Vous êtes sur la page 1sur 9

NURSING THEORISTS  The development of nursing knowledge was a major

force at this time.

History of nursing theory:
 1970, nursing continue to make the transition from
 The history of Professional nursing began with Florence vocation to profession.
Theory Era:
 The word Nurse is derived from the Anglo-French “Nurice”
both of means Nourish.  Was a natural outgrowth of the research and the
graduate education eras.
Nursing Associations:
 The explosives proliferation of nursing doctoral
 RNAO- Registered Nurses Associations of Ontario programs from the 1970’s and nursing theory
 CNA- Canadian Nurses Associations literature substantiated that nursing doctorates
 CNO- College of Nurses of Ontario should be in nursing rather than in other disciplines.
 Doctoral education in nursing began to developed
Why Nursing is Important? with a strong emphasis on theory development and
 It helps to interpret Data testing.
 Help nurses make decisions based on relevant Informations  Accelerated as early works developed as frameworks
 Helps plan for care for curricula and advanced guides began to be
 Helps predict and evaluate outcomes recognized as theory.
 It also helped to differentiate nursing from other disciplines.  Fawcett seminal proposal of four global nursing
concepts as a nursing metaparadigm.
The Nursing Metaparadigm:
Kuhn’s 1970, his philosophy of science clarifies an
 Nurse understanding of the evolution of nursing theory
 Person through paradigm science.
 Health
Fitzpatrick and whall said “nursing is on the brink of an
 Environment
existing new era”
Curriculum Era:

 Addressed the question of what content nurses should study

Theory Utilization Era:
to learn how to be a nurse.
 The idea of moving nursing education from hospital-based  Middle-range theory and the value of the nursing
diploma into colleges and universities. Framework for thought and action in nursing
Research Emphasis Era: practice was realized.
 Nurses began to participate in research, and research courses  Continues to emphasize the development and use of
were included in nursing curricula in early graduate nursing nursing theory and to produce evidence for quality
programs. professional practice.
 Nursing research revealed that nursing studies lacked
Curriculum Era (1900-1940)
conceptual connections and theoretical Frameworks,
accentuating their necessity for the development of  What curriculum content should student nurses
specialized nursing knowledge. study to be a nurse?
 The standardization of curricula for a nursing master’s
education by the national league for nursing accreditation Research Era (1950-1970)
criteria for baccalaureate and higher-degree programs, and  What is the focus of nursing research?
the decision that doctoral education for nurses should be in
nursing. Graduate Education Era (1950-1970)

Graduate Education Era:  What knowledge is needed for the practice of

 Nursing Master’s program began to include courses in concept
development and nursing models, introducing students to Theory Era (1980-1990)
early nursing theorists and knowledge development process.  How do these frameworks guide research and
Theory utilization Era (21st Century)  She identified Four Phases of the nurse-patient
 What new theories are needed to produce evidence for
quantity care?
 Diagrammed changing aspects of nurse-patient
Early Theorists of historical significance: relationship and proposed and described six nursing
1. Hildegard E. Peplau (1909-1999)
 Theory of interpersonal Relations
 Her work on nurse-patient relationship is known well
2. Virginia Henderson (1897-1996) internationally and continue to influence nursing
 Definition of Nursing practice and research.
3. Faye Glenn Abdellah (1919-Present)
 Twenty One Nursing Problems Virginia Henderson (1897-1996)
4. Earnestine Wiedenbach (1900-1996)
 Definition of Nursing
 The helping art of clinical nursing
 She viewed the patient as an individual who requires
5. Lydia Hall (1906-1969)
help toward achieving independence and
 Core, Care, Cure model
completeness or wholeness of mind and body.
6. Joyce Travelbee (1926-1973)
 Human to Human relationship Model ICN- International council of nurses.
7. Kathryn E. Barnard (1938-Present)
Ernestine Weidenbach (1900-1996)
 Child health Assessment
8. Evelyn Adam (1929-Present)  The helping art of clinical nursing
 Conceptual model for nursing  Theory development and maternal infant nursing
9. Nancy Roper (1918-2004)  She directed the major curriculum in maternal and
 A model of nursing based on a model of living new born health nursing.
10. Winifred Logan (1931-2010)  Authored books used widely in nursing education.
 A model of nursing based on a model of living
“People may differ in their concept of nursing, but few
11. Alison J. Tierney
would disagree that nursing is nurturing or caring for
 A model for nursing based on a model of living
someone in a motherly fashion”
12. Ida Jean Orlando Pelletier (1926-2007)
 Nursing Process theory  Four elements of clinical nursing: PHILOSOPHY,
“The idea of nursing, historically rooted in the care of the sick and
 Her work is considered a philosophical of the art of
in the provision of nurturance for those vulnerable to ill health is
foundation to the profession” Wolf, 2006
Lydia hall (1906-1969)
Hildegard E. Peplau (1909-1999)
 Core, Care, Cure Model
 The mother of psychiatric nursing
 Hall used three interlocking circles to represent
 Her scoop of influence in nursing includes her contributions as
aspects of the patient and nursing functions.
a psychiatric nursing expert, educator, author, and nursing
leader, and theorist.  CARE represents the patients Body, CURE represents
the disease, CORE represents inner feelings.
 She provided major leadership in the professionalization of
 She recognized professional nurses and encourage
them to contribute to patient outcomes.
 Executive director and president of the American nurses
associations (ANA) Joyce Travelbee (1926-1973)
 She Promoted Professional standards and regulations through
credentialing.  Human to Human relationship model
 She discusses Four Psychobiological experiences that compel  She proposed that the goal of nursing was to assist an
destructive or constructive patient responses, as follows: individual, family, or community.
NEEDS, FRUSTRATIONS, CONFLICTS, AND ANXIETIES.  She proposed that nursing was accomplished through
 Theory of interpersonal Relations. human to human relationship that began with:
1. The original encounter and progressed through
stages of
2. Emerging identities preventing disease, coping during periods of sickness
3. Developing feelings of empathy and later and rehabilitation, coping positively during period of
4. Sympathy, until chronic ill health, and coping when dying.)
5. The nurse and the patient attained rapport in the final stage.  Four phases: ASSESSING, PLANNING, IMPLEMENTING,
“it is believed the spiritual values a person holds will determine,
to a great extent, his perception of illness. The spiritual values of Ida Jean Pelletier (1926-2007)
the nurse or her philosophical beliefs about illness and suffering
will determine the degree to which he or she will be able to help  Nursing process theory
ill persons find meaning, or no meaning, in these situations”.  The study was carried out by observing and
participating in experiences with patients, students,
Kathryn E. Barnard (1938-2015) nurses, and structors, and was derived inductively
from field notes for this study.
 Child health assessment
 She was an internationally recognized pioneer in the field of “if I had been more courageous in 1961, when this book
infant mental health. was first written, I would have proposed it as ‘nursing
 She was a renowned researcher, teacher and innovator. process theory’ instead of as a ‘theory of effective
 She was the founder of the nursing child assessment satellite nursing practice’”.
training project (NCAST)
 The discipline and teaching of nursing process: an
 She modeled the role of researcher in clinical practice and
evaluating study.
engaged in theory development in practice for the
 According to her, persons become patient who
advancement of nursing science.
require nursing care when they have needs for help
Evelyn Adam (1929-Present) that cannot be met independently because they have
physical limitations, have negative reactions to an
 Conceptual model for nursing
environment, or have an experience that prevents
 She contributed to theory development with clear explanation them from communicating their needs.
and use of earlier works.
 Orlando proposed a positive correlation between the
 Adam’s work is a theory of nursing. length of time the patient experiences unmet needs
Nancy Roper (1918-2004), Winifred W. Logan (1931-2004), Alison and the degree of distress.
J. Tierney History of Nursing Science: (Bruce, Rietze, Lim 2014)
 A model for nursing based on a model of living 1. What is real- Antology
 Nancy roper is described as a practical theorist who produced 2. What is knowable- Epistemology
simple nursing theory. 3. Is this just?- Ethics
 Nancy roper published principles of nursing 4. Is there an art to caring?- aesthetics
 Nancy authored the elements of nursing in 1980, 1985, and
1990. Science is a method for describing, explaining, and
 The trio collaborated in the fourth and most recent edition of predicting causes or outcomes of interventions.
the elements of nursing: A model for nursing based on a model Being a scientific discipline means identifying
of living (1996). nursing’s unique knowledge for the care of patients,
 The trio prepared a monograph about the model titled the families, and communities.
roper-logan-tierney model of nursing: based on activities of
living. Historical views of the nature of science:
 The ALS (activities of living) include maintaining a safe  Two competitive philosophical perspective used in
environment, communicating, breathing, eating, and drinking, science are rationalism and empiricism.
eliminating, personal cleansing and dressing, controlling body
temperature, mobilizing, working and playing, expressing Epistemology- theory of knowledge for
sexuality, sleeping, and dying. understanding how to uncover the answer to a
 The five groups of factors that influence the ALS are question.
biological, psychological, socio-cultural, environmental,
Nursing science has been characterized by two
and politico-economic. (those can be used to described
branching philosophies of knowledge as the discipline
the individual in relation to maintaining health,
1. Empiricist, Mechanistic, Quantitative, Deductive. 2. Theories structure what the scientist perceives in the
2. Interpretive, Holistic, Qualitative, Inductive. empirical world.
3. Pre supposed theories and observable data interact
in the process of scientific investigation.
 Emphasizes the importance of a prior reasoning as the
Nurses uses evidence-based science to support the
appropriate method for advancing knowledge.
interventions performed in the care of patients.
Theory-then-Research Strategy:
According to Kuhn, science progress from a pre science,
 Theoretical assertions derived by deductive reasoning are to a normal science, to a crisis, to a revolution, and
then subjected to experimental testing to a corroborate the then to a new normal science.
theory. (Reynolds 2014) Interdependence of theory and research:
“as the continuous interplay between theory construction
 A theory is accepted if the scientist agree.
(invention) and testing with empirical research progresses, the
 Consensus is based on accumulated evidence.
theory becomes more precise and complete as a description of
nature and therefore more useful for the goals of science” 3 key areas of scientific consensus:
(Reynolds, 1971)
 Agreement on the boundaries
Empericism:  Agreement on the logic used
 Agreement that the theory fits the data collected
 Based on a certain idea that scientific knowledge can be
derived only from sensory experience. Theory must meet the criteria to be personalized.
 Bacon believed that scientific truth was discovered through
Science as a social enterprise:
generalizing observed facts in the natural world.

Inductive Method- Base on the idea that the collection of facts  Human beings do science- Gale.
precedes attempts to formulate generalizations, or as Reynolds  Typologies- Systematic arrangements within a given
called it, research-then-theory strategy. category.
 Science progresses by the diversity of dialogue within
Skinner asserted that advances in the science of Psychology could the discipline of nursing.
be expected if scientist would focus on the collection of

Early 20th Century views of science and theory: ‘To advance nursing science, it is critical for nurses to
have a comprehensive understanding of the
 Philosophies focused on the analysis of theory structures, philosophical and theoretical foundations of the
whereas scientist focused on empirical research. discipline.” (Yancey, 2015)
Positivism- Term used by comte. THEORY COMPONENTS:
Modern logical positivist believed that empirical research and  Identified six theory components and specified the
logical analysis were two approaches that would produce contributions they make to theory. Three categories
scientific knowledge. (Brown, 1977) of theory components are presented as a basis for
understanding the function of each element in the
Emergent views of science and theory in the late 20th Century:
theory-building process: CONCEPTS AND DEFINITION,
 Presented analysis challenging the positivist position. RELATIONAL STATEMENTS, AND THE LINKAGES AND
Foucault (1973) Published his analysis of the epistemology
(knowledge) of human sciences from the 17th to the 19th CONCEPTS AND DEFINITIONS:
Concepts- The building blocks of theories classify the
Brown identified the following three different views of the phenomena of interest.
relationship between theories and observations:
Scientific progress- based on critical review and testing
1. Scientist are merely passive observers of occurrences in the of a researcher’s work by the scientific community.
empirical world.
Concepts may be abstract or concrete.
Abstract concepts are mentally constructed independent of a Accessibility- addresses the extent to which empiric
specific time or place, whereas concrete concepts are directly indicators for the concepts can be identified and to what
experienced and relate to a particular time or place. extent the purposes of the theory can be attained.

Abstract concepts Concrete concepts Importance- a parallel can be drawn between outcome
and importance.
Transport Stretcher, wheelchair,
hospital bed, ambulance MODERN NURSING:
Vascular disease Stroke, myocardial FLORENCE NIGHTINGALE (1820-1910)
infarction, peripheral
vascular disease  Environmental theory
 Founder of modern nursing
Telemetry Electrocardiogram, holter  Born May 12, 1820
monitor  Lady with the lamp
 Five essential components of environmental
Loss of relationship Divorce, widowhood, health: PURE AIR, LIGHT, CLEANLINES, EFFICIENT
 Major assumptions: NURSING, PERSON, HEALTH,
Nurse competency Cultural, IV insertion, drug
 She define nursing as “the act of utilizing the
environment of the patient to assist him in this
Continuous concept Permits classification of dimension or recovery”
gradations of a phenomenon, indicating degree of marital conflict.  Three Major relationship: ENVIRONMENT TO
Labeled concepts specifies boundaries for selecting phenomena PATIENT, NURSE TO ENVIRONMENT, NURSE TO
to observed and for reasoning about the phenomena of interest. PATIENT.
New concept may focus attention on new phenomena or facilitate
thinking about phenomena in a different way. Concept analysis is JEAN WATSON (1940-PRESENT)
an important beginning step in the process of theory development  Human Caring
to create a conceptual definition.
 Ten Carative Factors: Formation of a
Humanistic-altruistic system of values,
Statements in a theory may state definitions or relations among Instillation of faith-hope, Cultivation of
concepts. sensitivity to one's self and to others,
Development of a helping-trusting, human
Theoretical assertions are either a necessary or sufficient
caring relationship, Promotion and acceptance
condition, or both.
of the expression of positive and negative
Analysis of theory: feelings, systematic use of a creative problem-
solving caring process, Promotion of
Analysis of theory is carried out to acquire knowledge of transpersonal teaching-learning, Provision for a
theoretical adequacy. supportive/protective, and/or corrective
The analysis of process is useful for learning about the words and mental/ physical/ societal/and spiritual
is essential for nurse scientists who intend to test, expand, or environment, Assistance with gratification of
extend the works. human needs, allowance for existential-
phenomenological-spiritual forces.
Clarity- speaks to the meaning of term used, and definitional  Ten Caritas Processes:
consistency and structure speak to the consistent structural form 1. Cultivating the practice of loving-kindness
of terms in the theory. and equanimity toward self and others as
Simplicity- is highly valued in nursing theory development. foundational to caritas consciousness.
2. Being Present to, and Supportive of, the
Generality- speaks to the scope of application and the purpose Expression of Positive and Negative Feelings
within the theory. 3. Cultivation of One's Own Spiritual Practices

and Transpersonal Self, Going beyond Ego-Self.

4. Developing and Sustaining a Helping-Trusting, Caring KATIE ERIKSSON (1943-PRESENT)
 Caritative Caring Theory
5. Being Present to, and Supportive of, the Expression of
Positive and Negative Feelings  “Caritative caring means that we take “caritas”
6. Creative Use of Self and All Ways of Knowing as Part of the into use when caring for the human being in
Caring Process; Engage in the Artistry of Caritas Nursing health and suffering …. Caritative caring is a
7. Engage in Genuine Teaching-Learning Experience That manifestation of the love that ‘just exists’…Caring
Attends to Unity of Being and Subjective Meaning – communion, true caring, occurs when the one
Attempting to Stay Within the Other's Frame of Reference caring in a spirit of caritas alleviates the suffering
8. Creating a Healing Environment at All Levels of the patient”
9. Administering Sacred Nursing Acts of Caring-Healing by  born on November 18, 1943
Tending to Basic Human Needs  MAJOR CONCEPTS & DEFINITIONS
10. Opening and Attending to Spiritual/Mysterious and 1. Caritas- Caritas means love and charity.
Existential Unknowns of Life-Death 2. Caring communion- Caring communion
constitutes the context of the meaning of
MARILYN ANNE RAY (1938-PRESENT) caring and is the structure that determines
caring reality.
 Theory of Bureaucratic Caring
3. The act of caring- The act of caring contains
 Major concepts and definition: Caring, Spiritual-Ethical
the caring elements (faith, hope, love, tending,
Caring, Educational, Physical, Social-Cultural, Legal,
playing, and learning), involves the categories
Technological, Economic, Political.
of infinity and eternity, and invites to deep
4. Caritative caring ethics- comprises the ethics
 Stages of Expertise Nursing Philosophies
of caring, the core of which is determined by
 She described five levels of nursing experience which are: the caritas motive.
Novice, Advance Beginner, Competent, Proficient, Expert. 5. Dignity- constitutes one of the basic concepts
KARI MARTINSEN (1943-PRESENT) of caritative caring ethics.
6. Invitation- refers to the act that occurs when
 Philosophy of caring the carer welcomes the patient to the caring
 Martinsen emphasizes care as being basic to human communion.
existence. 7. Suffering- an ontological concept described as
 “Care is to be concrete and present in a relationship by our a human being’s struggle between good and
senses and our bodies. It is always to be in a movement evil in a state of becoming.
away from ourselves and towards the other,” 8. Suffering related to illness, to care, and to life-
 Theoretical sources: Karl Marx: Critical Analysis—A These are three different forms of suffering.
Transformative Practice, Edmund Husserl: Suffering related to illness is experienced in
Phenomenology as the Natural Attitude, Merleau-Ponty: connection with illness and treatment.
The Body as the Natural Attitude, Martin Heidegger: 9. The suffering human being- the concept that
Existential Being as Caring, Knud Eiler Løgstrup: Ethics as a Eriksson uses to describe the patient.
Primary Condition of Human Existence, Max Weber: 10. Reconciliation- Reconciliation refers to the
Vocation as the Duty to Serve One’s Neighbor through drama of suffering.
One’s Work, Michel Foucault: The Effect of His Method 11. Caring culture- concept that Eriksson uses
Intensifying Phenomenologists’ Phenomenology, Paul instead of environment.
Ricoeur: The Bridge-Builder.
 Major concepts & definitions:

MYRA ESTRIN LEVINE (1921-1996)  Unitary Human beings Theory

 Major concepts & definitions:
 The Conservation Model
1. ENERGY FIELD- An energy field constitutes the
 Conceptual diagram of conservation Model:
fundamental unit of both the living and the
1. WHOLENESS- exploring the parts of the whole to
understand the whole.
 The unitary human being- defined as an
2. ADAPTATION- Adaptation is a process of change whereby
irreducible, indivisible, pandimensional
the individual retains his integrity within the realities of his
energy field identified by pattern and
internal and external environment.
manifesting characteristics that are
3. ENVIRONMENT- each individual as having his or her own
specific to the whole and that cannot be
environment, both internally and externally.
predicted from knowledge of the parts.
4. ORGANISMIC RESPONSE- The capacity of the individual to
 Environmental field- defined as an
adapt to his or her environmental condition is called the
irreducible, pandimensional energy field
organismic response.
identified by pattern and integral with the
 FIGHT OR FLIGHT- The most primitive response is
human field.
the fight or flight syndrome.
environmental fields are in continuous process
mechanism protects the self from insult in a hostile
and are open systems.
3. PATTERN- Pattern identifies energy fields.
 RESPONSE TO STRESS- It is characterized by
4. PANDIMENSIONALITY- a nonlinear domain without
irreversibility and influences the way patients
spatial or temporal attributes.
respond to nursing care.
5. PERCEPTUAL AWARENESS- It occurs only as the individual DOROTHEA E. OREM (1914-2007)
experiences the world around him or her.
 Self- care deficit theory
6. TROPHICOGNOSIS- an alternative to nursing diagnosis. It is
a scientific method of reaching a nursing care judgment.  Nursing practice sciences:
7. CONSERVATION- Conservation describes the way complex  Wholly Compensatory Nursing- the nurse is
systems are able to continue to function even when expected to do all the patients therapeutic
severely challenged self-care.
8. CONSERVATION PRINCIPLES- The goals of the Conservation  Partly Compensatory Nursing- Partnership
Model are achieved through interventions that attend to between the nurse and the patient.
the conservation principles.  Supportive-Developmental Nursing- Requires
9. CONSERVATION OF ENERGY- The individual requires a assistance in decision making, behavior
balance of energy and a constant renewal of energy to control, acquisition of skill.
maintain life activities.  MAJOR CONCEPTS & DEFINITIONS:
10. CONSERVATION OF STRUCTURAL INTEGRITY- Healing is a  SELF-CARE- describes why and how people care
process of restoring structural and functional integrity for themselves.
through conservation in defense of wholeness.  DEPENDENT CARE- refers to the care that is
11. CONSERVATION OF PERSONAL INTEGRITY- The conservation provided to a person who, because of age or
of personal integrity includes recognition of the holiness of related factors, is unable to perform the self-
each person. care needed to maintain life, healthful
12. CONSERVATION OF SOCIAL INTEGRITY- Life gains meaning functioning, continuing personal development,
through social communities, and health is socially and wellbeing.
determined. Nurses fulfill professional roles, provide for  SELF-CARE REQUISITES- a formulated and
family members, assist with religious needs, and use expressed insight about actions to be
interpersonal relationships to conserve social integrity. performed that are known or hypothesized to
be necessary in the regulation of an aspect(s)
of human functioning and development,
continuously or under specified conditions and
 UNIVERSAL SELF-CARE REQUISITES- Universally required  HEALTH- defined as dynamic life experiences of a
goals are to be met through self-care or dependent care, human being, which implies continuous adjustment
and they have their origins in what is known and what is to stressors in the internal and external
validated, or what is in the process of being validated, environment through optimum use of one’s
about human structural and functional integrity at various resources to achieve maximum potential for daily
stages of the life cycle. living.
 DEVELOPMENTAL SELF-CARE REQUISITES  NURSING- defined as a process of action, reaction,
 HEALTH DEVIATION SELF-CARE REQUISITES- exist for and interaction whereby nurse and client share
persons who are ill or injured, who have specific forms of information about their perceptions in the nursing
pathological conditions or disorders, including defects and situation.
disabilities, and who are under medical diagnosis and  SELF- is a composite of thoughts and feelings which
treatment. constitute a person’s awareness of his [/her]
 THERAPEUTIC SELF-CARE DEMAND- consists of the individual existence, his [/her] conception of who
summation of care measures necessary at specific times or and what he [/she] is.
over a duration of time to meet all of an individual’s known
self-care requisites.
 SELF-CARE AGENCY- a complex acquired ability of mature  Systems Model
and maturing persons to know and meet their continuing  MAJOR CONCEPTS:
requirements for deliberate, purposive action to regulate  WHOLISTIC APPROACH
their own human functioning and development.  OPEN SYSTEM
 DEPENDENT-CARE AGENCY- refers to the acquired ability of  Function or Process
a person to know and meet the therapeutic self-care  Input and Output
demand of the dependent person and/or regulate the  Feedback
development and exercise of the dependent’s self-care  Negentropy
agency.  Stability
 SELF-CARE DEFICIT- a relation between persons’ therapeutic  ENVIRONMENT
self-care demands and their powers of self-care agency in  Created Environment
which the constituent developed self-care capabilities  CLIENT SYSTEM
within self-care agency are not operable or are not  Basic Client Structure
adequate for knowing and meeting some or all components  Lines of Resistance
of the existent or projected therapeutic self-care demand.  Normal Line of Defense
 NURSING AGENCY- developed capabilities of persons  Flexible Line of Defense
educated as nurses that empower them to represent  HEALTH
themselves as nurses.  Wellness
 NURSING DESIGN- a professional function performed both  Illness
before and after nursing diagnosis and prescription.  STRESSORS
 NURSING SYSTEMS- Nursing systems are series and  DEGREE OF REACTION
sequences of deliberate practical actions of nurses  PREVENTION AS INTERVENTION
performed at times in coordination with the actions of their  Primary Prevention- the nurse should reduce
patients. the encounter of stressor.
 HELPING METHODS- A helping method from a nursing  Secondary Prevention- intervention or
perspective is a sequential series of actions that is treatment given to the individual who has just
performed. encounter with the stressor.
 BASIC CONDITIONING FACTORS- refer to those factors that  Tertiary Prevention- rehabilitation held
condition or affect the value of the therapeutic self-care restoration and palliative care.
demand and/or the self-care agency of an individual.  RECONSTITUTION
IMOGENE KING (1923-2007)

 Conceptual system and middle range theory of goal


 Adaptation Model
 SYSTEM- a set of parts connected to function as a
whole for some purpose and that does so by virtue of
the interdependence of its parts.
 ADAPTATION LEVEL- Adaptation level represents the
condition of the life processes described on three
levels as integrated, compensatory, and
 ADAPTATION PROBLEMS- broad areas of concern
related to adaptation. These describe the difficulties
related to the indicators of positive adaptation.
the individual conceptions of physical and personal
 ROLE FUNCTION MODE- concern with individual
performance of roles on the basis of the position
between the society.
 INTERDEPENDENCE MODE- it deals with the
development of the maintenance of satisfying
affectional relationship with the significant other.

DOROTHY E. JOHNSON (1919-1999)

 Behavioral system model

 Attachment-Affiliative Subsystem
 Dependency Subsystem
 Ingestive Subsystem
 Eliminative Subsystem
 Sexual Subsystem
 Achievement Subsystem
 Aggressive-Protective Subsystem