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Transféré par Rafiq_Hasan

Attribution Non-Commercial (BY-NC)

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- Power Factor
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- Energy Meter
- Digital Power Meter-PM 800 Series
- What is the Effect of Power Factor On_ a. Voltage, b. Transformer, c. Transmission Line, d
- Rocky-Mountain-Power--Exhibit-No-51
- Power_meas
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- BARC Specification of Differential Relay for Indent

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&

THREE-PHASE CIRCUIT

for

EE 330/ EE 431

BY

Abul R. Hasan

Abul.Hasan@sdsmt.edu

1

1.1 SINGLE PHASE CIRCUIT

IR

Vm Sinω t

IR V

Figure 1. Single-phase pure resistance circuit and its time response and phasor

representation.

Both Current and voltage are in phase. Instead of representing in time domain i.e. as sinusoids

we could represent voltage and current in phasor form. A phasor is a complex number that

represents the amplitude and phase angle of a sinusoid signal. Most of the time drawing vector

diagram we assume voltage is used as reference, but it is not necessary.

IL

Vm Sinω t

In pure inductive circuit current lags the voltage by 900. We can also say this as voltage leads the

current by 900. Figure 3 shows the phasor representation

V

IL

2

Vm Sinω t

IC

V

Figure 4. Capacitive circuit time domain & phasor represebtation.

In power systems and other power area we always use rms (root mean square) value of voltage

and current. If we write V = 120 ∠ 00 this is rms value. On the other hand if we write

V (t ) =120 Sin (ωt +θ) then, 120 is maximum value of the voltage V.

R-L-C Circuit

1

Impedance, Z = R +j (X −L X Ω

C) Where, X L = 2π fL Ω and XC = Ω

2π fC

EXAMPLE 1:

Figure: 5. RLC

Series Circuit

Z = R + j ( X L − X C ) = 250 +j(245.04 – 1768.4) = 250 – j1523.3 = 1543.7∠ -80.68 Ω

3

V 120 ∠0

I = = = 77 .73 ×10 −3 ∠80 .68 0 A.

Z 1543.7 ∠ − 80 .68

About 78 mA is flowing through the circuit and the current is leading the voltage by 80.68

degrees. This is a highly capacitive load.

2

V

P = R watts is an easy way to calculate power in parallel circuit. Rem. VR is

R

the voltage across the equivalent resistance.

P = V I Cosθ watts

where, Cosθ is the power factor and θ is the angle difference between the voltage and current.

The power factor is called lagging if the current is lagging the voltage and power factor is called

leading if the current is leading the voltage.

2

VX L 2

Q = I XL and Q = and Q = V I Sin

XL

θ

The unit for reactive power is var.

for S is VA. ‘S’ is an important in power analysis

because it contains all the information pertaining to Power Triangle for Inductive Load

the real & reactive power absorbed by a given load.

Q, the reactive power, is positive when load is

inductive and it is negative when the load is

capacitive.

P P

Power Factor, Cosθ = =

VI S

P = S Cos θ

Power Triangle for Capacitive Load

And Q = S Sin θ

Figure 6. Power Triangle.

4

Example 2:

and Z2 = 14.14 ∠ -450 Ω . The input voltage is 100∠ 60. Calculate

S1, S2 and ST for the system.

SOLUTION: 100∠ 60

V 100∠60

I1 = = = 5∠30 A

Z1 20∠30

I1 is lagging V by 300.

V 100∠60

I2 = = = 7.07∠105 A

Z2 14.14∠ − 45

Figure 7. Example 2.

S1 = V I1* = 100∠ 60 × 5 ∠ -30 = 500 ∠ 30 = 433 + j250 VA

Therefore P1 = 433 Watts and Q1 = 250 var

P2 = 500 Watts and Q2 = -500 Var

* *

S 965.9∠ − 15

= ( 9.66∠ − 75 ) = 9.66∠75 A

*

IT = =

V 100∠60

This problem can also be solved by other methods too, but the answer will be exactly same!!

IT

and Z2 = 8 – j16 Ω, and a single-phase motor are

connected in parallel across a 200 V, 60 Hz supply.

The motor draws 5 kVA at 0.8 power factor lagging 200 0 Z1 Z2 M

at 200 volts. Determine:

(a) the complex powers S1, S2 for the two

impedances, and S3 for the motor

(b) the total power drawn from the supply, the

supply current, and overall power factor

Figure 8. Example 3.

5

(c) A capacitor connected in parallel with the loads. Find kVar and the capacitance required

to improve the overall power factor to unity. Also calculate the new line current.

SOLUTION:

V 200∠0

I1 = = = 5 − j 35 A

Z1 0.8 + j 5.6

S1 = V × I1* = 200∠0 × (5 + j 35) = 1000 + j 7000 VA

V 200∠0

I2 = = = 5 + j10 A

Z 2 8 − j16

S 2 = V × I 2* = 200∠0 × (5 − j10) = 1000 − j 2000 VA

= 10 ∠ 53.13 kVA

ST is the power drawn from the supply.

*

S 10000∠ − 53.13

IT = T = = 50∠ − 53.13 A

V 200∠0

Overall Power factor is Cos 53.13 = 0.6 Lagging

To make the overall power factor unity, the capacitance must cancel the inductance of the

combined load. Therefore:

QC = j 8000

V 2 2002 1

XC = = = 5 Ω But X C =

QC 8000 ωC

1 1

Therefore C = = = 530.5 µ F

ω X C 377 × 5

INEW = 6000/200 = 30 ∠ 0 A

6

Three-phase systems are used for normal transmission and distribution systems. This is because

for the same amount of power, the three-phase system is more economical than the single-phase.

Another advantage of three-phase system is that the instantaneous power in a three-phase is

constant (not pulsating), which results in better performance for machines.

A balanced system is one in which the 3 sinusoidal voltages have the same magnitude and

frequency, and each is 120° out-of-phase with the other two.

v an (t ) = VM cos (ω t )

vbn (t ) = VM cos (ω t −120 °)

v cn (t ) = VM cos (ω t − 240 °) = VM cos (ω t + 120 °)

We will for our purpose assume that source is always balanced. Also assume that source is

always Wye even though a source can be wye or delta. It is easier to solve problems by this

assumption. We do have to worry if the load is connected in wye or delat and also if the load is

7

balanced or unbalanced. A balanced three-phase circuit is one in which the loads are such that

the currents produced by the voltages are also balanced. For a balanced system, IA + IB + IC = 0.

ia (t ) = I M cos (ω t −θ )

ib (t ) = I M cos (ω t −θ −120 °)

ic (t ) = I M cos (ω t −θ − 240 °)

The line voltages and phase voltages are shown in the diagram above. Line voltages can be

calculated as:

Vφ

Iφ = , VLINE = 3 Vφ ∠ + 300 and I LINE = Iφ

Z

and Reactive Power, Q = 3 VL I L Sin θ

Power Factor = Cos θ where θ is the angle between the phase voltage and phase current.

This is a very important to remember.

8

Figure 11. Three-phase Y-load with vector diagram

This diagram is drawn assuming a-b-c sequence. Also assuming that current lags the voltage.

Phase currents

V

IAB = AB

Z

VBC

IBC =

Z

V

ICA = CA

Z

Line currents

IA = IAB – ICA

IB = IBC – IAB

IC = ICA - IBC

ILINE = √3 Iφ ∠ -30 and VPHASE = V LINE

same for delta load as the Wye load. The complex power,

S = 3(VP I P* ) = P + jQ = 3 VL IL ∠θ

diagram.

9

1.4 ANALYSIS TECHNIQUE(BALANCED LOAD)

2. Only one current or voltage needs to be calculated. Rest of the quantities can be found

easily.

3. It is easier (but not required) to use VAN as the reference, if no reference is given.

4. For balanced load ZY = ZΔ/3. This is a useful formula for many parallel balanced loads.

5. For Y-load: IL = Iφ and VL = √3 Vφ ∠ 30

6. For Δ-load: VL = Vφ and IL = Iφ ∠ -30

IA

Example 4: A balanced 3-phase delta A

connected load is supplied by a 208 V 60 Hz I ca

I ab Z = 12 +j 9

supply. Each phase impedance is Z = 12 + j

Z

Z

9 Ω per phase. Calculate the line current,

power and the complex power supplied by B Z

the source. I bc

C

SOLUTION:

I ab = = = = 13.87∠ − 36.87 A

Z ab 12 + j 9 15∠36.87

NOTE: Vab is assumed reference

Ica = 13.87 ∠ -36.87 + 120 = 13.87 ∠ 83.13 A

IA = 3 Iab ∠ -30

= 3 ×13.87 ∠ − 36.87 − 30 = 24.02∠ − 66.87 A

phase currents or IA = Iab - Ica

IC = 24.02 ∠ + 53.13 A

P= 3 VLIL Cosθ

= 3 × 208 × 24.02 × cos 36.87 = 6922.4 Watt

P = 3 × I P × 12 = 3 × 13.87 × 12 = 6922.6 Watt

2 2

10

IL

Example 5: A 3-phase delta load is supplied by 0. 06 + j0. 12 Z = 12 + j 9

a 3-phase source through a line whose impedance

Z

Z

is 0.06 + j 0.12 Ω . The voltage of the source is Z

phase. Determine the (a) line current, IL, (b) load Iφ

current in each phase, Iφ , (c) power delivered to 0. 06 + j0. 12

the load and (d) power supplied by the source.

SOLUTION IL

Convert the delta load to Wye and draw a single-phase

equivalent. ZY = ZΔ/3 = 4 + j3 Ω 0. 06 + j0. 12

VL 208 Z

ZY = 4 + j 3

Vϕ 3 3 120.09∠0

IL = Z = Z + Z = =

4 + j 3 + 0.06 + j 0.12 4.06 + j 3.12

T Y LINE

= 23.45∠ − 37.54 A

Here we assumed Vφ phase as our reference. Now we calculate the phase voltage of the load

VφLOAD = IL × ZY = 23.45∠ -37.54 × (4 + j3) = 117.26 ∠ -1.37 V.

203.1∠28.63

Iφ = VL (Load)/ ZΔ = = 13.54∠ -8.24 A.

12 + j 9

NOTE: We can not calculate Iφ by dividing the IL by √3 and shifting 300.

PLOAD = √3× VL(Load)× IL Cos θ = √3× 203.1× 23.45 × Cos (28.63 + 8.24) Note: θ = ∠ Vφ -

∠ Iφ

= 6599.4 Watts

PLOAD Can be calculated various ways: 3(RΔ × Iφ2) = 3(12 × 13.542) = 6599.9 W

It is also important to verify our results if and when possible. In real life there is no answer sheet

available to check our results!!

11

Example 6: Three loads are connected in parallel across a 12.47 kV three-phase supply.

Load 1: Inductive, 60 kW and 660 kvar

Load 2: Capacitive, 240 kW at 0.8 power factor.

Load 3: Resistive, 60 kW.

(a) Find the total complex power, power factor, and the supply current

(b) A Y-connected capacitor bank is connected in parallel with the three loads. Find the total

kvar and capacitance per phase in μF to improve the overall power factor to 0.8 lagging.

What is the new line current?

SOLUTION:

a) Load1: S1 = 60 + j 660 k

Load2: 240 kW and 0.8 pf capacitive.

S1

P 240k S3

S = = = 300 ∴ S2 = 300 ∠ − 36.87 S2

Cosθ 0.8

Or S2 = 240 - j180 k

Load3: S3 = 60 kW + j0

Total Complex Power, ST = S1 + S2 + S3 = (60 + j 660k + 240 - j 180 + 60) k = (360 +j 480) k

ST = 600 ∠ 53.13 kVA

* *

S 600∠53.13k

IL = = = 27.78 ∠ − 53.13 A

3 × V 3 × 12.47 k

PT 360k

b) ST to be 0.8 pf lagging STN = = = 450k ∴ STN = 450∠36.87 k

Cos θ 0.8

STN = (360 + j270) kVA QTN = 270 k = Q – QC or QC = (480 – 270) = 210 kVar

( 12.47k 3 )

2

Xc (per phase) = ( )

2

V ϕ

= = 740.44 Ω

QC 210k / 3 ST

1 1

C= = = 3.58 µ F jQT

ω Xc 377 × 740.44

* *

S 450∠36.87 k

and ILN = = = 20.83∠ − 36.9 A 53.13

3 × V 3 × 12.47 k

PT

12

Example 7: (Taken from Chapman) Figure

shows a 3-phase system with two loads.

The generator is producing 480 and the line

impedance is 0.09 + j 0.16 Ω . Load 1 is Y

connected, with impedance of 2.5 ∠ 36.87

Ω and load 2 is delta connected with a

phase impedance of 5 ∠ -20 Ω .

(a) What is the line voltage of the two

loads?

(b) What is the voltage drop on the

line?

(c) Find the real & reactive powers

supplied to each load.

(d) Find the real & reactive power supplied by the source

IL

0.09 + j0.16 O

Vab = 480 ∠ 0

480∠0

Van = = 277 ∠ -30 480

3 v3

= 277 V

Z1 = 2.5 ∠ 36.87 Ω

5∠-20

Z2 = = 1.667∠-20 Ω Ι Converting Δ to Y

3

ZEQ = Z1 ⁄⁄ Z2 = 2.5 ∠ 36.87 ⁄⁄ 1.667 ∠ -20

= 1.132 ∠ 2.25 Ω

ZTOTAL = ZLINE + ZT = 1.132 ∠ 2.25 + 0.09 + j0.16 = 1.22 + j .204 = 1.237 ∠ 9.5 Ω

Van 277∠ − 30

IA = = = 224∠ − 39.5 A

ZT 1.237∠9.5

= 253.36 ∠ -37.26 V

VLOAD(line) = 3 × 253.36∠ − 37.26 + 30 = 438.8∠ − 7.26

Voltage Drop, VD = Van – VLOAD = 277 ∠ -30 - 253.36 ∠ -37.26 = 41.12 ∠21.14 V

I1 = = = 101.34∠ − 74.13 A

Z1 2.5∠36.87

V 253.36∠ − 37.26

I 2 = LOAD = = 152∠ − 17.26 A

Z2 1.667∠ − 20

13

= 77026 ∠ 36.87 = 61,621 + j46,216 VA

S2( Complex Power of Load 2) = 3 (VLOAD × I*2) = 3 (253.36 × 152) ∠ -20

= 115,544.3 ∠ -20 = 108,576 - j39,518.5 VA

= 186,259.6 ∠ -9.5 = 183,705 + j30,742 VA

= 183,705 + j 30,742 – (61,621 + j46,216 + 108,576 – j39518)

= 13,508 + j24,044 VA

Transmission Loss = 3 ( IA2 × RL + j IA2 × XL) =

= 3(2242 × 0.09 + 2242 × 0.16)

= 13,547 + j24,084 VA

14

1.5 POWER FACTOR CORRECTION:

Power factor is the ratio between the KW and the KVA drawn by an electrical load where the

KW is the actual power and the KVA is the apparent power. Similar to power current also has

real and reactive components. All current will causes losses in the distribution system. A load

with a power factor of 1.0 results in the most efficient loading of the supply and a load with a

power factor of 0.5 will result in much higher losses in the supply system.

Poor power factor is generally the result of an inductive load such as an induction motor, power

transformer, lighting ballasts, etc. Low power factor can also be due to a high harmonic content

or distorted/discontinuous current waveform resulting from power electronics devices. A poor

power factor due to an inductive load can be improved by the addition capacitors, but, a poor

power factor due to a distorted current waveform requires a change in equipment design or

expensive harmonic filters to gain an appreciable improvement. We will only discuss addition of

capacitors to correct the power factor. Power factor correction is achieved by the addition of

capacitors in parallel with the connected motor circuits and can be applied at the starter, or

applied at the switchboard or distribution panel.

• Utility bill will be smaller. Low power factor requires an increase in the electric utility’s

generation and transmission capacity to handle the reactive power component caused by

inductive loads. Utilities usually charge a penalty fee to industrial customers with power

factors less than 0.95. One can avoid this additional fee by increasing your power factor.

• Electrical system’s branch capacity will increase. Uncorrected power factor will cause

power losses in distribution system. It will increase voltage drops as well as power losses.

Excessive voltage drops can cause overheating and premature failure of motors and other

inductive equipment.

Capacitors can be connected at each motor or at the distribution panel as shown below.

15

When power factor is corrected, the real

power, P does not change, but reactive

power Q and complex power S changes

because of the addition of capacitor.

In the diagram:

θOLD = Old pf angle

θNEW = New pf angle or desired pf angle

P = SOLD (Cos θOLD)

QL = SOLD (Sin θOLD) = P (tan θOLD)

QNEW = P (tan θNEW)

QC (Var supplied by Capacitor) = QL - QNEW = P (tan θOLD - tan θNEW)

V2

QC =

XC

The Voltage in the above equation has to be across the Capacitor. It can be line voltage or phase

depending upon whether the capacitor bank is connected in Y or in delta.

QC = X C = 2π fC = ωC

QC

Or C =

ωV 2

Example 8: A single-phase 4 kW, 0.8 power factor lagging load is supplied from a 120 V 60 Hz

source. Calculate the capacitor value to be connected in parallel to improve the power factor to

0.95 lagging.

Solution:

Old power factor = 0.8 lag θOLD = 36.870

Desired power factor = 0.95 lag θNEW = 18.190

P 4000

SOLD = = = 5000 VA

CosθOLD 0.8

QL = 5000 Sin 36.87 = 3000 Var

P 4000

SNEW = = = 4210.5 VA

Cosθ NEW 0.95

QNEW = 4210.5 Sin 18.19 = 1314.4 VA

QC (Var supplied by Capacitor) = QL - QNEW = 3000 – 1314.4 = 1685.6 Var

QC 1685.6

C= = = 310.5µ F

ωV 2

2π × 60 ×1202

1 1

XC = = = 8.543 Ω

ωC 2π × 60 × 310.5 ×10−6

16

EXAMPLE 9: A large 3-phase industrial plant is

supplied power at 12.47 kV and has a demand of 4 QC

MW at a power factor of 0.7 lag. Calculate the SOLD = 3078.3 k

= 5714.3 k

QL

amount of capacitance/phase and reactance value = 4080.8 k

required to improve the power factor to 0.97

lagging. Assume the capacitors bank is connected

in delta. Calculate the new and old current. SNEW

45.60 = 4123.7 k

14.070 QL QC=QLNEW

SOLUTION: = 1002.5 k

P = 4000 kW

P 4000k

SOLD = = = 5714.3 kVA

CosθOLD 0.7

QL = 5714.3k Sin 45.57 = 4080.8 kVar

P 4000k

SNEW = = = 4123.7 kVA

Cosθ NEW 0.97

QNEW = 4123.7k Sin 14.07 = 1002.5 kVA

QC (Var supplied by Capacitor) = QL - QNEW = (4080.8 – 1002.5 ) k = 3078.3 kVar

QC / Phase 1026.1k

C= = = 17.5 µ F NOTE: Delta connected cap. Vφ = 12.47kV

ωV 2

2π × 60 × 12.47k 2

1

XC = = 151.55 Ω / Phase

ωC

P 4000k

IL(old) = = = 264.6 A

3VL cos θ 3 ×12.47 k × 0.7

P 4000k

IL (new) = = = 190.92 A

3VL cos θ 3 ×12.47 k × 0.97

By adding capacitors line current has gone down by 74 A. And Total kVA has gone down by

1590.6. As an engineer one has to calculate the cost benefit of adding capacitor bank to a

system.

17

1.6 UNBALANCED THREE-PHASE SYSTEM:

Unbalanced systems are much more difficult to solve. We will try to solve only unbalanced load

problems. We will here assume that source is balanced three-phase. In reality power engineers

do have to solve both unbalanced load and unbalanced source problems.

• Solve each phase separately.

• Draw vector diagram for currents & voltages which helps in solving problems

• Grounded and ungrounded system makes a big difference. In ungrounded system neutral

voltage is not zero and is undefined. In grounded system the neutral voltage is zero.

• In ungrounded unbalanced system (Y or ∆) IA + IB + IC = 0. Not for grounded unbalanced

Y load.

• Two watt-meters can measure total power for a balanced systems (grounded or

ungrounded) as well as ungrounded unbalanced loads. But two watt-meter method does

not work for grounded unbalanced Y load.

Example 10: An unbalanced delta load is supplied from a 208 3-phase 60 Hz supply. The loads

in each phase are: ZAB = 10 + j 20 Ω, ZBC = 20 - j 10 Ω, ZCA = 20 + j 10 Ω.

(b) Total three-phase power

(c) Power by two watt-meters

connected in line “A” and line

“C”

SOLUTION:

V 208∠0

I AB = AB = = 9.3∠ − 63.435 A

Z AB 10 + j 20

V 208∠ − 120

I BC = BC = = 9.3∠ − 93.4 A

Z BC 20 − j10

V 208∠120

I CA = CA = = 9.3∠93.4 A NOTE: Currents are not balanced as angles are not 1200 apart.

Z CA 20 + j10

There is no common power factor angle as each phase has different pf.

Line Currents

IB = IBC – IAB = 9.3 ∠ -93.4 – 9.3 ∠ -63.4 = 4.8 ∠ -168.4 A

IC = ICA – IBC = 9.3 ∠ 93.4 – 9.3 ∠ -93.4 = 18.6 ∠ 90 A

18

Power

PT = PAB + PBC + PCA = (IAB)2 RAB + (IBC)2 RBC + (ICA)2 RCA

= (9.3)2 × 10 + (9.3)2 × 20 + (9.3)2 × 20 = 865.3 + 1730.6 + 1730.6 = 4326.5 Watts

Watt-meter Readings

WA = VAB × IA × Cos (angle between VAB and IA) NOTE: Not power factor angle

= 208 × 18.23 × Cos(0 – (-75)) = 981.2 Watts

WC = VCB × IC × Cos (angle between VCB and IA) Note: VCB = - VBC = 208 ∠ 60

= 208 × 18.57 × Cos(60 -90) = 3345.2 Watts

V CA IC

VCB

I CA

V AB

IB

I AB

I BC

V BC IA

19

Example 11: A single-phase motor drawing 15 A at 0.85 pf lagging, is connected macros line B

& line C of a three-phase system as shown in the diagram. The 3-phase system also supplies a 3-

phase motor drawing 20A at 0.9 pf leading. Assuming VAB = 440 ∠ 0 and also assume a-b-c

sequence determine:

(b) the readings of the two watt-meter

connected in line A and B

(c) Draw vector diagram showing currents &

voltages

= 20 ∠ - 4.16 A

Note: IMA is 25.840 leading from VAN. VAN is at -300.

Pf angle is from phase voltage and phase current.

IMC = 20 ∠ 115.84 A

-31.790 with reference to VBC

Line Currents:

IA = IMA = 20 ∠ -4.16 A

IB = IMB + IBC = 20 ∠ -124.16 + 15 ∠ -151.8

= 34 ∠ -135.96 A

IC = IMC – IBC = 20 ∠ 115.84 - 15 ∠ -151.8

= 25.5 ∠ 79.83 A

Watt-meter Readings:

WA = VAC × IA × Cos (angle between VAC and IA)

= 440 × 20 × Cos(- 60 + 4.16) = 4941.25 Watt

= 440 × 34 × Cos (-120 + 135.96) = 14387.6

Watt.

PT = WA + WB = 4941.25 + 14387.6 = 19328.85 Watt

PT = P 1 + P2

P1 = 3 VL I L cos θ = 3 × 440 × 20 × 0.9 = 13717.8 Watt Power of 3-phase motor

P2 = Vϕ Iϕ cos θ = 440 × 15 × 0.85 = 5610 Watt Power of single-phase motor

PT = P1 + P2 = 19327.8 ≈ WA + WB

20

THREE-PHASE PROBLEMS:

Prob 1. Two balanced Y-connected loads, one drawing 10 kW at 0.8 power factor lagging and

the other 15 kW at 0.9 power factor leading, are connected in parallel and supplied by a

balanced three-phase Y-connected, 480 V source.

(b) Determine the power reactive power & power factor of the total system

Prob 2. A three-phase delta connected motor draws 1000kVA at 0.65 power factor lagging from

a 480 V source. Determine the kVA rating of capacitors to make the new power factor

0.85 lagging. Calculate the line current before and after the power factor correction.

Prob 3. Two inductions motor load are connected in parallel at the end of a three-phase line.

The voltage at the input of the motors is a balanced 440 V.

a. Find VIN, I IN and input power factor

b. Find the values of capacitance per-phase of the delta necessary to bring the power

factor to a 0.9 lagging.

Prob. 4. A balanced delta load consist of pure resistance of 12 Ω per phase is in parallel with a

balanced Y load having impedance of 4+j3 Ω per phase. The combined load is supplied by a

source of 230 V three-phase. Determine

(b) What value of Y-connected capacitor is needed to improve the source PF to unity?

(c) What is the line current of the source after the addition of capacitor.

Prob. 5. Three parallel three-phase loads are supplied from a 207.85 V, 60 Hz three phase

supply. The loads are as follows:

21

Load 1: A 15 hp motor operating at full-load, 93.25% efficiency, and 0.6 lagging power factor.

Load 2: A balanced resistive load that draws a total of 6 kW.

Load 3: A Y-connected capacitor bank with a total rating of 16 kvar.

• What is the total system kW, power factor and supply current?

• What is the system power factor and supply current when the capacitor bank is switched

off?

in the diagram find the line currents. Assume

source is balanced and given that : VAB = 400

∠ 00 Volts. Calculate the Watt-meter WB &

WC readings and verify that the total power is

equal to WB + WC.

load is connected to a line voltage of 280

V and draws 3 kVA at 0.8 pf lag. In

addition two single-phase loads are also

connected to the system. Between Line

A and B we have a capacitor of 1.5 kvar

and between line B & C we have a pure

resistive load of 1 kW. Assuming a-b-c

sequence and VBC as the reference find

the three line currents (from the source)

and the watt meter readings.

Prob 8. Consider the three-phase a-b-c sequence system shown below. The line voltage VAB is

416∠ 300 V. Phase A supplies single-phase users on A street (48 kW at pf =1), phase B

supplies single phase users on B street (30 kW at pf =1), and phase C supplies single

phase users on C street (60 kW at pf =1). Furthermore, the three-phase industrial load,

which is delta connected, is balanced is 36 kW at 0.5 lagging pf. Calculate the Line

Currents.

22

Problem 9. Find the line currents in the three-phase system shown below. Let Z∆ = 12-j15 Ω,

ZY = 4 + j6 Ω and Zl = 2 Ω.

Problem 10. A balanced delta-connected load is connected to a source through a feeder line.

Assume that Vab = 416 ∠600 V and a positive phase sequence. Find the line

currents if the load impedance is 60∠300 and feeder line impedance is 1 + j1.

impedance 30 - j40 Ω per phase. Find the line current and line voltage.

Problem 12. A three-phase line has an impedance of 1 + j3 Ω per phase. The line feeds a

balanced delta load, which absorbs a total complex power of 12 + j5 kVA. If the

line voltage at the load end has a magnitude of 240 V, calculate the magnitude of

line voltage at the source end and the power factor of the source.

Problem 13. Find the line currents and real absorbed by the load in the system shown below.

23

Problem 14. As shown in the figure below, a three-phase 4 wire line with a balanced three-

phase 208 V source. The 3-phase motor draws 260 kVA at 0.85 pf lagging. In

addition to the motor load there are three pure resistive load and are connected as

shown in the figure.

(a) If three watt-meters are arranged to measure the power in each line, calculate

the reading of each meter.

(b) Find the neutral current.

24

(Following Problems are taken from Saadat “Power System Analysis”)

25

26

Single-Phase Three-Phase

S = VI* = P ± jQ For Balanced Y- Load

P P V

IPhase = φ , VLINE = 3 Vφ ∠ + 30 I LINE = Iφ

0

Power Factor, Cosθ = = and

VI S Z

P = S Cos θ

And Q = S Sin θ

P = V I Cosθ watts

P = I2 R watts For series Circuit

2

V

P = R watts For parallel Circuit

R

ILINE = √3 IPhase ∠ -30 and VPHASE = V LINE

*

S = 3(VPhase I Phase ) = P + jQ = 3 VL IL ∠θ

Power, P = 3 VL I L Cosθ = 3(VPhase I Phase Cos θ)

and Reactive Power, Q = 3 VL I L Sinθ

P= 3(Single-phase Power)

Unbalanced System

• Three-phase formulas are not valid for unbalanced

systems.

• Solve each phase separately.

• Draw vector diagram for currents & voltages.

• PT = P A + PB + PC

Two Watt-meter

Power Factor Correction WA = VAB × IA × Cos (angle between VAB and IA)

WC = VCB × IC × Cos (angle between VCB and IA)

27

28

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