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Republic of the Philippines

Department of Education
Region III
Schools Division of Nueva Ecija
BONGABON SENIOR HIGH SCHOOL
Brgy. Sinipit, Bongabon, Nueva Ecija

IMPACT OF DAILY ALLOWANCE TO THE ACADEMIC


PERFORMANCE AMONG GRADE 11 ABM
STUDENTS OF BONGABON
SENIOR HIGH
SCHOOL

A Quantitative Research based on the Performance Standard of


Practical Research II

Submitted to the Faculty of Bongabon Senior High School

In partial fulfillment of the Requirements in the


Accountancy, Business and Management

Kimberly Cortez
Devie Bacasmot
Nicole Refugia
Hans Corpuz

Researchers
CHAPTER 1: RESEARCH SETTING

INTRODUCTION

Money is involved in many things and situations around the world; every person

had experienced, even once, to see and to hold money, so it’s indeed a big part of

everyone’s life. On the other hand, allowance is a necessity for every student. It is a

means of survival. It can also help students be financially responsible. Daily allowance

plays a major role in student’s participation, social interaction and most importantly in

their academic performance.

Nowadays, some of the students spend most of their time studying while doing

some recreational activities. Most of them choose internet, social networking sites,

televisions and movies as their reference for their studies. As observed, the more the

allowance the students have, the more chance that they spend most of their time to the

other task than academic related activities.

The concept of academic performance has become the source of concern to

researchers, especially if the academic performance of the students is declining.

Academic performance is defined or regarded as participant’s examination grades at the

end of a given duration (term, semester, and programme). It could also be seen as the

level of performance in a particular field of study. Higher scores indicate better academic

performance (Egbule, 2004, p. 34). Every student has a responsibility in school including

the submission of their project and for doing their different performance task in each
subject. When it comes to the school projects, student’s daily allowance and even their

socioeconomic status is involved.

Finance is the avenue through which student’s bills are paid. If their finances are

not adequate, the situation may tend to affect their academic performance adversely. If,

on the other hand, their financial needs are met adequately, probably their performance

may be enhanced, (Odebunmi, 1988, p. 8 and Egbule 2004, p. 40).

Higher family income may have a good contribution in academic performance, but

for the responsible and serious students, low family income must not be an excuse for

poor performance (Adzido, Dzogbede, Ahiare, Dorkpah, 2016).Bhat, Joshi, Wani (2016)

supported the latter claim that socioeconomic status is the significant factor in academic

achievement. Thus, the higher level of socioeconomic status shows a big contribution

toward the quality of student achievement (Farooq, Chaudry, Shafiq and Berhanu, 2011).

Socioeconomic status of the student have an impact to their academic

achievement. Students having a high socioeconomic status have a good exposure and

surroundings giving a good result as compared to low socioeconomic status (Chandra and

Azzimudin, 2013).

Students who go towards a higher level of education, especially in senior high have

an escalating responsibilities and opportunities that lead them for a challenging role to

manage their money. The basic needs of the student extend to the foods, transportation

and stationery.
Many students have been finding it difficult to feed themselves because they lack

enough money to do so. Even students who usually bring their foodstuff need money for

ingredients, kerosene, etc.

Transportation is one of the major problems face by the students. Most students

who do not live close to the school usually walk a long distance due to financial problem.

For a student to transport himself from their house to school and vice versa, he needs a

lot of money weekly, which can only be afforded by those that are financially stable.

Another thing, the issue of stationeries is the one that eats deep into the pocket

of the students. Students need writing materials and art materials for project. At the end

of session, some need to present seminars, write reports and projects. These take a huge

amount of money or allowance of the students. They may not have enough money to

cater for most of the financial needs in studying. Someone who is not financially strong

cannot carry out all these.

In fact, these problems are what prompted the researchers to make research into

the daily allowance of students in relation to their academic performance.


STATEMENT OF THE PROBLEM

This study aimed to determine the impact of daily allowance to the academic

performance among Grade 11 ABM students of Bongabon Senior High School.

Specifically, this study sought to answer the following question.

1. What are the socio-demographic profile of the respondents in terms of:

• age

• sex

• daily allowance

• family income

2. What is the level of academic performance of the respondents in terms of:

2.1 General Average

2.2 Frequency of Absences

3. Is there a significant relationship between socio-demographic profile and academic

performance of the students?

HYPOTHESIS

HO: There is no significant relationship between socio-demographic profile and the

academic performance of the students.


CONCEPTUAL FRAMEWORK

INPUT OUTPUT

SOCIO-DEMOGRAPHIC PROCESS
Profile of Respondents

 Age
 DESCRIPTIVE
 Sex
 Daily Allowance
SURVEY
 Family Income
 QUESTIONNAIRE
LEVEL OF ACADEMIC
PERFORMANCE
 STATISTICAL
 General
TREATMENT
Average

 Frequency of
Absences

Figure 1: Paradigm of the study

The research paradigm shows the input variable which include the socio-

demographic profile of the respondents; age, sex, daily allowance and family income. It

also presents the level of academic performance based on general average and frequency

of absences.

The process included gathering of data through survey and questionnaire.

Applying statistical treatment on gathered information or data from the respondents to

finally examine the impact of daily allowance to the academic performance of the grade

11 ABM students.
SCOPE AND DELIMITATION

The purpose of this study is to find answers from the respondents as to how their

daily allowance may affect their academic performance. This research study was limited

and conducted only at the Bongabon Senior High School. The chosen respondents of the

study is the Accountancy, Business and Management (ABM) students of Grade 11 of BSHS.

This research is focus only to the things that related to the students in first semester of

the academic year 2019-2020.

Figure 2: Map of the Bongabon Senior High School

As shown in figure 2, this study was conducted at Bongabon Senior High School,

Barangay Sinipit, Bongabon, Nueva Ecija. It is a public secondary School successively

ordered by Department of Education.


SIGNIFICANCE OF THE STUDY

This study is expected to come up with a very interesting findings related to the

impact of daily allowance to the academic performance of the students. Considering that

money is an essential commodity that helps a person to run his or her life. In relation

with this, the study will benefit the following:

Students - this study will tackle about their understanding on how their daily allowance

may affect their academic performance. It will enhance their capability of applying their

knowledge from their field of study to the real world and as a part of their daily practices.

Parents - this study will provide a sufficient number of information to enlighten and give

insights for the ABM student’s parents for they are the most affected in terms of

monetary issues intertwined with the allowance concerns of their children.

Teachers – this study can help the teachers to gain more knowledge and to be aware why

and what is the main reason of low or high academic performance and the absences of

the students.

Future Researchers – this study will serve as a basis or a pattern to help the future

researchers for the success of the future research due to the related facts and knowledge

about the topic.


DEFINITION OF TERMS

For better understanding of the study, the following terms are defined:

Academic Performance - is defined or regarded as participant’s examination grades at

the end of a given duration.

Daily Allowance - is the amount of money that a student is entitled to on a daily basis.

Finance - money or other liquid resources of a government, business, group, or individual.

Money - is the medium used for exchange, unit of account and store of value

Socioeconomic Status - is the social standing or class of an individual or group. It is often

measured as a combination of education, income and occupation.

Stationery - paper, especially which used for writing letters, or writing materials such as

pens, pencils, and books for writing in.


CHAPTER II: REVIEW OF RELATED LITERATURE AND STUDIES

LOCAL STUDIES

Acquiring education of students need spending for food, books, transportation and other

related matter. According to Sollano, Duhaylonsod, Aviso (2018), every student has a

responsibility in school. To have a high academic performance, students should submit paperwork

and project. Also, doing their different performance task in every subject will give them a high

academic performance. But when it comes to school project and paperwork, students’ daily

allowance is involved. This study shows that students who have daily allowance in school has the

advantage to have high grades or has the advantage to excel in class. Students’ daily allowance

has a significant effect on the students’ academic performance. Thus, the parents’ socioeconomic

status directly affects the students’ academic achievement in school.

In the study of Averia et., al (2018), the main focus of the study is to determine the effects

of grade 9 students’ daily allowance to their academic performance. In line with this, the study

seek to know how students perform and accomplish all the requirements that mandated to them.

Why it takes time before they were able to submit accomplished requirements? Is it lack of

resources like financial availability of materials? The study shows that respondents in the middle

teenage were having difficulty in allotting their meager allowance as to their need, due to the

small amount of income of their family. Thus it affect the academic performance and the behavior

as shown in their span of attention and punctuality.

In the study of Dumaran et.al (2015), the goal of this study was to examine the

relationship between financial status and academic performance of a student. The usefulness of

financial information in the study is conceptually and analytically evaluated. The factors affecting

student achievement include income, source of income, and the mother’s education level.
Although many poor students score below average on assessment measures, instructional

techniques and strategies implemented at the classroom, school, district, and government levels

can help close the achievement gap by providing students with necessary assistance in order to

achieve high performance in academics.

According to the study of Abesamis, C. (2014) “Effects of the Amount of Allowance to the

Studies of the Selected SSC Students of Peñaranda National High School S.Y. 2013 – 2014”, the

status of the family of the students continuous to exert a significant influence on the academic

progress of the recent generation of students. The student can have a high allowance if the

respondent’s family has a high average income per month. The amount of allowance can give a

large effect to study of someone. Based on the results good money allowance gives off good

grades for the respondents. The status of the family affects the studies of the student.

In the study of Guido & Delacruz (2013), socio-economic status is one of the most

researched and debated factor among educational professionals that contribute towards the

academic performance of students. The most prevalent argument is that the socioeconomic

status of learners affects the quality of their academic performance. The social assistance of the

school personnel, members of the families and communities has a crucial role for the

accomplishment of performance goals of students at school. Farooq, Chaudhry, Shafiq, and

Berhanu, (2011) revealed that socio-economic status and parent’s education have a significant

effect on students’ overall cademic achievement as well as achievement in the subjects of

mathematics and English. The high and average socio-economic levels affects the performance

more than the lower level. Moreover, parents’ education means more than their occupation in

relation to their children’s academic performance at school and it was found that girls perform

better than the male students.


Students learn to save their allowance as they grow and meet different requirements in

school as well as things they want to buy for their own. However, with escalating responsibilities

and opportunities as they go towards higher level of education, it becomes very challenging for

students to manage their money. Students from the College of Fine Arts and Design spends a lot

based on which priority they are following. The Interior Design department is the course with

students spending big amount of money on their priorities which is either food or art materials.

(De Guzman et. al, 2012).

Given the allocation of allowances, this may now serve as a budget constraint for the

students. Since every student has different kinds of needs and wants, may it be for academic

purposes or for personal satisfaction, their responses to budget restrictions with respect to their

consumption of various commodities may vary with each other. This is also the case for the

students in the University of the Philippines Mindanao under the BS Agribusiness Economics

program. Students are subjected to a budget constraint that limits them to get the most of their

needs and wants. In line with this, the significant factors that affect the consumption of the BSABE

students with respect to their allowances was determined. The different factors that the

researchers were able to assess were food, groceries, fare, printing and photocopy, laundry,

savings, and entertainment and relaxation expenses of the sixty BSABE respondents. (Legaspi,

Recalde & Villa, 2014)

In the study of Alcuizar R. (2016), determining the significant factors that affect the low

academic performance among pupils in upland barangays. Of the independent variables studied,

nutrition, and living condition of parents turned out to be the most predominant factors that

hinders the academic performance of the pupils, followed by living condition of parents. The

determinants of nutrition, and living condition are the most related factors that have significant

effect on the low academic performance among the pupils of Rogongon, Iligan City, Philippines.
Education in rural areas in the city has not given priority by the parents considering of poverty

and distance of the school from their home. Likewise, pupils have less participation in sports due

to lack of facilities and equipment and qualified teachers. Hence, the academic performance of

the pupils in the area is poor.

As an institutionalized study, this aimed to provide relevant and substantial data and

information about the current trend in the educational track of Freshmen Students of the

Department of Economics in the Polytechnic University of the Philippines. There is a need to

broaden opportunities for the intellectually qualified or scientifically inclined through school fees

within the reach of even the socio-economically disadvantaged students. The researchers’ a-priori

expectation is since education has many forms of purchase factors, a higher income means that a

person has a greater advantage in the light of spending than that of a person that has a lower

income. That is, if a student’s family has a high income, he/she will be able to invest in his/her

education by purchasing academic materials like books, journals and the like which he/she can

use to cater his/her needs for his/her study. This will increase the chances of passing since he/she

has a relatively more resources than that of a student being a member of a family with lower

income.

In a study conducted by the School of Economics of De La Salle University in 2009 as

indicated in Volume II of Policy Brief, based on household data, it was empirically verified that the

magnitude of household income does not significantly affect school participation. Tereso T. &

Rivera J. (2009) found out that as the income of households’ increases, they will also increase their

expenditures on normal goods and services including education.

It has been the concern of the educational system to improve the existence of the ethnic

groups/people. The provision of good foundation in education for the Indigenous People is one
of the means to uplift their status in life. Determining the different factors that affect their

learning and performance is a way of providing them meaningful experiences towards the

attainment of quality life and self-realization, hence this study.

In the process of educating the child, one has to anticipate various problems which call

for an intellectual appraisal; one is economic condition of the student which may affect his/her

school performance and social participation. A child from a well-educated family with high

socioeconomic status is more likely to perform better than a child from an illiterate family. This is

because the child from an educated family has a lot of support such as decent and good living.

Parent with higher income could provide more instructional resources to their children which

eventually help them improve their grades. Hence students from different economic strata

manifest different attitudes and academic performance

FOREIGN STUDIES

Countless factors have been analyzed by the educational researchers to explain why some

students perform better in standardized test or attain higher level of academic achievements than

other students. As a result, data have been gathered from myriad sources and analyzed by

hundreds of individuals to confirm or refute a relation between student’s socio-economic

standing and their subsequent academic achievements. Although the issue is shrouded in

emotions, an informed perspective is required to debate the matter effectively (Betson & Michael

1997)

A review of relevant literature related to socio-economic status will help stakeholders and

researchers understand this complex phenomenon and aware of society attempts to lessen, and
eventually, eradicate the wide achievement gap separating America’s economically disadvantage

students from those students not economically disadvantaged.

Nowadays many students can’t go to school because they don’t have money to support

their needs. In addition to lack of money, poverty is about not being able to participate in

recreational activities not being able to send children on a day trip with their school mates or to

a birthday party, not being able to pay for medication for an illness these are all cost of being

poor. Those people who barely able to pay for food and shelter simply can't consider these other

expenses. When people are excluded within a society, when they are not well educated and when

they have a higher incidence of illness, there are negative consequences of society. In 1997, The

united states congress declared as the first national goal that all children would come to school

ready to learn (National Education Goals 1997) the ability to acquire new knowledge is imperative

to survival from the earliest age and by the time students enroll in public education, they have

learned many things most have mastered a language learned a variety symbol, and acquired the

ability to demonstrate socially acceptable behavior (Bowman 1994). However, not all students

were on the same playing field when it came to school readiness, although the importance of

learning was undeniable, not all students had the same preparations for academic success nor,

where they developmentally ready for academics.

Factors influence a student’s performance on achievement test. Caldas and Bankston

(1997) reported that socio-economic status determined by a student’s participation In the school

free and reduce price meal program negatively affected achievement Other researchers

confirmed that economically disadvantaged students average lower scores on achievement test

regardless of subject matter ( Amould & Doctoroff, 2003; Boloz & Varrati , 1983 ; cooper & crosnoe

2007; Ducan, Yeung Brooks- Gunn & Smith, 1998 ; Flores 2007; Talor 2005) For reason beyond

their control, low socio-economic Children faced an increased risk of failing mandated
standardized achievement test Such failure could have devastating effects for students the school

system, the family and society at large.

According to Nnamani, Dikko & Kinta (2014), the Nigerian educational system has

suffered disrepute in recent times. Schools outside Nigeria assess the certificates earned from

Nigerian universities as being low. Financial status depends on the source of finance. If their

finances are not adequate, the situation may tend to affect their academic performance

adversely. If, on the other hand, their financial needs are met adequately, probably their

performance may be enhanced, (Odebunmi, 1988, p. 8 and Egbule 2004, p. 40). This can be seen

practically: a student whose amount is inadequate will have to devise other ways to have more

money and this will affect his lectures because he/she has to go out during lectures. Transport

fare to lecture venues may not be available for the student to attend lectures regularly. Even when

the student is present, apart from lack of concentration which could result from psychological

problem or poor feeding, the student may not have enough money to cater for most of the

financial needs like the cost of typing some assignments and browsing on the internet.

In the study of Katsikas & Panagiotidis (2010), it concerned with the determinants of

grade outcomes in the context of university studies in Greece. Its focus was on the influence

exercised by students’ family background on academic performance. The empirical findings

suggest that degree-grades do not demonstrate differences in either between students of

different educational background or between students inflicted by unequal cost of studies.

Rich source of literature is available which highlights the impact of socio-economic status

on academic performance like Suleman et al., (2012) who found that children with strong

socioeconomic status show better academic performance in comparison to those with poor

socioeconomic status, they showed poor and unsatisfactory academic performance.


Many research studies have shown that the socio-economic status is a factor responsible

for the academic attainment of the students. Research studies show that socio-economic status

influences student’s achievements (Jeynes, 2002; Eamon, 2005; Hochschild, 2003). It is believed

that low socio-economic status has significant negative effects on the academic achievement of

the students because low socio-economic status is the obstruction to access to very important

resources and creates additional tension and stress at home.

The most important task of the educational system is to prepare students to acquire

knowledge and career and cognitive skills to enter the community. Therefore, identifying the

factors leading to the students’ academic achievement is very important. The study aimed to

investigate the relationship between socio economic status and academic achievement of

secondary school students belonging to different educational zones of Ganderbal district of

Jammu and Kashmir State. Result proves it beyond any shadow of doubt that there is a significant

difference in the academic achievement of high socioeconomic status of students in comparison

to low socioeconomic status of students. Significant differences were found between the students

with (high and low) and (high and middle) socioeconomic status. On the other hand insignificant

difference was found between the students with middle and low socioeconomic status in respect

to academic achievement. (Bhat, Joshi & Wani 2016)

Kruse (1996) conducted a study to find out whether students from low socioeconomic

environments have lower academic achievement compared to the academic achievement of

students from higher socioeconomic environments. He arrived at the results that there was a

statistically significant difference between the academic achievements of low socioeconomic

environments compared to that of high socioeconomic environments.


SIGNIFICANCE TO THE PRESENT STUDY

The prior conceptual and researched studies, associated directly and indirectly to the

present research provided more insights about the nature of the study, which is the Impact of

Daily Allowance to the Academic Performance of the Grade 11 ABM Students of Bongabon Senior

High School. Foreign and local studies are believed to be useful in the advancement of awareness

concerning the study.

The related studies have significant relationship with the present study in the

sense that both are discussing about how the allowance, family income and socio-economic status

greatly affect the academic performance of the students.

As it’s finding to all study, students’ daily allowance has a significant effect on the

students’ academic performance. If the student’s finances are not adequate, the situation may

tend to affect their academic performance adversely. If, on the other hand, their financial needs

are met adequately, probably their performance may be enhanced. In relation with this, the

student can have a high allowance if their family has a high average income per month. The

amount of allowance can give a large effect to study of someone. Good money allowance gives

off good grades for the respondents. If the students allowance is not enough to cater their needs

due to the small amount of income of their family, students will have poor and unsatisfactory

academic performance. Thus, status of the family or socioeconomic status affects the studies of

the student.