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Installation of 6kWp Grid Tie rooftop Solar System for Generation of 25 units of energy per day

Debadyoti Ghosh, Sreemoyee Madhura Karmakar, Arundhati Roy, Sreyajit Manna, Sanhita Samanta and Sayantan Mitra

Department Of Electronics & Communication, Institute of Engineering & Management, Salt Lake, Kolkata, India. debadyoti.ghosh@iemcal.com


AbstractDemand of grid tie rooftop solar system is increasing day by day due to its unique capability of reducing electricity consumption costs. Grid tie rooftop solar system generates electricity which is fed to the utility grid through a solar inverter. The solar inverter is designed to convert the solar generated direct current (dc) into alternating current (ac) maintaining the utility grid frequency. After that it is also fed to the commercial electrical grid. In this way the system can supply surplus energy units to the commercial power distribution company and consumers can get discount on their own electricity consumption from that particular company which might be reflected on their monthly electricity bills. In this paper, the details of installation of 6KWp grid tie solar system and its generation capability have been discussed.

KeywordsRooftop solar panel, utility grid, grid tie inverter, anti- islanding.


Solar energy is undoubtedly the source of renewable energy. Moreover, it is nature friendly. Solar energy can be harnessed by the photovoltaic technology. After that it is converted into the electric energy (dc). Grid tie rooftop solar system is actually based on this technology. It is one of the most popular solar solutions for houses and commercial establishments. It provides power to the running load of consumers directly and additionally can sell excess solar power by feeding the electricity distribution company. Thus it can reduce the energy cost. Rooftop PV market in India is in the process of evolving. For the growing demand in electricity, it may be the best solution in near future to meet that demand with the reduction in energy cost as well as the assurance of power back up in absence of grid supply. Ministry of New and Renewable Energy (MNRE), Government of India is also giving serious efforts in promoting such kind of renewable energy resource projects in various sectors including corporate houses with subsidy based scheme.

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The capacity of

grid tie rooftop solar system can

vary from 1kW

to 1MW depending on the area of the roof where the plant is to be installed. The design and the installation of rooftop solar


system includes plant layout, module disposition,


layout and connections, sizing of equipment, earthing and other electrical protections. The entire system should be properly synchronized with the existing electrical system. The block diagram of such a system is shown if figure.1. Another most important thing is that for maximum power tracking, solar panels are mounted facing south in India (northern hemisphere) and north in southern hemisphere. The tilted angle of panels should be considered as equal to the angle of latitude of that particular location. This is one fixed orientation of solar panels where the panels almost always intercept the highest amount of solar radiation during the year.

where the panels almost always intercept the highest amount of solar radiation during the year. Fig.1:

Fig.1: Block diagram

The solar panels generate dc power which goes to a grid tie inverter. The inverter converts this dc power to 240 volt ac power that is equal to the supply power from the distribution company. Thus the power from the panels goes via the grid-tie inverter to the load. If the solar generated power is more than that of the power consumed by the load, the excess power is fed to the main distribution supply line. If the load requires more power than that of solar generated powers, the additional power is drawn from the main distribution supply line. Grid tie system works only when the grid supply is on. If the grid power goes out, the grid tie inverter shut down immediately which is termed as anti-islanding.


A 6kW rooftop solar plant has been installed on the roof of Institute of Engineering and Management, salt lake, Kolkata, India. The latitude of the city Kolkata is 22.5667 degree. For optimal tilt angle we have maintained 21 degree. The panels used are of polycrystalline type (blue color panel) and manufactured by Tata BP Solar India Limited with nominal operating cell temperature of 47 0 C. Table-1 shows some of the other features of that installed grid tie solar plant:


Number of modules



Number of modules in series



Number of parallel strings or units


Nos. (Unit-I &


Cable use in string

4 sq mm single core dc cable.


DC earthing with 1.2insulation resistance.

Total generation capacity of the plant - 6kWp.



In this system no battery storage has been introduced because the plant works only in the day light. The system directly supplies the existing load via the solar inverter and thus reduces consumer power consumption which is taken from the commercial distribution company.

Table-2 shows the approximate readings of individual units for a sunny day generation. It has been also found from the energy meter reading that the sunny day kilo- watt-hour unit generation is approximately 23 units per day. The data has been collected on the month of April,




Open circuit

Current in RYB- phases










Rooftop solar system has huge future prospects. Further research and development on the application of solar technology can enrich the world with clean and natural energy. However, generally it is observed that per kW plant has the capability of generation of 5 units energy per day. Therefore, this 6kW plant should give 30 units per day. But here it is 23 units. It does mean that few amounts of loss are taken place in the system either due to installation problem or some other reasons may be there. So the future scope related to this project is to detect the problems and to provide technical support to achieve the goal of generation of 30 Units by the 6kWp rooftop solar system. The collection of data for different parameters related to this running project and the

analysis of that data will make the system very efficient.




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