Vous êtes sur la page 1sur 14

SOCietV of Petroleum Enaineprs

lADC/SPE 39329

Rotary Steerable System Improves Reservoir Drilling Efficiency and Wellbore

Placement in the Statfjord Field
E. Andreassen *, H. Blikra *, A. Hjelle *, and S. A. Kvamme *, Statoil, and J. Haugen *, Baker Hughes INTEQ
“Sue members
IADC Members
Copyright 1998, lADC/SPE Drilfing Conference
● Case history, emphasizing directional control, drilling
This papr was prepared for presentation at the 1998 lADC/SPE Drilling Conference held in
Dallas, Texas, U.S.A., 3.6 March 1998.
efficiency improvement, and other valuable experiences
from utilizing the rotary steerable system.
This paper waa selected for presentation by an lADC/SPE Program Committee following
review of information contained in an abstract aubmittad by the author(s) Contents of the
pa~r, as presented, have not hen reviewed by the International Association of Drilling Introduction
Contractor or the Society of Petroleum Engineara and are subjact to correction by the
author(a). The material, as presented, does not necessarily reflect any position of the IADC or The North Sea Statfjord Field is located on the border between
SPE, their officers, or members PaWrs preaentad at the lADC/SPE meetings are subject to
publication review by Editorial Committees of the IADC and SPE. Electronic reproduction, ‘- Norwegian and British sector, 200 km north west of Bergen,
distribution, or storage of any part of this paper for commercial purpses without the written Norway. This large oil field was- discovered in 1973 and
consent of the Society of Petroleum Engineers la prohibitad Permission to reproduce in print is
restricted to an abatract of not more than 300 words; illustrations may not h copied. The production drilling started in 1978. Currently some 160 wells
abstract must contain conspicuous acknowledgment of where and by whom the paper was
presented, Write Librarian, SPE, PO. Box 833836, Richardson, TX 75083-3836, U. S.A., fax have been drilled, many of these being high angle, horizontal,
----- ERD, and designer wells”z.
Several of the approximately 80 remaining reservoir targets
Abstract will require complex three dimensional wellpaths above and
Drilling in the Statfjord Field has become increasingly within the reservoir. All well slots have been utilized on the
challenging as remaining oil pockets require designer wells, three platforms, and therefore new wells will be sidetracked
horizontal wells, or Extended Reach Drilling (ERD) wells with from existing wells. These wells available for sidetracking
great demand for reservoir navigation in three dimensions. may have less than optimum directions and inclinations,
Until recently this has been performed with steerable motor demanding extensive three dimensional orientations when
assemblies, with frequent steering difficulties in the reservoir sidetracking. Proximity to other well tracks also puts
sands. Low rate of penetration (ROP) while sliding has given constraints on allowable wellpath design. However, most
an overall low drilling efficiency, and in some cases inade- important for the resulting wellpath is the location of the often
quate steering ability has resulted in a less than optimum small infill reserve targets. To obtain an acceptable economic
wellbore placement. Long sliding intervals have also resulted justification for drilling often several of these targets are
in poor hole cleaning, which has contributed to stuck drill combined in each well, resulting in complex three dimensional
string and lost circulation problems. well paths.
This paper presents the introduction of a rotary steerable In the last decade the use of steerable motor assemblies with
system in the multilateral horizontal well C-23 in the Statfjord PDC bits has been the predominant method for directionally
Field, and how this improved drilling performance over navigating wells. Frequent problems with toolface orienting,
comparable wells in the reservoir. positive displacement motor (PDM) stalling, hanging up of
The following topics are discussed in the paper: bottom hole assemblies (BHA), and poor ROP while sliding
o Field description and brief overview of directional drilling have been experienced while drilling in reservoir sands. To
challenges in the Statfjord Field. obtain necessary steerability in some well paths, the only
● Statoil’s active role in the development of rotary steerable solution has been rock bits with their added risk and increased
systems. tripping frequency. These are common problems associated
● Functional description of the rotary steerable system, with steerable motor assemblies, and described by other
highlighting the technology’s benefits compared to authors3’4. Introducing PDM motors with extended power
traditional directional drilling methods. sectionss’b, rotating near bit stabilizers, and multi-position
● Why well C-23 was chosen as a suitable candidate for the adjustable stabilizers, has led to documented performance
rotary steerable system, becoming the first successful ‘ improvement’.
utilization of this promising technology in the Norwegian As wellpath design has become even more complex, in
Sector. extreme cases demanding as much as 85% sliding in the reser-
voir, the result is poorer overall ROP. Sliding this much has


also resulted in poor hole cleaning, and several incidents of In 1995 the joint industry “Advanced Well Project” (AWP)
lost circulation and stuck pipe8. was formed. The project is partly funded by EU Thermie. The
Alternately sliding and rotating the steerable BHA creates a participants are Agip S.p.A., Amoco (UK) Exploration Co.
wellbore with intervals of high dogleg from the sliding and Ltd., BP Exploration Operating Co. Ltd., Norsk Hydro ASA,
straighter, intervals from the rotation. In this way a tortuous Phillips Petroleum Co. Norway, Saga Petroleum as., Statoil
well trajectory is produced, with high normal forces acting on and Total S.A. The project combines two different technology
the drill string, and increased surface torque9 and local internal areas: drilling and completion and reservoir technology. The
casing wear as a result. Smoothening out the wellbore doglegs drilling and completion part is headed by Statoil and the reser-
by producing a continuous curvature while drilling will extend voir part is headed by Norsk Hydro ASA. The goal of the
the possible reach of ERD wells, as well as providing a more project is to accelerate new technologies to the market. This is
distributed internal wear on a later casing to be placed in the achieved by offering the development companies paid tests
hole. and a test sites, where the new technology could be tested,
Buckling of the drill string while sliding will in several cases demonstrated, and qualified under safe and low cost
limit the efficiency of weight transfer to the bit, leading to poor conditions.
ROP. When rotating, the axial friction between string and A major task in this project was testing and demonstrating
wellbore is considerably reduced and buckling of the drill pipe the rotary steerable systems. Statoil and Agip S.p.A. planned
becomes less likely ’”. and supervised the testing of seven different rotary steerable
At the bottom part of designer wells and ERD wells, azimuth . systems on behalf of the AWP project. The test sites were
steering has been impaired or impossible, leaving the rotary Ulhigg at Rogaland Research in Stavanger, Norway, Tay
mode as the only method for Wher drilling progress’” i. A Training (now Advanced Drilling International) in Montrose,
desire to efficiently orient the wells in all directions at all Scotland and Agip’s test site in Cortemaggiore, Italy. To
depths is described by operators in several ERD summarize, four rotary steerable systems had a positive test
applications7’9’ 10’12’13.
Fulfilling this desire with a new drilling result showing steering capabilities while rotating the drill
technology would give dramatic improvements in the freedom string. Three systems failed completely to perform. Some of
of placing wellbores more optimal for reservoir drainage. This the tools were developed firther, and some have been made
has been one of the main drivers in developing rotary steerable commercially available to the industry, based on these tests.
systems. Projects like the AWP promote new and economically
beneficial technologies. Limited amount of finding and risk
Statoil’s Active Role in the Development of Rotary can in these cases help both small and large service companies
Steerable Systems to introduce new technologies to the market.
The development of Statoil’s ERD, designer and horizontal
wells has in the past resulted in some cases where the limit for The Rotary Closed Loop System
sliding a BHA was reached, and the wells had to be completed A tool has been developed jointly by Baker Hughes WTEQ
before planned total depth (TD). This was the case when the and AGIP S.p.A., with the main objectives of providing a
three dimensional horizontal well B-29 was drilled in 1994 higher drilling-while-steering efficiency, and a better hole
from the Gullfaks B platform to develop the marginal Gullfaks quality. To achieve this the following most important
West Field’ 1(Fig. 1). The last of six targets was not reached in functional criteria were set for this “Rotary Closed Loop
this well due to the necessity of turning the wellpath in the System” (RCLS):
horizontal plane at long reach. A rotary steerable system “ Ability to change hole direction without stopping the drill
would in this case h?ve been particularly useful, but was not string rotation.
available. “ Integrated tool design, eliminating both conventional
In Statoil’s technology plan for 1995a goal was set for ERD MWD and mud motors.
stating that two dimensional wells of 12 km and three dimen- ● Provide surface-to-tool and tool-to-surface communication.
sional wells of 10 km length should be achievable within 1997, ● Ability to change direction from the surface on the basis of
and that the technology to achieve this goal should be pursued. downhole readings without pulling the tool.
One of the key technologies identified was the rotary steerable The details of the tool finction and design characteristics are
system. This resulted in a thorough evaluation of potential and described by Poli et al. 13and can be summarized as follows: A
status of available systems.
non-rotating steering sleeve that is uncoupled from the rotating
Statoil’s recent technology program has included develop- drive on the tool, controls hole inclination and azimuth as the
ment sponsoring of two separate rotary steerable systems. The drill string rotates. The bit inclinometer, control electronics
objective has primarily been to accelerate the development and
and control valves are located inside the steering sleeve (Fig.
implementation of the systems, but secondly to be an indica-
2). The steering direction is defined by the selective distribu-
tion to the industry that this technology is regarded as very
tion of hydraulic pressures to each of the three expandable
important to Statoil.
steering pads, producing a force vector against the hole wall
(Fig. 3). In controlling the eccentricity of the steering sleeve,

lADC/SPE 39329 E. Andreassen, H. Blikra, A. Hjelle, S. A. Kvamme, J. Haugen 3

the RCLS maintains the force vector needed to steer the BHA This well was planned as a multilateral producer in the Brent
hlong the planned wellpath. reservoir, with a 1661 m long 8-1/2” build and horizontal hold
Dogleg severity is determined by the amount of hydraulic main bore, and an 2400 m long 8-1/2” parallel lateral bore.
pressure on the pads. This force vector is adjusted by a combi- This lateral was to exit from a milled window in the 9-5/8”
nation of downhole electronic control and commands pulsed liner, building angle from 42° to 85°. Afier a 670 m hold
hydraulically from the surface. Deviations from the section, a drop off to 76° inclination in order to enter into the
programmed inclination is automatically compensated for reservoir some 400 m south west of the first lateral’s reservoir
through closed loop control, New commands to adjust the entry point was planned. Finally, a build and horizontal hold
wellpath can be downlinked without interrupting the drilling section in the reservoir was be drilled. The reservoir length of
progress. -the lateral was planned to be 1100 m (Fig. 5). The main bore
Real time inclination at bit sensors, gamma ray, and multiple was considered to be less demanding than the lateral from a
propagation resistivity measurements close to bit, give the tool directional drilling point, with planned dogleg of 2.5°/30 m.
geosteering capabilities (Fig. 4). In addition, standard direc- Thus, operational experience gained from introducing the
tional measurements are transmitted to surface real time at pipe RCLS to this less risky wellbore would be useful for the
connections. second and more complex lateral.
The system can be set to two different steering modes while
drilling: Initial experience in the main bore. Well C-23 was drilled
“ “Hold mode”, which is associated with three parameters: from surface, utilizing the last remaining drilling slot in the
Build or drop force, left or right walk force, and target entire Statfjord Field. Following the 24” and 16” hole
inclination. When the programmed inclination is reached sections, a 12-1/4” hole was drilled to the top of reservoir, and
the system wil[ automatically enter into a hold position to a 9-5/8” liner set at 2762 mMD. The 9-5/8” shoe inclination
maintain the objective until programmed to do otherwise. was 73°.
The programmed build or drop force will control the The first RCLS tool drilled the float and shoe of the liner,
dogleg severity until the desired inclination is reached. A and continued into the fresh formation with a programmed
walk compensation force can be set in order to counteract build of 1.26°/30 m. The real time inclination at bit measure-
formation or BHA influences on azimuth hold, or for the ments soon showed less than required build response. Several
purpose of turning laterally. Build/drop and walk forces commands to increase the build force of the non rotating steer-
can be applied simultaneously. ing pads were downlinked. Afier drilling 59 m with a slight
“ “Steer mode”, which is an alternative method of steering dropping tendency, the run was aborted.
the wellpath by programming the steering force and No conclusive reasons for the failure was found in the tool at
steering direction, i.e. the steering vector. This is a way to surface, and the backup tool was run in the hole. Afier
navigate wellpaths more similar to the conventional initially building hole angle successfully, a command was
steerable motor. downlinked to decrease the dogleg. Following this downlink,
the tool failed to build, behaving similarly to the first tool run.
Introducing the RCLS in Statfjord Well C-23 Afier 53 m drilled, the tool was pulled in order not to deviate
too much from the wellpath proposal. Both tools were shipped
Choosing the first candidate for RCLS. Statoil’s first use of to the manufacturer in Germany for close examination.
this technology in a field application was the subject of carefil A so fiware bug combined with a programming error in the
considerations. An agreement with Baker Hughes INTEQ for downhole computer for sleeve orientation was found to be
field deployment was signed, and a Statoil steering committee causing the tool to steer in an undesired toolface direction.
was established to supervise in this introductory phase. A list This software bug was easily fixed, and all other systems were
of possible well candidates was produced, including several of found in good condition. The Statfjord C drilling team there-
the Statoil operated drilling assets on the Norwegian shelf. fore had confidence to allow a new run in the lateral bore.
The Statfjord C multilateral well C-23’~ was found to be Before this, the remaining main bore was drilled convention-
particularly suitable for a first deployment for several reasons: ally with three steerable motor assemblies. A rock bit had to
“ Two very long 8-1/2” sections were to be drilled. be run to build the inclination to horizontal. This convention-
“ The Brent reservoir temperatures are moderate, ally drilled wellpath was thus to become an excellent offset to
approximately 90- 10O°C, well below the RCLS design the lateral bore C-23 A, drilled with the RCLS tool.
temperature of150”C.
● A high number of offset wells were available for Success in the lateral. The window was milled in the 9-5/8”
comparison. liner at 2381 mMD, and the first 50 m of open hole were
● The lower operational cost level of a production platform, drilled conventionally. At 2432 mMD, an RCLS assembly
was run programmed to build inclination horn 50° to a hold
as opposed to semi submersible rig, gave less economic
inclination of 85.5°. At the same time the azimuth was to be
risk in case of tool failure.
turned from 204° to 217°.


The tool decoded all ciownlinks correctly, and responded as shows that the achieved build, hold and drop of inclination
expected to the changes made. The 670 m long tangent section closely keep to the programmed values.
was drilled in hold mode with only minor variations in angle. The second run was planned to turn right and build angle at
There were initial concerns about steering control being influ- the same time. Fig. 8 shows how this was achieved compared
enced by excessive sleeve rotation, and the string RPM was to the plan. The entire run was drilled in the “hold mode”,
held back to 80. The tool is designed to compensate for some with a fixed target inclination of 87.8°. The azimuth was
sleeve rotation, as this will inevitably happen due to internal adjusted by several downlinked commands to change the walk
friction. As the tool responded as expected, the RPM was compensation force. RCLS managed to drill a wellbore that
increased to 120 and later 140, resulting in ROP never deviated more than 6 m from the plan in the second run,
improvements. not taking position measurement uncertainty into
At 3415 mMD, a new target inclination of 76° was consideration.
downlinked, and the RCLS responded immediately. However,
the tool failed to transmit data at 3529 mMD, only a few meter ROP improvement. Several parameters made this well an
short of a planned trip. A run to underream the 8-1/2” hole to unusually well suited case for direct comparison of ROP: Both
9-7/8” to lower ECD in the forthcoming reservoir section was wellbores utilized identical PDC bits with the same. nozzle
planned at this depth. After circulation, the BHA was pulled configuration, were drilled in mud of identical parameters, and
with no overpull, which is unusual for this formation, hole were drilled in the same formation, parallel to each other.
inclination, and length of drilled section. ROP in the main wellbore C-23. This conventionally
A revised directional plan was made for the reservoir drilling drilled main bore exhibited familiar steering problems. The
ahead in order to correct for the shallower wellbore position first steerable motor assembly and PDC bit had to be pulled
resulting from a gyro run. Following the underreaming, a new after only 38 m. The following steerable motor BHA which
RCLS tool was picked up and run in the hole to 3529 mMD, was run to build to horizontal, needed a build rate of 5°130m
with a programtned hold inclination of 87.7°. Again, the tool and therefore a rock bit to catch up to the proposed inclination.
decoded all downlinks to adjust the build and turn rate, and Above average ROP’S for the Statfjord Field were exhibited by
responded as expected to all changes made. The revised well the third steerable motor BHA. A PDC bit was included for
proposal was followed with great precision, producing a very efficient drilling of the hold section. This last BHA run was
smooth wellpath. Drilling continued to 4770 mMD, with the drilled requiring high side orientation 30% of the 1384 m
gamma ray sensor failing from 4568 mMD. length, due to the natural dropping tendency. Nevertheless,
The drillers reported excellent hole cleaning, low and stable the overall ROP, including connections, was 16.1 rn/hr. The
drill string torque, and stable stand pipe pressure over the on bottom ROP was 31.6 rn/hr.
entire reservoir run. Minor tight spots were experienced while ROP with the RCLS in the lateral C-23 A. Initial fine-
pulling out, with a maximum of20 ton overpull. tuning of dogleg response and ROP, with respect to string
RPM and steering vector force gave instantaneous ROP’S
between 20 and 30 mlhr. As the string RPM was increased to
Discussion of RCLS Performance and Comparison 120, this instantaneous ROP increased to 50-70 m/hr (Fig. 9).
with Main Bore Conventional Results The average ROP for the first 1097m long run was 30.7 m/hr,
A number of drilling parameters have been examined and or 22.6 rnlhr including connections. This run included an
compared between the main and lateral wellbore. The objec- inclination build up from 50° to the 86° sail section and then a
tive has been to identify and evaluate the alleged positive drop to 77° as well as an azimuth turn from 204° to 220°. The
effects of the RCLS. maximum dogleg was 5.4°/30m.
The second run was mostly drilled within the reservoir
Steering control and wellpath smoothness. One of the main sands, and average ROP’S increased even firther. Some
fictional features of rotary steerable systems is the ability to wellpath adjustments were initially required to bring the
drill in rotary mode while following proposed three dimen- wellpath inclination up to 87.8° and turning slightly to the
sional well plans accurately. Inclination measurement close to right. Instantaneous ROP’S were as high as 80 m/hr, with an
the bit and automated hold mode is intended to produce a average bit ROP over the 1241 m long run of 39.6 m/hr, or
smooth wellbore. The ability to drill straight inclination hold 27.3 mlhr including connections.
sections is demonstrated when plotting inclination versus The on bottom bit ROP of the second RCLS run is 25~0
depth for the main and lateral bores. A necessary high-side faster compared to the last and excellent run of the convention-
steering in C-23 due to a dropping tendency of the BHA is ally drilled wellbore in C-23. By comparing the effective
recognized in the jagged inclination versus depth curve, ROP, not including tripping, the increase is 70Y0, demonstrat-
whereas the lateral shows two smoother hold sections (Fig. 6). ing the highly improved drilling efficiency for RCLS versus
The first RCLS was programmed to build up to 85.5° and conventional steering. Most of this gain is a result of no time
then hold. Later, a drop command was downlinked. Fig. 7 spent for toolface orientation, no drag-induced reduction of
steering ROP, even weight to the bit, and better hole cleaning.

lADC/SPE 39329 E. Andreassen, H. Blikra, A. Hjelle, S. A. Kvamme, J. Haugen 5

This run was the fastest bit run ever in the Statfjord Field’s standpipe pressure allowed a high circulation rate without the
Brent reservoir. The ROP results are listed in Table 1. fear of blowing mud pump pop-off valves. Projected ahead
Gross ROP and time saving for C-23. The gross ROP until intersection with the 300 bar limit, this high rate of flow
increase translates into saved rig time and better economics. In could have been maintained to approximately 5200 mMD.
this case, a comparison between the two wellbores shows that Drilling with the conventional system forced a flow cut back
the time savings attributed to the rotary steerable system was 900 m short of this depth. Thus, rotary steerable systems
3.2 days. When taking the increased operating costs of the provide better hole cleaning both by continuous rotation of the
system into account, it gave a break-even economical impact. string, and by allowing higher circulation rates.
However, the C-23 main bore wasdrilled far more efficiently
than the historical average for Statfjord. Compared with the Conclusions
historical average gross ROP for the last four years, the ROP 1. A rotary steerable system was used with great success in
increase results in estimated savings of 2.4 mill NOK. the multilateral well C-23 A. This was the first successful
utilization of this technology in the Norwegian Sector.
Drilling torque. Asimulation of friction factors to match the 2. The system showed greatly improved performance with
surface drill string torque results in a casing friction factor of regard to directional control, effective ROP, hole cleaning, and
0.17, and open hole friction factors ranging between 0.10 and hydraulics compared to the conventional PDM drilling in the
0.17. A leveling out of drilling torque is observed in the last main bore. Significant time saving was achieved.
hundred meters of each run. 3. This type of technology is particularly suited for applica-
Comparing surface torque versus measured depth for main tions where time consuming or impaired steering is experi-
bore and lateral in the reservoir shows same levels of torque enced.
(Fig. 10). However, the RCL.S drilled C-23 A exhibits a more 4. The improved ability to orient wellpaths within reservoir
even surface torque, compared to the more spiky torque of the sands greatly impacts the design possibilities for new wells to
conventionally drilled C-23. intersect reserves optimally.
The same applies to WOB, where even values in the range
5-10 tons are required by RCLS due to the constant rotation, Nomenclature
whereas the steerable motor assembly needed WOB exceeding BHA = Bottom Hole Assembly
20 tons at some depths (Fig. 11). ECD = Equivalent Circulating Density
Em . Extended Reach Drilling
Hole Cleaning and Hydraulics. An empirical method for EU = European Union
evaluating cuttings return and comparing it to the theoretical mA4D = meter Measured Depth, L, m
value has been used in Statoil operations for several years. In MWD = Measurements While Drilling
short, cuttings are collected at each shaker for 10 sec. intervals, NOK = Norwegian Krone
and the cumulative weight measured. This weight is corrected PDC = Poly-C~staline Diamond Compact
for mud content and specific rock and mud density, and PDM = Positive Displacement Motor
converted to volume drilled rock per unit time. The resulting RCLS = Rotary Closed Loop System
values for C-23 and C-23 A are shown in Fig. 12. Since the ROP = Rate Of Penetration, L/t, rn/hr
~M . Revolutions Per Minute, t-’, l/rein
method of estimation was the same for both drilled wellbores,
the plot gives hole cleaning trends for the two bores. Compar- TD = Total Depth, L, m
ing the slopes from the origin to the end point of the curves in TVD = True Vertical Depth, L, m
the reservoir section of both bores, a 30-40% steeper curve WOB = Weight On Bit, M, metric tons
shows the improved cuttings removal from using a rotary
steerable system. The mud engineers also reported larger Acknowledgments
cuttings than usual for sandstone drilling. This could indicate We thank Thor Viggo Aarrestad and Kelly Tyler for helpful
that less grinding down of cutting downhole was occurring, as review comments regarding the paper, and Den norske stats
the cuttings were transported out of hole continuously. oljeselskap a.s and its partners in the Statfjord Unit for letting
Even weight on bit, continuous hole cleaning, and the us publish this paper.
absence of a positive displacement motor gave another inter-
esting effect: The standpipe pressure plotted versus measured References
depth when running RCLS shows a great smoothness I Alfsen, T.E.,Heggen, S., Blikra, H., and Tjoetta, H.: “Pushing the
Limits for Extended Reach Drilling, New World Record Well
compared to the PDM drilling (Fig. 13). Theological values
from Platform Statfjord C; Well C2”.
were almost identical, the same drill pipe size was used, and SPE 26350, SPE Annual Technical Conference and Exhibition,
the bit nozzle areas were identical. Interestingly, the spiky October 1993.
nature of PDM standpipe pressures forced the drillers to cut 2 Blikra, H., Drevdal, K.E., Aamestad, T.V.: “Extended Reach,
back on the circulation rate some 200 m from TD in C-23. In Horizontal, and Complex Design Wells: Challenges, Achieve-
the even deeper lateral, the predictable nature of the RCLS ments and Cost-Benefits”.

G .

SPE 28005, The University of Tulsa Centennial Petroleum

Engineering Symposium, August 1994.
3 Henriksen, N., Store~erde, D.: “Cost Effective Horizontal Drill-
ing in the Troll Field Through use of State of the Art Technology
and Optimal Operations”.
SPE/IADC 37577, SPE/IADC Drilling Conference, March 1997.
4 Cocking, D.A., Bezant, P.N., Tooms, P.J.: “Pushing the Em
Envelope at Wytch Farm”.
SPE/IADC 37618, SPE/IADC Drilling Conference, March 1997.
5 Moles, Howard: “Extended-length power sections improve PDM
drilling:’ World Oil (December 1995) 59.
6 Dugas, J.J., Califf, B.C., Chappell, J.W.: “Improvement in Drill-
ing Efficiency With Performance Power Head Section Motors”.
IADC/SPE 27517, IADC/SPE Drilling Conference,
February 1994.
7 Modi, S., Mason, C.J., Tooms, P.J., Conran, G,: “Meeting the
10krn Drilling Challenge”
SPE 38583, SPE Annual Technical Conference and Exhibition,
October 1997.
8 Ward, C.D., Andreassen, E.: “Pressure While Drilling Data
Improves Reservoir Drilling Performance”.
SPE/iADC 37588, SPE/IADC Drilling Conference, March 1997.
9 Pavne, M.L, Cocking, D.A., Hatch, A.J.: “Critical Technologies
fo; Success in Exten~ed Reach Drilling”.
SPE 28293, SPE Annual Technical Conference and Exhibition,
September 1994.
1() Payne,M.L., .4bbasian, F,: “Advanced Torque and Drag Consid-
erations in Extended-Reach Wells”
IADC/SPE 35102, IADC/SPE Drilling Conference, March 1996.
11 Justad, T., Jacobsen, B., Blikra, H., Gaskin, G, Clarke, C.,
Ritchie, A.: “Extending the Barriers to Develop a Marginal Field
from an Existing Platform”.
SPE 28294, SPE Annual Technical Conference and Exhibition,
September 1994.
12 Barr, J.D., Clegg, J.M., Russel, M.K.: “Steerable Rotary Drill-
ing With an Experimental System”
SPE/IADC 29382, SPE/IADC Drilling Conference,
February/March 1995.
13 Poli, S., Donati, F., Oppelt, J., Ragnitz, D.: “Advanced Tools for
Advanced Wells: Rotary Closed Loop Drilling System - Results
of Prototype Field Testing -“.
SPE 36884, SPE European Petroleum Conference, October 1996.
14 Njaerheim, A., Breivik, A.K.H., Rovde, R., Kvale, E., Kvamme,
S.A., Bjoerneli, H.M.: “New Well Design in the Statfjord Field
Utilizing a Multi-lateral Well in Low Productive Zones in the
Brent Reservoir”
IADC/SPE 39356, IADC/SPE Drilling Conference, March 1998.

S1 Metric Conversion Factors

ft X 3.048* E-01 =m
ti X 3,048” E-O 1 =3n/hr
mile x 1.609344 E+OO = km
psi x 6.894757 E-02 = Bar
ft-lb x 1.355818 E-03 =kNm
Ibm x 4.535924 E-04 = metric ton
“F (“F - 32)/1.8* = “c
gal x 3.785412 E-03 = m3
gal/rein x 3.785412 E+OO = l/rein

*Conversionfactoris exact,

..— . ..— —.

E. Andreassen, H. Blikra, A. Hjelle, S. A. Kvamme, J. Haugen 7



Case Run Length ROP Inst. Max. ROP onbottom Effective ROP Efficiency Improvement Efficiency Improvement
m mlhr mlhr mlhr over C-23 Run 3 over Budget ROP
% 0/0

Budget 12
C-23 Run 1 38 65 18,1 8,4
C-23 Run 2 230 55 20,4 11,8
C-23 Run 3 1.384 120 31,6 16,1

30,7 22,6 40 88
C-23 A Run 1
39,6 27,3 70 128
C-23 A Run 2

Fig. 1- Actual wellpaths of the drilled designer well Gullfaks B-29, B-29 A, and B-29 B (and tracks 2 and 3). An azimuth change was planned at
the bottom part of the B-29 BT2 well, but could not be achieved due to PDM steering difficulties at this great depth.

Hydraulic Control Valves

Rotatin~ Drive Control Electronics \ Non Rotating ‘Steering Ribs

Shaft & Inclination sensors Steerable Stabiliser

Fig. 2- Non-rotating stabilizer of the RCLS, showing the three steering pads, and the location of internal sensors and electronics.

High Side
High Side

4 Diwtim

Bit Side Force

‘ Bit Drive Shaft

Fig. 3- Individually controlling the force to each of the three steering pads against the hole wall results in a steering vector with a given magni-
tude and direction. Slow rotation of this stabilizer due to internal friction is automatically compensated for downhole by redistributing the
forces to the pads. The direction of the steering vector with reference to high side is measured and corrected continuously by downhole

—..——— .-.-..— — .—

lADC/SPE 39329 E. Andreassen, H. Blikra, A. Hjelle, S. A. Kvamme, J. Haugen 9


Near Bit Inclination, Alternator,

Memory Vibration BatteryM~ule Master I
Near Bit Actuator Pulser, Alternator /
Module Module Dir&tional
Module Downlink

I Wear Band
Pul;er I Multi Propagation RNT-XO Short NMCSDP
Non 8.3/8
Rotating Alternator Stabiliser Resistivi(y / Gamma
Steerable Sub Ray Sub

Fig. 4- The RCLS has several built in sensors, and down hole power generation to power the sensors and hydraulic oil pump for pressuring
~ the steering pads.

[ .

Fig. 5- Wellpath of main bore C-23 and lateral C-23A, planned and actual wellpaths.

.. .-.. ---

~ .—

Fig. 6- Inclination versus measured depth for C-23 and C-23A. Bold line shows the smoother hold sections produced by RCLS.

$Co,c ! : ?,00 Inclination

Fig. 7- Inclination versus measured depth for 1. RCLS run. S:o: line shows how closely RCLS followed the plan (dashed line)
E. Andreassen, H. Qlikra, A. Hjelle, S. A. Kvamme, J. Haugen 11

-“ I“ Azimuth

II ,:,,’,

Fig. 8- Azimuth, Inclination, and dogleg versus measured depth for the second RCLS run. Solid line shows actual performance compared to
revised wellpath plan. Notice the simultaneous change of azimuth and inclination, and the low dogleg severity produced in the sail section.
This entire 1241 m run was drilled in the “hold mode” with a programmed target inclination of 87.8°. Thirteen commands to adjust azimuth was
downlinked while drilling, whereas the inclination was maintained automatically by the RCLS tool.

—.— —-.


..” ... ..... . . . . ---- ---- .. m

,.. . . ... . . ---- --,-- ---- --

T 180

.,, .,. . 160

. . . . . .. . . .. . . . . .. . . . . . .. . . . . .

,.- .<.-=-- ,. . . .
. . . . . . . .
.“.”.:.:.’. .’ .”.,’.---------.”’” ““, t
I . . . .
i“”””””””” “-. ””””-,

~ ~,lfl
-.. .’, . . . . . . .. -------- . .. . . . . -*A.,

.... . .....i“%’ti~[!!fi;ll~
Y ....
.. .+

f~fi’ >-~eti$ ~
(~~err”’ktti..~%+ox ~r-hyv~.mf$~:.i% ~*-~%b..e
0 +-—-
~,~km~w-- *.!f
-Iv ~f
2400 2450 Zm 25% 2m 2650 27W

8it Depth (mMD)

— ROP — — WOS - - - - Sudace RPM

Fig. 9- Instantaneous ROP versus bit depth in C-23A. Notice ROP increase at 2580 mMD as surface RPM of drill string is increased from 80 to

.. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .. . .--; ---- ,---- ., --- . ..-. .--, - .---,

,..... .. . . . . Y . . . . . .. . . . . ,----- -,

. . . . .,’ ,==


. .. ,.. . .

2400 2600 2600 30M 32~ Wcnl 3600 3600 4000 42~ 4400 4600 4600

Sit Depth (mMD)

— AW Tq C-23 — AW Torque C-23A I

Fig. 10- Surface torque versus bit depth for C-23 and C-23 A. A more even surface torque is produced by the RCLS compared to the C-23
spikes, and leveling out at end of each run is obsewed. The lateral C-23A entered the reservoir sands at 3600 mMD.
— .-. .—

lADC/SPE 39329 E. Andreassen, H. Blikra, A. Hielle, S. A. Kvamme, J. Hauaen 13

., .,. . . . . . .!.

. . . . . . .

. .. . . -! -.= . . . . . . . . ,.

,.. . . . . ,, .--1-- -, ..-.,. . . . . . . . ..,,

,. . . . .. :---- ,--- .<-..-,. -. .-,-- --;

:’”” “:A”-

‘.. . -.

24M 2em 28W 3m 3200 34m 36W. 3s00 4m 4m 44(XJ @ 4SW

Bit hpti (mMD)

— WOB C-23 — WOE C-a A

Fig. 11- WOB versus bit depth for C-23 and C-23A. RCLS performed well with WOB ranging between 5 and 10 metric tons.

,., . . . . . . . . .. . . . . . . . . -. -,- ---- . . . . ---, - ----

/ ~

,.................. ... ‘/” -.). ------

. . . .. K
. .............. ,7A

o m 400 w 8CQ lm lm 14W Im

Drilled disram in re=rvoir sands (m)

Fig. 12- Estimated cuttings return versus normalized depth after entering of reservoir sands in C-23 and C-23A. Also shown is theoretical
drilled volume. C-23 A exhibits better cuttings return. Its average cuttings return per drilled distance is some 35% higher than C-23’s.



. . . . ,. ...___. . . . . . . . . . . . ~..—-. —..-—. .,. . . .

1 mo

3W 3700 3eoo 4100 4300 4500 4700 49m

BitDepth (mMD)

— SPP C-23 — SPP C-23 A C-23 Mud HOW ‘------ C-23 AMudflow

Fig. 13- Stand pipe pressure and mud circulation rates versus bit depth for C-23 and C-23 A. The RCLS providea a very predictable increase in
circulating pressure versus depth, whereas the PDM pressure spikes in C-23 results in circulation rates to be cut back at the last 200 m. Mud
properties, bit nozzles and drill string are identical over the entire run.