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World Civilizations

The Global Experience


AP* Sixth Edition

Chapter 2
Classical Civilization:
China

World Civilizations: The Global Experience, AP* Sixth Edition Copyright ©2011, ©2007, ©2004 by Pearson Education, Inc.
Stearns • Adas • Schwartz • Gilbert All rights reserved.
Establishment of Political Order

New order from 700s B.C.E.


–New political structures
–Zhou, Qin, then Han rule
–Establishment of enduring institutions

World Civilizations: The Global Experience, AP* Sixth Edition Copyright ©2011, ©2007, ©2004 by Pearson Education, Inc.
Stearns • Adas • Schwartz • Gilbert All rights reserved.
China from the Later Zhou to the
Han Era

World Civilizations: The Global Experience, AP* Sixth Edition Copyright ©2011, ©2007, ©2004 by Pearson Education, Inc.
Stearns • Adas • Schwartz • Gilbert All rights reserved.
Establishment of Political Order

Han Dynasty
– Overthrew Qin in 207 B.C.E.
– Ruled for four centuries
– Long-lasting, stable bureaucracy
– Rise of Chinese sense of uniqueness

World Civilizations: The Global Experience, AP* Sixth Edition Copyright ©2011, ©2007, ©2004 by Pearson Education, Inc.
Stearns • Adas • Schwartz • Gilbert All rights reserved.
Establishment of Political Order

Cultural traditions
– Broad isolation
– Enduring philosophy of yin and yang

World Civilizations: The Global Experience, AP* Sixth Edition Copyright ©2011, ©2007, ©2004 by Pearson Education, Inc.
Stearns • Adas • Schwartz • Gilbert All rights reserved.
Patterns in Classical China

Pattern established
– New dynasty
ƒ Begins rule strong, economic strength
ƒ Dynasty weakens, revenues decline
ƒ Internal rebellions and invasions
– Succeeding dynasty emerges

World Civilizations: The Global Experience, AP* Sixth Edition Copyright ©2011, ©2007, ©2004 by Pearson Education, Inc.
Stearns • Adas • Schwartz • Gilbert All rights reserved.
Patterns in Classical China

Zhou Dynasty (1029-258 B.C.E.)


– Came from the north, replacing Shang
– System of indirect rule
– Territorial expansion
– Some centralization
ƒ Linguistic unity
ƒ Religious practices reshaped

World Civilizations: The Global Experience, AP* Sixth Edition Copyright ©2011, ©2007, ©2004 by Pearson Education, Inc.
Stearns • Adas • Schwartz • Gilbert All rights reserved.
Patterns in Classical China

Qin Rule
–Originally nomadic, marginal
–Shi Huangdi
ƒ Zhou rival
ƒ Rules from about 200 B.C.E.
ƒ Great Wall
ƒ Great centralization
ƒ Death of Shi Huangdi in 210 B.C.E.
• Leads to a period of conflict

World Civilizations: The Global Experience, AP* Sixth Edition Copyright ©2011, ©2007, ©2004 by Pearson Education, Inc.
Stearns • Adas • Schwartz • Gilbert All rights reserved.
Patterns in Classical China

The Han Dynasty


– Territorial expansion
ƒ Contact with India
ƒ Trade with Roman Empire
– Wu Ti (140-87 B.C.E.)
ƒ Establishes peaceful rule
– Han rule strong until about 220 C.E.

World Civilizations: The Global Experience, AP* Sixth Edition Copyright ©2011, ©2007, ©2004 by Pearson Education, Inc.
Stearns • Adas • Schwartz • Gilbert All rights reserved.
Patterns in Classical China

Government allows rule of large territory


– Reliance on family structure
ƒ Ancestor worship
– Local rule weakened
ƒ Single law code over all
ƒ Rule from center out

World Civilizations: The Global Experience, AP* Sixth Edition Copyright ©2011, ©2007, ©2004 by Pearson Education, Inc.
Stearns • Adas • Schwartz • Gilbert All rights reserved.
Patterns in Classical China

Strong Bureaucracy
– Power of warrior-landlords lessened
– Examination system put in place by Wu Ti
– Highly-integrated system
ƒ Trained bureaucrats
ƒ Some limits on imperial power

World Civilizations: The Global Experience, AP* Sixth Edition Copyright ©2011, ©2007, ©2004 by Pearson Education, Inc.
Stearns • Adas • Schwartz • Gilbert All rights reserved.
Ancient Capitals

World Civilizations: The Global Experience, AP* Sixth Edition Copyright ©2011, ©2007, ©2004 by Pearson Education, Inc.
Stearns • Adas • Schwartz • Gilbert All rights reserved.
Patterns in Classical China

Roles of the state


– Military role not preeminent
– Economic role
ƒ Weights, measures, currency
– Public works

World Civilizations: The Global Experience, AP* Sixth Edition Copyright ©2011, ©2007, ©2004 by Pearson Education, Inc.
Stearns • Adas • Schwartz • Gilbert All rights reserved.
Religion and Culture

Confucianism
–Concern with stability, peace
–An ethical system
–Role of moral elite
ƒ Education central
–The Confucian Gentleman
ƒ Moral rectitude
ƒ Public and private spheres equally important
ƒ Kings should be reminded of duties

World Civilizations: The Global Experience, AP* Sixth Edition Copyright ©2011, ©2007, ©2004 by Pearson Education, Inc.
Stearns • Adas • Schwartz • Gilbert All rights reserved.
Religion and Culture

Legalism
– Favored a strong state, ruling through force
– Belief that human nature was basically evil
– In opposition to Confucianism in many ways
ƒ Yet the two often combined in exercise of power

World Civilizations: The Global Experience, AP* Sixth Edition Copyright ©2011, ©2007, ©2004 by Pearson Education, Inc.
Stearns • Adas • Schwartz • Gilbert All rights reserved.
Religion and Culture

Popular religion
– Confucianism has limited appeal
– Polytheism persists
ƒ Conciliation of spirits
ƒ Family ceremonies

World Civilizations: The Global Experience, AP* Sixth Edition Copyright ©2011, ©2007, ©2004 by Pearson Education, Inc.
Stearns • Adas • Schwartz • Gilbert All rights reserved.
Religion and Culture

Laozi (400s B.C.E.)


–Philosopher
–Retreat from society
–State cannot solve all problems
–Nature
ƒ Dao, cosmic force
–Meditation

World Civilizations: The Global Experience, AP* Sixth Edition Copyright ©2011, ©2007, ©2004 by Pearson Education, Inc.
Stearns • Adas • Schwartz • Gilbert All rights reserved.
Religion and Culture

Literature, Art, and Science


– Five Classics
ƒ Combination of genres
ƒ Basis for government examinations
– Decorative arts
ƒ Calligraphy
– Science concentrated on the practical

World Civilizations: The Global Experience, AP* Sixth Edition Copyright ©2011, ©2007, ©2004 by Pearson Education, Inc.
Stearns • Adas • Schwartz • Gilbert All rights reserved.
Economy and Society

Confucian Social System


– Landowning aristocracy and bureaucrats
– Laboring masses: peasants and artisans
– The “mean people”
ƒ Unskilled laborers
ƒ Performing artists
ƒ Slaves

World Civilizations: The Global Experience, AP* Sixth Edition Copyright ©2011, ©2007, ©2004 by Pearson Education, Inc.
Stearns • Adas • Schwartz • Gilbert All rights reserved.
Economy and Society

Trade and technology


– Trade increases under the Zhou and Han
ƒ Little respect for trade and merchants
– Technology
ƒ Plows, new collar for draft animals
ƒ Iron tools
ƒ Water-powered mills
ƒ Ppaer

World Civilizations: The Global Experience, AP* Sixth Edition Copyright ©2011, ©2007, ©2004 by Pearson Education, Inc.
Stearns • Adas • Schwartz • Gilbert All rights reserved.
Economy and Society

Gender and Family Life


– Great emphasis on authority
– Parental authority especially upheld
– Women subordinate to men

World Civilizations: The Global Experience, AP* Sixth Edition Copyright ©2011, ©2007, ©2004 by Pearson Education, Inc.
Stearns • Adas • Schwartz • Gilbert All rights reserved.
How Chinese Society
Fits Together
Isolation
– View of surrounding peoples as inferior
– No missionary desires
– Buddhism an exception

World Civilizations: The Global Experience, AP* Sixth Edition Copyright ©2011, ©2007, ©2004 by Pearson Education, Inc.
Stearns • Adas • Schwartz • Gilbert All rights reserved.
How Chinese Society
Fits Together
Social and Cultural Links to Politics
– Society viewed as a whole
– Government and society seen as one
– Agriculture tied to government through
revenue

World Civilizations: The Global Experience, AP* Sixth Edition Copyright ©2011, ©2007, ©2004 by Pearson Education, Inc.
Stearns • Adas • Schwartz • Gilbert All rights reserved.
How Chinese Society
Fits Together
Complexities in Classical China
– Confucianism versus Daoism
ƒ Many points of overlap
ƒ But some antagonism
– Balance often upset
ƒ Overpopulation might lead to uprisings

World Civilizations: The Global Experience, AP* Sixth Edition Copyright ©2011, ©2007, ©2004 by Pearson Education, Inc.
Stearns • Adas • Schwartz • Gilbert All rights reserved.
Global Connections:
Classical China and the World
Qin and Han China
– Agriculture permits large population
– Development of technologies
– Influence through the Silk Road
ƒ China connected with other areas
ƒ Trade mostly by nomadic merchants
– The “Middle Kingdom”
ƒ Influence on surrounding peoples

World Civilizations: The Global Experience, AP* Sixth Edition Copyright ©2011, ©2007, ©2004 by Pearson Education, Inc.
Stearns • Adas • Schwartz • Gilbert All rights reserved.