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SINGLE PHASE

&
THREE-PHASE CIRCUIT

for
EE 330/ EE 431

BY
Abul R. Hasan

Abul.Hasan@sdsmt.edu

1
1.1 SINGLE PHASE CIRCUIT
IR

Vm Sinω t

IR V
Figure 1. Single-phase pure resistance circuit and its time response and phasor
representation.

Both Current and voltage are in phase. Instead of representing in time domain i.e. as sinusoids
we could represent voltage and current in phasor form. A phasor is a complex number that
represents the amplitude and phase angle of a sinusoid signal. Most of the time drawing vector
diagram we assume voltage is used as reference, but it is not necessary.

IL

Vm Sinω t

Figure 2. Single-phase pure inductive circuit and its time response

In pure inductive circuit current lags the voltage by 900. We can also say this as voltage leads the
current by 900. Figure 3 shows the phasor representation
V
IL

Figure 3. Inductive circuit phasor representation.

In pure Capacitive circuit the current leads voltage by 900

2
Vm Sinω t

IC

V
Figure 4. Capacitive circuit time domain & phasor represebtation.

In power systems and other power area we always use rms (root mean square) value of voltage
and current. If we write V = 120 ∠ 00 this is rms value. On the other hand if we write
V (t ) =120 Sin (ωt +θ) then, 120 is maximum value of the voltage V.

R-L-C Circuit

1
Impedance, Z = R +j (X −L X Ω
C) Where, X L = 2π fL Ω and XC = Ω
2π fC
EXAMPLE 1:

RLC series circuit

Figure: 5. RLC
Series Circuit
Z = R + j ( X L − X C ) = 250 +j(245.04 – 1768.4) = 250 – j1523.3 = 1543.7∠ -80.68 Ω

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V 120 ∠0
I = = = 77 .73 ×10 −3 ∠80 .68 0 A.
Z 1543.7 ∠ − 80 .68

About 78 mA is flowing through the circuit and the current is leading the voltage by 80.68
degrees. This is a highly capacitive load.

1.2 POWER & REACTIVE POWER

Real Power, P can be calculated in several ways:

P = I2 R watts is an easy way to calculate power in series circuit


2
V
P = R watts is an easy way to calculate power in parallel circuit. Rem. VR is
R
the voltage across the equivalent resistance.

The most general formula to calculate power is:


P = V I Cosθ watts
where, Cosθ is the power factor and θ is the angle difference between the voltage and current.
The power factor is called lagging if the current is lagging the voltage and power factor is called
leading if the current is leading the voltage.

Reactive Power, Q can be similarly calculated:


2
VX L 2
Q = I XL and Q = and Q = V I Sin
XL
θ
The unit for reactive power is var.

The complex power, S = V I* = P ± jQ and the unit


for S is VA. ‘S’ is an important in power analysis
because it contains all the information pertaining to Power Triangle for Inductive Load
the real & reactive power absorbed by a given load.
Q, the reactive power, is positive when load is
inductive and it is negative when the load is
capacitive.

P P
Power Factor, Cosθ = =
VI S

P = S Cos θ
Power Triangle for Capacitive Load
And Q = S Sin θ
Figure 6. Power Triangle.

4
Example 2:

For a circuit shown the parallel impedances are Z1 = 20∠ 300 Ω


and Z2 = 14.14 ∠ -450 Ω . The input voltage is 100∠ 60. Calculate
S1, S2 and ST for the system.

SOLUTION: 100∠ 60
V 100∠60
I1 = = = 5∠30 A
Z1 20∠30
I1 is lagging V by 300.
V 100∠60
I2 = = = 7.07∠105 A
Z2 14.14∠ − 45
Figure 7. Example 2.
S1 = V I1* = 100∠ 60 × 5 ∠ -30 = 500 ∠ 30 = 433 + j250 VA
Therefore P1 = 433 Watts and Q1 = 250 var

S2 = V I2* =100∠ 60 × 7.07∠ -105 = 707 ∠ -45 = 500 – j500


P2 = 500 Watts and Q2 = -500 Var

Note that Q1 is positive i.e. it is inductive and Q2 is negative i.e. it is capacitive.

ST = S1 + S2 = (433 + j250) + (500 – j500) = 933 – j 250 = 965.9∠ -15 VA

IT = I1 + I2 = 5 ∠ 30 + 7.07∠ 105 = 9.66 ∠ 75 A

Total current can also be calculated by:

* *
S  965.9∠ − 15 
 = ( 9.66∠ − 75 ) = 9.66∠75 A
*
IT =   =
V   100∠60 

This problem can also be solved by other methods too, but the answer will be exactly same!!
IT

Example 3: Two impedances, Z1 = 0.8 + j5.6 Ω I1 I2 I3


and Z2 = 8 – j16 Ω, and a single-phase motor are
connected in parallel across a 200 V, 60 Hz supply.
The motor draws 5 kVA at 0.8 power factor lagging 200 0 Z1 Z2 M
at 200 volts. Determine:
(a) the complex powers S1, S2 for the two
impedances, and S3 for the motor
(b) the total power drawn from the supply, the
supply current, and overall power factor
Figure 8. Example 3.

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(c) A capacitor connected in parallel with the loads. Find kVar and the capacitance required
to improve the overall power factor to unity. Also calculate the new line current.

SOLUTION:

V 200∠0
I1 = = = 5 − j 35 A
Z1 0.8 + j 5.6
S1 = V × I1* = 200∠0 × (5 + j 35) = 1000 + j 7000 VA

V 200∠0
I2 = = = 5 + j10 A
Z 2 8 − j16
S 2 = V × I 2* = 200∠0 × (5 − j10) = 1000 − j 2000 VA

S3 = 5 kVA at 0.8 pf lag = 5000 ∠ 36.87 = 4000 + j3000

ST = S1 + S2 + S3 = 1000 + j 7000 + 1000 – j2000 + 4000 + j 3000 = 6000 + j8000


= 10 ∠ 53.13 kVA
ST is the power drawn from the supply.

*
 S  10000∠ − 53.13
IT =  T  = = 50∠ − 53.13 A
V  200∠0
Overall Power factor is Cos 53.13 = 0.6 Lagging

To make the overall power factor unity, the capacitance must cancel the inductance of the
combined load. Therefore:
QC = j 8000
V 2 2002 1
XC = = = 5 Ω But X C =
QC 8000 ωC
1 1
Therefore C = = = 530.5 µ F
ω X C 377 × 5

INEW = 6000/200 = 30 ∠ 0 A

1.3 THREE-PHASE SYSTEM

6
Three-phase systems are used for normal transmission and distribution systems. This is because
for the same amount of power, the three-phase system is more economical than the single-phase.
Another advantage of three-phase system is that the instantaneous power in a three-phase is
constant (not pulsating), which results in better performance for machines.

A balanced system is one in which the 3 sinusoidal voltages have the same magnitude and
frequency, and each is 120° out-of-phase with the other two.

v an (t ) = VM cos (ω t )
vbn (t ) = VM cos (ω t −120 °)
v cn (t ) = VM cos (ω t − 240 °) = VM cos (ω t + 120 °)

Figure 9. Three-phase system.


We will for our purpose assume that source is always balanced. Also assume that source is
always Wye even though a source can be wye or delta. It is easier to solve problems by this
assumption. We do have to worry if the load is connected in wye or delat and also if the load is

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balanced or unbalanced. A balanced three-phase circuit is one in which the loads are such that
the currents produced by the voltages are also balanced. For a balanced system, IA + IB + IC = 0.
ia (t ) = I M cos (ω t −θ )
ib (t ) = I M cos (ω t −θ −120 °)
ic (t ) = I M cos (ω t −θ − 240 °)

Figure 10. Three-phase Y-connection with neutral

The line voltages and phase voltages are shown in the diagram above. Line voltages can be
calculated as:

VAB = VA – VB VBC = VB – VC VCA = VC – VA

For Balanced Y- Load


Iφ = , VLINE = 3 Vφ ∠ + 300 and I LINE = Iφ
Z

Power, P = 3 VL I LCos θ = 3(Vϕ Iϕ Cos θ )


and Reactive Power, Q = 3 VL I L Sin θ

Power Factor = Cos θ where θ is the angle between the phase voltage and phase current.
This is a very important to remember.

8
Figure 11. Three-phase Y-load with vector diagram

This diagram is drawn assuming a-b-c sequence. Also assuming that current lags the voltage.

For Delta Load

Phase currents
V
IAB = AB
Z
VBC
IBC =
Z
V
ICA = CA
Z

Line currents

IA = IAB – ICA
IB = IBC – IAB
IC = ICA - IBC

For a balanced three-phase delta load system:


ILINE = √3 Iφ ∠ -30 and VPHASE = V LINE

The equation for power and reactive power is exactly


same for delta load as the Wye load. The complex power,
S = 3(VP I P* ) = P + jQ = 3 VL IL ∠θ

Figure 12. Three-phase delta load and vector


diagram.

9
1.4 ANALYSIS TECHNIQUE(BALANCED LOAD)

1. Replace 3-phase circuit with its single-phase equivalent circuit.


2. Only one current or voltage needs to be calculated. Rest of the quantities can be found
easily.
3. It is easier (but not required) to use VAN as the reference, if no reference is given.
4. For balanced load ZY = ZΔ/3. This is a useful formula for many parallel balanced loads.
5. For Y-load: IL = Iφ and VL = √3 Vφ ∠ 30
6. For Δ-load: VL = Vφ and IL = Iφ ∠ -30

IA
Example 4: A balanced 3-phase delta A
connected load is supplied by a 208 V 60 Hz I ca
I ab Z = 12 +j 9
supply. Each phase impedance is Z = 12 + j

Z
Z
9 Ω per phase. Calculate the line current,
power and the complex power supplied by B Z

the source. I bc

C
SOLUTION:

Vab 208∠0 208∠0


I ab = = = = 13.87∠ − 36.87 A
Z ab 12 + j 9 15∠36.87
NOTE: Vab is assumed reference

Ibc = 13.87 ∠ -36.87 - 120 = 13.87 ∠ -156.87 A


Ica = 13.87 ∠ -36.87 + 120 = 13.87 ∠ 83.13 A

IA = 3 Iab ∠ -30
= 3 ×13.87 ∠ − 36.87 − 30 = 24.02∠ − 66.87 A

IA can also be calculated by the difference of two


phase currents or IA = Iab - Ica

IB = 24.02 ∠ - 66.87 – 120 = 24.02 ∠ -186.87 A


IC = 24.02 ∠ + 53.13 A

P= 3 VLIL Cosθ
= 3 × 208 × 24.02 × cos 36.87 = 6922.4 Watt
P = 3 × I P × 12 = 3 × 13.87 × 12 = 6922.6 Watt
2 2

S = 3 × VP × I P* = 3 × 120 × 13.87∠36.87 = 6922.6 + j 5191.8 Var

10
IL
Example 5: A 3-phase delta load is supplied by 0. 06 + j0. 12 Z = 12 + j 9
a 3-phase source through a line whose impedance

Z
Z
is 0.06 + j 0.12 Ω . The voltage of the source is Z

208 V and the load impedance is 12 + j9 each 0. 06 + j0. 12


phase. Determine the (a) line current, IL, (b) load Iφ
current in each phase, Iφ , (c) power delivered to 0. 06 + j0. 12
the load and (d) power supplied by the source.

SOLUTION IL
Convert the delta load to Wye and draw a single-phase
equivalent. ZY = ZΔ/3 = 4 + j3 Ω 0. 06 + j0. 12

VL 208 Z
ZY = 4 + j 3
Vϕ 3 3 120.09∠0
IL = Z = Z + Z = =
4 + j 3 + 0.06 + j 0.12 4.06 + j 3.12
T Y LINE

= 23.45∠ − 37.54 A
Here we assumed Vφ phase as our reference. Now we calculate the phase voltage of the load
VφLOAD = IL × ZY = 23.45∠ -37.54 × (4 + j3) = 117.26 ∠ -1.37 V.

VL (Load) = √3 × VφLOAD = 203.1 ∠ 28.63 V

203.1∠28.63
Iφ = VL (Load)/ ZΔ = = 13.54∠ -8.24 A.
12 + j 9
NOTE: We can not calculate Iφ by dividing the IL by √3 and shifting 300.

PLOAD = √3× VL(Load)× IL Cos θ = √3× 203.1× 23.45 × Cos (28.63 + 8.24) Note: θ = ∠ Vφ -
∠ Iφ
= 6599.4 Watts

PLOAD Can be calculated various ways: 3(RΔ × Iφ2) = 3(12 × 13.542) = 6599.9 W

PSOURCE = √3 × VL(Source) × IL Cos θ = √3 × 208 × 23.45 × Cos(0 – 37.54) = 6698.8 W

Approximate Line loss = PSOURCE – PLOAD = 6698.8 - 6599.4 = 99.4 W

This can also be calculated by: 3(RLINE × IL2) = 3(0.06 × 23.452) = 99

It is also important to verify our results if and when possible. In real life there is no answer sheet
available to check our results!!

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Example 6: Three loads are connected in parallel across a 12.47 kV three-phase supply.
Load 1: Inductive, 60 kW and 660 kvar
Load 2: Capacitive, 240 kW at 0.8 power factor.
Load 3: Resistive, 60 kW.

(a) Find the total complex power, power factor, and the supply current
(b) A Y-connected capacitor bank is connected in parallel with the three loads. Find the total
kvar and capacitance per phase in μF to improve the overall power factor to 0.8 lagging.
What is the new line current?

SOLUTION:

a) Load1: S1 = 60 + j 660 k
Load2: 240 kW and 0.8 pf capacitive.
S1
P 240k S3
S = = = 300 ∴ S2 = 300 ∠ − 36.87 S2
Cosθ 0.8
Or S2 = 240 - j180 k

Load3: S3 = 60 kW + j0

Total Complex Power, ST = S1 + S2 + S3 = (60 + j 660k + 240 - j 180 + 60) k = (360 +j 480) k
ST = 600 ∠ 53.13 kVA
* *
 S   600∠53.13k 
IL =   =  = 27.78 ∠ − 53.13 A
 3 × V   3 × 12.47 k 
PT 360k
b) ST to be 0.8 pf lagging STN = = = 450k ∴ STN = 450∠36.87 k
Cos θ 0.8
STN = (360 + j270) kVA QTN = 270 k = Q – QC or QC = (480 – 270) = 210 kVar

This is the total QC. QC per phase is therefore QC/3


( 12.47k 3 )
2

Xc (per phase) = ( )
2
V ϕ
= = 740.44 Ω
QC 210k / 3 ST
1 1
C= = = 3.58 µ F jQT
ω Xc 377 × 740.44
* *
 S   450∠36.87 k 
and ILN =   =  = 20.83∠ − 36.9 A 53.13
 3 × V   3 × 12.47 k 
PT

12
Example 7: (Taken from Chapman) Figure
shows a 3-phase system with two loads.
The generator is producing 480 and the line
impedance is 0.09 + j 0.16 Ω . Load 1 is Y
connected, with impedance of 2.5 ∠ 36.87
Ω and load 2 is delta connected with a
phase impedance of 5 ∠ -20 Ω .
(a) What is the line voltage of the two
loads?
(b) What is the voltage drop on the
line?
(c) Find the real & reactive powers
supplied to each load.
(d) Find the real & reactive power supplied by the source
IL

0.09 + j0.16 O
Vab = 480 ∠ 0
480∠0
Van = = 277 ∠ -30 480
3 v3
= 277 V
Z1 = 2.5 ∠ 36.87 Ω
5∠-20
Z2 = = 1.667∠-20 Ω Ι Converting Δ to Y
3
ZEQ = Z1 ⁄⁄ Z2 = 2.5 ∠ 36.87 ⁄⁄ 1.667 ∠ -20
= 1.132 ∠ 2.25 Ω
ZTOTAL = ZLINE + ZT = 1.132 ∠ 2.25 + 0.09 + j0.16 = 1.22 + j .204 = 1.237 ∠ 9.5 Ω

Van 277∠ − 30
IA = = = 224∠ − 39.5 A
ZT 1.237∠9.5

VLOAD(phase) = Van – IA × ZLINE = 277 ∠ -30 - 224 ∠ -39.5 × (0.09 + j0.16)


= 253.36 ∠ -37.26 V
VLOAD(line) = 3 × 253.36∠ − 37.26 + 30 = 438.8∠ − 7.26

Voltage Drop, VD = Van – VLOAD = 277 ∠ -30 - 253.36 ∠ -37.26 = 41.12 ∠21.14 V

VLOAD 253.36∠ − 37.26


I1 = = = 101.34∠ − 74.13 A
Z1 2.5∠36.87
V 253.36∠ − 37.26
I 2 = LOAD = = 152∠ − 17.26 A
Z2 1.667∠ − 20

S1( Complex Power of Load 1) = 3 (VLOAD × I*1) = 3 (253.36 × 101.34) ∠ 36.87

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= 77026 ∠ 36.87 = 61,621 + j46,216 VA
S2( Complex Power of Load 2) = 3 (VLOAD × I*2) = 3 (253.36 × 152) ∠ -20
= 115,544.3 ∠ -20 = 108,576 - j39,518.5 VA

ST( Complex Power of Source) = 3 (VLOAD × I*A) = 3 (253.36 × 224) ∠ 9.5


= 186,259.6 ∠ -9.5 = 183,705 + j30,742 VA

Transmission Loss = ST – (S1 + S2)


= 183,705 + j 30,742 – (61,621 + j46,216 + 108,576 – j39518)
= 13,508 + j24,044 VA

This problem can be solved in other ways too. For example:


Transmission Loss = 3 ( IA2 × RL + j IA2 × XL) =
= 3(2242 × 0.09 + 2242 × 0.16)
= 13,547 + j24,084 VA

The slight difference is due to rounding error.

14
1.5 POWER FACTOR CORRECTION:

Power factor is the ratio between the KW and the KVA drawn by an electrical load where the
KW is the actual power and the KVA is the apparent power. Similar to power current also has
real and reactive components. All current will causes losses in the distribution system. A load
with a power factor of 1.0 results in the most efficient loading of the supply and a load with a
power factor of 0.5 will result in much higher losses in the supply system.

Poor power factor is generally the result of an inductive load such as an induction motor, power
transformer, lighting ballasts, etc. Low power factor can also be due to a high harmonic content
or distorted/discontinuous current waveform resulting from power electronics devices. A poor
power factor due to an inductive load can be improved by the addition capacitors, but, a poor
power factor due to a distorted current waveform requires a change in equipment design or
expensive harmonic filters to gain an appreciable improvement. We will only discuss addition of
capacitors to correct the power factor. Power factor correction is achieved by the addition of
capacitors in parallel with the connected motor circuits and can be applied at the starter, or
applied at the switchboard or distribution panel.

Some of the benefits of improving power factor are as follows:

• Utility bill will be smaller. Low power factor requires an increase in the electric utility’s
generation and transmission capacity to handle the reactive power component caused by
inductive loads. Utilities usually charge a penalty fee to industrial customers with power
factors less than 0.95. One can avoid this additional fee by increasing your power factor.

• Electrical system’s branch capacity will increase. Uncorrected power factor will cause
power losses in distribution system. It will increase voltage drops as well as power losses.
Excessive voltage drops can cause overheating and premature failure of motors and other
inductive equipment.

Capacitors can be connected at each motor or at the distribution panel as shown below.

15
When power factor is corrected, the real
power, P does not change, but reactive
power Q and complex power S changes
because of the addition of capacitor.

In the diagram:
θOLD = Old pf angle
θNEW = New pf angle or desired pf angle
P = SOLD (Cos θOLD)
QL = SOLD (Sin θOLD) = P (tan θOLD)
QNEW = P (tan θNEW)
QC (Var supplied by Capacitor) = QL - QNEW = P (tan θOLD - tan θNEW)

V2
QC =
XC

The Voltage in the above equation has to be across the Capacitor. It can be line voltage or phase
depending upon whether the capacitor bank is connected in Y or in delta.

QC = X C = 2π fC = ωC
QC
Or C =
ωV 2

Example 8: A single-phase 4 kW, 0.8 power factor lagging load is supplied from a 120 V 60 Hz
source. Calculate the capacitor value to be connected in parallel to improve the power factor to
0.95 lagging.

Solution:
Old power factor = 0.8 lag θOLD = 36.870
Desired power factor = 0.95 lag θNEW = 18.190

P 4000
SOLD = = = 5000 VA
CosθOLD 0.8
QL = 5000 Sin 36.87 = 3000 Var
P 4000
SNEW = = = 4210.5 VA
Cosθ NEW 0.95
QNEW = 4210.5 Sin 18.19 = 1314.4 VA
QC (Var supplied by Capacitor) = QL - QNEW = 3000 – 1314.4 = 1685.6 Var
QC 1685.6
C= = = 310.5µ F
ωV 2
2π × 60 ×1202
1 1
XC = = = 8.543 Ω
ωC 2π × 60 × 310.5 ×10−6

16
EXAMPLE 9: A large 3-phase industrial plant is
supplied power at 12.47 kV and has a demand of 4 QC
MW at a power factor of 0.7 lag. Calculate the SOLD = 3078.3 k
= 5714.3 k
QL
amount of capacitance/phase and reactance value = 4080.8 k
required to improve the power factor to 0.97
lagging. Assume the capacitors bank is connected
in delta. Calculate the new and old current. SNEW
45.60 = 4123.7 k
14.070 QL QC=QLNEW
SOLUTION: = 1002.5 k
P = 4000 kW

Old power factor = 0.7 lag θOLD = 45.57 0

Desired power factor = 0.97 lag θNEW = 14.070

P 4000k
SOLD = = = 5714.3 kVA
CosθOLD 0.7
QL = 5714.3k Sin 45.57 = 4080.8 kVar
P 4000k
SNEW = = = 4123.7 kVA
Cosθ NEW 0.97
QNEW = 4123.7k Sin 14.07 = 1002.5 kVA
QC (Var supplied by Capacitor) = QL - QNEW = (4080.8 – 1002.5 ) k = 3078.3 kVar

QC / Phase 1026.1k
C= = = 17.5 µ F NOTE: Delta connected cap. Vφ = 12.47kV
ωV 2
2π × 60 × 12.47k 2

1
XC = = 151.55 Ω / Phase
ωC

P 4000k
IL(old) = = = 264.6 A
3VL cos θ 3 ×12.47 k × 0.7

P 4000k
IL (new) = = = 190.92 A
3VL cos θ 3 ×12.47 k × 0.97

By adding capacitors line current has gone down by 74 A. And Total kVA has gone down by
1590.6. As an engineer one has to calculate the cost benefit of adding capacitor bank to a
system.

17
1.6 UNBALANCED THREE-PHASE SYSTEM:

Unbalanced systems are much more difficult to solve. We will try to solve only unbalanced load
problems. We will here assume that source is balanced three-phase. In reality power engineers
do have to solve both unbalanced load and unbalanced source problems.

• Three-phase formulas are not valid for unbalanced systems.


• Solve each phase separately.
• Draw vector diagram for currents & voltages which helps in solving problems
• Grounded and ungrounded system makes a big difference. In ungrounded system neutral
voltage is not zero and is undefined. In grounded system the neutral voltage is zero.
• In ungrounded unbalanced system (Y or ∆) IA + IB + IC = 0. Not for grounded unbalanced
Y load.
• Two watt-meters can measure total power for a balanced systems (grounded or
ungrounded) as well as ungrounded unbalanced loads. But two watt-meter method does
not work for grounded unbalanced Y load.

Example 10: An unbalanced delta load is supplied from a 208 3-phase 60 Hz supply. The loads
in each phase are: ZAB = 10 + j 20 Ω, ZBC = 20 - j 10 Ω, ZCA = 20 + j 10 Ω.

(a) Line currents


(b) Total three-phase power
(c) Power by two watt-meters
connected in line “A” and line
“C”

SOLUTION:

Assume VAB = 208 ∠ 0


V 208∠0
I AB = AB = = 9.3∠ − 63.435 A
Z AB 10 + j 20
V 208∠ − 120
I BC = BC = = 9.3∠ − 93.4 A
Z BC 20 − j10
V 208∠120
I CA = CA = = 9.3∠93.4 A NOTE: Currents are not balanced as angles are not 1200 apart.
Z CA 20 + j10
There is no common power factor angle as each phase has different pf.

Line Currents

IA = IAB – ICA = 9.3 ∠ -63.4 - 9.3 ∠ 93.4 = 18.23 ∠ -75 A


IB = IBC – IAB = 9.3 ∠ -93.4 – 9.3 ∠ -63.4 = 4.8 ∠ -168.4 A
IC = ICA – IBC = 9.3 ∠ 93.4 – 9.3 ∠ -93.4 = 18.6 ∠ 90 A

18
Power
PT = PAB + PBC + PCA = (IAB)2 RAB + (IBC)2 RBC + (ICA)2 RCA
= (9.3)2 × 10 + (9.3)2 × 20 + (9.3)2 × 20 = 865.3 + 1730.6 + 1730.6 = 4326.5 Watts

Watt-meter Readings

WA = VAB × IA × Cos (angle between VAB and IA) NOTE: Not power factor angle
= 208 × 18.23 × Cos(0 – (-75)) = 981.2 Watts

WC = VCB × IC × Cos (angle between VCB and IA) Note: VCB = - VBC = 208 ∠ 60
= 208 × 18.57 × Cos(60 -90) = 3345.2 Watts

PT = WA + WC = 981.2 + 3345.2 = 4326.4 Watts

V CA IC
VCB

I CA

V AB
IB

I AB

I BC

V BC IA

19
Example 11: A single-phase motor drawing 15 A at 0.85 pf lagging, is connected macros line B
& line C of a three-phase system as shown in the diagram. The 3-phase system also supplies a 3-
phase motor drawing 20A at 0.9 pf leading. Assuming VAB = 440 ∠ 0 and also assume a-b-c
sequence determine:

(a) the line currents IA, IB, & IC,


(b) the readings of the two watt-meter
connected in line A and B
(c) Draw vector diagram showing currents &
voltages

IMA = 20 ∠ 25.84 -30


= 20 ∠ - 4.16 A
Note: IMA is 25.840 leading from VAN. VAN is at -300.
Pf angle is from phase voltage and phase current.

IMB = 20 ∠ -4.16 – 120 = 20 ∠ - 124.16 A


IMC = 20 ∠ 115.84 A

IBC = 15 ∠ -31.79 – 120 = 15 ∠ -151.79 Note: IBC is


-31.790 with reference to VBC

Line Currents:
IA = IMA = 20 ∠ -4.16 A
IB = IMB + IBC = 20 ∠ -124.16 + 15 ∠ -151.8
= 34 ∠ -135.96 A
IC = IMC – IBC = 20 ∠ 115.84 - 15 ∠ -151.8
= 25.5 ∠ 79.83 A

Watt-meter Readings:
WA = VAC × IA × Cos (angle between VAC and IA)
= 440 × 20 × Cos(- 60 + 4.16) = 4941.25 Watt

WB = VBC × IB × Cos (angle between VBC and IB)


= 440 × 34 × Cos (-120 + 135.96) = 14387.6
Watt.
PT = WA + WB = 4941.25 + 14387.6 = 19328.85 Watt

PT = P 1 + P2
P1 = 3 VL I L cos θ = 3 × 440 × 20 × 0.9 = 13717.8 Watt Power of 3-phase motor
P2 = Vϕ Iϕ cos θ = 440 × 15 × 0.85 = 5610 Watt Power of single-phase motor
PT = P1 + P2 = 19327.8 ≈ WA + WB

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THREE-PHASE PROBLEMS:

Prob 1. Two balanced Y-connected loads, one drawing 10 kW at 0.8 power factor lagging and
the other 15 kW at 0.9 power factor leading, are connected in parallel and supplied by a
balanced three-phase Y-connected, 480 V source.

(a) Determine the source current


(b) Determine the power reactive power & power factor of the total system

Prob 2. A three-phase delta connected motor draws 1000kVA at 0.65 power factor lagging from
a 480 V source. Determine the kVA rating of capacitors to make the new power factor
0.85 lagging. Calculate the line current before and after the power factor correction.

Prob 3. Two inductions motor load are connected in parallel at the end of a three-phase line.
The voltage at the input of the motors is a balanced 440 V.
a. Find VIN, I IN and input power factor
b. Find the values of capacitance per-phase of the delta necessary to bring the power
factor to a 0.9 lagging.

Prob. 4. A balanced delta load consist of pure resistance of 12 Ω per phase is in parallel with a
balanced Y load having impedance of 4+j3 Ω per phase. The combined load is supplied by a
source of 230 V three-phase. Determine

(a) The source line currents


(b) What value of Y-connected capacitor is needed to improve the source PF to unity?
(c) What is the line current of the source after the addition of capacitor.

Prob. 5. Three parallel three-phase loads are supplied from a 207.85 V, 60 Hz three phase
supply. The loads are as follows:

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Load 1: A 15 hp motor operating at full-load, 93.25% efficiency, and 0.6 lagging power factor.
Load 2: A balanced resistive load that draws a total of 6 kW.
Load 3: A Y-connected capacitor bank with a total rating of 16 kvar.

• What is the total system kW, power factor and supply current?
• What is the system power factor and supply current when the capacitor bank is switched
off?

Prob. 6. For the 3-phase unbalanced system is shown


in the diagram find the line currents. Assume
source is balanced and given that : VAB = 400
∠ 00 Volts. Calculate the Watt-meter WB &
WC readings and verify that the total power is
equal to WB + WC.

Prob 7. A three-phase delta connected motor


load is connected to a line voltage of 280
V and draws 3 kVA at 0.8 pf lag. In
addition two single-phase loads are also
connected to the system. Between Line
A and B we have a capacitor of 1.5 kvar
and between line B & C we have a pure
resistive load of 1 kW. Assuming a-b-c
sequence and VBC as the reference find
the three line currents (from the source)
and the watt meter readings.

Prob 8. Consider the three-phase a-b-c sequence system shown below. The line voltage VAB is
416∠ 300 V. Phase A supplies single-phase users on A street (48 kW at pf =1), phase B
supplies single phase users on B street (30 kW at pf =1), and phase C supplies single
phase users on C street (60 kW at pf =1). Furthermore, the three-phase industrial load,
which is delta connected, is balanced is 36 kW at 0.5 lagging pf. Calculate the Line
Currents.

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Problem 9. Find the line currents in the three-phase system shown below. Let Z∆ = 12-j15 Ω,
ZY = 4 + j6 Ω and Zl = 2 Ω.

Problem 10. A balanced delta-connected load is connected to a source through a feeder line.
Assume that Vab = 416 ∠600 V and a positive phase sequence. Find the line
currents if the load impedance is 60∠300 and feeder line impedance is 1 + j1.

Problem 11. A balanced three-phase source delivers 9 kW to a Y-connected load with a


impedance 30 - j40 Ω per phase. Find the line current and line voltage.

Problem 12. A three-phase line has an impedance of 1 + j3 Ω per phase. The line feeds a
balanced delta load, which absorbs a total complex power of 12 + j5 kVA. If the
line voltage at the load end has a magnitude of 240 V, calculate the magnitude of
line voltage at the source end and the power factor of the source.

Problem 13. Find the line currents and real absorbed by the load in the system shown below.

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Problem 14. As shown in the figure below, a three-phase 4 wire line with a balanced three-
phase 208 V source. The 3-phase motor draws 260 kVA at 0.85 pf lagging. In
addition to the motor load there are three pure resistive load and are connected as
shown in the figure.
(a) If three watt-meters are arranged to measure the power in each line, calculate
the reading of each meter.
(b) Find the neutral current.

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(Following Problems are taken from Saadat “Power System Analysis”)

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26
Single-Phase Three-Phase
S = VI* = P ± jQ For Balanced Y- Load
P P V
IPhase = φ , VLINE = 3 Vφ ∠ + 30 I LINE = Iφ
0
Power Factor, Cosθ = = and
VI S Z
P = S Cos θ
And Q = S Sin θ

P = V I Cosθ watts
P = I2 R watts For series Circuit
2
V
P = R watts For parallel Circuit
R

For Balanced ∆-Load


ILINE = √3 IPhase ∠ -30 and VPHASE = V LINE

Power Triangle for Inductive Load

Power Triangle for Capacitive Load

For balanced load ZY = ZΔ/3.

*
S = 3(VPhase I Phase ) = P + jQ = 3 VL IL ∠θ
Power, P = 3 VL I L Cosθ = 3(VPhase I Phase Cos θ)
and Reactive Power, Q = 3 VL I L Sinθ
P= 3(Single-phase Power)

Unbalanced System
• Three-phase formulas are not valid for unbalanced
systems.
• Solve each phase separately.
• Draw vector diagram for currents & voltages.
• PT = P A + PB + PC

Two Watt-meter
Power Factor Correction WA = VAB × IA × Cos (angle between VAB and IA)
WC = VCB × IC × Cos (angle between VCB and IA)

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