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M. S. Howe

Boston University, College of Engineering, 110 Cummington Street, Boston, Massachusetts 02215

An analytical investigation is made of the compression wave generated when a high-speed train

enters a long tunnel with distributed venting. The compression wave amplitude is determined by

train speed and the area ratio of the train and tunnel, but its rise time depends principally on the

geometry of the tunnel entrance. Vented tunnel entrance ‘‘hoods’’ are frequently used to increase

the rise time, in order to reduce the impact of the micro-pressure pulse radiated from the tunnel exit

when the compression wave arrives at the far end of the tunnel. Approximate calculations are

performed to determine the initial rise time for a tunnel of rectangular cross section with a

continuously variable vented roof near the entrance, for train Mach numbers less than about 0.2

~;150 mph!. The distribution of venting apertures can be optimized to maximize rise time, and a

sixfold increase is shown to be possible when the aperture distribution decreases exponentially with

distance into the tunnel. The method of this paper is applicable also to more general tunnel entrance

geometries, and for higher train Mach numbers. © 1998 Acoustical Society of America.

@S0001-4966~98!01408-8#

PACS numbers: 43.10.Ln, 43.28.Mw, 43.28.Py, 43.50.Lj @LCS#

dB in the peak compression wave pressure gradient are pos-

A compression wave is generated when a train enters a

sible from optimizations of the train nose profile.4,5

tunnel. The wave propagates ahead of the train at about the

Larger reductions can be achieved by changes in tunnel

speed of sound and emerges from the far end as a spherically

design. For adjacent, parallel tunnels the pressure gradient

spreading acoustic pulse, frequently called a micro-pressure

wave.1,2 Environmental problems caused by large amplitude can be reduced by allowing the compression wave to ‘‘es-

micro-pressure waves first became apparent in 1975, in Ja- cape’’ through a channel joining the tunnels close to the

pan. For high-speed trains ~whose Mach number exceeds entrance. Similar reductions occur when the wavefront

about 0.15! passing through a long tunnel with concrete slab passes a tunnel side-branch, which may be designed to ab-

tracks, nonlinear steepening of the compression wave can sorb all of the entering wave energy, and a system consisting

produce peak micro-pressure wave amplitudes of order 50 Pa of a periodic distribution of side-branch Helmholtz resona-

('1 lb/ft2 or about 128 dB! in the neighborhood of the tors has been proposed.6 However, the greatest attenuations

tunnel exit. The resulting disturbance is comparable in mag- are currently obtained by installing a ‘‘hood’’ extending

nitude to that created on the ground by the sonic boom from 30–50 m ahead of the tunnel entrance. The compression

a supersonic aircraft. When the track is ballasted, nonlinear wave begins to form as the train enters the hood, but its rise

steepening is opposed by dissipation of high frequency com- time is increased by venting high pressure air through appro-

ponents of the compression wavefront within ballast inter- priately placed ‘‘windows’’ in the hood walls. A fivefold

stices, and the micro-pressure wave is usually less increase in rise time has been achieved in this way using a

important.3 hood of length 49 m.3

The maximum amplitude of the compression wave is In this paper a theory of compression wave generation is

determined primarily by the train speed at the tunnel en- presented for a train entering a tunnel whose walls are vented

trance and the cross-sectional area of the train relative to that to the ambient atmosphere by a continuous distribution of

of the tunnel. The micro-pressure wave amplitude is roughly openings near the tunnel entrance. Our analytical model

proportional to the compression wave pressure gradient at treats the vents as a continuum, and the objective is to deter-

the tunnel exit, however, and methods for reducing its inten- mine their distribution to maximize the rise time of the com-

sity usually involve attempts to decrease the initial value of pression wave. Intuitive arguments suggest that this can be

the pressure gradient at the tunnel entrance, because the sub- done by gradually decreasing the ‘‘fractional open area’’ of

sequent nonlinear steepening is then smaller.3 This can be the tunnel wall with distance into the tunnel. The theory is an

done by modifying train design, either to reduce its relative extension of a general method described in Ref. 7 for calcu-

cross-sectional area, or to increase the slenderness of the lating the compression wave in terms of the geometry of the

front of the train. In practice these approaches yield only tunnel entrance. The train is represented by a distribution of

sources determined by the cross-sectional variation of the

a! train profile, and the compression wave is expressed as the

‘‘Selected research articles’’ are ones chosen occasionally by the Editor-

in-Chief that are judged ~a! to have a subject of wide acoustical interest, convolution product of these sources and a compact Green’s

and ~b! to be written for understanding by broad acoustical readership. function.8 The Green’s function has vanishing normal de-

1158 J. Acoust. Soc. Am. 104 (3), Pt. 1, September 1998 0001-4966/98/104(3)/1158/7/$15.00 © 1998 Acoustical Society of America 1158

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calculations the train Mach number M 5U/c 0 (c 0 5 speed of

sound! is assumed to be smaller than about 0.2, but this

restriction can be relaxed by modification of the analysis,

although this is not discussed here.

The compression wave is generated by the gross dis-

placement of the air in the tunnel entrance by the incoming

train, and for a sufficiently streamlined train the influence on

this of flow separation can be ignored in a first approxima-

tion. When viscous effects at the tunnel walls are also ne-

glected, the displacement of the air by the moving train is

equivalent to that produced by a distribution of moving vol-

ume sources of constant strengths, and the unsteady motion

they produce can be represented by a velocity potential

f (x,t). The sources translate at the speed U of the train, and

their distribution at time t is denoted by q(x1Ut,y,z),

where q(x) may be taken to be the source distribution at the

instant t50 at which the nose of the train just enters the

tunnel.

The velocity potential is the solution with outgoing

wave behavior of

FIG. 1. ~a! Tunnel entrance with vented roof. ~b! Mapping the Z plane

bounded by the profile of the tunnel roof and its image in the ground onto

the right half of the z plane.

S 1 ]2

c 20 ] t 2

D

2¹ 2 f 52q ~ x1Ut,y,z ! , ~1!

rivative on the tunnel walls, and on any rigid structures near normal velocity on the rigid surfaces S, say, comprising the

the entrance, and embodies all of the geometrical effects of tunnel walls and all solid surfaces ~other than the train! out-

the tunnel entrance and its environment. This approach may side the entrance of the tunnel. The solution can be written

be contrasted, for example, with that of Vardy9,10 ~following

Swarden and Wilson11! who used the method of characteris-

tics for waves propagating in one dimension.

f ~ x,t ! 52 EE G ~ x,x8 ;t2 t ! q ~ x8 , t ! d 3 x8 d t ,

The present calculations are simplified by restricting at-

where Green’s function G (x,x8 ;t2 t ) is the corresponding

tention to tunnels of rectangular cross-section, with the en-

solution of ~1! when the right hand side is replaced by d (x

trance vents confined to the flat roof. This permits the theory

2x8 ) d (t2 t ). At typical train Mach numbers, the character-

to be developed using conformal mapping. More general,

istic thickness of the compression wavefront is large com-

three-dimensional entrance geometries will normally require

pared to the tunnel diameter, and Green’s function may then

Green’s function to be determined numerically. The theory is

be approximated by7

formulated in Sec. I. In Sec. II the influence of roof venting

on Green’s function is discussed. The fractional open area of c0

the vents is assumed to decrease in a prescribed manner with G ~ x,y;t2 t ! ' $ H ~ t2 t 2 u f * ~ x! 2 f * ~ y! u /c o !

distance from the tunnel entrance, and an integral equation is 2A

derived whose solution determines the modified form of 2H ~ t2 t 1„f * ~ x! 1 f * ~ y! …/c o ! % , ~2!

Green’s function. This is solved by collocation and applied

in Sec. III to investigate compression wave generation when where H(x)50,1 according as x"0 is the Heaviside step

the distribution of the vents decreases exponentially with dis- function, and f * (x) is a solution of Laplace’s equation de-

tance into the tunnel. scribing incompressible, irrotational flow out of the tunnel

entrance. f * (x) is normalized such that f * (x)'x2 l , for

I. CALCULATION OF THE COMPRESSION WAVE u x u @h within the tunnel and, f * (x);O(1/u xu ) for u xu @h

outside the tunnel, where l ;h is the tunnel end

A. Representation in terms of volume sources

correction.12 The precise functional form of f * (x) depends

Consider a train travelling at constant speed U in the on the geometry of the entrance, but f * (x) varies continu-

negative x direction into a rigid walled, rectangular cylindri- ously through the entrance, increasing from a large negative

cal tunnel of height h and cross-sectional area A, as illus- value when x is far within the tunnel, to zero at u xu 5`

trated in Fig. 1. The tunnel extends along the negative x axis, outside. It is numerically of order h in the vicinity of the

where the origin of the rectangular axes (x,y,z) is at the entrance, where its rate of change depends on the shape of

point O at ground level in the plane of the tunnel entrance. the entrance and on the ambient environment, for example

The profiled nose of the train is of length L, beyond which on whether or not the entrance is ‘‘flared’’ or opens out into

the train cross section is constant and of area A 0 . The ratio an embanked channel, etc.

A0 /A is assumed to be small ~less than about 0.2, for the In a long tunnel, Eq. ~1! is strictly applicable only when

simple model described below!. For the present exploratory nonlinear steepening is ignored. In these circumstances it

1159 J. Acoust. Soc. Am., Vol. 104, No. 3, Pt. 1, September 1998 Michael Howe: High-speed train compression wave 1159

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predicts the initial form of the compression wave profile sev- ] AT / ] x 8 Þ0. For a long train, the integral becomes constant

eral tunnel diameters ahead of the entrance, where the am- and equal to UA0 just after the passage of the nose through

plitude of the unsteady motion is small, and the perturbation the tunnel entrance into the region where ] f * / ] x51; this

pressure p52 r 0 ] f / ] t, where r 0 is the undisturbed air den- constant value is the maximum compression wave ampli-

sity. This initial profile is found with the aid of ~2! to be tude, equal approximately to r 0 U 2 A0 /A at low Mach num-

given by ~see Ref. 7 for details! bers. For a tunnel of constant cross-sectional area, or one

with a ‘‘flared’’ entrance, ] f * / ] x 8 decreases smoothly to

p ~ x,t ! [p ~ x,t ! '

r 0U

A

E q ~ x 8 1U @ t # ,y 8 ,z 8 ! zero in the direction out of the entrance along the path of the

train, and the pressure rise across compression wavefront

therefore tends to be monotonic.

]f*

3 ~ x8 ! d 3 x8 , x8 5 ~ x 8 ,y 8 ,z 8 ! ,

]x8

~3! II. THE POTENTIAL f * „x… FOR A VENTED TUNNEL

where the integration is taken over the region occupied by A. Integral formula for f * „x…

the sources, and @ t # 't1x/c 0 is the retarded time. The im-

pulsive micro-pressure wave p 8 (x,t), say, that radiates from Equation ~5! implies that the initial rise time of the com-

the far end of the tunnel is given in terms of the compression pression wavefront is governed by the behavior of

wave, and at large distance r from the tunnel exit at x ] 2 f * (x)/ ] x 2 , which is nonzero only in the vicinity of the

5x E , say, by the formula3,12,13 tunnel entrance. The magnitude of this second derivative

along the path of the train can be reduced by moderately

A ]p flaring the tunnel entrance, thereby causing the streamlines

p 8 ~ x,t ! ' ~ x E ,t2r/c 0 ! , r@h, ~4!

Vc 0 r ] t of the hypothetical potential outflow determined by f * to

diverge more gradually from the entrance. A similar result is

where V is the effective solid angle into which the wave achieved by the presence of a suitable arrangement of vents

radiates, determined by local conditions near the exit. Ac- near the tunnel entrance, through which a portion of the po-

cording to Eq. ~3! tential flow f * can ‘‘escape’’ before reaching the entrance.

E

]p r 0U 2 The distribution of vents along the tunnel wall must be cho-

~ x,t ! '2 q ~ x 8 1U @ t # ,y 8 ,z 8 ! sen carefully, however, since a rapid divergence of the

]t A streamlines will merely cause the tunnel to be acoustically

shorter, and the formation of the compression wave to be

] 2f *

3 ~ x8 ! d 3 x8 . ~5! delayed until the train passes from the vented to the unvented

]x8 2

section of the tunnel entrance, with no increase in rise time.

However, the actual value to be used on the right on ~4! will The influence of venting will be examined by assuming

usually be considerably different from that predicted by this the tunnel roof near the entrance to be perforated with iden-

formula because of nonlinear steepening of the wave in a tical apertures distributed with a number N (x) per unit area

long tunnel. Solution ~3! should be regarded as defining the ~Fig. 1!. The aperture cross section is assumed to be suffi-

initial waveform for use in a one-dimensional nonlinear ciently large that the unsteady aperture flows produced by

model of wave propagation in the tunnel. This aspect of the the passage of the train may be regarded as irrotational. This

problem is not pursued here, where attention is restricted to should be a good approximation during the period of wave

the mechanism of compression wave generation. formation, as the train enters the tunnel, since turbulence

diffusion from aperture walls and from the train occurs over

a much longer timescale. The aperture distribution function

B. The volume source strength N (x) is at our disposal, and can be adjusted to modify the

rise time of the compression wave.

Equation ~3! expresses the compression wave in terms

Introduce the representation

of a source distribution q that depends on the shape of the

train, but is nonzero only near the nose and tail. For small f * ~ x! 5 f 0* ~ x! 1 f A* ~ x! , ~7!

values of the area ratio A0 /A, it was shown in Ref. 7, by

comparison with the experiments of Maeda et al.,4 that q is where f *0 (x) is the potential function f * in the absence of

well approximated by the line source venting, and f A * (x) is the additional contribution from the

presence of the vents. To determine f A * (x), let G(x,x8 ) de-

] AT note the potential flow Green’s function that satisfies ¹ 2 G

q ~ x,y,z ! 5U ~ x ! d ~ y ! d ~ z2z T! , ~6!

]x 5 d (x2x8 ), and is defined such that G has vanishing normal

derivative on the unperforated tunnel walls, and ¹G→0 at

where A T(x) is the cross-sectional area of the train at dis- large distances from the point source, both within and out-

tance x measured from the nose, so that AT(L)[A 0 , and side the tunnel. Then

S D

the ground level line y50,z5z T lies in the vertical plane of

symmetry of the train.

The integration in ~3! is accordingly confined to the in-

tervals on the x 8 axis where the retarded value of

f A* ~ x! 5 R S

@ G ~ x,x8 !# x8

] f A*

] x 8n

~ x8 !

1

dS ~ x8 ! , ~8!

1160 J. Acoust. Soc. Am., Vol. 104, No. 3, Pt. 1, September 1998 Michael Howe: High-speed train compression wave 1160

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where the integration is over the tunnel walls, and C. Rectangular tunnel with a vented roof

(]fA * / ] x n8 ) 1 denotes the normal velocity within an aperture

The determination of Q from ~11! requires a knowledge

directed out of the tunnel. The square bracket notation in this of both the unperforated velocity potential f * 0 (x) and

formula is defined such that, for any function f (x), @ f (x) # x is

Green’s function G(x,x8 ). Although f * 0 (x) can readily be

the exterior minus the interior limiting values of f (x) as the

calculated for a tunnel of circular or semi-circular cylindrical

point x approaches the tunnel wall.

form,7 a convenient analytical representation of the Green’s

Now let Q̄(x j )5r S j ( ] f A* / ] x 8n ) 1 dS(x8 )be the volume function is not generally available. We may avoid this diffi-

flux directed out of the tunnel through the jth aperture S j culty for the tunnel of rectangular cross section in Fig. 1 by

whose centroid is at x j . When the apertures are small rela- adopting a two-dimensional approximation to the potential

tive to the tunnel diameter, and the distance of the point x flow from the entrance, by assuming that the local irrota-

from the nearest aperture exceeds the aperture diameter, tional motion in the entrance is uniform in the z direction

G(x,x8 )'G(x,x j ) may be regarded as constant when per- ~transverse to the direction of motion of the train!. This ap-

forming the integration in ~8! over S j . Since the length scale proximation cannot give a complete description of compres-

of variation of Q̄(x j ) between neighboring apertures must be sion wave generation, but it yields predictions that are fully

comparable to that of the potential function f * 0 , which may consistent with analytical and numerical results obtained pre-

be supposed to drive the motion through the apertures, and viously for an unvented tunnel.4,5,7,14,15

there are N apertures per unit area of the tunnel wall, it Consider the conformal transformation16

follows that the integrand of ~8! can be approximated by

pZ

N (x8 )Q̄(x8 ) @ G(x,x8 ) # x8 , and therefore that 215 z 2 1ln z 2 , ~12!

h

f * ~ x! 5 f *

0 ~ x! 1 R

S

Q ~ x8 !@ G ~ x,x8 !# x8 dS ~ x8 ! , which maps the Z5x1iy plane bounded by the tunnel roof

and its image in the ground @Fig. 1~b!# onto the right half

~Re z .0) of the z plane, with the entrance points Z56ih

Q ~ x8 ! [N ~ x8 ! Q̄ ~ x8 ! . ~9! mapping onto z 56i, and the point at infinity within the

tunnel mapping onto z 50.

In this formula Q(x) is the volume flux per unit surface area The potential f 0* is the real part of w 0 [ f 0* 1i c 0*

of the tunnel wall, and the integration is over the region 5(2h/ p )ln z. The perforations are assumed to be confined

where QÞ0. to the roof of the tunnel and distributed uniformly in the z

direction ~out of the plane of the paper in Fig. 1!, so that

N [N (x). The complex potential of flow from the vented

B. Calculation of Q „x… tunnel entrance is then given by the following analog of Eq.

~9!

The volume flux Q̄(x j ) through the jth aperture can be

expressed in terms of the potential difference @ f̄ * # x j across

the aperture produced by the unperforated potential f * o and

w[ f * 1i c * 5w 0 1

1

p

E 2`

0

Q ~ x 8 ! $ ln~ z 2 1 j 21 ~ x 8 !!

2ln~ z 2 1 j 22 ~ x 8 !! % dx 8 , ~13!

the other apertures, by means of Rayleigh’s formula

where z 5i j 6 (x 8 ) ( j 1 .1, 0, j 2 ,1) are the images of the

Q̄ ~ x j ! 5K @ f̄ * # x j , ~10! points Z5x 8 1i(h60) on the exterior and interior surfaces

of the roof. The volume flux density Q is determined by the

where K is the Rayleigh conductivity of the aperture.12 K integral equation

U U

has the dimensions of length, and depends only on the shape

and size of the aperture; it is equal to 2R for a circular

aperture of radius R in a thin wall, and approximately equal Q ~ x ! 52 a ~ x ! ln

j 1~ x !

j 2~ x !

1

a~ x !

h

E 2`

0

Q~ x8!

to A (aperture area/ p ) for a nonelongated, thin wall aperture

of arbitrary shape. The potential difference @ f̄ * # x j can actu-

ally be approximated by the representation ~9! of f * (x),

because, although @ G(x j ,x8 ) # x8 is singular as x8 →x j , the

HU

3 ln

j 21 ~ x 8 ! 2 j 21 ~ x !

j 22 ~ x 8 ! 2 j 21 ~ x !

U

singularity is integrable, and its contribution to the surface

integral from a vanishingly small region around x8 5x j

shrinks to zero. Thus Q(x) satisfies the integral equation

1ln U j 22 ~ x 8 ! 2 j 22 ~ x !

j 21 ~ x 8 ! 2 j 22 ~ x !

UJ dx 8 , ~14!

Q ~ x! 5K N ~ x!@ f *

0 # x1K N ~ x ! R S

Q ~ x8 !

a~ x !5

hK

N ~ x !. ~15!

p

3@@ G ~ x,x8 !# x8 # x dS ~ x8 ! , ~11!

As indicated below, a typical maximum value of a is 0.35.

which can be solved by collocation when f *

0 (x) and N (x) For circular venting apertures of diameter K 51 ft and a

are prescribed. tunnel of height h'20 ft, this implies that the local value of

1161 J. Acoust. Soc. Am., Vol. 104, No. 3, Pt. 1, September 1998 Michael Howe: High-speed train compression wave 1161

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FIG. 2. Volume flux distribution function Q(x) for a vented tunnel roof

with a (x)[(hK / p )N (x)50.35ex/h .

the fractional open area of the roof N p K /4 does not ex- 2 gradients ( ] p/ ] t)/( r 0 U 3 A0 /hA) ~—————! for an unvented tunnel,

ceed about 5%. and for roof venting with a (x)50.35e x/h .

D. Potential flow from the vented tunnel entrance ground indicates that ] 2 f * / ] x 2 will be correspondingly

Figure 2 illustrates the variation of the predicted volume smaller along the train track. Equation ~5! then suggests that

flux density Q as a function of x/h when the fractional open the rise time of the compression wave will be larger for the

area of the vents decreases exponentially from the tunnel vented tunnel.

entrance according to a (x)50.35e x/h . Q vanishes at the tun-

nel entrance, where the potential jump across the roof is null, III. INFLUENCE OF VENTING ON COMPRESSION

and attains a maximum near x52h. The dramatic effect of WAVE RISE TIME

these vents on the potential flow from the entrance can be A. Front of train modeled by a point source

calculated from ~13! and is depicted in Fig. 3, in which

streamlines c * (x)5constant are plotted for both the un- Preliminary estimates of the influence of roof venting

vented and vented tunnel entrances. The more gradual diver- can be obtained by assuming that the source distribution ~6!

gence of the streamlines from the vented tunnel in the vicin- that models fluid displacement by the nose of the train is

ity of the center line of the tunnel plus its image in the concentrated in one point, i.e., by taking

q ~ x! 'A0 U d ~ x ! d ~ y ! d ~ z ! , ~16!

where the net source strength A 0 U5 * L0 U( ] AT / ] x)dx,

and

the vertical plane of symmetry of the train is taken to coin-

cide with z50. This approximation for q is formally identi-

cal to that obtained when the train is modeled by a semi-

infinite cylinder of cross-sectional area A0 .

Equations ~3! and ~5! now supply the following approxi-

mations to the pressure and pressure gradient of the compres-

sion wave generated as the train enters the tunnel,

r 0 U 2 A0 ] F *

p ~ x,t ! ' ~ 2U @ t # /h,0,0 ! ,

A ]X

~17!

]p r 0 U A0 ] F *

3 2

~ x,t ! '2 ~ 2U @ t # /h,0,0 ! ,

]t hA ]X2

where the following dimensionless notation has been intro-

duced:

x f * ~ x!

X5 , F * ~ X,y/h,z/h ! 5 . ~18!

h h

Equations ~17! are applicable within the tunnel at large dis-

tances from the entrance, but before nonlinear steepening of

the wavefront becomes important.

The dashed and solid curves in Fig. 4, respectively, rep-

FIG. 3. Streamlines of uniform flow from the tunnel entrance defined by the

resent the predicted pressure and pressure gradient when the

velocity potential f * (x): ~a! unvented tunnel; ~b! vented roof with a (x) behavior of f * near the tunnel entrance is determined by the

[(hK / p )N (x)50.35e x/h . two-dimensional approximation ~13! for ~i! an unvented tun-

1162 J. Acoust. Soc. Am., Vol. 104, No. 3, Pt. 1, September 1998 Michael Howe: High-speed train compression wave 1162

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FIG. 6. Compression wave pressure gradients ( ] p/ ] t)/( r 0 U 3 A0 /hA) for

L/h52: ~a! unvented entrance; ~b! vented with a (x)50.35e 0.6x/h .

FIG. 5. ~a! Volume flux distribution Q(x) for a (x)50.35e 0.6x/h . ~b! Com-

pression waves p/( r 0 U 2 A0 /A) ~— — — —! and pressure gradients

]p 22 r 0 U 3 A0

( ] p/ ] t)/( r 0 U 3 A0 /hA) ~————! for the unvented and vented tunnels. ~ x,t ! '

]t LA

nel, and ~ii! a tunnel with the roof venting of Fig. 2 ~see Sec.

II D!, for which a (x)[hK N(x)/ p 50.35e x/h . Venting in-

creases the rise time of the wave by a factor of about 25 , and

3 E 0

L/h

F ~ X,h/L !

] 2F *

]X2

~ X2U @ t # /h,0,0 ! dX,

ence in the pressure gradients is maintained to the far end of

where L is the length of the profiled nose, and the function

the tunnel, the micro-pressure wave ~4! radiating from the

F (X,h/L) is given by

end would be reduced in intensity by about 8 dB.

The increase in compression wave rise time can be h 1 h

maximized by an optimal choice of the vent distribution F ~ X,h/L ! 5 X, , 12 X, ~20!

L 2 L

function a (x). When the search for this optimum is re-

respectively, for the conical, paraboloidal and ellipsoidal

stricted to exponentially varying a (x), the greatest attenua-

nose profile. The compression wave pressure gradients

tion is obtained for a (x)50.35e 0.6x/h . Details for this case

( ] p/ ] t)/( r 0 U 3 A0 /hA) generated by these profiles are

are depicted in Fig. 5, where the rise time is seen to experi-

plotted in Fig. 6~a! for the unvented tunnel when L/h52.

ence a six-fold increase, and the maximum pressure gradient

These results resemble closely both in magnitude and phase

is about 27% of its value in the unvented tunnel ~correspond-

corresponding predictions for semi-circular cylindrical tun-

ing to a reduction in the micro-pressure wave intensity of

nels of radius h.3,7,14,15 The corresponding profiles for the

11.3 dB!.

optimal case in which a (x)50.35e 0.6x/h is illustrated in Fig.

6~b!.

B. Symmetric nose profiles

IV. CONCLUSION

Numerical and experimental studies of compression

wave generation frequently consider axisymmetric model The amplitude of the compression wave produced when

trains projected along the axis of symmetry of a circular a high-speed train enters a long tunnel is controlled princi-

cylindrical tunnel. The most common nose profiles are the pally by train speed and the area ratio of the train and tunnel.

circular cone, and the paraboloid or ellipsoid of revolution. The initial rise time of the wave is governed by the nose

For the configuration of Fig. 1~a! the train would consist of profile of the train and the geometry of the tunnel entrance

the upper half of such an axisymmetric model ~with its flat and environment. Vented entrance ‘‘hoods’’ have been used

base lying on y510, just above ground level!, and the ana- to increase the rise time and thereby reduce the impact of the

lytical representation of the compression wave pressure gra- micro-pressure pulse that radiates from the far end of the

dient may be cast in the form tunnel. The approximate calculations described in this paper

1163 J. Acoust. Soc. Am., Vol. 104, No. 3, Pt. 1, September 1998 Michael Howe: High-speed train compression wave 1163

Downloaded 02 Jan 2013 to 203.110.243.23. Redistribution subject to ASA license or copyright; see http://asadl.org/terms

are applicable to a tunnel of rectangular cross section with a shape of train nose on compression wave generated by train entering tun-

variably vented roof near the entrance, and permit the distri- nel,’’ Proceedings of the International Conference on Speedup Technol-

ogy for Railway and Maglev Vehicles ~Yokohama, Japan, 22–26 Novem-

bution of the vents to be optimized to maximize rise time.

ber 1993!, pp. 315–319.

Only the very simplest case in which the aperture distribu- 5

M. Iida, T. Matsumura, K. Nakatani, T. Fukuda, and T. Maeda, ‘‘Opti-

tion decreases exponentially with distance into the tunnel has mum nose shape for reducing tunnel sonic boom,’’ Institute of Mechanical

been considered, but our predictions indicate that at least Engineers Paper C514/015/96 ~1996!.

6

sixfold increases in the rise time are then possible. Applica- N. Sugimoto, ‘‘Shock-free tunnel for future high-speed trains,’’ Paper

PS3-3, Proceedings of the International Conference on Speedup Technol-

tion of the method to tunnels with more complicated en- ogy for Railway and Maglev Vehicles ~Yokohama, Japan, 22–26 Novem-

trance geometries is straightforward in principle. This is cur- ber 1993!.

7

rently being done for a tunnel of circular cylindrical cross- M. S. Howe, ‘‘The compression wave produced by a high-speed train

section, of the type frequently used in model scale tests, and entering a tunnel,’’ Proc. R. Soc. London, Ser. A 254, 1523–1534 ~1998!.

8

M. S. Howe, ‘‘The generation of sound by aerodynamic sources in an

which should therefore permit experimental validation of the inhomogeneous steady flow,’’ J. Fluid Mech. 67, 579–610 ~1975!.

theory. 9

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ACKNOWLEDGMENTS Projects Laboratory, Department of Mechanical Engineering, Massachu-

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10

The author expresses his gratitude to Dr. Tatsuo Maeda, A. E. Vardy, ‘‘Ventilation approach regions for railway tunnels,’’ Trans-

Head of the Aerodynamics and Noise Reduction Group of port Engineering Journal, American Society of Civil Engineers 101, 609–

619 ~1975!.

the Railway Technical Research Institute, Tokyo, for his 11

A. E. Vardy, ‘‘Reflection of step-wavefronts from perforated and flared

help and advice during the preparation of this paper. extensions,’’ J. Sound Vib. 59, 577–589 ~1978!.

12

Lord Rayleigh, The Theory of Sound ~Dover, New York, 1945!, Vol. 2.

13

1

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14

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1979!. Applied Sciences ~Wiley, New York, 1996!.

3 15

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4

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1164 J. Acoust. Soc. Am., Vol. 104, No. 3, Pt. 1, September 1998 Michael Howe: High-speed train compression wave 1164

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