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# SCIENCE A REVIEWER

SCIENTIFIC METHOD

SCIENCE

-scientia “knowledge”

## -use of evidence to construct testable explanations

NATURE OF SCIENCE

## -can be taught as scientific theory or scientific law

LIMITATIONS OF SCIENCE

## -cannot prove universal negatives

LAWS THEORIES
More specific conditions Based on evidence Relies heavy inferences
Observations Can change with a new Generalizations
evidence
More descriptive Cannot change into each other More explanatory
‘what happens?’ ‘how does it happen?’

6 STEPS

1. OBSERVATION
2. FORM A HYPOTHESIS
3. TEST THE HYPOTHESIS
4. ANALYZE DATA
5. CONCLUSION
6. COMMUNICATE/SHARE RESULTS

## 7+3 TRAITS OF SCIENTISTS

1. Curiosity
2. Questionable attitude
3. Intellectual responsibility
4. Resourcefulness and creativity
5. Patience and determination
6. Accuracy
7. Humility
8. Open-mindedness
9. Honesty
10. Believe in cause and effect

ALBERT EINSTIEN

GALILEO GALILEI

## CHARLES AUGUSTIN de COULOMB

Coulomb’s law

Law of electrolysis

GEORG OHM

Ohm’s law

FILIPINO SCIENTISTS

## MOTION, VELOCITY/ SPEED, ACCELERATION

TYPES OF MOTION

Rectilinear Oscillating

Curvilinear

Rotational

## Acceleration- change in velocity, speed and direction

MECHANICS

- Branch of physics that deals with bodies that are subjected under the influence of forces

KINEMATICS DYNAMICS

Law of inertia

## Equal force Unequal force

Law of acceleration

Law of interaction

FORMULAS:

## Kinematics M,V,A Tension Projectile M UCM

V=Vo+at F=ma T=mg+ma Vx=Vo Fc=mac
X=1/2(V+Vo)t W=mg Dx=vt Ac=v^2/r

## X=Vot+1/2at^2 Vy=-gt F=mv^2/r

V^2=Vo^2+2ax Dyl=1/2gt^2

FORCE

CONTACT FORCE

touching it.

## 1. Applied force- push or pull

2. Friction –when two objects rub against each other
3. Normal – support force exerted upon an object is in contact w/ another stable subject
4. Air resistance – type of frictional force that acts upon object as they travel through air

NON-CONTACT FORCE

## Not in physical contact

1. Magnetic force
2. Electrical force
3. Gravitational

PROJECTILE MOTION

Thrown in air, 2D motion, Parabolic path, affected by gravity, determined by initial velocity
UNIFORM CIRCULAR MOTION(UCM)

## Velocity is acting tangent to the circle

Centripital force- an inward force that keeps an object going in a circular path

KEPLER’S LAW

Ptolemy

Copernicus

##  Sun is the center

TYCO BRAHE-has the best instruments of the positions for all known planets,

JOHANNES KEPLER- Tyco’s asst., used Tyco’s observation to deduce the three laws.

LAW OF ORBITS- the orbit of every planet is an ellipse with the sun as one of its two foci.

LAW OF AREAS- the speed of the planet depends from how far or near the sun is.

## APHELION- farther form the sun

PERIPHELION- closest

LAW OF PERIODS- square of any planet’s orbital period will be proportional to the cube of the
semi-major axis. The farther the planet, the longer the revolution.

PRACTICE PROBLEMS:

1. A steel ball rolls with a constant velocity across a tabletop 0.950m high. It rolls and hits
the ground 0.352m from the edge of the table. How fast was the ball rolling?

2. A 50kg bucket is being lifted by a rope. The rope will not break if the tension is 525N or
less. The bucket started at rest, and after being lifted 3.0m, it moves at 30m/s. what is the
tension? Is the rope in danger of breaking?