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SCIENCE A REVIEWER

SCIENTIFIC METHOD

SCIENCE

-scientia “knowledge”

- an organized and methodical way of studying the natural world.

-use of evidence to construct testable explanations

NATURE OF SCIENCE

-scientific knowledge is TENTATIVE

-based on observations and inferences

-can be taught as scientific theory or scientific law

LIMITATIONS OF SCIENCE

-deals only with observables

-cannot prove universal negatives

-cannot provide final answers

LAWS THEORIES
More specific conditions Based on evidence Relies heavy inferences
Observations Can change with a new Generalizations
evidence
More descriptive Cannot change into each other More explanatory
‘what happens?’ ‘how does it happen?’

6 STEPS

1. OBSERVATION
2. FORM A HYPOTHESIS
3. TEST THE HYPOTHESIS
4. ANALYZE DATA
5. CONCLUSION
6. COMMUNICATE/SHARE RESULTS

7+3 TRAITS OF SCIENTISTS

1. Curiosity
2. Questionable attitude
3. Intellectual responsibility
4. Resourcefulness and creativity
5. Patience and determination
6. Accuracy
7. Humility
8. Open-mindedness
9. Honesty
10. Believe in cause and effect

WORLD FAMOUS SCIENTISTS

ALBERT EINSTIEN

Father of modern physics

Special theory of relativity

GALILEO GALILEI

Father of experimental science

CHARLES AUGUSTIN de COULOMB

Coulomb’s law

MICHAEL FARADAY

Law of electrolysis

GEORG OHM

Ohm’s law

FILIPINO SCIENTISTS

DR. PAULO C. CAMPOS

Father of community science

DR. CAESAR SALOMA

Satellite and blueprint

FELIPE F. CIRON SR.

Man behind the plow

MOTION, VELOCITY/ SPEED, ACCELERATION

TYPES OF MOTION

Rectilinear Oscillating

Curvilinear

Rotational

Motion- change of an objects position

Trajectory- path along which an object moves

Velocity- speed with direction

Acceleration- change in velocity, speed and direction


MECHANICS

- Branch of physics that deals with bodies that are subjected under the influence of forces

KINEMATICS DYNAMICS

Describes motion force and influence on the motion

Without reference of force

NEWTON’S LAW OF MOTION

Law of inertia

Balanced and unbalanced forces

Equal force Unequal force

Law of acceleration

Law of interaction

FORMULAS:

Kinematics M,V,A Tension Projectile M UCM


V=Vo+at F=ma T=mg+ma Vx=Vo Fc=mac
X=1/2(V+Vo)t W=mg Dx=vt Ac=v^2/r

X=Vot+1/2at^2 Vy=-gt F=mv^2/r


V^2=Vo^2+2ax Dyl=1/2gt^2

FORCE

CONTACT FORCE

Can cause change in motion by

touching it.

1. Applied force- push or pull


2. Friction –when two objects rub against each other
3. Normal – support force exerted upon an object is in contact w/ another stable subject
4. Air resistance – type of frictional force that acts upon object as they travel through air

NON-CONTACT FORCE

Not in physical contact

1. Magnetic force
2. Electrical force
3. Gravitational

PROJECTILE MOTION

Thrown in air, 2D motion, Parabolic path, affected by gravity, determined by initial velocity
UNIFORM CIRCULAR MOTION(UCM)

Motion along a circular path

Velocity is acting tangent to the circle

Centripital force- an inward force that keeps an object going in a circular path

KEPLER’S LAW

Ptolemy

 Earth is the center

Copernicus

 Sun is the center

TYCO BRAHE-has the best instruments of the positions for all known planets,

JOHANNES KEPLER- Tyco’s asst., used Tyco’s observation to deduce the three laws.

LAW OF ORBITS- the orbit of every planet is an ellipse with the sun as one of its two foci.

LAW OF AREAS- the speed of the planet depends from how far or near the sun is.

APHELION- farther form the sun

PERIPHELION- closest

LAW OF PERIODS- square of any planet’s orbital period will be proportional to the cube of the
semi-major axis. The farther the planet, the longer the revolution.

PRACTICE PROBLEMS:

1. A steel ball rolls with a constant velocity across a tabletop 0.950m high. It rolls and hits
the ground 0.352m from the edge of the table. How fast was the ball rolling?

2. A 50kg bucket is being lifted by a rope. The rope will not break if the tension is 525N or
less. The bucket started at rest, and after being lifted 3.0m, it moves at 30m/s. what is the
tension? Is the rope in danger of breaking?