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Manila Science High School

Senior High School Department

Understanding a Blank Dictionary: Difficulty of the English Language in Cloze Tests

for the Grade 11 students of Manila Science High School
A Concept Paper for the subject
Reading and Writing Skills

Submitted by:
Galzote, Lawrence Brent T.
Guanzon, Arnold F.
Gutierrez, Sean
Leobrera, Marlo Miguel C.
Limlingan, Gabriel Angelo F.
Lu, Sean Luther D.
Moreno, Francine Gayle D.
Navarra, Jhemy Anne B.
Ramos, Cezarah Adrianna
Redoquerio, Nicole Shaine V.
Reyes, Reinna Julienne A.
Robielos, Sarah Angelica S.

XI – Mendeleev

Submitted to:
Dr. Reynaldo S. Pineda, Jr.
March 11, 2019

Chapter I: Introduction
1.1. Background of the Study
1.2. Theoretical Framework
1.3. Statement of the Problem
1.4. Significance of the Study
1.5. Scope and Limitation
1.6. Definition of Terms
Chapter II: Review of Related Literature
Chapter III: Methodology
3.1. Research Design
3.2. Population and Sampling
3.3. Instrumentation
3.4. Data Gathering
Chapter IV: Results and Discussion
4.1. Findings
4.2. Discussion
Chapter V: Conclusion
5.1. Summary
5.2. Conclusion
5.3. Recommendation
A. Survey Questions
B. Responses
Curriculum Vitae

We would like to acknowledge and thank the people who were part of our research in all aspects,
and became one of the reasons why it was possible for them to accomplish the research.

One of the biggest parts of our research was the respondents from the Grade 11 students of Manila
Science High School who took their time to help in our research;

To our parents who wholeheartedly supported us with the things we need to complete this research;

To our teacher, Dr. Reynaldo S. Pineda, Jr., for guiding us in having a good flow of our research;

To our principal, Ms. Maria Eva S. Nacion, for giving us the permission to accomplish this research;

To the members of our group who continuously gave their efforts in order to get information that
we needed and researched in order to finish this paper;

Most of all, we thank God for giving us the strength and wisdom to us in order to accomplish the


We wholeheartedly dedicate our research to the people who contributed in accomplishing our study
about the difficulty of cloze tests for the Grade 11 students of Manila Science High School.

To the teachers/people who provide cloze tests, that they may become aware of the opinions of the
students about cloze tests and its difficulty and that they may adjust to the learning needs of the students;

To the researchers that also study about cloze tests, that they may be given the motivation to
continue their studies using the information included in this paper;

To our teacher, Dr. Reynaldo S. Pineda, Jr., for guiding us in having a good flow of our research;

To the members of our group who continuously gave their efforts in order to get information that
we needed and researched in order to finish this paper;

Most of all, to God for giving us the strength and wisdom to us in order to accomplish the research.
In modern days, there are various ways to assess the English Language proficiency of students.
One of those is the Cloze Test. A cloze test (also cloze deletion test) is an exercise, test, or assessment
consisting of a portion of language with certain items, words, or signs removed (cloze text), where the
participant is asked to replace the missing language item. Cloze tests require the ability to understand
context and vocabulary in order to identify the correct language or part of speech that belongs in the deleted
passages. This exercise is commonly administered for the assessment of native and second language
learning and instruction. This research aims to know the opinions of the Grade 11 students from Manila
Science High School on the difficulty of the English Language on Cloze Tests through an online survey.
From their responses, the researchers can identify possible reasons why the cloze test is difficult and how
difficult it is for them.

Keywords: cloze test, difficulty, Manila Science High School, proficiency

Chapter I

I. Introduction
1.1 Background of the study
Cloze test are common type of assessments used in testing language proficiency. It was pioneered
by Taylor (1953 and 1956). Cloze tests have been known since 1950 to effectively test comprehension by
deleting every 5th word from a passage. According to Fotos (2012) in Integrating Grammar Instruction
and Communicative Language Use Through Grammar Consciousness‐Raising Tasks, well‐designed cloze
tests are capable of assessing language skills ranging from basic to advanced. Through the use of cloze tests
as an overall language proficiency test, flexibility is progressed to meet the learning needs. The learner is
able to adjust depending on the needs showing that language learning is not a uniform procedure.

In 1953, cloze procedure appeared when Wilson Taylor researched its effectiveness as a procedure
for estimating the readability of textbooks for school children in the United States. After a decade, research
began to appear on the usefulness of cloze for testing the reading proficiency of native speakers of English
(e.g., Bormuth, 1965, 1967; Crawford, 1970; Gallant, 1965; or Ruddell, 1964). In the year 1960s and 1970s,
a number of studies emerged on how useful cloze procedure is as a measure of overall English Language
Proficiency, also known as ESL proficiency. The literature on cloze as a measure of overall ESL proficiency
produced results that can at best be called inconsistent. Specifically, the reliability and validity of cloze
vacillated enormously both within and among the studies.

If the main purpose of language teaching is communication, then improving students’ reading
comprehension competence becomes an overall goal in language teaching. There is no doubt that reading
ability is one of the most important skills when we use a foreign language. This means that reading
comprehension has long been hold as an important way of testing language ability. Cloze-tests have been
widely used for measuring reading comprehension. Wilson Taylor explained that the term cloze derived
from Gestalt psychology concept of “closure”. It describes the aptness that humans have to complete a
familiar, but not quite finished pattern. An additional way of testing reading comprehension is by open-
ended questions. Open-ended question lets the reader to take the test and answer the questions in his or her
own way, in contrast to questions with limited multiple-choice possibilities (Richards & Schmidt,

Teachers have used various tests to enhance foreign language learning. Various techniques can
make language learning easier, and one of the more effective exercises are close deletion tests. As indicated
by Kramsch in The Modern Language Journal (1986), language proficiency is a marketable skill.
Communication is a marketable skill that are deemed important in the workplace today. However, these
days exhibiting only one trait is not enough as the platform for maintaining a competitive edge.

1.2 Theoretical Frameworks

Deletion method

There are two primary methods for determining items to delete: fixed ratio, and the rational deletion
method. The fixed ratio, as noted above, keeps a constant number of words between deletions. The rational
deletion method, though, requires that the test creator provide some reason for deleting an item. Bachman
(1985) attempted to study the differences among tests created with fixed-ratio and rational deletions. He
also attempted to come develop criteria for classifying items in a cohesive framework, as doing so has been
"both difficult and subjective." He raises five questions that are quite useful:

1. Can obvious and practical criteria which are theoretically justified be developed for selecting
2. Are there any differences m the proportions of different item types deleted by fixed-ratio and
rational deletion procedures?
3. Are there any differences in performance on cloze tests constructed by fixed-ratio and rational
deletion procedures?
4. Are there any differences in performance on different types of items?
5. Can a rational deletion procedure yield a ''better" test of specified components of language proficiency
than a fixed-ratio deletion procedure?

The results from that research show acceptable reliabilities (.608 to .862), and quite high
correlations (.620 to .848) to several other measures of ESL. He found that by using the "hierarchical
structure of written discourse as a criterion," practical criteria for deletion could be found. He also found
that a rational cloze can be constructed so that the test developer can control what items the test is
measuring, important for content validity.

Chapelle and Abraham (1990) found that the actual cloze method used does not have a significant
impact on reliability. In particular, they found that the rational cloze tests correspond strongly with other
tests, while fixed-ratio correspond most poorly. The impact for automatically generated cloze tests is
obvious: the simplest method (fixed-ratio) is not the best choice.

Scoring method

The methods used to score cloze test vary from exact match (only allowing the exact item) to
syntactic equivalent (allowing any word of acceptable part of speech). In the middle lies perhaps the
most interesting: semantic equivalent. In semantic equivalent scoring, acceptability is determined by
native speakers judging the replacement to be valid or invalid. Many researchers including Alderson (1979)
have found semantic equivalent grading to be the best method for scoring non-native speakers.


Hanania and Shikhana (1986) studied the relationships among a cloze test, standardized ESL test,
and written composition test. Their goal was to determine if a cloze test could replace a written composition
test for placement purposes. They found that the cloze tests had very high reliability (KR21 coefficients of
.92 to .98) and high correlations to the local placement test (which was determined to have a high correlation
with several standardized ESL exams). Their cloze tests were fixed-ratio (but made according to rational
decisions), and scored with exact scoring. The correlation to the written composition was .68, and it was
found that either two of the three tests could be used to predict the results on the third. Oller, of course, has
found that cloze tests correlate well with many other tests. Alderson, however, found correlations varying
wildly: between .25 and .91. However, he does not present reliability measures for the test he uses as a
baseline, thus throwing some question about the utility of his results.
Other researchers (Chapelle & Abraham, 1990, Bachman, 1982 & 1985) have found that cloze
tests, in general, correlate quite well with other measures of language proficiency.

What cloze tests measure

While Oller has made the claim that fixed-ratio, exact-match cloze tests are good measures of
general language proficiency, many researchers (including this one) are hesitant to accept a single such
test as a valid measure for placement purposes. Alderson in particular believes that such cloze tests are
only testing low-level features, not more complex features such as cohesion. Bachman asserts that rational
cloze tests can actually test specific features. His evidence is quite convincing, both in terms of theoretical
model and empirical evidence. His framework for examining test questions is very useful for test
developers, and implies that cloze tests measure whatever the test creator designs them to measure.

Some have examined field dependence-independence and cloze tests. Among those are Stansfield
& Hansen (1983) and Chapelle (1988). They found that field independence is an important variable in
cloze tests, which corroborates the assertions that the cloze is a measure of more general language
proficiency and not low-level features. However, since field independence-dependence is not a linguistic
feature, but rather a more general cognitive ability, its impact on cloze test results is somewhat two-
edged. If cloze tests are actually testing cognitive strategies rather than linguistic features only, then
cognitive strategies either need to be included in the model of communicative competence used, or the
effects of cognitive strategies need to be taken into consideration.

Cloze conclusion

In conclusion, cloze tests seem to possess the necessary reliability and content validity for at least
assisting in making placement decisions. Cloze test construction and grading seem to be simple enough to
do reliably and cheaply. However, there are important implications for automatically creating and scoring
cloze tests, namely that the simplest methods (fixed ratio deletions and exact match scoring) do not
produce the highest correlations with other tests. Thus, it is expected that this research will produce lower
correlations than are possible with using rational deletions and semantic equivalent scoring.

1.3 Statement of the Problem

A cloze test, also known as cloze deletion test, is an exercise, test, or assessment consisting of a
portion of language with certain items, words, or signs removed, where the reader is asked to replace the
missing language item. Cloze tests definitely require the ability to understand context and vocabulary so
that the reader or participant could identify the correct language, word, symbol, or part of speech that
belongs in the deleted passages. This exercise is typically administered for the assessment of native and
second language learning and instruction. Cloze tests are very evident in the examinations of teachers to
know the reading comprehension ability of their students. It is also to test the critical thinking skills of
students. This study would like to know the difficulty of cloze test given to a certain population of students
to effectively evaluate if cloze tests could sharpen the minds of students.

1.4 Significance of the Study

This study was conducted to add further knowledge on the difficulty of cloze tests for the students
of Manila Science High School, particularly the grade 11 students. This study was also conducted in order
to know how cloze tests affected the way different students think and learn. The study would also be of
importance to the following:

To other students. The information that students will gain from this research could be of use to
them in different ways: the students can use the study as a source of information regarding cloze tests; the
information given by the research could also aid the students in answering a cloze test as they would know
how to deal with cloze tests. Due to this, the students would be able to answer cloze tests with ease.

To teachers and/or to people that provide cloze tests. The study would let different mentors learn
how cloze tests affect their students, and what they could do in order for cloze tests to be an instrument in
sharpening their students’ minds. This study would also give mentors different reasons and purposes to
make cloze tests for their students.

1.5 Scope and Limitation

This research study explores about cloze tests. This talks about the opinions of students regarding
the level of difficulty of the said test and why they think it was of that level. However, this study only
focuses on current Grade 11 students of Manila Science High School.

1.6 Definition of Terms

Critical Thinking. Critical thinking is the analysis of facts to form a judgement. The subject is complex,
and several different definitions exist, which generally include the rational, skeptical, unbiased analysis, or
evaluation of factual evidence.

Difficulty. Difficulty is the quality or state of being hard to do, deal with, or understand.

Language. A language is the words, the pronunciation, and the methods of combining them used and
understood by a group of people or community.

Opinion. An opinion s a view, judgement, or appraisal formed in the mind about a particular matter.

Proficiency. Proficiency is the advancement of a person in knowledge or a certain skill.

Reading Comprehension. Reading comprehension is the ability to process text, understand its meaning,
and to integrate with what the reader already knows.
Chapter II

II. Review of Related Literature

The study entitled A Comparative Study on the Effects of Cloze Tests and Open-Ended Questions
on Reading Comprehension of Iranian Intermediate EFL Learners stated that understanding a reading text
means extracting the required information from it as efficiently as possible (Grellet, 1981). Reading
comprehension is a complex undertaking that involves many levels of processing. One of the most
fundamental aspects of comprehension is the ability to deal with unfamiliar words encountered in text
(Paynter, Bodrova, & Doty, 2005). Reading comprehension is the process of making meaning from the text.
The goal, therefore, is to gain an overall understanding of what is described in the text rather than to obtain
meaning from isolated words or sentences.

As comprehension involves the interaction of a wide range of cognitive skills and processes there
are many occasions where difficulties arise that many lead to comprehension failure (Cain & Oakhill,
2007).Reading comprehension (understanding/ gaining meaning and interpreting the text) depends on a
variety of reader-related, text-related, and situational (De Corte, Verschaffel, & Van de Ven, 2001) meaning
is formed in the reader’s head, that is, a person’s prior knowledge affects the kinds of meaning constructed
from the text information (Fukkink & de Glopper, 1998). From this perspective an individual’s existing
knowledge is a major determinant in acquiring new information. Furthermore, the reader’s comprehension
of the text is considered to be linked to the reader’s ability to construct hypotheses, rules, schemes and
mental models (Withers & Vipond, 1980).

Alderson (2000, p. 1) believes that reading comprehension is to process text meaning through some
processes of interaction with print. Not only looking at the print, the reader also “deciding” what they
“mean” and how they relate to each other. Related to reading comprehension, Richards and Schmidt (2002,
p. 443) state that reading is an activity of perceiving a written text in order to understand its contents. This
can be done silently (silent reading). The understanding that results is called reading comprehension.

Rye (1982) claims that the term “cloze test” was first developed by Wilson Taylor in 1953.
He explains that the term cloze derived from the Gestatt psychology concept of “closure”. It describes a
tendency that humans have to complete a familiar, but not quite finished pattern. Urquhart and Weir (1998,
p. 156) further explain that it refers to the tendency of individuals to complete a pattern once that have
grasped its overall significance.

Brown (2004, p. 109) claims that it is not difficult to get people to take a cloze test because of the
compulsive human need to fill gaps. Harmer (2002, p. 323) states that cloze test is the deletion of every nth
word in a text (somewhere between every fifth or tenth word). Manning (1987) also says that classic cloze
words are systematically deleted from a text and the testers are required to replace them. This testing
technique is considered appropriate to test reading comprehension. It is based on what Heaton (1991) says,
“Perhaps the most common purpose of the cloze test, however, is to measure reading comprehension”. He
said so because it has long been argued that cloze measure textual knowledge: i.e. an awareness of cohesion
in a text, involving the interdependence of phrases, sentences, and paragraph with in cloze text. He also
stated that cloze test can be applied to the testing of reading comprehension at both levels, the elementary
and the more advanced level.

In the "Cloze Test Procedure," the teacher instructs students to restore omitted words (usually every
fifth word) in a reading passage. Based on reviewing students' restored words from the text passages, the
teacher can determine a more accurate level of comprehension.
Another rule in cloze test construction is that it is not permissible to shift a deletion to a position
before or after where it would normally occur, thus making a string of, say, six, a cloze deletion, and then
a string of eight words of text. This tends to violate a global constraint on the written discourse.

According to the article entitled The Trait Structure of Cloze Test Score written by Lyle F.
Bachman, although there is considerable evidence supporting the predictive validity of cloze tests, recent
research into the construct validity of cloze tests has produced differing results. Chihara et al. (1977)
concluded that cloze tests are sensitive to discourse constraints across sentences, while Alderson (1979)
concluded that cloze tests measure only lower-order skills. Anderson (1980) has concluded that cloze tests
measure sensitivity to both cohesive relationships and sentence-level syntax. Factor analytic studies
(Weaver and Kingston 1963, Ohnmacht et al. 1970) have identified several factors in cloze and other
language tests and suggest that cloze deletions should be based on the linguistic and coherence structures
of language. In the present study, the trait structure of a cloze test was examined using confirmatory factor
analysis. A cloze passage with rationally selected deletions of syntactic and cohesive items was constructed
and given to two groups of non-native English speaking students entering the University of Illinois. A trait
structure with three specific traits and one general trait provided the best explanation of the data. The results
suggest that a modified cloze passage, using rational deletions, is capable of measuring both syntactic and
discourse level relationships in a text, and that this advantage may outweigh considerations of reduced
redundancy which underlie random deletion procedures.

As stated in the study of Roberta G Abraham and Carol A Chapelle entitled The meaning of cloze
test scores: An item difficulty perspective, close tests are used as measures of second language proficiency
even though the precise abilities required by a given cloze remain in question. The practice of using cloze
tests without clear knowledge of what they measure is inconsistent with current objectives of educational
measurement: we must know precisely what a test measures for reasons both theoretical (to understand the
abilities it requires) and practical (to use appropriately the scores it yields). One means of defining these
abilities is to identify the factors affecting test difficulty at the item level. Applying this principle to students'
performance on cloze items, we attempted in this study to understand what cloze tests measure by
identifying factors related to cloze item difficulty. Our purpose was to help explain the meaning of cloze
test scores and thus provide a firmer basis for developing various types of cloze tests.

The study Using Cloze Procedure as an Overall Language Proficiency Test showed that teachers
of English as a second language are beginning to recognize the value of overall language proficiency tests
in their programs. One such test of global proficiency is the cloze test, a type of fill-in-the-blank test
constructed by randomly deleting words from a prose passage, and replacing them with blanks. Cloze tests
appear to be valid, reliable language proficiency tests that can easily be constructed and used by any ESL
teacher (Aitken 1975; Stubbs and Tucker 1974; and Oller 1973). The purpose of this paper is to provide
some guidelines on the construction, administration, scoring, and interpretation of cloze tests, as well as to
discuss a possible explanation of the cognitive processes involved in taking a cloze test.

According to the study The cloze procedure and proficiency in English as a foreign language, the
cloze test has received considerable attention in recent years from testers and teachers of English as a
foreign language, and is becoming more widely used in language tests, both in the classroom and in
standardized tests. However, most of the research has been carried out with native speakers of English and
the results do not produce clear-cut evidence that the cloze test is a valid test of reading comprehension.
The article reports on a series of experiments carried out on the cloze procedure where the variables of text
difficulty, scoring procedure and deletion frequency were systematically varied and that variation examined
for its effect on the relationship of the cloze test to measures of proficiency in English as a Foreign
Language. Previous assumptions about what the cloze procedure tests are questioned and it is suggested
that cloze tests are not suitable tests of higher-order language skills, but can provide a measure of lower-
order core proficiency. Testers and teachers should not assume that the procedure will produce
automatically valid tests of proficiency in English as a Foreign Language.
Chapter III

III. Methodology

Research Design

This research is a qualitative research about the difficulty of cloze tests for Manila Science High
School students that uses the phenomenological approach. The discipline of phenomenology may be
defined initially as the study of structures of experience, or consciousness. Literally, phenomenology is the
study of “phenomena”: appearances of things, or things as they appear in our experience, or the ways we
experience things, thus the meanings things have in our experience (Smith, 2018).

Population and Sampling

The researchers used purposive sampling by choosing the respondents appropriate for the research.
Purposeful sampling is a technique widely used in qualitative research for the identification and selection
of information-rich cases for the most effective use of limited resources (Patton, 2002). This involves
identifying and selecting individuals or groups of individuals that are especially knowledgeable about or
experienced with a phenomenon of interest (Creswell & Plano Clark, 2011).

The researchers created a criterion that includes the following conditions:

a.) A Grade 11 student of Manila Science High School
b.) Have taken a Cloze Test before

Through this, the researchers will be able to gain the information needed for the research.


The questions that will be asked by the researchers on the online survey will revolve around the
opinions of the Grade 11 students of Manila Science High School on Cloze Tests, how difficult the test is
for them, and the possible reasons why the test is difficult.

Data Gathering

The research made use of creating online surveys through Google Forms in order to get the needed
information. Using survey software to administer a research is a powerful tool that market researchers use
to gather data (DeFranzo, 2012). The researchers also believe that survey is a better way to get information
because of the increase rate of response since it reaches audiences fast due to the rise of technology.

The researchers made a questionnaire using Google Forms which is our primary instrument in obtaining
the information needed for this research.The survey shows the opinions of Grade 11 students of Manila
Science High School about the difficulty of Cloze Tests and possible reasons why the test is difficult. The
researchers made used of social media platforms such as Facebook Messenger and Twitter to post the survey
to reach a wider audience.
Chapter IV

IV. Results and Discussion

4.1 Findings

In answering the researchers’ online survey in Google Forms, the following data was
obtained from our respondents which are Grade 11 students of Manila Science High School.


ed >:) maxx
eggy Amiel Ante
vin Codename
Nicole Shaine Abdi
Do Allen HK
Euven c
Renata Bliss Kyle Garcia

*20 respondents did not include their names

Figure 1. Grade Level of the respondents

Figure 2. If the respondents have taken a Cloze Test before in Manila Science High School

Chart 1. Difficulty of Cloze Test ranging from 1-10

Based on your answer to the previous question, why is the Cloze Test difficult for you?
*34 respondents

 With the lack of choices and a lot of options to choose from in answering, the cloze test really
evalautes how I comprehend the given text.
 uHhH maybe bc i still lack comprehension skills ;(
 It is difficult since some words fit into one sentence, then some are not. I usually use the elimination
method and sometimes, the last word to be used does not fit in the context of the last blank...
 Most often there are no choices for the cloze test so it is somehow difficult to find for the most
appropriate word that will fit the context of the paragraph.
 walang choices; ang daming pwedeng sagot,
 ang gulo gulo ng paragraph di ko magets gustong sabihin,
 ang lalalim nung salita nakakaloka
 There are many possible answers making it hard to choose a final answer.
 Sometimes it is hard to infer from the context clues.
 Cloze tests require a holistic understanding of the passage while removing some of the words that
could be crucial in unlocking the meaning of the whole text. In addition, there are a variety of words
that could also be viable substitutes to the correct answer but some teachers don't consider it.
 Cloze Test is a structure of questions that limit an answerer's questions when there's flexible takes
on each "blank" on the platform. There are always choices given and the type of test is intuitive,
however the test often causes ambiguities at some cases and it takes even thorough judgment to
 there are so many possible answers
 sometimes, i can't find clues as to what is the appropriate word for a specific sentence.
 I find it hard when the context clues are vague and have to reread it several times and eliminate
 I have a problem in decision-making.
 Because I don't really get some of the words there plus just by seeing a cloze test it makes my damn
mind confused :))
 If you did not read the whole passage many times, you won't understand its context and you won't
be able to supply the proper words.
 Sometimes some word choices in a cloze test fits other sentences making it somewhat confusing
 idk pa
 cloze test is difficult for me because im not really good at comprehending things
 By reading and carefully analyzing each sentence and every word that is given, completing a
statement would not be too difficult. What makes a cloze test difficult would be the fact that a
variety of words can be used to fill-in the spaces in a given sentence and it [the sentence] would
still be grammatically correct.
 You have to find the correct word that can match what the sentence is trying to say. It has to be
thought out to correctly convey the meaning
 Too many words to choose from
 The cloze test requires skill in both comprehension and vocabulary usage, making it challenging at
times, especially when it involves words that are not of common knowledge. It is difficult
sometimes when the sentences give little to no context clues.
 Some words can be used in other sentences making the test confusing sometimes.
 Because the context clues in the paragraph are confusing
 I believe that the test is difficult because I am not really fluent in the English Language. Replacing
or Putting in words in order to make the thought of a sentence complete, without even knowing the
true meaning of some words, makes it really difficult for me.
 Sometimes, the sentences in our cloze tests are really vague and may be answered with two or three
of the choices but only one of them is right.
 The cloze test is kind of difficult for me, because I believe that the usage of words from the English
Language is almost limitless, with proper grammar being the boundary. Providing an answer key
for a cloze test should not be limited to specific words, because another person can choose different
words express a correct thought.
 The test is difficult for a reason. For a linguistics nerd like moi, it isn't that hard because I
unnecessarily take grammar waaay too seriously, and I read some of the deep-level stuff or
something. For those naman who don't mind their grammar, siguro it will be hard.
 I have mild dyslexia and i tend to reread passages more than twice to really understand what it
means as I am not 100% sure if the words that I've read are what they seem to be
 There are teachers that only accept their own answers regarding the test, even though there are a
variety of acceptable answers, it is hard to gain points/scores from a clozed test.
 My interpretation of the text may be wrong, which may lead to incorrect answers to the cloze test.
 It isn't really, especially if a word box is provided. Even without it, once you read the paragraph or
sentence, it always feels like the answer is on the tip of your tongue. Unless the words are out of
your vocabulary or there is supposed to be some prior knowledge, I don't understand how it could
be difficult.

Reasons why cloze tests are difficult Number of Respondents

Lack of comprehension and context clues 11
Too many possible answers to choose from 10
Confusion and uncertainty 6
Lack of proficiency in the English language 5
Reading disorder 1
No reason (no experience with cloze tests) 1
Total = 34
Table 1. Meaning making on the Reasons of Cloze Test Difficulty

Chapter V
V. Conclusion
Alderson, J. C. (1979). The cloze procedure and proficiency in English as a foreign language. TESOL
Quarterly, 13(2), 219-27.

Bachman, L. (1982). The trait structure of cloze test Scores. TESOL Quarterly 16(1), 61-70.

Bachman, L. (1985). Performance on cloze tests with fixed-ratio and rational deletions TESOL Quarterly,
19(3), 535-556.

Chapelle, C. (1988). Field independence: a source of language test variance? Language Testing 5(1), 62-

Chapelle, C. A., Abraham, R. G. (1990). Cloze method: what difference does it make? Language Testing,
7(2), 121-146.

Cresswell, J.W. and Plano Clark V.L. (2011). Designing and conducting mixed method research. 2nd Sage;
Thousand Oaks, CA: [Ref list]

Fotos, S. (2012). Integrating Grammar Instruction and Communicative Language Use Through Grammar
Consciousness‐Raising Tasks. TESOL Quarterly 1994.

Hanania, E., and Shikhani, M. (1986) Interrelationships among three tests of language proficiency:
standardized ESL, cloze, and writing. TESOL Quarterly, 20(1), 97-109.

Kramsch, C. (1986) From Language Proficiency to Interactional Competence.The Modern Language

Journal, 70 .

Patton, M.Q. (2002). Qualitative research and evaluation methods. 3rd Sage Publications; Thousand Oaks,
CA: [Ref list]

Smith, David Woodruff, "Phenomenology", The Stanford Encyclopedia of Philosophy (Summer 2018
Edition), Edward N. Zalta (ed.), URL =

Stansfield, C., Hansen, J. (1983). Field dependence-independence as a variable in second language cloze
test performance. TESOL Quarterly, 17(1), 29-38.
Survey Questions
The online survey of the researchers contains the following questions:
1. Name (optional)

2. Grade Level

3. Have you ever taken a Cloze Test in MaSci?

4. If yes, on a scale of 1-10 with 10 being difficult, how would you rate the difficulty of the Cloze
Test? If no, on a scale of 1-10 with 10 being difficult, what do you think is the difficulty of a
Cloze Test?

5. Based on your answer to the previous question, why is the Cloze Test difficult for you?
Curriculum Vitae