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“Woman is the companion of man, gifted with equal mental capacity. If by
strength is meant moral power, then woman is immeasurably man’s superior. If non-
violence is the law of our being, the future is with women”

- Mahatma Gandhiji

5.1 Introduction

A revision on the process of progress Women Entrepreneurship in

Karnataka is a considerable subject matter in making inquiries in relative to
women studies in any vicinity. It hastens the speed of investigation about a
meticulous issue. This chapter deals with the women entrepreneurs in
Karnataka relating to women entrepreneurship. From the inception of States
Reorganization Act Karnataka state was created on November 1956,
previously known as the State of Mysore but later in the year 1973 was
renamed as Karnataka. The Kannada words karu and nadu, meaning elevated
land. It is the eighth largest Indian state by region; the ninth largest by
population. In societal sciences, the study from Macro to Micro or General to
Particular would be really meaningful and very common in nature1. Therefore,
we have made an attempt in this chapter to discover about women entrepreneurs
in Karnataka in relation to women entrepreneurship, which is the theme of our
present study.

5.2 A Profile of Karnataka State

One among the state of the southern part India is Karnataka. The
Kannada words Karu and Nadu, meaning eminent land. It is the eighth largest
Indian state by area, the ninth largest by population. The official language of

the state is Kannada. State comprises 30 districts. Kannada is spoken as a native
language by about 64.75% of the total population. Other linguistic minorities in
the state are Urdu (9.72%), Telugu (8.34%), Tamil (5.46%), Marathi (3.95%),
Tulu (3.38%), Hindi (1.87%), Konkani (1.78%), Malayalam (1.69%), Kodava
(0.25%) and other tribal languages. Karnataka, which had an estimated GSDP
(Gross State Domestic Product) of about Rs 1,89,773 crore in 2009-10 fiscal
year. Study Doing Business 2009 of the World Bank ranks Bangalore at the
13th position amongst select 17 states of India. Karnataka is one among the
leading industrialized States and well known for high-tech industries in key
sectors like telecommunication, electronics, information technology, precision
engineering, machine tools, automobiles, readymade garments, bio-technology
and food processing etc. Karnataka is one of the manufacturing hubs for some
of the largest public sector industries in India, like Hindustan Aeronautics
Limited, National Aerospace Labouratories, Bharat Heavy Electricals Limited,
Indian Telephone Industries, Bharat Earth Movers Limited and Hindustan
Machine Tools, which are based in Bangalore. Many of India’s premier science
and technology research centers, such as Indian Space Research Organization,
Central Power Research Institute, Bharat Electronics Limited and the Central
Food Technological Research Institute, are also headquartered in Karnataka.
Mangalore Refinery and Petrochemicals Limited is an oil refinery located in
Mangalore. According to the Economic survey 2009 -10 of Karnataka up to
10,081 micro, small, medium enterprises were registered. 2

5.3 Historical Background of Entrepreneurship

Vedic literature articulates that “Where women are respected, there the
god’s delight” — Vedic age is the golden era to memorize the status of woman
in Karnataka history also. Since the time immoral Karnataka is known for many
women entrepreneurs who took the initiative to expand and protect the business
and the state. Some of them are Onake Obbavva, Rani Abbakka, Kitturu

Chennamma, Natyarani Shantala so on an so forth. Daughter in a family was
not treated as burden instead she was given with few freedoms to participate in
the religious activities and also to choose her life partner themselves through
“Swayamvaras’. When we give light into the epic periods most of us are
familiar with the great epics Mahabharata and Ramayana. The stories of these
great epics were taken as ideal and comprehend the significance of admiration
towards women. During 1000 B.C; the importance towards the status of women
was deteriorating because women were not allowed to participate in the
religious activities as they were signed as impure during certain period in their
life to perform the religious activities. Now this escorted to male dominance
and women were restricted only towards household work and to ensure the
continuity of family by giving birth to a child especially a boy child. During the
age of Dharma shasthra, the main law codes were “Manu Smrithi” and
“Yagnavalkya Smrithi2”. Manu describes that states that woman in her
childhood dependent on parents, youth on her husband and in old age on her
son. This clearly states that woman should be always dependent and cannot be
independent. Yagnavalkya Smrithi states that every parent should compulsorily
see to that their daughter gets married before she attains her puberty. This
made marriage as a compulsory phenomenon during that period. That gave rise
to —what we term as “social evils” Child marriage, no permission for widow
remarriage, Sati etc even in Karnataka. Woman showed her power and proved
that woman has a greater will power which is witnessed by many women
participating in the freedom fight especially the queen warrior to save their
kingdom and country. Various social reformers in Karnataka were also born
who worked in banning the social evils and dedicated their life to root out the
existing social evils; various acts were passed and adopted in Karnataka such as
Sati Prohibition Act, Widow Remarriage Act and Child Marriage Restraint Act
and so on. Freedom struggle was a right period to retain the past glory for
women in Karnataka. Leaders are propounded to establish an order to give
equal importance to both men and women in this society. The Government of

India declared 2001 as the Year of Woman’s Empowerment (Swa Shakhti) 3. In
addition to this 33% women reservation is a good attempt to help women
empowerment. Here is a small attempt to have a quick look on the measures
taken to improve the condition of women in Karnataka state.

5.4 Government of Karnataka and Women

After the independence many institutions have taken interest in

empowering the women by setting up various infrastructure facilities for
women to set up their own business units and become economically strong in
the economy. These institutions were initially hidden since the women were not
given equal opportunities and freedom when compared to men. Various
schemes adopted by Government of Karnataka to improve the status of women
are: Karnataka Mahila Abhivrudhi Yojana, Bhagyalakshmi Scheme, Taayi
Bhagya, Sakshara Bharatha, Santhwana, Karnataka Mahila Abhivrudhi Yojane
(KMAY), Working Woman’s Hostels, Financial Assistance to Women Law
Graduates, Special Cell For Eradication of Social Evils, Implementation of
Protection of Women from Domestic Violence Act, 2005, Legal Literacy,
Financial Assistance for the Remarriage of Destitute Widows and Marriages of
Devadasis, Swadhara scheme for women in difficult circumstances, so on and
so forth. Karnataka Industrial policy 2009-2014 has also given importance to
the skill development by emphasizing on the entrepreneurship development
among youth especially women 4.

5.5 State Resource Centre (SRC)

State resource centre was established at Woman’s Development

Corporation, Bangalore during1995-96 with the intention to evaluate the
Government schemes implemented by Woman’s Development Corporation and
also to promote research on gender issues. It organizes gender and product
development workshops, establishes a library, provides counseling centre for

women, establishes a data bank for the Corporation and provides assistance to
the scholars who want to conduct studies in woman development and also to
bring out quarterly Women Development Corporation’s Newsletter. Women
Self Employment Counseling Centers are furthermore established at Bangalore,
Mangalore (D. K. District), Belgaum, Chikmagalur, Davanagere, Chitradurga,
Bangalore (Rural) and Mysore, Mandya, Tumkur, Dharwad, Gulbarga, Bellary
and so on5.

5.6 Women wing of State Trading Corporation (WSTC)

The State Trading Corporation of India Ltd. (STC) is a premier

international trading house owned by the Government of India. Having been set
up in 1956, the Corporation has developed vast expertise in handling bulk
international trade. Though, dealing largely with the East European countries
during the early years of its formation, today it trades with almost all the
countries of the world. By virtue of infrastructure and experience possessed by
the corporation, it plays an important role in arranging import of essential items
into India and developing exports of a large number of items from India. It
exports a large number of items ranging from agricultural commodities to
manufactured products from India to all parts of the world. Because of
corporations in depth knowledge about the Indian market, STC is able to supply
quality products at most competitive prices and ensure that the goods reach the
foreign buyer within the prescribed delivery schedule. It also imports bulk
commodities for Indian consumer as per demand in the domestic market6.

Table — 5.1
Recent Trends of Facilities for Women by Women Wing of WSTC

Year Total clusters SSI Service entities Productivity

2000 25 26 13 3

2001 28 28 15 5

2002 25 28 16 6

2003 24 24 18 4

2004 25 25 17 6

2005 29 15 28 15

2006 35 13 29 26

2007 44 43 24 35

2008 45 55 33 40

2009 55 62 46 44

Growth Rate 33.5 31.9 23.9

Source: Synchronized Annual Reports of Women wing of WSTC. Bangalore.

Graph — 5.1
Recent Trends of facilities for Women by Women Wing of WSTC
Total clusters SSI Service entities






2000 2001 2002 2003 2004 2005 2006 2007 2008 2009

The above table — 5.1 indicates the recent trends of Women wing of
‘State Trading Corporation’ (STC) facilities for women during 2000 to 2009.
During 2000 the total numbers of clusters were only 25 and it is increased in
2009 up to 55. Similarly SSI number was only 26 and rose to 62 and similarly
service entities are increased from 13 to 46 in 2009. Productivity and the
growth increased from 3% to 44 per hundred. The Growth rate is 33.5, 31.9 and
23.9 respectively.

5.7 Taluk Marketing Complex

The department of women and children has initiated a program like taluk
marketing complex to encourage Stree Shakti groups. The main aim is to
support the women entrepreneurs by providing marketing infrastructure to
facilitate marketing of the products produced by the women of these groups and
for this same purpose an amount of Rs. 750.00 lakhs has been provided to the
Stree Shakti groups. Target for the year is to construct 60 Taluk Marketing

5.8 The Association of Women Entrepreneurs of Karnataka (AWAKE)

It is the association of women entrepreneurs, which is totally devoted to

entrepreneurship development. Established on 1983, AWAKE is an affiliate of
woman’s World Banking, New York. AWAKE has touched the lives of
thousands of women in Karnataka and has provided innumerable first-
generation women entrepreneurs the inspiration and technical support to start
their own work from small-scale Paapad-making to high-tech biotechnology.
The reason behind AWAKE’s success has been their ‘Four S Module’ —
Stimulus, Start-Up, Sustenance and Support. In fact, all activities take these
four aspects into consideration8.

Table — 5.2
Recent Trends of facilities for women by the Association of Women
Entrepreneurs of Karnataka (AWAKE)

Year Total Clusters SSI Service entities Productivity

2000 34 45 18 5

2001 49 59 19 6

2002 51 61 25 8

2003 64 72 27 9

2004 76 84 27 11

2005 77 95 30 16

2006 84 98 41 14

2007 85 100 45 21

2008 98 111 50 25

2009 100 128 56 35

Growth Rate 71.8 85.3 33.8

Source: Computed using Annual Reports of AWAKE.

Graph — 5.2
Recent Trends of facilities for women by the Association of Women
Entrepreneurs of Karnataka (AWAKE)
Total clusters SSI Service entities






2000 2001 2002 2003 2004 2005 2006 2007 2008 2009

The above table — 5.2 indicates the recent trends of The Association of
Women Entrepreneurs of Karnataka facilities for women during 2000 to 2009.
During 2000 the total numbers of clusters were only 34 and it is increased in
2009 up to 100. Similarly SSI number was only 45 and rose to 128 and
similarly service entities are increased from 18 to 56 in 2009. Productivity and
the growth increased from 5% to 35 per hundred. The growth rate is 71.8, 85.3,
and 33.8 respectively

5.9 Women in Small Enterprise (WISE)

It is a wing of Mysore chamber of commerce and industry. It is a well

chalked out plan to give women entrepreneur of Mysore a common platform to
successfully implement business strategies. Mysore Chamber of Commerce and
industry was formed in the year 1964 under the suitable promotion and
guidance of trade and industry leaders of the Mysore district9.

Table — 5.3
Recent Trends of Facilities for Women by WISE
Year Total Clusters SSI Service entities Productivity
2000 15 25 16 2
2001 29 39 18 6
2002 31 41 25 8
2003 44 52 26 9
2004 66 64 26 11
2005 77 75 30 15
2006 84 88 47 14
2007 85 99 48 20
2008 95 111 50 25
2009 128 125 65 40
Growth Rate 65.4 71.9 35.1
Source: Computed using Annual Reports of Women in Small Enterprise.

Graph — 5.3
Recent Trends of facilities for women by WISE
Total clusters SSI Service entities
2000 2001 2002 2003 2004 2005 2006 2007 2008 2009

The above table — 5.3 indicates the recent trends of Women in small
enterprise for women during 2000 to 2009. During 2000 the total numbers of
clusters were only 15 and it is increased in 2009 up to 128. Similarly SSI
number was only 25 and rose to 125 and similarly service entities are increased
from 16 to 65 in 2009. Productivity and the growth increased from 2% to 40
per hundred. The Growth rate is 65.4, 71.9 and 35.1 respectively.

5.10 Mahila Samakhya Project (MSP)

The Karnataka Mahila samakhya (KMS) has been implementing the

Mahila Samakhya Programme (MSP), initiated by the union ministry of human
resource development in 1987-89, to translate the goals of the new educational
policy of 1986 that is to play a positive, interventionist role in bringing equality
for women. The MSP was launched as a pilot project in 10 districts of
Karnataka, Gujarat and Uttar Pradesh in 1989 with Dutch assistance. The
project was later extended to Andhra Pradesh, Kerala, Uttaranchal, Bihar,
Jharkhand and Assam. Parimeala and KMS resource person Savita said that
their society is now working with 60,000 women, mostly underprivileged, in
about 1,900 villages in 12 of Karnataka’s 27 districts. The KMS is also working
with about 7,500 ‘Kishoris’ (adolescent girls) to impart education in life skills.

“Besides education, the KMS has been imparting training on computer and
technical skill development, education about basic legal matters, health
awareness and counseling to increase family income,” said Savita. The KMS
leaders said that “with the aim of providing legal awareness, counseling and
resolving family disputes, Nari Adalat (women court) has been formed from the
village to the Taluka (district) level10.

Table — 5.4
Recent Trends of facilities for women by Mahila Samakhya Project (MSP)

Year Total Clusters SSI Service entities Productivity

2000 42 54 13 5

2001 69 69 18 2

2002 71 71 25 8

2003 74 72 26 9

2004 76 84 26 4

2005 77 95 30 15

2006 84 98 47 19

2007 85 99 48 28

2008 95 110 50 29

2009 98 120 60 40

Growth Rate 77.1 87.2 34.3

Source: Computed using Annual Reports of Mahila Samakhya Projects (MSP).

Graph — 5.4
Recent Trends of facilities for Women by Mahila Samakhya Project (MSP)
Total clusters SSI Service entities






2000 2001 2002 2003 2004 2005 2006 2007 2008 2009

The above table — 5.4 indicates the recent trends of Mahila Samakhya
Project for women during 2000 to 2009. During 2000 the total numbers of
clusters were only 42 and it is increased in 2009 up to 98. Similarly SSI number
was only 54 and rose to 120 and similarly service entities are increased from 13
to 60 in 2009. Productivity and the growth increased from 5% to 40 per
hundred. The Growth rate is 77.1, 87.2 and 34.3 respectively.

5.11 Special Component Plan

Special Component plan was proposed by The Social Welfare

Department mainly to organize Job Oriented Skill Development Training for
women belonging to Scheduled Castes. The woman whose age is between 18-
45 and their annual family income is Rs.31, 952/- for rural and Rs.42, 412/- for
urban are eligible. To provide technical skills to these women various Training
centre has been identified which includes apparel Training And Design Centre
(ATDC), National Institute of Fashion Technology( NIFT), Government Tool
Room and Training Centre (GTTC), Small Industries Service Institute(SISI),

Bowring Hospital, Rural Development & Self Employment Training
India(RUDSETI) and Canara Bank training centers. The activities covered
under the training programme are Manufacture of coir products, PC Hardware
assembly, Wood Carving, Tailoring & embroidery, repairs and servicing of
electrical and electronic home, banana leaf articles manufacturing, (Desktop
publishing)DTP course with screen printing, masonry, hospital ward assistant
and home health care helpers, Agarbathi manufacturing, leather garments
manufacturing, computer training, light motor vehicle driving training11.

5.12 Karnataka State Women Development Corporation (KSWDC)

It has been striving for egalitarian status, empowerment of women

should be among the top priorities, considering the major number of women
40% of the entire women population in the country below poverty line, in the
year 1987 Government of Karnataka established Karnataka State Woman’s
Development Corporation. There is a set of specified objectives according to
which the company functions for the welfare of the women in need12.

Table — 5.5

Progress Report of various schemes of Karnataka State Women

Development Corporation -2007 (KSWDC)

Sl. Annual Target % Achievement
Scheme Development
fiscal Physical fiscal Physical Financial Physical
1. Administrative 80.00 - 102.59 - 127% -
Woman Training
2. 10.00 385 10.00 485 100% 125%
State Resource
3. 15.00 960 15.00 994 100% 103%
Marketing aid
4. 14.99 890 14.99 905 100% 101%
5. Udyogini Scheme 45.00 660 76.92 950 170% 143%
Stree Shakti
6. 194.78 5000 210.09 3650 107% 73%
7. Others 100.00 675 204.76 2327 204% 344%
Total 459.77 8570 634.36 9311 137% 108%
Source: Computed data using Annual Reports of (KSWDC).

Above table — 5.5 highlights the performance of the various schemes
and its achievements. Stree Shakti is a scheme which has highest financial and
physical target when compared to other schemes but this scheme has achieved
more than 100% in terms of financial target. Woman Training Programme,
State Resource Centre, Marketing Assistance Scheme has achieved exactly
100% in terms of financial target. Udyogini Scheme has achieved the
uppermost target both in the expressions of financial as well as physical

5.13 Self Affinity Group

Self Affinity Groups initiated by Mysore Resettlement and Development

Agency (MYRADA) acts as a strong base to empower the poor women to meet
their livelihoods through encouraging savings among the members. In this
group more than 95% of the membership consists of women. Helps individual
members to raise their confidence level since each member gets the
responsibility taking tasks such as visiting bank, depositing the money collected
etc. As of March 2009, the group has 9053 members and the total loan provided
to members amounts to Rs 3,93,48,09,490 all over Karnataka. The ‘loan term’
varies from 3 to 60 months depending on loan size, If loan size is small (< Rs.
5,000) repayment period is less than 12 months. If the loan is more than Rs.5,
000, the repayment period is between 19 and 36 months. Generally, in case of
large loans, the repayment is fixed at Rs. 1,000 per month13.

5.14 Stree Shakti

Stree Shakti was launched throughout the State during 2000. Till
January 2010, the number of SGH’s has reached 1, 40,000 which includes the
total number of women up to 20.731 lakhs overall state Rs. 835.25 crores is the
total savings of all these members. A total of 1,24,008 groups have availed

bank loans to the extent of Rs.1125.59 crores and internal loan of Rs. 1906.00
crores to take up various income generating activities. Rs.56.00 lakhs has
been paid as incentive to Anganawadi workers for monitoring Stree Shakti
groups. The main aim is to empower women economically and socially by
organizing them in self help groups14.

5.15 Swa Shakti Project

The project helps to build grass-root voluntary development organization

and community based people’s organization. Besides, it also relates to national
and state government, educational institutions, media, international aid agencies
and socio-cultural organizations15.

5.16 Swawalamban

This scheme was initially known as NORAD (Norwegian Agency for

International Development) The Department of Women and Child
Development under the Ministry of Human Resource Development, has
implemented a scheme, since 1998-99. The main aim is to set up Employment-
cum-Income Generating and Training-cum-Production Units. This Scheme is
targeted at the poor and needy women in urban and rural areas including
migrant labourers’, women from weaker sections such as scheduled castes and
scheduled tribes, families headed by women and women below poverty line in
Karnataka state. This provides for skill up gradation training for such
underprivileged women to take up income generating activities16.

5.17 Woman’s Self-Help Groups (SHGs)

Woman’s Self-Help Groups have been created and effectively used for
empowering women in many developmental programmes. At a conservative

estimate, seven lakhs woman’s groups have been formed in the country under
various Government sponsored programmes. A self help group is an informal
voluntary association of around 15 — 20 members, formed to attain a collective
goal, SHG has to self select members, nearly 90% are only women group. It has
to be homogenous members should ideally be from the same or similar
Community, with Common goal, education and Income level etc 17.

Table — 5.6
Savings by SHG member in Selected Programmes (SHGs)
Total Total savings
Total SHG
Promoting Institution members taped from
enrolled SHG (lakh)
Swa Sakthi program(KSWDC) up to
2139 38346 4.76
December 2003
Stree Shakti program (Department of
women and child development) up to 100000 1479794 179.60
December 2004
MYRADA up to December 2003 8359 130672 27.77
Source: Karnataka Human Development Report 2006 (SHGs).

The above table — 5.6 explains the Savings by SHG member in selected
programs in the year 2003-04. Swa Sakthi program has promoted about 2139
Self Help Groups (SHG) and the total members who have been enrolled under
this program are 38346 with the total savings amounting to Rs 4.76. Stree
Shakti program which was initiated by Department of women and child
development was success in promoting one lakh self help groups inclusive of
1479794 members in it and could possibly pool savings amounting to Rs.
179.60lLakhs. MYRADA institution has promoted 8359 self help groups with
total member of 130672 and has savings amounting to Rs 27.77 lakhs. By this it
is understandable that there are more than 15 lakh women who are into self help
groups and determined to be transformed into women entrepreneurs.

5.18 Rural Women Development and Empowerment Project

The project aims at launching Programme to strengthen the process and

promote the social and economic development of women and raise an
environment for social change to improve their quality of life 18.

5.19 Sri Kshetra Dharmasthala Rural Development Project (SKDRDP)

It has taken up various programmes “SIRI” Gramodyoga Yojane of

SKDRDP which has promoted group entrepreneurship among rural women in
Dakshina Kannada District of Karnataka State through its innovative and
effective support structure. Women empowerment through self-help groups
(SHGs) is the objective of Siri Gramodyoga Samsthe, promoted by SKDRDP.
Products under the brand name Siri have made significant inroads in the
Dakshina Kannada market. At present, 17 SHGs manufacture readymade
garments and three SHGs manufacture Rexene bags in the Taluk. More than
215 women are involved in these groups. Readymade shirts, Rexene bags and
pouches of these units have good demand in the local market. Twenty-two
SHGs consisting of more than 230 women have concentrated on food
production activities. The product range has confectioneries, sweets and
condiments. More than 190 women in 23 SHGs produce fast-moving chemical
items like detergent cakes and powders, phenyl, washing liquid and scouring
powder. Apart from the production, SHGs under Siri have taken up marketing
activities also. More than 60 SHGs market these products either through their
outlets in various components of the district or through door-to-door selling19.

5.20 Origin of Banks and Women

The first banks were probably the religious temples of the ancient world
and were probably established sometime during the third millennium B.C.
Banks probably predated the invention of money. Deposits initially consisted of

grain and later other goods including cattle, agricultural implements and
eventually precious metals such as gold, in the form of easy-to-carry
compressed plates. Temples and palaces were the safest places to store gold as
they were constantly attended and well built. As sacred places, temples
presented an extra deterrent to would-be thieves. There are existing records of
loans from the 18th century B.C. in Babylon that were made by temple
priests/monks to merchants. By the time of Hammurabi’s Code, banking was
well enough developed to justify the promulgation of laws governing banking
operations. Ancient Greece holds further evidence of banking. Greek temples,
as well as private and civic entities, conducted financial transactions such as
loans, deposits, currency exchange and validation of coinage There is evidence
too of credit whereby in return for a payment from a client, a moneylender in
one Greek port would write a credit note for the client who could “cash” the
note in another city, saving the client the danger of carting coinage with him on
his journey20. In the present scenario banks play a vital role for the progress of
the women entrepreneurs.

5.21 Central Bank of India

Central Bank provides a loan facility named as Cent Kalyani. Credit

facilities are available for Women Entrepreneurs in case of small business who
intend to provide service (not a professional service) such as setting up a small
lunch or canteen business, mobile restaurant, circulating library etc. Loan
facility for specially qualified/skilled and experienced women entrepreneurs
like Doctors, Chartered Accountants, engineers or trained in art or craft, women
in retail trade, women engaged in village and cottage industries engaged in
manufacturing, processing, preservation and services such as handloom,
weaving handicraft, food-processing, garment making etc, in village and small
towns and the population should not exceed 50,000 and they should utilize
locally available resources/skills in manufacture, processing of goods, raising of

crops, floriculture, fisheries, bee-keeping, nursery, sericulture, trading in
farming inputs. This activity is carried out through the formation and
development of woman’s savings groups, known as self-help groups. These
groups, regularly meet, collect the saved amount from their members and
deposit it in SEWA Bank. Financially stable groups are facilitated with credit
options for their individual members. Eventually, a district level savings and
credit federation of unregistered savings and credit groups (SCGs) is registered
at the district level21.

5.22 Grameena Bank

Started in Bangladesh by Professor Yunus khan (The Founder) who was

a professor in Bangladesh and who started out with helping one poor woman
with a small loan and based on her achieving self sustainability realized the
potential of small loans to the poor as a means to making them self reliant. Now
the Grameena Bank is a role model for many NGOs all over the world and is
widely replicated22.

5.23 Joint Liability Group

It is Initiative by Grameena Bank. The Joint Liability Group consists of 5

members, in which loan is given to 2 members and based on regular repayment
another two members will be given loans after two to three months; in this
system, there is peer pressure in the group for repayments and liability is shared
by all the members. Five or so JLGs form a Kendra23.

5.24 Skill Development Training

In order to strengthen Self Help Groups (SHG), taluk level block

societies are registered in all 175 Taluks. The aim is to improve the skill of

women entrepreneurs by way of accepting the risk and competition and also to
have best result from their business enterprises. For this purpose the
Department of Women and Children Development has provided an amount of
Rs.25.00 lakhs24.

Table — 5.7

The Growth rate of 2009, glimpse of Women trained under EDPs and

Training Programmers Batches Trained Settled Rate
1. Agriculture EDPs 177 12827 11676 59
2. Product EDPs 150 11374 11188 85
3. Process EDPs 193 13657 12074 59
4. General EDPs 1105 13637 3585 77
Total 1625 51495 38523 74
1. Skill / Growth Programmers 1111 1203 NA NA
2.RuralDevelopment Programmers 1129 11162 NA NA
3.HRD Programmers 1115 1487 NA NA
Courtesy: Annual Report- 2009- 2010, Government of Karnataka Department of Industries and Commerce Trained
under EDPS and HRDs in Karnataka.

The table — 5.7 indicates the Growth rate of 2009-, Glimpse of youth
trained under EDPs and HRDs. Different kinds of Training Programmers are
Agriculture EDPs, Product EDPs, Process EDPs, General EDPs the total
number of batches conducted in the year 2009 are 325 batches and the total
number of trained are 11495 and the people settled after getting the training are
8553perons and the total success rate is 72 per cent. It is a vital institute to train
the young entrepreneurs in the city.

5.25 Women Training Program

Women training programmes are conducted by the Government and

Technical Institutes along with few NGOs and this mainly aims at training the
needy women, widows, destitute and physically handicapped women. A stipend
of Rs.300/- per month will be paid to all the participants13. The activities
involves dress designing & making, beauty care, geriatric nursing and
housekeeping, spice powders manufacture, Desk Top Programming(DTP)
advanced welding technology, leather goods manufacturing, stenography &
data entry processing, food processing, light vehicle driving training, P.C.
hardware assembly, Computer Training so on and so forth 25.

Table — 5.8
Training Programme conducted by KSWDC during the year 2004-2005 in
comparison with the year 2003-04.

No. of No. of
Sl. No. of Amount No. of Amount
Districts plans Programs
No. Recipients in Rs Recipients in Rs.
2004_05 2003-04
1 Bangalore U. 4 185 4,33,000 5 140 1,96,000
2 Bangalore R. 4 110 2,20,000 1 20 60,000
3 Mangalore 1 30 36,000 1 20 75,000
4 Chitradurga 2 60 87,000 1 20 60,000
5 Mysore 4 105 2,52,000 1 20 1,00,000
6 Bijapur 2 60 87,000 1 20 30,000
7 Shimoga 1 30 51,000 1 15 67,500
8 Chikmagalore 1 25 75,000 1 15 60,000
9 Bagalkot 2 50 1,33,000 1 20 30,000
10 Bellary 1 20 50,000 1 20 60,000
11 Kolar 1 30 51,000 1 20 60,000
12 other 10 240 5,24,000 18 335 12,87,500
Total 33 945 1,99,9000 33 665 20,26,000
Source: Karnataka State Women Development Corporation (KSWDC) 2004-05.

The table — 5.8 gives the information regarding the number of training
program that was conducted for the women by the Karnataka State Women
Development Corporation and also the number of women benefited by the
program and the fund that was utilized for this program. The highest number of
program was conducted at both Bangalore Urban and Rural and at Mysore i.e.
four programmes. The highest numbers of beneficiaries are from Bangalore
urban and the amount spent on this program amounts to Rs 4, 33,000 in same
district. The total amount spent on this program amounts to Rs 19, 99,000. Still
there is much scope to conduct many such training programmes in all regions.
However in link with the previous year the beneficiaries are more in number
while the program number remains the same.

5.26 Infrastructure and Assistance

Infrastructure is a basic physical or organizational structure needed for

the operation of any kind of enterprise or society as a whole, or any kind of
services that facilitate smooth functioning of an economy. The different types
of infrastructure that are necessary for any kind of business enterprises are
transportation infrastructure, energy infrastructure, water management
infrastructure, communications infrastructure, institutional and industrial
infrastructure, social infrastructure etc26.

5.27 Marketing Assistance Scheme

This scheme has been sanctioned by the Government of Karnataka

during 1997-98 through Karnataka State Woman’s Development Corporation.
Exhibitions are organized at Bangalore as well as in every district headquarters
each year. For this purpose the Corporation provides Rs.25,000 to 35,000/-for
the beneficiaries and also organizes a six-day State level exhibition cum sale
once in a year in Bangalore to act as an efficient platform for the interaction of

the Women Entrepreneurs and potential customers. These exhibitions, besides
promoting good sales12, also provide a forum for marketing of their products.
The main objectives of these schemes are to create Marketing avenues and
linkages to organize exhibitions cum sales throughout the State for the products
manufactured by women entrepreneurs. The State level exhibition is organized
on the 8 th of March of every year on the eve of Global Woman’s Day27.

Table — 5.9
Grants provided under Marketing Assistance Scheme to various Districts,
for the year 2008-09 for women in Karnataka

Districts Physical. No. of Stalls Finance. Rs.

1. Bellary 35 35000

2. Chitradurga 30 30000

3. Mysore 30 30000

4. D.Kannada 25 25000

5. Bidar 25 25000

6 Bijapur 30 30000

7 Belgaum 35 35000

8 Kolar 35 35000

9. Other districts 645 12,54,000

Total 890 14,99,000

Source: Karnataka State Women Development Corporation.

Graph — 5.5
Grants provided under Marketing Assistance Scheme to various Districts,
for the year 2008-09 for women in Karnataka
Physical. No. of Stalls Finance. Rs.

The table — 5.9 highlights on the grants and stalls provided to support
women entrepreneurs under Marketing Assistance Scheme to various districts,
for the year 2006-07. Karnataka State Woman’s Development Corporation
assists women entrepreneurs by organizing exhibitions and providing stalls in
the exhibitions at the District Level and the State Level. Above table reveals
that Bellary, Belgaum and Kolar districts have got maximum stalls i.e. 35 each
and the amounts sanctioned 35,000 each which shows the maximum facilities
provided to women entrepreneurs, in addition to that the total stalls are about
900 and the total amount sanctioned 15 lakhs as per the recent information.

5.28 Loan Facilities

Cottage, village and tiny industrial sectors are eligible to avail financial
assistance from banks. Vijaya Bank provides a loan named ARWIND
(Assistance to Rural Women in Non-Farm Development). It is for a voluntary
agency having minimum 3 years of proven track record in assisting woman’s

groups. Individual can avail loan only up to Rs.50000/- and a group involving
20 member can avail Rs.10 lakhs. The loan is for Marketing of Non Farm
Products of Rural Women the loan is known as MAHIMA. This scheme
provides not only loan but also assistance in grant to the Registered Voluntary
Agencies (VA), Non-Governmental Organizations (NGOs) and other
promotional organizations engaged in marketing the products of rural women.
To avail this facility the organization should have been working for at least 3
years with proven track record and experience in production or marketing of
rural products and should satisfy the norms prescribed by the financing banks
and NABARD. Promotional grant is also given up to Rs.2.50 lakhs per agency,
in case the agency is able to cover a minimum of 50 women individually or in
groups, with a turnover of Rs.10 lakhs within a period of three years28.

5.29 Awards to Best groups

Awards will be given to the best group of Stree Shakti in order to

motivate the group and also to reward the best women entrepreneurs in each
state. Apart from this as part of birth centenary celebration of Smt.
Yashodharamma Dasappa, one best group from each revenue division will be
awarded with an amount of Rs.25,000/-. State level awards are given to 3 best
groups selected from all over the state, one best group award at the district level
besides on at Taluk level, for which an amount of Rs.5.95 lakhs has been
provided by the Department of Women and Children Development29.

All efforts of various institutions have given rise to various successful

women enterprises. There are totally 3822 units registered in Karnataka with
total of 1026 women starting their business enterprise. In Karnataka when
compared to all other states in India has aggregate percentage of 26.84%. Here
are inventory of a small number of women entrepreneurs.

Table — 5.10

List of successful Women Entrepreneurs in Karnataka

Dr. Kiran Mazumdar-Shaw Biopharmaceutical
Ms. Vijaya Biradar Sari Business
Ms. K. Jayalakshmi Masala Powder Business
Ms.Vasumathi Bhaskar Multi-Food Industry
Ms.Kumvana Gomani Jewellery
Ms. Anuradha Poojary Soft Drinks.
Automobile Voltage Regulators And Flasher
Ms. Gayatri Keshav Rao
Spare Parts
Ms. Dakshayani Sari Business
Ms. Gangamma Homemade Shavige (Rice Vermicelli)
Terracotta Show pieces (Wall Hangings,
Ms. Sowbhagya
Pen stands, Decorative Items, Ganesha Idols)
Source: Karnataka Human Development Report 2009.

Table-5.10 depicts the list of various women from Karnataka have

become entrepreneurs and expanding their business. One such powerful and
successful woman is Dr. Kiran Mazumdar- Shaw who was educationally and
economically strong when compared with other entrepreneurs in this list. Many
women are entered into such kind of business where they can use their
residence as a place of business, especially homemade edible, food and
decorative items. There are still more women entrepreneurs who are running
their own business in their own locality few are recognized and other few are
not recognized. The main reason of no recognition is due to no well established
business place and no marketing.

5.30 Conclusion

Gandhi was clear that “Woman must cease to consider, herself the object
of man’s lust. The remedy is more in her hands than men. She must refuse to
adorn herself for men including her husband, if she will be an equal partner
with man”. When Gandhi was asked whether a wife could go against the will of
her husband to take up national service, he supported the claim of a wife to
devote herself to a noble purpose. He cited the example of Mirabai in support of
his argument. In his opinion, every wife” has a perfect right to take her own
course and meekly brave the consequences when she knows herself to be in the
right and when her resistance is for a nobler purpose”. According to him, the
only honorable terms in marriage are mutual love and mutual consent.

With the help of the above discussion it is clear that woman entrepreneur
in Karnataka is supported by a verity of facilities to start entrepreneurship. Not
only the Government but also various other association and groups have shown
interest in supporting the women entrepreneurs. One can say now that the
potentials of women are opening up gradually with the efforts of various
Governments and Non-Governmental Organizations groups.

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