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LIVING IN THE IT ERA

3G E-LEARNING
LIVING IN THE IT ERA

3G E-LEARNING

© 2018 3G E-learning LLC


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Authored and Edited by 3G E-learning LLC, USA

ISBN: 978-1-68095-715-0

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TABLE OF CONTENTS

Section 1 —— Television..................................................................28
• Scope.......................................................................................1 —— FAX............................................................................29
• Learning Objectives..............................................................1 —— Technology and the Journalist...............................29
• Overview................................................................................2 —— Electronic Mail..........................................................30
—— Social Networking...................................................30
Unit 1 Information Technology in —— The Usefulness of Social Networks.......................31
Everyday Life
• Information Sheet................................................................32
• Introduction...........................................................................3
—— Technology in Today’s World and in the
• Learning Objectives..............................................................3 Future........................................................................32
• Meaning of Information Technology.................................4
• Unit Summary.....................................................................34
—— Understanding Information Technology...............5
• Multiple Choice Questions................................................34
—— Importance of Information Technology.................6 • Points of Discussion............................................................35
—— Generalized Advantages and Disadvantages of —— Answers of Multiple Choice Questions................35
Information Technology...........................................7
• References............................................................................36
—— Advantages.................................................................7
—— Information Technology (IT) . .................................8
Unit 2 Information Technology in
• Role of Information
Technology in Daily Life......................................................9
Education
• Introduction.........................................................................39
—— The Role of Information Technology in Business
Success.........................................................................9 • Learning Objectives............................................................39
• Concept of Information
—— Role in the Modern Organization..........................12
Technology in Education...................................................41
—— The Role of Information Technology in —— Information Technology and the Purpose of
Education..................................................................13 Education..................................................................44
—— Role of Information Technology in Medical —— Benefits to Education Management Software......45
Science.......................................................................15
—— IT Role in the Education of Undeveloped
—— Role of Information Technology in Finance.........17 Countries...................................................................46
—— Role of Information Technology in Agriculture.. 20 —— IT in Education of Globalization...........................47
—— The Role of Technology in Banking Industry......21 —— IT and the Requirement of Changing
—— Role of Information Technology in Education..................................................................47
Communication........................................................23 —— Need and Importance of Information
—— Role of Information Technology in Technology in Education........................................48
Communication........................................................23 —— Importance of Information Technology in
• Information Technology in Media Industry...................25 Education:.................................................................49
—— Telegraph..................................................................26 —— Need of Information Technology in
Education..................................................................49
—— Telephone..................................................................26
• Significance of IT in Education.........................................50
—— Radio..........................................................................28
—— Due to Information Technology is there any

iii
Change in Delivery System....................................51 —— Databases..................................................................88
—— Access to Variety of Learning Resources.............52 —— Business uses of Databases.....................................89
—— Understanding Information Technology.............53 —— Spreadsheets.............................................................89
—— Multimedia Approach to Education.....................54 —— Business uses of Spreadsheets...............................90
—— Online Learning.......................................................54 —— Presentation Programs............................................90
—— Distance Learning....................................................56 —— Uses of Internet and Communications
Technologies.............................................................91
—— E-Learning.................................................................58
• Telecommunications and
—— Mobile Learning.......................................................60
Information Technologies make to Businesses...............93
—— E-Conferencing.........................................................61 —— How Does Technology Improve a Business?......94
• Uses of Information —— 4 Ways ICT/Technology Can Improve Your
Technology in Education...................................................63 Business.....................................................................96
—— Impact of Information Technology on
—— Using Technology to Increase Your Business
Education..................................................................65
Productivity..............................................................98
—— Information Technology and the Potential of
—— Greatest benefits of business productivity
Education..................................................................66
software:....................................................................98
• Information Sheet................................................................67
—— How Technology Affects Business
—— Educational Technology.........................................67 Operations.................................................................99
• Unit Summary.....................................................................69 • Challenges of Information Technologies.......................101
• Multiple Choice Questions................................................69 —— Challenges of Managing Your Information
• Points of Discussion............................................................70 Technology Infrastructure....................................102
—— Answers to Multiple Choice Questions................70 —— Challenges of Information Technology
Management in the 21st Century........................103
• References ...........................................................................71
—— Business Benefits of Information Technology...104

Unit 3 Information Technology in —— The Disadvantages of Information


Technology in Business.........................................105
Business
• Information Sheet..............................................................106
• Introduction.........................................................................75
—— Business Objectives of Information
• Learning Objectives............................................................75
Technology.............................................................106
—— Process Improvement..............................................76
• Unit Summary...................................................................108
—— Cost Reduction.........................................................76
• Multiple Choice Questions..............................................108
—— Quality Assurance...................................................76 • Points of Discussion..........................................................109
—— Communications......................................................77 —— Answers to Multiple Choice Questions..............109
—— Competitive Intelligence.........................................77 • References..........................................................................110
• Information and
Communications Technology in Business......................77
Section 2
—— Computers and Other Business Hardware..........78 • Scope...................................................................................113
—— Choosing a PC..........................................................79 • Learning Objectives.........................................................113
—— Software.....................................................................81 • Overview............................................................................114
—— Complete software packages.................................83
—— Information Technology in Our Daily Life..........85 Unit 4 Electronic Information Sources
• Introduction.......................................................................115
• Strategies to Select
Appropriate Hardware and Software to Meet • Learning Objectives..........................................................115
Business Needs....................................................................86 • Electronic Information.....................................................116
—— Improving Profitability...........................................87 —— Special Libraries.....................................................119
—— Business Growth and Increased Market —— Access & accessing Electronic Information . .....121
Share..........................................................................88
—— Requirements for accessing Electronic
—— Communication and Information Information ............................................................122
Management.............................................................88
• Concept of Electronic
—— Possible uses of Available Computer Information Resources.....................................................123
Software.....................................................................88

iv
• Management of Electronic Information Resources . ...128 —— The Damage of Cybercrime ................................158
—— IT Infrastructure ....................................................128 • Protective and Reactive
—— Importance of Information Technology in Approaches to Security In Cyberspace..........................160
business relationships ..........................................129 • Privacy And Data Protection...........................................161
—— Access .....................................................................131 —— The Value, Law, and Status of Privacy
Protection................................................................162
—— Finance.....................................................................137
—— Threats to Privacy in Cyberspace........................164
• Information Sheet..............................................................139
—— Privacy Protection Modes and Constraints on
—— Electronic resource utilization.............................139
Measures against Cyber Crime............................167
• Unit Summary...................................................................141
• Cyber Security Challenges...............................................170
• Multiple Choice Questions..............................................141
—— Complexity of the Connected Environment .....170
• Points of Discussion..........................................................143
—— Growing Sophistication of the Threat . ..............171
—— Answers to Multiple Choice Questions..............143
—— Threats Are Moving To the Mobile Sphere ......171
• References..........................................................................144
—— The “Big Data” Paradox: Is It a Bigger Risk
or a Solution?..........................................................172
Section 3 —— For Many, Breach Preparedness Is Still
• Scope...................................................................................147 Not A Priority.........................................................173
• Learning Objectives..........................................................147
—— Compliance vs. Risk-management . ...................173
• Overview............................................................................148
• Cyber Security Policy Developments.............................174
—— Stewardship vs. Securitization.............................174
Unit 5 Cyberspace Privacy and
—— Cyberspace Governance and Security
Security is a Global Issue ....................................................175
• Introduction.......................................................................149
—— Electronic Dictionary . ..........................................176
• Learning Objectives..........................................................149
• Information Sheet..............................................................177
• The Size of Cyberspace....................................................150
—— Phishing Scam........................................................177
—— Internet Users ........................................................152
• Unit Summary...................................................................179
—— Points of Online Interaction ................................153
• Multiple Choice Questions..............................................180
—— Volume of Online Activity ..................................153
• Points of Discussion..........................................................181
• The Security of Cyberspace: Vectors, —— Answers to Multiple Choice Questions..............182
Occurrence and Damage..................................................155
• References..........................................................................183
—— Vectors of Attack . .................................................157
—— Occurrence of Cyber Attacks ..............................158
Index 187

v
PREFACE

Introduction

Today’s adolescents have grown up in a world revolving around digital technology. The
development of technology has brought different in our life. People nowadays are more depending
on technology to do works daily. It is a new brand world that brings technology as a something
essential and important. People are more comfortable in using gadget such as smart phone,
laptop and much more. Even student tends to learns from internet. There are a lot of e-books,
articles and reliable source of education that they can get through simply using internet. Living a
life immersed in technology has become part of the culture for digital natives and one unfamiliar
to many students and educators. This course focuses on what an individual must know and
understand about information technology in order to use it effectively and productively for his
or her own purposes.

About the Book

In today’s world, information technology is increasingly common. This course investigates the
role of information and communication technology in this era. It covers the latest advances in
the broad and ever-changing field of information technology. It is obvious that students need to
understand the impact of information technologies in everyday life and other fields. Information
technology is an enabler for many new types of educational opportunities. This book aims to
provide answers to those questions. It aims to inspire learners in striving harder by developing a
sense of responsibility and commitment as they go along with the course. This book covers five
units under three sections.

In Section 1 you will know the role of information technology in everyday life, education settings,
and business, as you encounter many new technologies in your everyday lives: at home, work,
in the streets, in places you visit for holidays, in public spaces, through conversations and the
media.

Section 2 discusses a wide range of products of electronic information source going from
electronic periodicals to CD-ROMs, from mailing list to databases, all of them having a common
feature of being used and sometime modified by a computer. Electronic information sources are
becoming more and more important for the academic community. Therefore, awareness of these
information resources is of paramount importance to the development in the 21st century.

In Section 3 you will know the importance of cyber security, as now societies are becoming more
dependent on computer networks, and therefore more vulnerable to cyber-crime and terrorism.
Measures to protect information systems have received increasing attention as the threat of
attacks grows and the nature of that threat is better understood.

The following are the salient features of the book:

 Each section contains the scope, overview, and objectives.


 Topics are logically arranged according to the course outline of the subject.
 The use of simple language to facilitate a better understanding of each unit.
 Illustrative examples of varying difficulties are presented to enhance the interest of stu-
dents.
 The provision of progress check test for every unit is given at the end of unit to strengthen
the learning process of students.
SECTION 1

SCOPE
“Information technology (IT) is “the study, design, development, LEARNING
implementation, support or management of computer-based OBJECTIVES
information systems, particularly software applications,
This section contains three
computer hardware and mobile devices.” IT deals with the use
units which are as follows:
of electronic computers and computer software to convert, store,
protect, process, transmit, and securely retrieve information. • Information
Technology in
Many companies now have IT departments for managing the
Everyday Life
computers, networks, and other technical areas of their business.
• Information
Information for the current modern era is a very important Technology in
thing. This is as a result of increasingly diverse and complex Education
human activity in various sectors of life. With increasing • Information
discoveries in the field of technology, especially IT, to make the Technology in
technology as a bridge that is capable to connecting millions of Business
people in the world in getting the information they need. IT has
been proven to help solve the problem often encountered many
people, especially regarding to the factor of human foibles. Along
with the advancement of IT, it plays a role in many different
areas: Business, Education, Finance, Healthcare, agriculture,
entertainment etc.
OVERVIEW
LIVING IN THE IT ERA

Technology is an absolute need we cannot escape from. Let’s just say, it has a very big
role in most aspects of our lives. In other words, it answers most of Mankind problems.
Across centuries technology evolves. The importance of technology is aiming for comfort
of use in whichever form it is. It always directs for easiness in life.
Take the mobile technology for example. The faster the world is moving, the more hi-
end the features are offered. Laptop gets thinner and smaller. It becomes more compact
every year and offers more capabilities and top performance. It should load a lot of stuffs
in a more concise shape. That is the need. Period. People should not take time to think of
what should be brought over a sales presentation in the southern state since everything is
already “filed” in the laptop.
Also for telephone. The need to be able to communicate anytime, anywhere, has inspired
scientists to create cellular phone. And it gets smaller and smaller. And then it has more
features, more games, more entertainment, and now offered more professional like having
a computer in the pocket. And then from costly, it goes cheaper and better and faster and
become more reliable.
The fact that the importance of technology in our daily basis is undeniable has inspired
scientists to make improvements from time to time through their invented tools and devices
for us to use, just to make our lives easier. We always tend to make one step ahead.
Technology can help not just with the present but also approximating the future. It can
calculate the potential profits and losses. And based on these, we can create plans and a
list of pre-cautious steps for the future of our descendants.

How do you use this section?


This section has three units. Each unit has the following parts:
►► Learning objectives
►► Keywords
►► What do you already know?
►► What do you need to know?
►► Unit summary
►► Progress check test

2
UNIT 1
INFORMATION TECHNOLOGY IN
EVERYDAY LIFE

LEARNING
INTRODUCTION OBJECTIVES
Information technology (IT) and its increasing dominance in After reading and analyzing the
everyday life have established it as a discontinuous innovation, unit, you should be able to:
one that establishes new behavior patterns and transforms old 1. Understand the meaning
ones in our daily environments, including vacations, travel, and of information technology
leisure time. The internet, television, mobile phones, computer- 2. Describe the role of
information technology in
based devices and other new forms of information technology daily life
are changing at a rapid pace with potentially profound but also 3. Explain the information
subtle influences on social life. Every one of us is so dependent technology in media
on technology that we cannot do without them. Starting from industry
computers to keeping fit, we require technology at every step.
Technology helps us to keep in touch with people who are away
from us. We use the telephones and computers to talk to them
and even see them. Our daily office work is also technology
based. We encounter many new technologies in our everyday
lives: at home, work, in the streets, in places we visit for holidays,
on business, in public spaces, through conversations and the
media. Depending on our activities and network we are more or
less likely to be exposed to any particular innovation, and then
more or less likely to take notice and be in a position where it
makes sense to follow it up. Different occupations and interests
make particular technologies more relevant for some people
than others since many are designed for particular types of use
or organization. There are also other more generic technologies
such as the telephone or the PC that are much more flexible
in their use, and can be used or configured by users according to
LIVING IN THE IT ERA

their particular interests and activities.


As well as being influenced by the activities that we or our
community engage in, there is a personal component related to the
interest in innovations. Some people appear to be more attracted
to investigate innovations in general or to particular classes of
innovations. A number of questions can be asked about individuals
encountering innovations: how likely is someone to take notice of
innovations when they encounter them? Is a particular individual
the sort of person who looks out for innovations? Is this purely a
personal issue, or does the social situation shape our likely responses
to innovation?
Change in our personal circumstance is important in bringing us
into contact with innovations. Change often involves us innovating
ourselves, as we explore or struggle with a new situation. Adapting
to new situations often involves finding out about factors in the new
environment, looking for tools to manage change, new activities and
relationships, and looking for ways to maintain existing relationships,
values, and activities in the face of change. In this case, what
sorts of circumstances make it more likely that we will encounter
innovative ICTs? Not all innovations are the same of course, and
the assessment depends very much on the individual, their values
and activities. Some innovations can have immediate and profound
implications, such as space travel, others, such as a new computer
games terminal are completely trivial and uninspiring to all but a
few.

MEANING OF INFORMATION
TECHNOLOGY
LEARNING OBJECTIVE Information technology is the technology used to store,
Understand manipulate, distribute or create information.  All these
the meaning can be summed up easily – It’s having knowledge, and
of information
technology
knowledge comes from having information. Gaining knowledge
through information is the role of ‘’information technology’’ IT in
today’s informed world.
The most drastic alteration in our lives since the past few
years is the penetration and massive progress of the Information
technology which has become more of a necessity for us now rather

4
than a facility. These drastic changes that information technology

INFORMATION TECHNOLOGY IN EVERYDAY LIFE


has introduced in our lives have completely changed our lives and
perhaps our lifestyles. Life has become much less manual and a lot
hassle-free for people all around the globe that have active access
to the innovations of information technology.
KEY WORD
Computer hardware
is the collection of
physical parts of a
computer system. This
includes the computer
case, monitor,
keyboard, and mouse.

Understanding Information Technology


Information technology literally refers to any development that
mainly involves computer-based information systems comprising
of software applications and the computer hardware. A more
conventional and perhaps contemporary meaning of the information
system is the use of electronic systems that can assist towards
retrieving the required information. Information technology in the
modern day and age has a lot to do with communication and
accessibility which is mostly why the use of technology (computers) is
associated with information. Nothing is the same with the expansion
and deeper penetration of information technology; let’s take an
example from our daily lives to realize the extent to which technology
has become a part of our routine lives, we take an instance of the
elevators that we take every day to reach swiftly where we want
to without having to waste any time.
Communication covers a huge part of what information
technology is for the people of the modern age because when
we think of accessibility and an easy life, we automatically point
towards technological innovations such as the Internet and the
mobile phones along with a thousand other inventions. There are
many ways through which information technology has become
such as integral part of our daily lives; we have incorporated it
into our lives as a part of routines. For instance, we plan our busy
schedules on our personal laptops or on our cellular phones. This
shows how much we depend on information technology that we
have even started planning our lives and goals by the help of it.
Indeed, it has made life extremely organized and structured
but at the same time we have failed to acknowledge the threats
and dangers that it brings along with it. We cannot ignore the fact
that there are over thousands and thousands of cyber intrusions
each day which has ended up affecting the lives of people in an
unfavorable manner. For example, online banking systems have
5
allowed hackers to steal money and many awful incidents have taken place because of
LIVING IN THE IT ERA

this technological advancement and facility provided to the people. This implies that with
more and more technological advancement and information accessibility, the chances of
the exploitation of technology and information expand.

Importance of Information Technology


Thousands of years past and the importance of technology have been greatly influencing
our own society. Evidence shows that our ancestor was using different kinds of apparatus to
convey information to its recipient. Some make fire to produced smoke signals, others uses
pens and paper to transport data to different places. Information technology before was at
some sort limited in every sector of banking industry, engineering business and computer
society. It’s been a long time since we are confronted by the importance of information
technology; the only difference was how advance it is in terms of usability.
But nowadays, we are extensively feed up with technology of information all around
us. Everything we have seen around us is purely a product of high end advancement.
This advancement of technology provides the importance of information technology into a
greater value. As historical events speak, information technology is a vital element in any
development in terms of trade and commerce, defense and culture. It has fully grown with
outstanding drive and acquired a noble rank for itself and all those that linked with it.
But how important is the advancement of information technology into our lives? What
is the part that this technology can show in present society? Will it be beneficial to all?
The arrival of computers made the importance of information technology rapidly
spreading around where everyone has observed its unveiling growth. It’s an industry
which gathers the procedure of computer hardware, software and networking. Information
technology turns as an aide. A standard process that allows great bulks of data to be
kept and processed or transmitted at lightning speed. Now, there is more information at
hand to make choices, sustain and preserve relations, monitor business activities or track
movements. By this, information can be received and acquired at any moment.

Information technology brings out the production and development of mobile phones in
the market such as iPhone, iPad which are more technologically motivated. It has released
the doors open to which is profitably channelized through the use of cellular phones. In
addition, reaching out people is more convenient and accessible where everyone can use
its application with comfort. Connecting with each other is made easy with the flooding
entry of communication device available today. Right from the start, information technology
has never been idle nor a slow moving process instead it’s always been hardly striving to
prove its long time effectiveness as period of change passes by.

6
As a general view, information technology today permits us to gather, handle and

INFORMATION TECHNOLOGY IN EVERYDAY LIFE


interconnect a gigantic volume of information. And its sustainable development improves its
competence, capability swiftness and precisions of any components it provides. Information
technology has achieved a lot in this present era and will continue to evolve. It’s more than
a combination of computers and communication technology. It is indeed truthful to say
that the information technology has successfully infiltrated human existences, occupying
the biggest part of every lifestyle; the importance of information technology; touching lives.

Generalized Advantages and Disadvantages of


Information Technology
Along with specific contributions to certain fields, information technology also has a few
general advantages for society. However, with every advantage, there comes a disadvantage
from another area. Below is a brief list of advantages and disadvantages as information
technology grows.

Advantages
With improvements in information technology, globalization has increased. The world
is brought closer, and the world’s economy is quickly becoming a single interdependent
system. Information can be shared quickly and easily from all over the globe, and barriers
of linguistic and geographic boundaries can be torn down as people share ideas and
information with each other.
Communication has become an easier, cheaper, and faster system with the help of
information technology. Using the internet, people can speak to each other all over the world
using video conferencing. Skype is one helpful application that allows users to communicate
to other Skype users for free. You can also pay a small fee to call regular lines.
Social media is also another area of communication available because of information
technology. It’s now easier than ever to share photos and information about your life with
people you know all over the world. This draws some families closer to family members
they don’t get to see as often.
Most mobile devices also offer some kind of face to face video communication as well.
Using Skype or other programs like it, you can call other mobile Skype users for free to
talk face to face. Apple also has FaceTime, which allows iPhone users to talk face to face
with other iPhone users.

7
LIVING IN THE IT ERA

WHAT DO YOU ALREADY KNOW?


Understand how much you already know about using appropriate information
technology in everyday life.

Information Technology (IT)


Information Technology (IT) ushered in the information age and set in motion
a digital revolution which created a knowledge-based society, sustained by a
technologically advanced global economy. Commonly used synonyms for Information
Technology include Computers, Computer Networks, Software, Hardware, Web
Design, Electronics, Telecommunications and Semiconductors. Fields and sectors
are two broad categories that need clarification when associated with Information
Technology.
Information technology (IT) is a label that has two meanings. In common usage,
the term “information technology” is often used to refer to all of computing. As a
name of an undergraduate degree program, it refers to the preparation of students
to meet the computer technology needs of business, government, healthcare, schools,
and other kinds of organizations.
Typically, IT is used in the context of enterprise operations as opposed to
personal or entertainment technologies. The commercial use of IT encompasses
both computer technology and telephony.
The term information technology was coined by the Harvard Business Review, in
order to make a distinction between purpose-built machines designed to perform a
limited scope of functions and general-purpose computing machines that could be
programmed for various tasks. As the IT industry evolved from the mid-20th century,
it encompassed transistors and integrated circuits -- computing capability advanced
while device cost and energy consumption fell lower, a cycle that continues today
when new technologies emerge.

Businesses have become more cost hardware and software developers, and web
effective for both themselves and their designers all owe their jobs to information
consumers using information technology. technology. Without such advances, these
By streamlining, businesses increase their jobs would not exist.
productivity. This pays out to greater profits,
which allows companies to offer better pay Disadvantages
and less strenuous working conditions.
Unfortunately, along with the creation of new
Along with making businesses more
and interesting jobs, information technology
cost effective, information technology allows
has also led to a rise in unemployment.
businesses to be within reach of consumers
By streamlining the business process, job
24/7. If you decide you want to purchase
redundancies, downsizing, and outsourcing
a red sweater at five in the morning, you
has occurred. Many low and middle level jobs
can easily log in on Target, Walmart, or
have been turned to other countries, leaving
any number of online clothing retailers to
more people unemployed.
purchase that red sweater. You can also save
money on purchases by buying items located Many people also credit information
in different countries. technology with a lack of job security. As
new technology is released and jobs require
Information technology has also created
more and more training, it’s important for
new jobs. Programmers, systems analyzers,
employees to stay in a learning mode in order

8
to keep their job. Changes in technology make it difficult for older

INFORMATION TECHNOLOGY IN EVERYDAY LIFE


employees to adapt as quickly as their younger peers.
Although information technology continuously works on making
things more secure, there is still a great lack of privacy. Cell phones
have been known to be intercepted, and email addresses can be
hacked. Just recently, the Heartbleed Bug created a vulnerability
in the OpenSSL cryptographic software library, and many people
were concerned for their internet security and privacy.
It is also believed that along with opening a great communication
window, information technology has begun to create a dominant
culture. Many believe that the United States holds the most influence
over how teenagers all over the world now act, dress, and behave
simply because of what they can access online. English has slowly
become the primary mode of communication for business and other
communication areas.

ROLE OF INFORMATION
TECHNOLOGY IN DAILY LIFE
IT is a set of tools that can help provide the right people LEARNING OBJECTIVE
with the right information at the right time.  Though IT is Describe the role
not a solution to everything, for IT to work, people must of information
learn how to use it. So you cannot assume that IT will work for technology in daily
life
you to share information across the organization when people in
the organization don’t know how to use it.  Below we have listed
a few roles of information technology in various sectors.

The Role of Information Technology in


Business Success
Innovation is the great way to success in this digital age. The path
of innovation in business means doing something different, smarter
or better that will make a positive difference in terms of value,
quality or productivity by using emerging or proved technologies
of the world. The technology which has already proved itself in
last two decades is of course the information technology (IT). It

9
has dramatically changed the lives of the individuals and organizations. Currently online
LIVING IN THE IT ERA

shopping, digital marketing, social networking, digital communication and cloud computing
etc. are the best examples of change which came through the wave of information technology.
Now accurate business planning, effective marketing, global sales, systematic management,
real time monitoring, instant customer support and long term business growth cannot be
achieved at the optimum level without IT.

The importance of IT in Business


The success of every business depends on certain factors. Some of which are accurate
analysis, choosing the right technology and the future vision. Research from the last two
decade has proved that those organizations that do invest in technology and choose the
path of innovation increase their market share, financial figures and overall competitiveness.
Information technology is the only technology which provides you the opportunity to
analyses specific data and plan your business journey accordingly. It also provides you
many tools which can solve complex problems and plan the scalability (future growth)
of your business. In the modern age, it is proved that digital marketing is a great tool
which let you promote your products or services to the global market while sitting in the
comfort of your remote office or home. And thanks to the cloud computing and modern
communication which enable you to form a global organization, manage and monitor its
virtual offices all over the world.

Decision Making
Speed and accuracy are at the heart of making right decision for your business. Every
successful organization has to go through a comprehensive market research process which

10
enables management to make the right decision.   Market research

INFORMATION TECHNOLOGY IN EVERYDAY LIFE


can be done in many ways through online surveys, forums, blogs,
and group discussions using World Wide Web and of course through
in-person interviews as well. Currently Big data, Google Analytics
and Microsoft CRM Dynamics are also great tools to extract useful
information which can impact on decision making. These online tools
not only provide real time responses from the potential audience
but also ensure the accuracy of data by minimizing the risk of
human errors.

Marketing and Business Growth


The heart of the business success lies in its marketing which enables
the management to identify its target audience first and then observe
their trends and needs. The overall marketing covers public relation,
advertising, promotion and sales which subsequently impact on
business growth. Many types of marketing can help you reach your
potential customers. But we will briefly explain digital marketing
here which was the dream in the past without Internet technology.
Digital Marketing is a modern phenomenon which let you promote
your products or services all over the world. It is a broad term
which includes many concepts like search engine optimization (SEO), KEY WORD
pay per click (PPC), blogging, discussion forum, email shot, SMS, Digital marketing is
MMS, social media marketing and Smartphone app advertisement a subcategory of
etc. Currently web market is booming at a very fast pace because marketing which uses
most of the entrepreneurs have understood that the long term digital technology
to place and sell
success in business is not possible without digital presence on the products.
internet. Millions of new websites are being added on the internet
every year.

Customer Support and Satisfaction


Higher level of customer satisfaction is the key to success which
cannot be achieved without a real time customer support process.
Business success depends on knowing its customer’s needs, trends,
behaviors and satisfaction level. Effective communication is the
best tool to understand the customer demands, problems and their
solutions. Thanks to the Internet Technology that has enabled us
to communicate with millions of potential or existing customer in
the real time. IT provides many channels to communicate with
the customer without going out in snow or rain. Some of these
channels are email, webinar, social media, member portals, online
newsletters and text or multimedia messaging through the smart
phone. Enterprise organizations normally use customer relationship
management systems (CRM) to hold valuable data for understanding
customer behaviors and future needs.

Resource Management and Globalizations


Resource management plays a crucial role in business success.
When it comes to medium or large organization, it is very hard for
the top management to manage all the resources manually. These
resources may include tangible, financial or human resources etc.
Information technology has played a vital role in automating such
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complex problems by introducing user friendly solutions. A decade
LIVING IN THE IT ERA

ago, most of the resource management solutions were desktop


based. Thanks to the internet and cloud technology which enables
software engineers to introduce cloud based ERP (Enterprise Resource
Planning) solutions. Now, the managers can manage or monitor
their organizational resources virtually anywhere in the world by
using their personal computer, laptops, tablets or Smartphone.
This concept has introduced the idea of globalization. Most of
multinational companies (Microsoft, Google, Amazon, McDonalds
etc.) in the world use these cloud based solutions to manage their
virtual or physical offices and staff worldwide.

Role in the Modern Organization


Information technology (IT) has become a vital and integral part of
every business plan. From multi-national corporations who maintain
mainframe systems and databases to small businesses that own a
single computer, IT plays a role. The reasons for the omnipresent
use of computer technology in business can best be determined by
looking at how it is being used across the business world.

Communication
For many companies, email is the principal means of communication
KEY WORD between employees, suppliers and customers. Email was one
A storage device is any of the early drivers of the Internet, providing a simple and
computing hardware inexpensive means to communicate. Over the years, a number of
that is used for storing, other communications tools have also evolved, allowing staff to
porting and extracting communicate using live chat systems, online meeting tools and
data files and objects.
video-conferencing systems. Voice over internet protocol (VOIP)
telephones and smart-phones offer even more high-tech ways for
employees to communicate.

Inventory Management
When it comes to managing inventory, organizations need to maintain
enough stock to meet demand without investing in more than they
require. Inventory management systems track the quantity of each
item a company maintains, triggering an order of additional stock
when the quantities fall below a pre-determined amount. These
systems are best used when the inventory management system is
connected to the point-of-sale (POS) system. The POS system ensures
that each time an item is sold, one of that item is removed from
the inventory count, creating a closed information loop between
all departments.

Data Management
The days of large file rooms, rows of filing cabinets and the mailing
of documents is fading fast. Today, most companies store digital
versions of documents on servers and storage devices. These
documents become instantly available to everyone in the company,
regardless of their geographical location. Companies are able to

12
store and maintain a tremendous amount of historical data economically, and employees

INFORMATION TECHNOLOGY IN EVERYDAY LIFE


benefit from immediate access to the documents they need.

Management Information Systems


Storing data is only a benefit if that data can be used effectively. Progressive companies
use that data as part of their strategic planning process as well as the tactical execution
of that strategy. Management Information Systems (MIS) enable companies to track sales
data, expenses and productivity levels. The information can be used to track profitability
over time, maximize return on investment and identify areas of improvement. Managers
can track sales on a daily basis, allowing them to immediately react to lower-than-expected
numbers by boosting employee productivity or reducing the cost of an item.

Customer Relationship Management


Companies are using IT to improve the way they design and manage customer relationships.
Customer Relationship Management (CRM) systems capture every interaction a company
has with a customer, so that a more enriching experience is possible. If a customer calls
a call center with an issue, the customer support representative will be able to see what
the customer has purchased, view shipping information, call up the training manual for
that item and effectively respond to the issue. The entire interaction is stored in the CRM
system, ready to be recalled if the customer calls again. The customer has a better, more
focused experience and the company benefits from improved productivity.

The Role of Information Technology in Education


Do you think information technology in education has been beneficial? Since the dawn of
the 21st century, technology has crept its way into learning and teaching environments. As
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more technological advancements are made, then there is dire need for increased literacy
LIVING IN THE IT ERA

levels on the use of this technology. Here are some of the roles played by information
technology in education.
Advancement of information technology in education has improved research. There are
very many online libraries that assist teachers and students with comprehensive reading
materials. Teachers and lecturers are also able to post their work online for their students
to read. With thorough research, students also get updated information. Every change made
in the syllabus is always revised through the internet. Students can also check what units
they are to cover in a semester through the internet.
Information technology in education has improved and has also brought about an easy
access to different learning resources. They help to improve teaching skills and learning
abilities of students. These learning resources include audio and visual education. Students
are taught with projectors in classrooms or lectured through class speakers. Students
and teachers can also easily download eBooks from the internet which can be read from
anywhere through your phone or tablet.

Through eLearning, students can now study whenever they want. There are no fixed
timetables so people from different time zones can now do the same courses in the same
academic institute. Students can also take their examinations whenever they want with
time provided to them.
For children with disabilities, information technology in education has brought gadgets
to help them with learning. For instance, the hearing impaired use electronic devices called
hearing aids. They can also use visual learning where sign language is used on electronic
media to enhance communication. This has been a role of information technology in education.
Combined learning is also improved. Information technology in education has made it
possible for learners to have study groups. Students can now create combined ideas, solve
problems and learn more through group studies and academic forums online.
The incorporation of information technology in education has brought so many positive
changes. More academic systems should embrace technology because it makes teaching
more effective and aids in practical learning. Students should also embrace it because in
the future, most of the jobs will be technologically based. With time, everyone will see the
significance of information technology in education.

Importance of Information Technology in Education


The world of education is changing as the modern world continues to grow. With so much
progress happening, it’s important that education be able to reach students in new ways
so that their students are prepared for the future. The students of today are the leaders,

14
inventors, teachers, and businessmen (and women) of tomorrow. Without the proper skills,

INFORMATION TECHNOLOGY IN EVERYDAY LIFE


these students will not have the preparation needed to survive. With so much focus placed
on education, it can sometimes be difficult to hold a job and still get the training needed
to get a better job. Information technology plays a key role in students being able to keep
their jobs and go to school. Now, most schools offer online classes that can be accessed on
computers or laptops, tablets, and even mobile phones. A busy student at work can easily
check in or submit assignments while on their lunch break.
Teachers need to be prepared by staying up to date with information technology, and
this can mean more than just reading about the latest gadgets. Using technology, teachers
can prepare their students for a future flooded with gadgets including tablets, mobile
phones, computers, and so much more.
Information technology is helping to prevent more high school and college dropouts
as well. Life events can happen to anyone at any time, and even high schools are taking
advantage of online classes so that students can continue their education instead of considering
dropping out.

Role of Information Technology in Medical Science


Health information technology (HIT) is the application of information processing involving
both computer hardware and software that deals with the storage, retrieval, sharing, and
use of health care information, data, and knowledge for communication and decision
making. HIT, technology represents computers and communications attributes that can be
networked to build systems for moving health information. Let’s have a brief glimpse at
the background of the information technology in medicine.
Worldwide use of computer technology in medicine began in the early 1950s with the
rise of the computers. In 1949, Gustav Wagner established the first professional organization
for health informatics in Germany. Health informatics also called Health Information
Systems is a discipline at the intersection of information science, computer science, and
health care. It concerns with the resources, devices, and methods required for optimizing
the acquisition, storage, retrieval, and use of information in health and biomedicine.
Health informatics tools include computers, clinical guidelines, formal medical
terminologies, and information and communication systems. It is applied to the areas of
nursing, clinical care, dentistry, pharmacy, public health, occupational therapy, and (bio)
medical research.

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Use of IT in Medical Education
LIVING IN THE IT ERA

With the development in IT, there has been a significant change in


medical education all over the world. The changes is that majority
of the medical students are computer literate these days. New
information on medical topics is readily accessible via the Internet and
handheld computers such as palmtops, personal digital assistants
(PDA). Information Technology can assist medical education in
various ways such as in college networks and internet. Computer-
KEY WORD assisted learning (CAL), Virtual reality (VR), Human patient
A personal digital simulators are some options. With the help of college networks
assistant (PDA), also and Internet, the medical students as well as the teachers may stay
known as a handheld in contact even when they are off college.
PC, is a mobile device
that functions as a
Rapid communication can be established with the help of e-mails
personal information and course details, handouts, and feedbacks can be circulated easily.
manager. Many medical schools these days use online programs such as
“Blackboard” or “student central” to underline and coordinate their
courses. Such programs allow speedy access to information and
quick turnaround of evaluation and messaging, and allow all tutors,
assessors, and students at any site to look at the curricular context
of their own particular contribution. Similarly, the Internet provides
opportunities to gain up-to-date information on different aspects
of health and disease and to discuss with colleagues in different
continents via net conferencing. Free access to Medline, various
medical journals, online textbooks and the latest information on new
development in medicine also encourages learning and research.
CAL is considered as an enjoyable medium of learning and very
suitable for conceptually difficult topics. Interactive digital materials
for study of histopathology, anatomy and heart sounds are used
widely. Development of anatomical three dimensional atlases of
various internal organs using computed tomography and magnetic
resonance imaging are very illustrative and help the students to
understand the subject matter clearly.
Another development is of “Advanced Life Support” (ACLS)
simulators and Haptics “the science of touch” simulators are used
in medical education to develop various clinical skills such as
ECG interpretation, appropriate intervention such as ABC, drugs,
injections, defibrillation without working on a real patient. These
days, highly sophisticated simulators “virtual reality” with highly
advanced medical simulation technologies and medical databases
are available in the advanced medical schools that expose the
medical students to the vast range of complex medical situations.
It can emulate various clinical procedures such as catheterization,
laparoscopy, bronchoscopy etc. With new technology, the students
can virtually go inside each and every organ and see how they
actually look like from outside as well as from inside.
Information technology has been very helpful to the healthcare
sector. One example of a significant advancement that IT has provided
to hospitals is the development of electronic medical records (EMR).
This technology can convert medical information into a single
database. Not only does this technology reduce paper costs, it allows

16
healthcare providers to access pertinent patient information such

INFORMATION TECHNOLOGY IN EVERYDAY LIFE


as medical history, medications, insurance information, etc. with
just the click of a mouse.

Importance of Information Technology in Healthcare


Improvements in information technology have allowed for great
reform in healthcare. Most medical offices can now send and receive
digital medical information from doctors you’ve had in the past.
Changes like this allow costs to be lowered and increase the amount
of time doctors can spend on patients compared to paperwork.
Security improvements with information technology have made
it so that your medical information is secure no matter where
it’s sent. You can even have prescriptions sent digitally to local
pharmacies at most medical.  
KEY WORD
An electronic medical
Along with the changing the amount of paperwork required record (EMR) is a
at your medical office, information technology has also updated digital version of the
the technology a doctor can use to diagnose or treat you. Using traditional paper-based
medical record for an
computerized axial tomography (CAT) or magnetic resonance
individual.
imaging (MRI) scans, the doctor can use a computer to create
detailed images of your organs along with creating; images that
show changes in your body chemistry and blood flow. This can
be helpful to find illnesses that aren’t found with blood tests or
other medical tests.

Role of Information Technology in


Finance
Information technology focuses on the development of electronic
networks that exchange information. Because all financial transactions
involve the exchange of information, the increasing popularity of
online finance coincided with advances in information technology.
The finance department in a corporation is in charge of taking
accounting data and creating reports that the managers within the
company -- all the way up to the CEO -- need for decision making
purposes. Information technology or IT refers to the software tools
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and computer systems the company uses to automate these functions and organize the data
LIVING IN THE IT ERA

flow to improve the management team’s decision making capabilities.

History
In the 1960s, the New York Stock Exchange shortened its trading days because the volume of
trades was too high to process manually. The development of information technologies such
as computers and local networks in the 1970s brought fast and affordable information access
to the finance industry. Increasingly affordable computers encouraged the development of
numerous small financial firms that handled electronic data processing. At the same time,
the speed and reliability of information technology supported the creation of nationwide
financial services, including electronic check and credit card processing.

Enterprise Resource Planning


Even very small companies use accounting software packages that generate financial reports
such as income statements and cash flow statements. This simple form of IT allows a small
business owner to save accounting time and have management reports available on a timelier
basis. Mid-size and larger companies use more sophisticated IT systems called enterprise
resource planning or ERP, which are groups of software modules that serve the needs of
all functional areas of the company. As its name suggests, ERP helps the company plan
the use of its resources, a process that the finance department oversees.

Faster Flow of Information


IT systems allow a company to link up every department within the organization. Information
generated by the manufacturing, marketing and finance divisions can be shared for example.
This information is available real-time, meaning as soon as it is created on the system.
Accessing it does not require a great deal of research or manual effort. The time finance
staff used to devote to “digging” for the numbers they needed can now be devoted to
analyzing and interpreting the information -- finance’s primary role in the organization.

Customized Reporting
The IT systems used by the finance department have a report generating functionality that
speeds up the process of producing management reports. The system provides a certain
degree of customization -- the reports can be configured based on the specific needs of the
management team. Automation of these reporting systems means that routinely generated
reports, such as those produced at the end of each month, can be created quickly. With
many of the decisions management has to make, time is of the essence. IT systems address
this need for rapid, customized reporting capability.

18
Collaboration trade for the users. A system is programmed

INFORMATION TECHNOLOGY IN EVERYDAY LIFE


to enter buy and sell orders when the price
Many organizations take advantage of of a stock or bond reaches a certain level,
collaborative effort across departments, the and automatically closes the order when
concept of each department benefiting from the target price or the stop-loss is reached.
other departments’ expertise. The finance Computer based trading is useful when a
team acts as in-house consultants to other trader has a system that allows profitable
departments within the organization. When trading and does not want to enter each
all departments use a centralized IT system, order individually. Information technology
it drops the barriers that formerly blocked the provides instant information for stock traders
flow of information. The company now has to make decisions, and allows them to enter
a centralized database that all team members orders that are immediately executed.
can access -- subject to certain security rules.
In the case of a company with multiple offices Reporting
or international divisions, this ability to access
the same information from around the globe Financial reports are also improved with
saves time and improves efficiency. If finance information technology. The language known
requires manufacturing cost data to create as XBRL, or Extensible Business Reporting
a report for an upcoming board meeting, Language, is used to standardize the financial
operations personnel can quickly transmit information in public companies’ annual
the data in the format the finance department reports. Traders can quickly sort through
requires and understands. records in this format. They can easily find
the statistical data they need to determine
Better Forecasting which companies to invest in. According to
the California State University at Fullerton,
Better forecasting means producing a forecast XBRL is based on XML, the extensible markup
that is a more accurate prediction of what language used to transfer information over
the company’s financial results are likely to the Internet.
be. Finance staff members need access to
in-depth information to create forecasting Function
models that depict how the organization
actually works. Having access to information Financial data can be easily transferred with
from all segments of the company makes information technology. Instead of using
accurate forecasting much easier. Finance has checks and checking accounts, information
real information and does not have to rely technology can clear a transaction instantly.
on guesswork when creating assumptions A debit or credit card purchase is rapidly
for the forecast. compared with the user’s account balance,
allowing a bank to decide whether to allow
Importance of Information Technology a transaction. Information technology allows
in Finance transactions during weekends and holidays,
when there is no staff working at the bank.
Information technology has many uses in
finance. From trading financial instruments Convenience
to keeping records of personal budgets to
reporting the earnings of a business, computer Personal finance is simplified using
technology is used by financial companies information technology. Banks provide
daily. Information technology allows the data on checking and savings deposits and
rapid calculation of financial statistics, as withdrawals in standardized formats. A
well as electronic transfers of money. customer can download account transactions
and store them in records on a home computer.
Trading Personal finance software includes additional
features, such as charts and reports that show
Financial trading is enhanced with information home users what they are spending money
technology. Some computer systems even on and where their funds are coming from.

19
Budgeting and Bookkeeping
LIVING IN THE IT ERA

Information technology is also helpful for companies that are considering financial transactions.
Computer systems calculate and display the interest and principal of a loan, and estimate
the returns on investment when the company borrows money to expand its operations.
Companies can securely transfer data online, and the computer system records all transfers,
which simplifies bookkeeping.

Role of Information Technology in Agriculture


Agriculture is a major sector which is vital for the survival of modern man. Plants are the
producers in the food chain, and without them, the life cycle would just not be possible.
Agricultural produce, though highly perishable compared to other food sources, is essential
for survival. Crops are used to produce several food sources by themselves or through
by-products such as bread, powders, organic additives to other goods and the like.
The produce from agriculture drives trade from one country to another, brings income
for farmers, makes productive use of otherwise idle land, and brings food on the table. It
is such an important part of everyone’s daily life, although it may not be seen as a direct
factor since the produce goes a long way before reaching the hands of everyone who
benefits from it. Because of its importance to society, it is but a must to evolve with the
times and adjust to meet the needs of modern people. By adapting and making use of IT
to help improve agricultural progress, everyone benefits from the union of these sectors.

Global Impact of IT on Agriculture


IT has become a bridge for people from all over the world. You may be asking yourself,
what is the importance of this when it comes to agriculture? Agriculture may be seen as a
craft which has been handed down from generation to generation from the very first men
who learned how to plow the fields and grow their own crops. Techniques and secrets
for efficiency and increased yields are also part of the knowledge passed on from one
generation to another.
Agricultural practices and advancements differ globally—since plants have their own
differences and the location plays a role on their development as well. But through the
exchange of knowledge from different agriculturally-involved individuals from all over the
world, improvement of techniques can be experienced as well. It has made an impact on
how information is shared, and being able to use this information for the advancement of
the agricultural sector gives a great positive impact that is beneficial for everyone.

20
The Effects of IT on Agriculture ►► Agricultural breakthroughs  – IT

INFORMATION TECHNOLOGY IN EVERYDAY LIFE


makes the spread of information
IT has made its way into the agricultural concerning the latest agricultural
sector, and with positive results. To name a breakthroughs more possible. When
few, here are some of its effects: scientists develop new and improved
►► Improved decision making  – By grains or find techniques to help
having the necessary information, winter crops become stronger against
farmers—big and small can make the cold, farmers from all over the
better and more informed decision world may benefit from the same
concerning their agricultural activities. breakthroughs simply by being
May it be about who to get their connected to the rest of the agricultural
grains from or perhaps who to sell world. Sharing information to help
it to, the communication channels everyone progress is made much
that information technology brings easier through resources made
makes production up to distribution available and accessible by IT.
easier for the farmers. The exchange ►► Agriculture for everyone  – Farmers
of knowledge from various countries have in-depth knowledge when
and organization also helps farmers it comes to their trade. However,
be more aware of factors to consider interested individuals who may be
before making their decisions. called backyard farmers may also
►► Better planning  – IT has paved benefit from how modern technology
the way to come up with farming has changed how agriculture is seen.
software which can keep better Growing your own sustainable
track of crops, predict yields, when garden of herbs, fruit trees, and
to best plant and what to plant, to other agricultural produce can be
intercrop or focus on just one product, possible in a smaller scale. Planting
or determine the current need of is beneficial in more ways than one,
the crops—just about everything and having your own produce even
needed to improve production and helps assure the freshness and quality
income. By adjusting to the modern of the food your family eats.
farming methodologies, farmers can People only have to open their minds to
have better control of their crops. the endless possibilities that technological
Gaining information from their farm advancement can bring to agriculture. Instead
is essential in sustaining its success of being locked away with the traditional
and fueling further growth. strategies for planting, why not get involved
►► Community involvement – There are in new and improved methods of farming?
several programs which are made Today’s society can benefit from agricultural
possible by IT applications, and advancements and live sustainable lives by
community involvement in agriculture improving the production, harvest methods,
can be increased as well. When a and distribution of agricultural goods. All of
community adopts modern methods these effects and more are possible through
for agriculture, the production of the successful merge of IT and agriculture
local goods can be increased. There which is why farmers are getting more and
are some places where people greatly more encouraged to take part in this positive
benefit from the land and their change.
resources for agriculture, and with
IT, there can be improved union The Role of Technology in
in local farmers which can lead to
their community’s overall improved Banking Industry
production that may lead to better
The banking sector has embraced the use
income for everyone involved.
of technology to serve its client’s faster and

21
also to do more with less. Emerging technologies have changed the
LIVING IN THE IT ERA

banking industry from paper and branch based banks to digitized


and networked banking services. Unlike before, broadband internet is
cheap and it makes the transfer of data easy and first. Technology has
changed the accounting and management system of all banks. And it
is now changing the way how banks are delivering services to their
customers. However this technology comes at a cost, implementing
all this technology has been expensive but the rewards are limitless.
Below we have listed some of the roles of technology in the banking
industry.
KEY WORD
The banking sector is the
section of the economy
devoted to the holding
of financial assets
for others, investing
those financial assets
as leverage to create
more wealth, and
the regulation of
those activities by
government agencies.

►► E-banking: This enables the bank to deliver its services easily


to its high end customers. To make the system user friendly
to all clients, banks have used a Graphical User Interface
(GUI), with this software, customers can access their bank
details on their own computers, make money transfers from
one account to another, print bank statements and inquire
about their financial transactions. Another technology used
by banks to exchange data between the bank and clients is
called Electronic Data Interchange (EDI); this software can
be used to transmit business transaction in a computer-
readable form. So the client on the other end will be in
position to read the information clearly.
►► NRI Banking Services: This technology has been embraced
in countries like India, USA, UAE, just to mention but a
few. Since many people go abroad to work, they have a
need of supporting their families. So technology has made
it simple for them to send money to their loved ones easily.
►► RURAL Banking: Unlike in the past when banking was
centralized in urban areas, now day’s technology has made
it simple to set up banking facilities in rural areas. For
example: In Africa, they have introduced Mobile money
banking facilities. In this case a user in a rural area will
have an account with a mobile company which is opened
for free. They can then deposit money on that account via
a nearby mobile money operating center. This money can
be withdrawn at any time any were in that area and they
can also receive or send money using the same system.

22
►► Plastic money: Credit cards or smart withdraws large sums of money on

INFORMATION TECHNOLOGY IN EVERYDAY LIFE


cards like ‘’VISA ELECTRON’’ have a specific account and this reduces
made the banking industry more on the errors or risks which might
flexible than before. With a credit arise due to forgery.
card, a customer can borrow a specific
amount of money from the bank to Role of Information
purchase any thing and the bank
bills them later. In this case, they Technology in
don’t have to go through the hassle Communication
of borrowing small money. Then with
‘’Smart Cards’’ like visa electron , In a more traditional society, the best way
a customer can pay for anything to communicate with each other would be
using that card and that money is through face to face contact. This means
deducted from their bank accounts meeting up with friends or going to your
automatically, they can also use the favorite meet up spot. But, the world is
same card to deposit or withdraw constantly evolving and so is technology.
money from their accounts using an Technology is extremely important as it has
ATM machine. changed the way we communicate with one
another.
►► Self-inquiry facility: Instead of
customers lining up or going to the In today’s society, we own smart phones,
help desk, banks have provided simple iPads, computers, and many other forms of
self-inquiry systems on all branches. technology as a means of communication. For
A customer can use their ATM card example, if you live in a downtown area or
to know their account balance, or to near a main train station, you will see that the
get their bank statement. This saves station uses televisions to broadcast changes
time on both sides. in the train schedule. These TV’s are used
to communicate to train passengers if there
►► Remote banking: Banks have installed
has been a change in their schedule which
ATM machines in various areas; this
is important information to communicate
means a customer does not have
to passengers. In addition, computers and
to go to the main branch to make
iPads can be used to send important emails
transactions. This facility has also
to friends or colleagues, send photos, and any
enabled anytime banking, because
other message that you want to get across.
customers can use ATM machines
Smartphones are pretty much everything all
to deposit money on their accounts.
in one where you can text, email, call, and
Remote banking has helped people in
even video chat with friends.
rural areas improve on their culture
of saving money.
►► Centralized Information results to Role of Information
quick services: This enables banks to Technology in
transfer information from one branch Communication
to another at ease. For example, if
a customer registered their account Technology is extremely important in the
with a rural branch, they can still get workplace as a means of communication as
details of their account while at the businesses rely on it heavily. Technology
main bran in an urban area. allows many businesses to expand more
►► Signature retrieval facilities: quickly by having the proper means to
Technology has played a big role promote. For example, almost every business
in reducing fraud in banks which will have a social networking website such as
protects its clients. For example, Twitter that will allow them to give updates
banks use a technology which to their audience. Businesses also use video
verifies signatures before a customers conferencing, and virtual office technology
that has essentially reduced the limitations
23
that were previously set in the business world. You now find many virtual job positions
LIVING IN THE IT ERA

available in companies due to current technology. In addition, technology is important


because it can actually boost communication within the work place. For instance, collogues
are able to send instant electronic emails to each other and keep important conversations
going throughout the day, while accomplishing the tasks set by their manager. Furthermore,
technology within the workplace allows the hiring process to be more efficient and quick
as you now have many platforms in which you can seek out potential candidates. Overall,
incorporating technology within the workplace saves time as you can send important
messages to collogue while remaining productive. In addition, it will essentially save
businesses money as now you can have virtual meetings instead of spending money for
travel. Technology allows businesses to communicate at a cheaper cost and in a more
convenient manner.

Technology is equally important within schools as it is used to communicate important


information to students. The use of technology in schools are used as early as grammar
school as they have websites such as Edline.com that allows students and parents to keep
track of their grades. Along with this, teachers have the option to leave messages for the
parents in case of a concern. This is truly an advancement in the school system with a special
thanks to technology as before most teachers would wait until parent teacher conference,
which was generally twice throughout the academic year to let the parents know of any
issues. In addition to this, most colleges and universities use a website called blackboard.
com that allows student to not only view their grades, but interact with their classmates.
One of Blackboards best features is the option to host a discussion. This is an excellent
way to keep the communication going beyond the classroom that will only further develop
college student’s communication skills. With that being said, technology is continuously
playing a huge role in communication in regards to the school system.
Technology in the regards of communication is highly important as we have integrated
it within our society overtime. We continuously rely on iPads, smartphones, and computers
to interact with others. Technology is important because it allows communication to be
more convenient and in some ways, more effective. We use it in the workplace to allow
us to communicate with our collogues, it saves time as well as money. We also use it
within our schools as it establishes an effective parent-teacher relationship by allowing
the parents to see their student’s grades and communicate with the teacher through mail.
Overall, technology will continue to be an essential part of how we communicate and
interact with others.

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INFORMATION TECHNOLOGY IN

INFORMATION TECHNOLOGY IN EVERYDAY LIFE


MEDIA INDUSTRY
Media use is an important activity for acquiring knowledge LEARNING OBJECTIVE
about product and use innovations, and it is though the media Explain the
that it is possible to become aware of many innovations, information
and other people experiences and assessments of them long before technology in
media industry
they touch one’s own life directly. New ICTs have been extensively
covered across media, and there is a great deal of advertising for
consumer products such as Internet access, computers, mobile phones
etc. Different programmes, magazines and newspapers give different
coverage, depending on how they view their audience, and, thus
exposure to ideas, endorsement etc. will vary. People use media
very differently, and take notice of things in different ways: it is
quite possible to ignore or be unaware of much media coverage of
a topic if one is not interested.
The conventional mass media has been replaced by up to
date most complicated and most sophisticated. Along with this
technological advancement media industry growing fast and rapid.
Information revolution had made the information process speedy
and rapid, news and information can be sent in a flash to any
corner of the world.
When printing press was not invented that time newspapers were
published in hand written shape. Today in this age of information
technology the use of computer is the part media industry (Print,
Broadcast, Electronic and Advertising Agency, News Agency and
Films). Composing, printing, animation, diagrams, audio, video
visuals, large data storage and centralized newspapers, magazines
KEY WORD
publishing is only possible through this advance system. Online An online newspaper is
the online version of a
newspaper editions are also possible through this rapid technology. newspaper, either as a
However, information (or data, or ideas, or knowledge) has long stand-alone publication
played, in one way or another, a significant role in human culture or as the online
and society, and has shaped, over a long period of time, the way version of a printed
in which we behave and think. It is now proclaimed to be the periodical.
Information Age is terminology that can be applied in to all stages
of human development. The telegraph, telephone, postal delivery,
radio, television, and modern printing presses, have been in part
a response to the need to process more information.

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Today there is a significant new approach industry and was used to wrap the copper
LIVING IN THE IT ERA

to the production, storage, distribution, and center line and give the cable strength.
use of various types of information. Previous 1854 - Cyrus Field looked at the globe in
information “systems,” such as the book, his office and dreamed of a telegraph across
were based on the process that the message the Atlantic. With the support of he started by
that entered a system was the message that building a telegraph line in Newfoundland,
was received. This is no longer the case: the the first stage of an that, after numerous
newer communication technologies on the failures, would finally succeed in joining
Internet are interactive, that is the capability North American to Europe with two cables
of modifying messages and creating new by 1866.
messages exists within the system. As well,
1861- On Oct. 24, Western Union
in the new systems, such as electronic bulletin
completed a single transcontinental telegraph
boards, managers who store and transmit
line from Washington DC to Sacramento,
information control information to a greater
replaced after May 10, 1869, by a multi-wire
extent. In older systems, the original creator
system built by the Union Pacific and Central
or supplier of the information was in control.
Pacific railroads, who joined at Promontory,
The evolving electronic information Utah, on May 10 to create the transcontinental
systems also pose new directions for issues railroad. 1869 - A French company added
that have been around for some time. Take a third transatlantic cable, linking North
literacy as an example. It is no longer sufficient America with France.
to be print literate, i.e. to read and write, and
1872 - Undersea telegraph cables reached
the idea of audio or video visual literacy
Japan and China and India and Australia.
has in turn been supplanted by stress on
computer literacy.
Finally, new groups and audiences are in Telephone
the process of interconnection, e.g. electronic 1876 - March 10, Alexander Graham Bell
mail groups and dial-up bulletin boards, invented the telephone in Boston using a
direct telemarketing, and subscription cable liquid transmitter, and by Oct. 8 was able to
television. The principal media--television or transmit human speech a distance of 2 miles.
video or the computer, and the telephone, Bell formed his first Bell company in 1877.
are connected in many new networks that
are integrating sound, speech, text, data, 1878 - The first telephone exchange with
and images and permitting the connection 21 telephones opened Jan. 28 in New Haven
of persons in lieu of the connection of places. CT. President Rutherford B. Hayes installed
It seems the most important communication the first telephone in the White House.
patterns of the future will be interaction and
conversation, not the hierarchical transmission Telephone’s Impact on Society
from a mass communication center to a mass The telephone is an all-purpose tool. It is
audience. used in the home, business and in education.
It is a source of entertainment and a vital
Telegraph resource to the illiterate as well as the
academic elite. When the telephone was first
Field’s globe, from 1851 - John and Jacob introduced it could only be afforded by the
Brett of England built the first electrical rich as the materials needed for connection
telegraph line across the English Channel, were very expensive.  Alexander Graham’s
sending the first message from England to wish was to reduce the expense of materials
France September 25. The line was insulated so that the poorest man cannot afford to
with gutta percha, a natural plastic discovered be without this telephone.  The telephone
in the 1840s similar to rubber from the sap was promoted on the grounds that it would
of trees in Southeast Asia. The technique of increase wealth, employment and improved
woven iron wires came from the shipbuilding means of communication.  The invention of
the telephone lead to development of city
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centers, office buildings and the concept of an urban worker society. 

INFORMATION TECHNOLOGY IN EVERYDAY LIFE


It has lead to the creation and destruction of jobs. The need for
positions such as messenger boys, telegraphers and, ironically,
operators, became virtually unnecessary.  It has changed the pace
of business and made the world smaller and more accessible to
all.  The telephone has provided security and helped in emergency
situations. The telephone is both a conqueror and promoter of
crime. Suspicious looking strangers are scared away from houses
who display telephone based alarm systems and people who need
help could call fire trucks, doctors or police. Conversely fraudsters
could reach into our houses and pick our pockets via the phone
system. The telephone also changed the way social relationship and
social interaction take place.  Communication over the telephone
broadened the range of people one could interact with. Long distance
relationships became possible.  The telephone helps keep close bond
with families and communities.

Telephone’s Impact on Reading and Writing


Nowhere has the impact of the telephone been more dramatic
than in the area of writing, and teaching.   Since the development
of electronic technologies  writing is no longer the only modes of
KEY WORD
communication. The telephone has created a generation that that has A telephone network is
a telecommunications
a strong sense for listening to the spoken words and into a group
network used for
audience just as reading written or printed texts turns individuals telephone calls between
in on themselves. When we use the telephone we are analytical and two or more parties.
self-conscious due to the fact that we are still a culture of writing.
Ong states that secondary orality promotes spontaneity because
through analytic reflections we recognize that spontaneity is a good
thing. Today it is much easier to use a telephone to communicate
information for a business deal or an idea, the telephone is more
spontaneous and an efficient way to access information than writing
or reading. Communication over the telephone can occur within a
group conference or at individual level at long distances. Telephone
eliminates travel time and provides the instant gratification one
gets from a direct response to one’s communication. It is much
easier to phone an expert to get information on a certain topic than
to read a textbook. The telephone is a very simple device to use
even for those who do not know how to read or write. Children
are fascinated by the telephone and will run to answer the phone
at every opportunity. Politician and governors use the telephone to
make important decisions about the state of the country and then
take a poll via phone to see if they got it right.  Communication
through the telephone grants more privacy as it provides anonymity
without the need for written records or documentation.  There was
a time when good penmanship and elegant writing was the primary
way to impress others. Electronic communication with its stress on
oral skills rather than written ones provides for a great way for
professionals with poor writing or penmanship skills to compensate
for their deficiencies. During the 1960’s telephone based teaching
or teleteaching gained popularity among elementary and secondary
schools. This was developed to meet the needs of homebound
and hospitalized students. This ideas was also further used by
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universities by providing dial up access Television
LIVING IN THE IT ERA

information retrieval systems on campus.


Students could get information on variety 1932 - Aug. 22 the BBC began regular
subject through campus telephone networks. broadcasting using Baird’s 30-line system
until Nov. 2, 1936, when it changed to an
Radio electronic 405-line system. In 1938 the RRG
in Germany broadcast the Olympic Games in
1895 - Guglielmo Marconi made his first Berlin with a 180-line electronic system. 1936
experimental wireless tests from the - On Nov. 30, Frank B. Jewett of AT&T used
Shepherdess Stone in Salvan, Switzerland, the first coaxial cable to speak by telephone
transmitting a spark signal 1.5 kilometers with FCC officials in Washington. 1946 - On
while he was visiting the local health resort to June 17 AT&T introduced the first commercial
recover from a repiratory ailment. 1901 - On mobile radio-telephone service in the U.S.
Dec. 12 Guglielmo Marconi at Signal Hill in operating on six channels in the 150 MHz
Newfoundland, received the first transatlantic band. 1954 - Computer network started as
radio transmission, the letter ‘s’ in Morse code air defense system 1956 – At &T with the
generated by a spark transmitter designed British General Post Office built TAT-1, the
by John Ambrose Fleming from Poldhu in first transatlantic telephone cable, composed
Cornwall, England. of two lines each transmitting 36 telephone
1904 - Valdemar Poulsen in Denmark used channels in one direction.
arc converter that he had invented in 1902 TV is one of the best inventions the
to transmit continuous-wave radio signals to man has ever made. We are beginning to
Britain. Arc transmitters would be used in forget what the world was without TV.
radio until the development of the vacuum Everybody knows what a great force TV
tube. 1915 - On January 25 AT&T completed is in the world today. Thanks to TV we
the first transcontinental telephone line get a great amount of information. It gives
between New York City and San Francisco. wonderful possibilities for education. It
On Oct. 20, the first transatlantic radio enriches our intellect. We also become better
transmission was made between Arlington informed by watching documentaries, science
VA and the Eiffel Tower in Paris. programmes, discussions and by learning the
1920 - KDKA radio station in Pittsburgh most important issues of the day.
began regular commercial radio broadcasting TV gives an opportunity to see the best
with the presidential election returns on actors, sport matches, to meet famous people.
November 2. 1922 - Oct. 18 the British TV brings the world to our room. We see
Broadcasting Company (BBC) was formed people in our country and in other lands
for radio broadcasting. David Sarnoff of RCA and learn about their customs, occupations,
created the National Broadcasting Network traditions, problems. We become cultured
(NBC) in 1926, and William S. Palely created people by learning more of the arts. Television
the Columbia Broadcasting System (CBS) helps us to relax after a hard day’s work,
in 1928. Radio networks using telephone so we can then cope better with the next
lines and, after 1936, coaxial cables made day’s work. Besides, there is a considerable
it possible for many local radio stations to amount of TV programmes: News, different
retransmit a single program simultaneously talk-shows, TV games, concerts and variety
to a national audience. 1928 - On April 7 the shows, sport programmes, feature films,
Detroit Police Dept. began the first one-way serials and so on and so forth. They are
mobile radio system in the U.S. to send radio of great entertainment value and provide
messages from a central transmitter to police useful topics for conversation. A lot of these
cars equipped with receivers. In 1933, the programmes are very popular. For example,
Bayonne NJ Police Dept. began a two-way News deal with political and social problems
AM radio system. In 1940, the state of New of modern society. Their aim is to give
Jersey adopted FM radio for police use. analysis of the problems and show different
viewpoints. They are concerned with the

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country’s national events, the most topical political problems of the day. Musical Review

INFORMATION TECHNOLOGY IN EVERYDAY LIFE


presents songs, pop groups, folk songs. It is very popular with TV viewers.

FAX
1966 - Xerox introduced a small practical fax machine able to transmit a document over
existing telephone lines in six minutes. The first fax machine was invented by Alexander
Bain in 1843 and improved by Giovanni Caselli for the French Post & Telegraph agency
that used Caselli’s “pantelegraph” to communicate between Paris and Marseilles in the
1860s. Ernest A. Hummel invented the Telediagraph in 1895 that found long use in
newspapers such as the New York Herald and St. Louis Republic. Arthur Korn invented
telephotography in 1902 and sent the first photo by electrical facsimile transmission from
Munich to Berlin in 1907. Edouard Belin in France invented the Belinograph that used a
light beam to scan a cylinder to convert an image into electrical impulses, and sent his
first fax from Paris to Lyon in 1907. The Belinograph was widely used by the 1920s for
newspapers and businesses and government agencies, for the AT&T Wirephoto in 1925 and
the RCA Radiophoto in 1926, and became the foundation for the modern fax machine that
finally achieved widespread use by the late 1980s. 1967 - Corning Glass began research to
develop an optical cable, succeeding in transmitting over one kilometer by 1970.

Technology and the Journalist


Many newspaper reporters and managers doubt their jobs will change much because of
technology, feeling that it will merely offer them new ways to express their thoughts. Even
as they report on changes in society, reporters often seem indifferent to changes in their
own profession.
But the fact remains that journalists rely on tools, at least a pencil and a pad of paper,
to do their jobs. Without basic technology, there would be no journalism, which has never
been independent of the processes used to accomplish it. Journalists must appreciate that
the tools of the trade help define the trade, and that technology and journalism principles
are related. Probably the printer-editors who founded American journalism-the Franklins,
Benjamin Harris, and the Bradfords-had a better sense of this than our modern reporters do.

Today, the most obvious example of the importance of new technology is the video
display terminal (VDT), which shifts typesetting responsibilities to the newsroom. The
journalist may think of a VDT as an enhanced typewriter, but its historical significance goes
far beyond that: it involves the journalist in production once again. Today, whole categories

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of journalistic endeavor can be traced to technology. National
LIVING IN THE IT ERA

newspapers, for example, are possible because of the advances


in satellite communications. Journalists on the campaign trail use
small personal computers to file stories back home. Microwave links
facilitate use for remote printing plants. And leagues of reporters
work for publications that cover specialized technologies.
At this relationship between the journalist and the technical
means of gathering and reporting information emerges, we see a
new breed of communicator, the techno journalist. In reporting,
working and thinking, the journalist of the future will be different
from those of today. The journalist of the future will have to
balance the humanistic sensitivity that produces best journalism
with newfound technological tools, journalists must not settle for
becoming mere scientists’ apprentices; they will have look at the
impact of technology on values.

Electronic Mail
Electronic mail (E-mail) is a system for sending messages or files
to the accounts of other computer users. The sender and recipient
may be on the same or a different computer. Electronic mail works
KEY WORD very much like regular postal mail .Every user on the net work
Electronic Mail (email or has a private mailbox. Once received, your mail is kept for you
e-mail) is a method of until you decide to discard it. Like regular postal mail, you must
exchanging messages
know a user’s address to send messages. If the mail system cannot
between people using
electronic devices. deliver your message, it will make every attempt to return it to you,
but is possible for misaddressed messages to get lost somewhere
along the way. Electronic mail can be used not only to exchange
correspondence with friends, but to transfer documents, obtain
electronic copies of books, subscribe to electronic news services
or to journals, and to obtain just about anything that is stored on
a computer. You can even search databases using electronic mail
is the primary communication tool used on the internet. In fact,
many users are not even aware that there are other services on the
internet beside electronic mail.

Social Networking
When people think of social networking they often are considering
the biggest public Web sites and apps - Twitter, Pinterest, LinkedIn
and so on. Different kinds of sizes and social networks exist, however.
Corporate  intranets, for example, function much like public social
networks albeit for a smaller private community.
These networks share several attributes in common:
►► Membership. Social nets all generally require users to register
names and accounts. While many public networks offer free
registration, some charge fees at least for their premium
services. Private networks (such as university alumni groups)
restrict registration to people who meet certain eligibility
criteria.

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►► Content contribution. These networks enable members to easily share comments,

INFORMATION TECHNOLOGY IN EVERYDAY LIFE


photos and/or movies with others.
►► Frequent return visits. A healthy social net centers around a base of members who
check in regularly for new updates and also to contribute theirs
►► Human relationship building. The common goal of most social networks is enabling
the interactions that build stronger connections among communities of people.

The Usefulness of Social Networks


Besides being a fun place to relax and meet with people, social networking brings some
extremely useful benefits to individuals and communities:
►► Group information sharing over long distances. Although friends and family members
can keep in contact via text messages or phone calls, social nets offer a much richer
environment for staying connected. Many scenarios such as sharing photo albums
or wishing someone a happy birthday work better on these networks because an
entire group can participate together. Overall, group discussions become more
convenient as not everyone needs to be online at the exact same moment to post
comments.
►► Broadcast announcements. Local shops and venues can advertise upcoming events
on social networks. Cities can more easily spread word of emergencies. Businesses
can market their products to customers (and also obtain some direct feedback).
►► Fostering diversity of thought. Some critics of social networks point out that online
communities tend to attract people with similar interests and backgrounds. Indeed,
when people with different opinions do get together online, many discussions seem
to degenerate into personal attacks and so-called “flame wars.” It can be argued,
though, that online debates are healthy in the long run. Even though individuals
may begin with more extreme views, over time their thinking gets influenced by
the comments of others at least to some extent.

Keeping Social Networks Secure


The nature of social networking causes people to become more open and sharing with relative
strangers online. Not only does this environment tend to expose personal information, it
also attracts criminals and hackers looking to steal a person’s money and other valuable
data. Younger children and senior citizens are particularly susceptible to revealing more
than they should.
A good rule of thumb when logging into any social network is to assume everything
done can be seen by the world.

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LIVING IN THE IT ERA

Why Some Social Networks Fail


Two famous social networks that no longer exist in their original
form are  Orkut  and  MySpace.  Their demise illustrates the typical
challenges that any social network, public or private, faces when
looking to establish itself:
►► Ability to grow a dedicated community of members. Even if
millions of people visit a social site, the network will fail to
be useful unless enough of those people become members
and regular contributors.
►► Ability to make money for its creators. Any social network
requires some investment of time and money to build. The
larger public nets in particular involve server farms in
datacenters, advertising systems, and people to manage it
all. If the companies or individuals building that network
do not see sufficient return on their investment, they will
eventually shift their focus elsewhere, causing the network
to eventually break down and become uninteresting to the
community.
►► Staying fresh. It’s human nature to want to be part of
something new and growing. The “coolness” factor of a
social network naturally fades over time unless it constantly
changes and adapts to modern social trends.

WHAT DO YOU NEED TO KNOW?


Read Information Sheet very well then find out how much you can
remember and how much you learned by doing self-check.

INFORMATION SHEET
Technology in Today’s World and in the
Future
Technology is an essential part of our lives today and few can imagine
living without. We achieved a lot with the help of technology,
for example we have the possibility to travel, keep in touch with
friends on the other side of the earth and cure many illnesses. It
means more freedom and choices for people but at the same time

32
we have to consider the social imbalance, help us to develop clean energy, transport

INFORMATION TECHNOLOGY IN EVERYDAY LIFE


weapons of mass destruction and natural possibilities with less emissions and low-
resource depletion. Jane Godall asks for a energy houses to save resources. Technology
reason:  “We are the most intelligent species is not only about technology itself or more
walking on earth, how it comes we destroy on efficiency and discovering new methods and
what we depend?” What has achieved so far is processes; we have to add the component
irrevocable, but we can still determine where of art which is about to make wise choices
it goes in the future. for the future of technology. We should not
One of the most important things develop technology because of itself, but to
everybody has to deal with is to overcome the develop it, because it adds value to society
short-termism, which prevails in governments, and simplifies human life. For this, it needs
companies and individuals. Additionally we to be discussed with experts from many fields
know, that decisions one individual takes and we have to relate the technology to the
are not necessarily good for the society as a organization and the culture in which it
whole. This doesn’t make it easier. should operate. And remember: There are no
side effects – they are part of the technology.
Technology shapes the future and it can
help to make it compatible with nature. It can

Progress Check Test 1


Directions: On a separate piece of paper, classify the different kinds of words according
to their meaning in information technology in everyday life.

Words Meaning
Computer

Television

Communication

Banking industry

Social media

World Wide Web

Digital Marketing

Health information technology


(HIT)

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