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Volume 4, Issue 7, July – 2019 International Journal of Innovative Science and Research Technology

ISSN No:-2456-2165

Design, Fabrication and Measurement of Circular

Ring Monopole Antenna for DSRC
khaing Wai Pyone#1, Chaw Myat New#2, Tin Tin Hla #3, Su Su Yi Mon#4, Win Zaw Hein #5
1, 2, 3, 4, 5
Department of Electronic Engineering, Mandalay Technological University
Department of Electronic Engineering, Technological University (LoiKaw)

Abstract:- This paper presents the design, fabrication Printed monopole antenna is a good applicant for high data
and characterization of circular ring monopole antenna rate wireless communication at GHz frequency, because of
(CRMA) for dedicated short range communication. its wide impedance bandwidth, Omni directional radiation
Design simulation is carried out with the aid of Attar pattern, compacted simple structure and easiness of
FEKO (2017) Solver The 26×20×1.6 mm antenna was fabrication. In printed monopole antenna, ground plane is
fabricated using an FR4 composite material. The return orthogonal to patch as well as dielectric and 50 ohm coaxial
loss of prototype is measured with Anritsu MS 2036C transmission line give the excitation [4].
Network Analyzer. Between the measurement and
simulation result is a little different but two results Due to the appearances of monopole antenna, circular
cover DSRC band. The return loss is about -37 dB and ring shape is chosen to get coverage area, high radio accept
fractional bandwidth of 26.9 % at the selected link and omnidirectional radiation pattern. The demand of
frequency 5.9GHz. The antenna provides input innovative technologies, this design is tend to reduce the
impedance bandwidth of 1.59 GHz (4.7 to 6.36 GHz) size, less metallic surface and raise the proficiency of the
which fully covers 5.875 to 5.925 DSRC bands. It can devices.
realize near omnidirectional radiation pattern in the H-
plane and linear polarization antenna due to the phase The rest of the research work is composed based on
changing of current distribution. In this research work, the different sections. Section II considered the design
circular ring monopole antenna is small in size, simple specification and formula section III mentions the software
in design and fabrication but its performance is the best implementation and analysis for reference antenna based on
for DSRC applications. the background theory of that antenna design. Section IV
fabricate and measure the performance of proposed CRMA
Keywords:- Circular Ring Monopole Antenna, Dedicated antenna design. Finally, section V summarizes and
Short Range Communications, Attair FEKO, Anritsu MS concludes the study.
2036C Network Analyzer.
The proposed design antenna fed micro strip feed line
The purpose design of circular ring monopole antenna with SMA connector. The design consideration of CRMA
is to develop a novel design for the dedicated short range is the following.
communications that affords a recovering piece and
functionality as compared to normal monopole antenna. A. Substrate Material Consideration
Vehicular communication between infrastructure and Circular ring monopole antennas consist of very thin
vehicles is based on dedicated short range communication metallic patch placed the other side of ground plane. The
(DSRC) and mostly omnidirectional data link. In Europe, thickness of the metallic strip is limited by t<<  0 and the
DSRC operates at 5.9GHz, using 75MHz band [5.85
5.925GHz] with 7 channels 10MHz each [1]. height is restricted by 0.0003 << h<< 0.05. For a substrate,
the L of the element is usually  0 /3< L<  0 /2. There are
Micro strip antenna is applied to get wireless access various substrates that can be used for the micro strip
for communication applications. The printed monopole antennas and their dielectric constants are typically in the
range of 2.2 <<  r << 12.Then the antenna efficiency is
antenna is needed to design to get wide band due to the
quick development of wireless communications. This
research work is intended to new design of single antenna calculated by using Tabu Search Algorithm as following:
which can cover DSRC applications over very large
bandwidth [2] [3]. A wire monopole antenna is placed in   1  3.66 F 1.83 G1.06  r1.32  2.4 F 2.48 G 0.5 r3.12
free space look like to dipole antenna but the different of
feed element is located over a ground plane. (1)
Fundamentally, the ground plane cannot be retained infinite
hence its dimensions are carefully chosen which are  
Where, F  εr  1 and G  h
comparable with the length of active element. Some
drawback of having narrow bandwidth of wire monopole
antenna can be avoided by using printed monopole antenna.

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Volume 4, Issue 7, July – 2019 International Journal of Innovative Science and Research Technology
ISSN No:-2456-2165
Fig 1 illustrates that the growing value of relative C. Dimension Calculation Of Circular Monopole Antenna
dielectric constant, the radiation efficiency is declined. And The initial Length (L) and width (W) of the patch has
also, the dielectric constant is higher, the radiation been calculated using the following formula [3].
efficiency is lesser. So, dielectric material should be chosen c
a dielectric constant less than 5. r  1
2 Fo
2 (2)
Fig 2 shows that radiation efficiency is the lowest at
around 5.9 GHz working frequencies for FR4 substrate Where
materials. In the research work, FR4 substrate (the lowest c= free space velocity of light
radiation efficiency) is chosen as the condition of local εr= dielectric constant of the substrate
market although FR4 substrate may cause the lowest
efficiency. Effective Dielectric Constant is introduced to account
for fringing field, it can be calculated

r  1 r  1  12 h 
re   1  w 
2 2  

And then the effective length of the substrate can be

Leff  0.5
4.4 (4)

Increase in patch length

w 
 0.264  h
 re  0.3   t 
L  0.412  
Fig. 1:- Radiation efficiency vs. dielectric constant at  re  0.3    0.8
t 
different frequencies   (5)

Due to the effect of fringing fields, the resonant

length of patch is not equal to the physical length. So, the
actual length of patch (L)
2  f r  εr

Physical length is given as:

L  Leff  2L

The actual ground plane dimension of the antenna can

be calculated;
Fig. 2:- Radiation efficiency vs. resonant frequency at
Lg  L  6h (8)
different materials

B. Micro Strip Patch Shape Collection wg  w  6h

Micro strip patch shape varies from square, (9)
rectangular, circular, elliptical, triangular to tin strip dipole.
A circular ring patch was chosen as the monopole radiation The impedance matching can be found the following;
element to get coverage dedicated short range
communications. The antenna is fed by a micro strip feed
r 2  L  2
line, which connected to the coaxial cable through a ZA(x  0)  90 
standard 50 SMA connector for measurement. r  1 W  (10)

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Volume 4, Issue 7, July – 2019 International Journal of Innovative Science and Research Technology
ISSN No:-2456-2165

Since the dimension of circular loop radius is given III. DESIGN AND SIMULATION
by [4].
Xmn The circular ring monopole antenna design is shown
fr  c in Fig 3.The specifications and parametric values are
2ae r (11) described in table 1.The circular ring monopole antenna is
designed and simulated by FEKO simulator software [5]
The value of dominant mode TM11 is Xmn =1 .8411, and the performances of the CRMA such as current
distributions, return loss, radiation patterns, and gain are
fr is the resonance frequency of the patch, c is the velocity
discussed in the following sections.
of light in free space and εr is the relative permittivity of
the substrate.

The effective radius of the circular patch and given by a

 2h    2 L
ae  a 1   ln  1.7726 
 ar  2h  (12)
Wf Lg
‘a’ is the actual radius of the circular patch antenna
and micro strip feeding techniques can be calculated the
following. W Wg
377 π Fig. 3:- Geometry of the monopole structure design
B (13)
2Zo εr
A. Return Loss and Fractional Bandwidth
For antennas, the characteristic impedance must
 8e A Wm  match between the antenna and the transmission line as
 ;  2 forA  1.52 
Wm  e  2 h
2 A  closely as possible to avoid energy losses of reflected
  waves. The two variables of the reflection coefficient, S11,
h π  εr  1  0.61 
2  B  1  ln ( 2 B  1 )  ln (B  1 )  0.39  
εr 
and the voltage standing wave ratio (VSWR) are mostly
  2εr   measured to determine proper impedance matching. The
(14) reflection coefficient is the amplitude of the wave
transmitted to a port over the amplitude of the wave
reflected back to the port from the system. Effective
Wm antennas have low reflection coefficients because they
Wf 
h transmit supplied electromagnetic waves into free space
rather than reflecting them back toward the source. For an
antenna to radiate effectively, the return loss value should
From above equation, the mentions of optimization
be less than -10 dB [4]. From figure, the return loss is about
values are shown in table 1.
-37 dB at the selected frequency. The return loss for the
circular ring monopole antenna can be obtained from Fig 4.
Design Design Length
Specifications Parameters in mm
εr 4.4 Wf 2
tan∂ 0.016 a, t 7.5, 2
Thickness(h) 1.6 Wg, Lg 20, 11
5.9GHz W, L 20, 26
Frequency f
Table 1:- The Dimensions of the Designed Antenna

The design calculations of antenna such as radius of

circular monopole, length of feed gap and width of ground Fig. 4:- Return loss of an antenna
plane are affected on the performance of antenna. So, the
optimized design of these parameters is going to change to The antenna bandwidth is generally calculated as the
get DSRC band. The main aim of this research work is to frequency range at the magnitude of S11 is below -10dBs
achieve optimum design of DSRC band as below. [3].The antenna provides input impedance bandwidth of

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Volume 4, Issue 7, July – 2019 International Journal of Innovative Science and Research Technology
ISSN No:-2456-2165
1.59 GHz (4.7 to 6.36 GHz) which fully covers 5.875 to
5.925 DSRC bands.
Percentage is referring to a quantity more commonly
called fractional bandwidth (FBW).


The FBW varies between 0% and 200%. The FBW of

20% or more than 20% is called wideband antennas. Ultra-
wideband antennas are greater than 50% of FBW [4].
Fig. 6:- Top and bottom view of current distribution
B. Radiation Pattern
The radiation property of the antenna is defined as D. Gain
radiation pattern [4]. The polar plot of radiations pattern is If the power established by the antenna were radiated
shown in Fig 5. The simulated radiation patterns of isotropically, the radiation intensity in a particular direction
proposed antenna in the xz-plane, yz-plane and xy-plane that would be obtained. Antenna gain is correlated to the
theta 90 for frequencies 5.9 GHz. The patterns in the xz- antenna types and substrate materials. FR4 is losses
plane and xy-plane are quite Omnidirectional as expected. material therefore high frequency range cannot get large
In the yz-plane, the radiation patterns remain roughly a gain from FR4. In Fig 7 the proposed antenna gain depicted
eight shape like bidirectional radiation patterns. So, this nearly 2 dBi at operating frequency 5.9 GHz.
type of antenna is called Omni-directional radiation pattern.

(a) (b) Fig.7:- Simulated result of gain for CRMA



As usual the printed monopole antennas are fabricated

after doing a lot of simulations. Firstly, the proposed design
antenna was drawn by using Design View Easy –Cad
Drawing software or Corel Draw or Dip Trace PCB
Software. In this work, Dip Trace software is used to draw
fabricated design shown in Fig 8.

Fig. 5:- Radiation pattern (a) xz (b) yz (c)xy-plane

C. Current Distribution
The current distribution of the reference element is
shown in Fig 6. The current distribution is the same
direction in all phase. So, this type of antenna is linear

Fig. 8:- Dip Trace PCB drawing of CRMA

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Volume 4, Issue 7, July – 2019 International Journal of Innovative Science and Research Technology
ISSN No:-2456-2165
A. Fabrication with LPKF The prototype of CRMA is set up with network
The proposed cad drawing design was fabricated with analyzer. Block diagram of measurement setup is shown in
MITS Design Pro CAM-Lab or LPKF (Laser & Fig 11. This network analyzer measures the allowance of
Electronics) milling machine. signals from 1 MHz to 6GHz. A network analyzer must be
calibrated to provide highly accurate measurements. The
calibration technique of short, open, load and thru (SOLT)
was used on the network analyzer prior to the CRMA
antenna characterization. One port of the network analyzer
is connected to the low gain of the horn antenna and other
port is connected CRMA in the measurement system.

Fig. 9:- Fabricate with Laser & Electronics

The main goals of CRMA antenna were to fabricate

use of cost effective materials in the design. According to
the local market condition, FR4 material was chosen for the
process of milling. Fig 9 shown fabricated condition with Fig. 12:- Measurement of reflection coefficients
LPLF milling machine.
When antenna measurements are involved, further
steps must be taken to ensure the measurements are
accurate which includes placing the antenna within an
anechoic chamber. It is a room designed to absolutely
absorb reflections of electromagnetic waves or sound these
were made in free space.

Setup of the measurement device and measured the

reflection coefficients of antenna as shown in Fig 12.

Fig. 10:- Top and bottom view of prototype CRMA C. Comparison between Simulations and Measurement
According to the Anritsu MS 2036C network analyzer
After the CRMA antenna board had milled, the SMA range, software result showed frequency range from 1 to
connectors had to be attached to the feed points on the 10GHz but the comparison result showed frequency range
antenna structure. The interface to which the antenna can be from 0 to 6GHz. The resonance frequencies can be
connected to external measurement equipment for appeared larger than simulation result in measurement
characterization is called SMA connector. SMA connector work shown in Fig 13. This condition can be caused by
is soldered straight to the feed point as shown in Fig 10. calibration errors, or also in the manufacturing process.

B. Measurement Setup

Anechoic Chamber Anritsu MS 2036C

Network Analyzer

Device Under Horn Antenna Port 1 Port 2


Fig. 13:- Comparison between measurement and simulation

Fig. 11:- Block diagram of measurement setup in an
anechoic chamber

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Volume 4, Issue 7, July – 2019 International Journal of Innovative Science and Research Technology
ISSN No:-2456-2165

In this paper, circular ring monopole antenna which is

basically a printed micro strip antenna with partial ground
plane for dedicated short range communication has been
simulated and measured. The circular ring monopole
antenna is simulated on FEKO simulator. From the
simulation results, this antenna type is linear and
omnidirectional radiation pattern. If the software is
sufficient for antenna characteristics, the proposed antenna
design is fabricated with LPKF (Laser& Electronics)
milling machine. After that, this prototype is measured by
using SMA connector, Network Analyzer, An-echoic
chamber, horn antenna and calibration kit. Both simulation
and measurement produce a bandwidth of 75MHz (5.85 to
5.925GHz) covering dedicated short range communication.


The author would like to express the deepest gratitude

to many colleagues from the Department of Electronic
Engineering of Mandalay Technological University.


[1]. Vaishali D. Khairnar and Dr. Ketan Kotecha,

“Performance of Vehicle-to-Vehicle Communication
using IEEE 802.11p in Vehicular Ad-hoc Network
Environment”, International Journal of Network
Security & Its Applications (IJNSA), Vol.5, No.2,
March 2013.
[2]. Roopesh R. Patil, Bharti Singh, “Printed Monopole
Antenna Technology For Wideband Applications”,
International Journal of Students Research in
Technology & Management Vol 3 (05), May 2015,
ISSN 2321-2543, pg 377-381
[3]. K.P. Ray, S.S. Thakur & S.S. Kakatkar, “Bandwidth
enhancement techniques for Printed Rectangular
Monopole Atennas”, IETE Journal of Research, 60:3,
249-256, 2014 C.-L.
[4]. Chi-Chih Chen, Antenna Engineering Handbook, 4th
ed. New York: McGraw-Hill, pp. 16-49, 2007.
[5]. User’s Manual, vol. 7, FEKO, 2007.

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