400
 if n is odd
nπ h
∴ Bn =  nπ sinh
 a
 0 if n is even

400 nπ x nπ y
∴ u1 ( x, y ) = ∑ sin sinh
n π h a a
n = odd
nπ sinh
a
 ( 2n − 1) π x  ( 2n − 1) π x
sin   sin
400 ∞
 a  a
u1 ( x, y ) =
π n =1
∑  ( 2n − 1) π h 
( 2n − 1) sinh  
 a 
Similarly,
 ( 2n − 1) π y   ( 2n − 1) π x 
sin   sinh  
400 ∞
 b   b 
u 2 ( x, y ) =
π n=1
∑  ( 2n − 1) π a 
( 2n − 1) sinh  
 b 
∴ u ( x, y ) = u1 ( x, y ) + u2 ( x, y )
is the required solution where u1 and u2 are given above.

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