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Moisture in Insulation and Transformer Dryout

Transformer Technology and Fluid Diagnostics Seminar

Monterray, N.L.,Mexico
May 19th, 2015

Mike Lau
WEIDMANN Electrical Technology Inc.

WEIDMANN
A Member of the WICOR Group
TOPICS
1. Effects of moisture in Insulation

2. Moisture Absorption and Removal

3. Transformer Dryout Theory

4. Standards and Industrial Practices

5. Side effects on Dryout Process


TOPICS

1. Effects of moisture in Insulation

2. Moisture Absorption and Removal

3. Transformer Dryout Theory

4. Standards and Industrial Practices

5. Side effects on Dryout Process


Paper and Water in Transformers
KVA Weight of 5% Initial Moisture
Rating KV Paper (kg) kg/KVA Kilograms Liters
3,000 13.2 453.6 0.15 22.7 23.1
10,000 115 1,605.7 0.16 80.3 81.8
16,000 115 1837 0.11 91.6 93.1
20,000 132 2612.7 0.13 130.6 132.9
30,000 154 3637.8 0.12 181.9 185.1
40,000 230 4808.1 0.12 240.4 244.5

Ref. S.D. Meyers

Typically 90% of the initial moisture content will be


removed to achieved a dryness of 0.5% moisture content
DISTRIBUTION OF WATER IN INSULATION

Oil
HIGH MOISTURE CONTENT IN INSULATION CAN CAUSE:
• Significant Reduction in Dielectric Strength
• Accelerated Aging of the Cellulose
• Bubble Formation and Dielectric Failure
• Partial discharges in the Insulation
Dry Cellulose < 0.3% by weight
& Oil < 10 ppm H2O
MOISTURE CONTENT VS KV BREAKDOWN VOLTAGE

Source: FM Clark – Engineering Guide Book on Electrical Insulation


MOISTURE IN SOLID INSULATION
60 Moisture
Content
50

Voltage U(kV)
x = 1%
40
x = 4%
KV Breakdown 30 x = 6%
x = 8%
20
x = 10%
10

0
30 40 50 60 70 80 90 100
Temperature (°C )

30 Moisture
Content
Power factor tan (%)

25
x = 1%
20 x = 4%
Power Factor 15 x = 6%
x = 8%
10
x = 10%
5

0
30 40 50 60 70 80 90 100 110
Temperature (°C )
MOISTURE ACCELERATES AGEING PROCESS

Source: H.P.Moser - Transformerboard


IMPACT OF WATER AND TEMPERATURE

Water content
in paper (%)

Water and temperature reduce lifetime significantly!

Keep transformers dry!


[Krause 2007, Lundgaard 2001]
MOISTURE PROMOTES BUBBLE EVOLUTION
Residual moisture in winding insulation can lead to generation of gas
bubbles at high temperature

This is the dominant concern in the selection of a limiting hot spot


temperature for safe operation

Determinant factors for bubble generation have been identified :

1. Moisture content in insulation


2. Hydrostatic pressure
3. Duration of the high temperature
4. d(Temp)/d(Time) – Change in equilibrium
GENERATION OF GAS BUBBLES AT HIGH TEMPERATURE
T.V. Oommen et al, Atlanta, 2001
Critical temperature for bubble evolution
190
Kobayashi rapid heating
Kobayashi slow heating
170

150
Davydov
Temperature

130
Oommen gas free
110
Oommen gas saturated
90

70

50
0 2 4 6 8 10
WCP % w/w

Ref. Sparling, Brian; GE Energy,


Topics
1. Effects of moisture in Insulation

2. Moisture Absorption and Removal

3. Transformer Dryout Theory

4. Standards and Industrial Practices

5. Side effects on Dryout Process


MOISTURE BEHAVIOUR IN INSULATION
• Why does cellulose absorb water

• How much water is absorbed

• How fast is water absorbed

• How does water penetrate into Transformerboard

• How fast can water be removed from Transformerboard


WHY DOES CELLULOSE ABSORRB WATER
CHEMICAL BACKGROUND
Due to the high number of hydroxyl-groups is the cellulose molecule very
hydroscopic; meaning, these groups attract water molecules (H2O).

CH2OH CH2OH
OH
HO O HO O
O
HO O HO OH
OH OH
CH2OH
n-2
HOW MUCH WATER IS ABSORBED (AFTER LONG EXPOSURE TO
AMBIENT)
The amount of absorbed water is mainly governed by the relative
humidity of the environment. It is hardly influenced by the type of
cellulose used.
The (relative) amount of water is not (or only marginally) dependent
on:
• The thickness of the board / paper
• The density of the board / paper
• Temperature
• Oil impregnation (without / with oil)
HOW MUCH WATER IS ABSORBED (AFTER LONG EXPOSURE
TO AMBIENT)
Moisture equilibrium of Transformerboard
at 23°C and 50% rh conditioned
8
not oil impregnated oil impregnated
7.5
Water content [%]

6.5

6
low density high density low density high density
5.5

5
3.2 4.2 1 3 5 8 3.2 4.2 1 3 5 8
Thickness [mm]
HOW FAST IS WATER ABSORBED
How fast water is absorbed is governed by:
• The thickness of the board / paper
• The density of the board / paper
• Temperature
• Oil impregnation (without / with oil)
• Circulation of the surrounding medium (air / oil)
HOW FAST IS WATER ABSORBED
Influence of the thickness
Transformerboard T IV
8
W ater absorption [%]

7
1 mm
6
3 mm
5
5 mm
4
3 8 mm
2
1
0
0 7 14 21 28
Time [days]
HOW FAST IS WATER ABSORBED
Influence of the density
Board thickness 3 mm
8
0.85 g/cm³
W a te r a b s o rp tio n [% ]

7
6
1.25 g/cm³
5
4
3
2
1
0
0 7 14 21 28
Time [days]
HOW FAST IS WATER ABSORBED
Influence of the temperature
Transformerboard T IV, 3 mm

8
W a te r a b s o rp tio n [% ]

7
30°C
6
10°C
5
4
3
2
1
0
0 7 14 21 28
Time [days]
HOW FAST IS WATER ABSORBED
Influence of the oil impregnation
Transformerboard T IV, 3 mm

8
W ater absorption [% ]

7
6
not oil impregnated
5
4
3
2
oil impregnated
1
0
0 7 14 21 28
Time [days]
HOW FAST CAN WATER BE REMOVED FROM
TRANSFORMERBOARD

The drying process is a diffusion process.


The rate of drying is therefore governed by the same parameters:
• Temperature

• Pressure

• Material thickness

• Material density

• Oil impregnated (without / with)


HOW FAST CAN WATER BE REMOVED FROM
TRANSFORMERBOARD
Drying of non impregnated Transformerboard TIV
Temperature: 23°C; Pressure: 0.5 mbar
7
6
W ater content [%]

5
4 8 mm
5 mm
3
3 mm
2 1 mm
1
0
0 12 24 36 48 60 72
Drying time [hrs]
HOW FAST CAN WATER BE REMOVED FROM
TRANSFORMERBOARD
Drying of non impregnatede Transformerboard T IV
Temperature: 105°C; Pressure: 1 mbar

7
6
Water content [%]

5
4 1 mm
3 3 mm

2
1
0
0 2 4 6 8 10 12
Time [hrs]
DRYING OF THICK LAMINATED TRANSFORMERBOARD (20mm)

Glue between layers acts as barrier. Inner layer


laminations dried in parallel with the lamination.
Thickness has no influence
HOW FAST CAN WATER BE REMOVED FROM
TRANSFORMERBOARD
There are only few data available regarding the drying of oil
impregnated material:
The monitoring of the weight is not feasible due to the loss of oil
(dripping, evaporation)
The determination of the average water content with "Karl Fischer"
is difficult for materials thicker than 1 mm :

- only small samples can be measured (< 300 mg)


- time consuming
SUMMARY
• Cellulose is a highly hygroscopic material.
• Mineral oil is a good barrier against moisture uptake.
• Water does not penetrate gradually, but rather as "closed" front into
the Transformerboard.
• The drying of Transformerboard at low temperatures is a very slow
process, even under vacuum.
• The drying of oil impregnated Transformerboard is almost
impossible at room temperature.
CONCLUSION
For the comparison of the final drying of pre dried (oil impregnated / non
oil impregnated) insulation that has been exposed to ambient for a
short time, the following factors have to be taken into account:

• Thickness of the insulation


• Duration of the exposure to ambient
• Temperature of the insulation (during exposure to ambient and
during the drying process)
• Climate of the environment
• Quality of the vacuum (Pump capacity, tightness of the tank
gaskets)
Topics
1. Effects of moisture in Insulation

2. Moisture Absorption and Removal

3. Transformer Dryout Theory

4. Standards and Industrial Practices

5. Side effects on Dryout Process


TRANSFORMER DRYOUT THEORY

Very wet condition – water


evaporates from the surface

Slower drying speed as


drying is through diffusion
Drying speed rapidly one layer at a time, with
decreases due to moisture escaping through
energy required to the narrow pores of paper
overcome the layers
secondary bonding of
moisture to paper -

Moisture extraction reduced to zero when moisture content is in


equilibrium with ambient – the external condition must be altered ---
leading to Heating and Vacuuming
PHASE DIAGRAM OF WATER

Apply Heat and Vacuum to change moisture from liquid phase to vapor phase
VACUUMING WITHOUT APPLICATION OF HEAT

Heat of Vaporization – Energy required


to change from Liquid phase to Vapor
phase

Study indicates that Vacuuming without


application of heat :
..< Vacuum Level

- No further benefit if > 24 hours


- “free water @ room temperature
freezes @ 4 torr”
- “ heat of vaporization would lower the
temperature to a point where remaining
water will freeze making extensive
vacuuming pointless”

Good Practice – Application of Heat multiple


Temperature > times during the Dryout Process

:\MyDocuments\My Files\My
Files\Training Course\Boiling Water
in Vacuum.wmv
Topics
1. Effects of moisture in Insulation

2. Moisture Absorption and Removal

3. Transformer Dryout Theory

4. Standards and Industrial Practices

5. Side effects on Dryout Process


GUIDELINES AND INDUSTRIAL PRACTICES

Vacuum Level

IEEE C57.93
GUIDELINES AND INDUSTRIAL PRACTICES

Vacuum Hold Time

IEEE C57.93 Doble Oil Processing Guide


Topics
1. Effects of moisture in Insulation

2. Moisture Absorption and Removal

3. Transformer Dryout Theory

4. Standards and Industrial Practices

5. Side effects on Dryout Process


SIDE EFFECTS OF DRYING PROCESS
1. Effects on DP

2. Effects on Clamping Pressure due to Moisture Content


EFFECTS ON DP
EXPERIMENT

Thin high-density pressboard samples (1 mm)

Oven temperature: 105°, 120°, 140°C

Time: 14 days

Hot air circulation vs. Vacuum

DP measurements during drying.


EXPERIMENT – RESULT:
Transformerboard T IV 1 mm
Drying in air
Transformerboard T IV, 1 mm, Aging in Air

1400

1200
Degree of Polymerisation

1000

800 105 °C
120 °C
600
140 °C
400

200

0
0 2 4 6 8 10 12 14
Days
EXPERIMENT – RESULT:
Transformerboard T IV 1 mm
Drying in air and in vacuum (dashed lines)
1400

1200
vacuum
D egree of Polymerisation

1000 vacuum
105 °C
800 120 °C
140 °C
600
vacuum
400

200

0
0 2 4 6 8 10 12 14
Time (days)
LOSS OF LIFETIME
DP of new pressboard and -paper is about 1200,
When completely aged about 200 (end of life).

DP

1000
DP (t)
500
Time (years)
POWER TRANSFORMER

DP record: Pulp 1350 // new insulation 1200 // after drying 1000


POWER TRANSFORMER

DP record: Pulp 1350 // new insulation 1200 // after drying 1000


EXAMPLE: Transformer life starts with DP 1000 versus 1200
RELATIVE LIFETIME = f (DP0)
RELATIVE LIFETIME = f (DP0)
LIFETIME = f (DPend-of-life)
CONCLUSION

DP loss at drying
vacuum (absence of oxygen) favorable
but significant DP loss at high temperatures ( > 135 °C)
Avoid high temperatures and long drying times
CONCLUSION

[T.V. Oommen, L.N. Arnold]

Loss of transformer lifetime due to insulation drying: → noticeable but not worrying
DP0 1200 → 40 years
DP0 1000 → 38½ years
DP0 800 → 36 years
Side Effects of Drying Process
1. Effects on DP

2. Effects on Clamping Pressure due to Moisture Content


COIL CLAMPING PRESSURE
STATIC COIL CLAMPING:

Clamping force affected by Insulation Expansion or Shrinkage

Three factors:
- Moisture Content
- Temperature
- Aging
THICKNESS SHRINKAGE VERSUS MOISTURE CONTENT

5.5
5
4.5
4
Shrinkage(%)

3.5
3
2.5
2
1.5
1
0.5
0
0 0.5 1 1.5 2 2.5 3 3.5 4 4.5 5 5.5 6 6.5 7

Moisture Content(%)

Thickness shrinkage of transformerboard T-IV at the drying process.


INSULATION THICKNESS CHANGES DURING PROCESSING IN
FACTORY

Contraction due to
contacting cold oil

Source: Tom Prevost – Maintaining Short Circuit Strength in Transformers


COIL CLAMPING PRESSURE VS TEMPERATURE

Calculation of a Typical 20 MVA 550KV BIL Transformer

Source: Tom Prevost – Maintaining the Short Circuit Strength of Transformers


CLAMPING FORCE AND MOISTURE OVER TIME DURING
DRYOUT
Vacuum started
after 24 hour

Source: Tom Prevost – Maintaining Short Circuit Strength in Transformers


EFFECTS OF AGING ON INSULATION THICKNESS
TRANSFORMER MAINTENANCE –
LIFE EXTENSION
COIL RECLAMPING TO RESTORE
MECHANICAL INTEGRITY

6.35 mm

(<0.4%)

Source: M. Lau REBLOCKING AND RECLAMPING OF TRANSFORMER COILS – 1989 Doble International Client Conference
SUMMARY
• Natural aging process of paper insulation
- Paper degradation produces moisture thus- increases Clamping
Pressure
- Aging shrinks thickness thus decreases Clamping Pressure

• Moisture greatly affects Clamping Pressure

• High temperature increases Clamping Pressure

• Dryout will decrease Clamping Pressure

• Recommends Reclamping follows Dryout or allow for pressure


reduction over dryout.
TOPICS
1. Effects of moisture in Insulation

2. Moisture Absorption and Removal

3. Transformer Dryout Theory

4. Standards and Industrial Practices

5. Side effects on Dryout Process


THANK YOU

Questions??