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30/7/2019 How To Use Affinity Laws to Calculate A New Best Efficiency Point

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30/7/2019 How To Use Affinity Laws to Calculate A New Best Efficiency Point

HOW TO USE AFFINITY LAWS TO CALCULATE A NEW


BEST EFFICIENCY POINT
Author: Mike Baxter | August 29, 2014 | Category: Pumps, Pump Curves

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When selecting a new pump, an engineer will


review pump curves to make sure the pump
chosen will run at the best efficiency point for the
given application. But what if one of the variables
in the application needs to change, and the curve
that came perfectly packaged with the pump no
longer applies? If no curve exists, should the pump
be replaced with another that has the curve you
need? Of course not. Using the affinity laws, it is
possible to determine approximate curves to
estimate the centrifugal pump's new best
efficiency point.

Centrifugal pump affinity laws provide a method to determine a new pump operating point
when a performance curve that indicates performance with different impeller diameters or
operating speeds is not available. 


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30/7/2019 How To Use Affinity Laws to Calculate A New Best Efficiency Point

Now that we understand what centrifugal pump affinity laws are, let's take a look at the
equations that will help you determine your new pump operating point.

With the speed held constant, the following relationships apply:

Flow, typically expressed in gallons per minute (GPM) is proportional to velocity or impeller diameter
Head, typically expressed in feet of water (FT), is proportional to the square of the velocity or impeller
diameter
Power, typically expressed in horsepower (HP), is proportional to the cube of the velocity or impeller
diameter which follows since horsepower is calculated by multiplying flow times head

This relationship is expressed mathematically as follows where D = impeller diameter:

With the impeller diameter held constant, the following relationships apply:

Flow is proportional to velocity or pump speed, typically expressed in revolutions per minute (RPM)
Head is proportional to the square of the velocity or pump speed
Power is proportional to the cube of the velocity or pump speed

This relationship is expressed mathematically as follows:

Let's put these equations into an example. Hypothetically, let's say we have a pump with the
initial operating point (1):

Flow (Q) = 800 GPM


Head (H) = 580'
Horsepower (P) = 175 HP
Impeller diameter = 13"
Pump speed = 3570 RPM

The desire is to determine what the pump output would be using a 9" impeller and what the
corresponding reduced speed would be to provide the same pump output with a 13"
impeller. Using the affinity laws, the following results were obtained: 
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30/7/2019 How To Use Affinity Laws to Calculate A New Best Efficiency Point

Need to make some flow/head adjustments to your existing pump? Ask us about it! We
gladly provide technical assistance to businesses in Wisconsin and Upper Michigan.

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Mike Baxter
Mike Baxter is a Professional Engineer, and the National Accounts Manager
for Crane Engineering. He has over 35 years of experience in chemical, pulp
and paper, food and beverage, power generation, OEM, as well as water and
wastewater industries. His focus is on assisting customers with fluid
process needs, including pumping, filtration, mixing, and packaged skid
systems.

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posted at August 29, 2014 posted at August 29, 2014

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