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FSI Introduction to Bridging Course Program

FUNDAMENTALS OF AERODYNAMICS

Lecturer: Engr. Roberto R. Renigen

A. THE INTERNATIONAL STANDARD ATMOSPHERE


The atmosphere is the mechanical mixture of gases surrounding the earth.

Atmospheric Constituents

Nitrogen ------------------ 78.03%


Oxygen ------------------- 20.99%
Argon --------------------- 0.94%
Carbon Dioxide ---------- 0.03%
Hydrogen ------------------ 0.01%
Helium --------------------- 0.004%
Neon ----------------------- 0.0012% and a small amount of water vapor and other gases

Four (4) Layers of Earth’s Atmosphere

1. Troposphere
2. Stratosphere
3. Ionosphere
4. Exosphere

STANDARD VALUES FOR AIR AT SEA LEVEL

Pressure

PO= 14.7 lb/in2 = 2,116.8 lb/ft2 = 29.92” Hg


= 76 cm Hg = 760 mm Hg = 101,325 Pa = 1 atm

Density
3 3
ρo = 0.002377 slug/ft = 1.225 kg/m

Temperature

TO= 519 °R = 288K

Coefficient of Dynamic Viscosity


µo= 3.7372 x 10-7 slug/ft-sec = 1.7894 x 10-5 kg/m-sec

1
SEA LEVEL UP TO TROPOPAUSE

1. TEMPERATURE VARIATION WITH ALTITUDE

T
T = To + ah ; θ =
To
Where:
T
θ= = temperature ratio
To

T = temperature at any altitude above sea level up to tropopause in oR or K

To = 519 °R or 288K

a = temperature gradient or lapse rate (=-0.003566 °R/ft or -0.00651 K/m


or -6.51 K/km)

h = any altitude above sea level up to tropopause in ft or m or km

2. PRESSURE VARIATION WITH ALTITUDE

5.26
P  ah 
δ= = 1 + 
Po  To 
Where:
P
δ= = pressure ratio
Po

P = pressure at any altitude above sea level up to tropopause in lb / ft2 or Pa

Po = 2,116.8 lb/ft2 or 101,325 Pa

a = -0.003566 °R/ft or -0.00651 K/m or -6.51 K/km

h = any altitude above sea level up to tropopause in ft or m or km

3. DENSITY VARIATION WITH ALTITUDE

4.26
ρ  ah 
σ= = 1 + 
ρo  To 
Where:
ρ
σ= = density ratio
ρo

ρ = density at any altitude above sea level up to tropopause in slug/ft3 or kg/m3

3 3
ρ o = 0.002377 slug/ft or 1.225kg/m

a = -0.003566 °R/ft or – 0.00651 K/m or -6.51 K/km

h = any altitude above sea level up to tropopause in ft or m or km

2
ABOVE TROPOPAUSE UP TO STRATOPAUSE

1. TEMPERATURE VARIATION WITH ALTITUDE

T = 390.15 °R or 216.5K (constant from tropopause up to stratopause)

2. PRESSURE VARIATION WITH ALTITUDE

English System

P 1.26
δ= =
Po −5
e 4.805x10 h
Where:
2
P = pressure at any altitude above tropopause up to stratopause in lb/ft

2
Po= 2,116.8lb/ft

h = any altitude above tropopause up to stratopause in feet

Metric System

P 1.26
δ= =
Po −4
e1.578x10 h
Where:

P = pressure at any altitude above tropopause up to stratopause in N/m2 (Pa)

Po = 101,325 Pa

h = any altitude above tropopause up to stratopause in meters

3. DENSITY VARIATION WITH ALTITUDE

English System

ρ 1.68
σ= = 4.805 x10 −5
ρo e h

Where:
3
ρ= density at any altitude above tropopause up to stratopause in slug /ft

3
ρ0= 0.002377 slug / ft

h = any altitude above tropopause up to stratopause in feet

Metric System

ρ 1.68
σ= = 1.578 x10 −4
ρ0 e h

3
Where:
3
ρ= density at any altitude above tropopause up to stratopause in kg/m
3
ρ o = 1.225 kg/m
h = any altitude above tropopause up to stratopause in meters

ALTIMETERS

An altimeter is a pressure gauge which indicates an altitude in the standard atmosphere corresponding to
the measured pressure.

Pressure altitude, hp – is the altitude given by an altimeter set to 29.92 “Hg.

Density altitude, hd– is the altitude corresponding to a given density in the standard atmosphere.

Temperature altitude, hT – is the altitude corresponding to a given temperature in the standard atmosphere.

Problems:

1. Calculate the pressure, density and temperature at 25,000 ft and 60,000 ft altitudes in the standard
atmosphere.
Ans. P25,000ft = 785.50 lb/ft2 , ρ25,000ft = 0.001065 slug/ft3 , T = 429.85 oR
P60,000ft = 149.27 lb/ft2 , ρ60,000ft = 0.000223 slug/ft3 , T= 390.15 oR

2. On a hot day, the measured temperature and pressure are 38°C and 29.0 “Hg, respectively. Calculate
the density and the density ratio.
Ans. ρ = 1.100 kg/m3 , σ = 0.898

3. A standard altimeter reads 4,500 meters when the ambient temperature is 275K. What are the
density altitude and the temperature altitude?
Ans. hd = 5,061.98 m ,hT = 1,996 93 m

4. At a certain altitude, a standard altimeter reads 3,000 meters. If the density altitude is 2,500 meters,
find the true temperature.
Ans. T = 255.18 K

BASIC AERODYNAMIC PRINCIPLES AND APPLICATIONS

I. CONTINUITY EQUATION – Conservation of mass along a streamtube, such as in a wind tunnel.

PRINCIPLE OF MASS CONSERVATION (LAW OF CONTINUITY)

The mass flow of fluid that passing to one section of the tube in one second is equal to the
mass flow of fluid that passing to the other section of the tube in one second.

4

m

o
m = ρAV

Where:

o
m = mass flow of fluid in slug/sec or kg/sec
3 3
ρ = density of fluid in slug/ft or kg/m
2 2
A = cross-sectional area of tube in ft or m
V = velocity of fluid in ft/s or m/s

a. For incompressible fluid, ρ= constant (M < 0.3 approximately).

A 1V 1 = A 2V 2
or

AV = constant

Differential form:

dV dA
= −
V A

b. For compressible fluid, ρ ≠ constant (M ≥ 0.3 approximately).

ρ1 A1V1 = ρ 2 A2V2

or

ρAV = constant

Differential form:

dV dA dρ
+ + = 0
V A ρ

5
Problems:

1. A pipe is gradually tapering in size, diminishing by 0.1 sq.ft. per foot run. What is the change in
velocity per foot run where the pipe is 4 sq.ft. in cross section, if the velocity there is 90 ft. per sec?
Is the velocity increasing or decreasing?
Ans. dV/dS = 2.25 fps per ft , increasing

2. A circular pipe, 100 ft. long tapers from 3 ft. in diameter at one end to 2 ft.in diameter at the other.
Fluid is flowing from the bigger toward the smaller end. What is the rate of increase in velocity at
the entrance if the velocity there is 80 ft. per sec?
Ans. dV/dS = 0.444 fps per ft

3. Air having the standard sea level density has a velocity of 100 fps at a section of a wind tunnel. At
another section having an area half as great as the first section the flow velocity is 400 mph. What is
the density at the second section?
Ans. ρ2 = 0.000810 slug per cu ft

II. INCOMPRESSIBLE BERNOULLI EQUATION – conservation of energy along a streamline.

BERNOULLI’S PRINCIPLE

States that the total energy of a particle in motion is constant at all points on its path in a steady flow.

In a continuous flow of fluid, as velocity increases, pressure decreases; and as velocity decreases,
pressure increases.

For incompressible fluid, ρ= constant (M < 0.3 approximately).

V2 P
+ = constant
2 ρ

or
V12 P1 V2 2 P2
+ = +
2 ρ 2 ρ

Problems:

1. A horizontal pipe, 1 ft. in diameter, tapers gradually to 8 in. in diameter. If the flow is 500 cu ft. of
water per minute, what is the difference between the pressures at the two sections?
Ans. PA – PB = 443.63lb per sq ft

2. Water flows through a horizontal pipe at a velocity of 50 ft. per sec. Owing to the pipe gradually
expanding to a larger size, the velocity decreases to 35 ft. per sec. What is the difference between the
pressures at two points, one in each size of pipe?
Ans. PB – PA = 1,236. 75 lb per sq ft

3. The diameter of a horizontal tube is 4 in., in which tetrabromoethane (spec. grav. = 0.30) is flowing
at the rate of 0.50 cu ft. per sec. The pressure is 30 lb. per sq. in. (gage). If the tube gradually
decreases to 3 in. in diameter, what is the pressure there?
Ans. PB = 6,416.16 lb per sqft or 44.56 lb per sq in.

6
4. Alcohol (spec. grav. = 0.80) is flowing through horizontal pipe, which is 10 in. in diameter, with a
velocity of 40 ft. per sec. at a smaller section of the pipe, there is 6 lb. per sq. in. less pressure.
Assuming that the flow is smooth, what is the diameter there?
Ans. dB = 0.73 ft or 8.76 in.
5. Air is flowing horizontally at a speed of 100 mph through a duct 4 sq.ft. in cross section. The duct
gradually narrows down to a throat section. If a U-tube shows a difference in pressure between the
throat and main sections of 7 in. of water, what is the cross-sectional area of the throat? (Assume that
the air is non-compressible and has a density of 0.002377 slug per cu ft.)
Ans. AB = 2.57 sq ft

6. A horizontal water pipe is reduced in size from 18in. in diameter at point A to 6 in. in diameter at
point B. The flow in the pipe is 10 cu ft. per sec, and the pressure at A is 20 lb. per sq. in. (gage). If it
is assumed that there is no loss in energy due to friction, what is the pressure at B?
Ans. PB = 2,511.85 lb per sq ft or 17.44 lb per sq in.

7. Air flows through a horizontal pipe at the rate of 3,000 cu ft. per sec. If the pressure is 30 lb per sq.
in. (gage) where the diameter is 3 ft., what is the pressure where the diameter is 2 ft.?
Ans. PB = 5,567.10 lb per sq ft or 38.66 lb per sq in.

8. Water flows through a horizontal pipe at the rate of 800 gal per min. What is the difference in
pressure between a point where the diameter is 2 in. and a point where the diameter is 1 in.?
Ans. PA – PB = 96,856.38 lb per sq ft or 672.61 lb per sq in

9. A horizontal pipeline enlarges from a diameter of 6 in. at point A to a diameter of 12 in. at point B.
The flow of water is 20 cu ft. per sec, and the pressure at A is 10 lb. per sq. in. What is the pressure
at B?
Ans. 3,995.32 lb per sqft or 27.75 lb per sq in.

10. The diameter at section (1) is 0.3m. The diameter at section (2) is 0.15m. What is the flow rate of a
substance (sp. gr. = 0.85) if the pressure between sections (1) and (2) is 12.7 cm Hg?
Ans. Q = 0.115 cu meter per sec.

11. Consider a low-speed subsonic wind tunnel with a 12/1 contraction area ratio for the nozzle. If the
flow in the test section is at a standard sea level conditions with a velocity of 50 m /s, calculate the
height difference in a U-tube mercury manometer with one side connected to the nozzle inlet and the
other to the test section. ρHg = 1.36 x 103 kg/ m3.
Ans. ∆h = 0.114 m
12. The wind tunnel shown in Fig. below has a smallest section (test section) measuring 1.22 m by 1.0m,
and a largest section of 2 m square. At a certain tunnel speed the manometer reading is 0.72m. The
manometer liquid has a specific gravity of 0.85. Calculate the airspeed in the test section. Assume
incompressible flow and standard sea-level conditions.
Ans. VB = 73.50 meters per sec.

7
13. A pitot-static tube is used to measure the airspeed at the test section of a wind tunnel. If the pressure
difference across the pitot-static tube is 0.11 m of water, what is the airspeed at the test section? If
the ratio of the cross-sectional area between the largest section and the test section is 100:1, what is
the airspeed at the largest section? Assume incompressible flow at standard sea level conditions.
Ans. V2 = 41.97 meters per sec.
V1 = 0.4197 meter per sec.
14. Consider water flowing through a smooth pipe whose diameter is decreasing. At one location, the
diameter is 12 cm. If the velocity there is 10 m/s.
(a) Find the mass flow rate.
(b) At a station farther down the pipe, the diameter is 4cm. Find the velocity at this station.
o
Ans. m = 113. 10 kg/sec. , VB = 90 meters per sec.

Venturi Tube

The Venturi tube is a convergent–divergent tube with a short cylindrical throat or constricted
section. This device determines the rate of flow of fluid through the tube by measuring the difference in
pressure between the throat section and the entrance section.

Practical application is made of Bernoulli Equation.

P1 V12 P2 V2 2
+ = +
ρ 2 ρ 2

1
(
P1 − P2 = ρ V22 − V12
2
)
By the law of continuity, Q being the rate of flow, for non-compressible fluids,

Q = A1 V1 = A2 V2

Q2 Q2
V12 = ; V22 =
A12 A 22

Then,

 2 2
ρ  Q   Q  
P1 − P2 =    −  
2  A 2   A1  
 

8
2   
2
 
ρ Q    A2  
P1 − P2 =  1−
2  A 2    A1  
   

2
 Q 
  = 2( P1 − P2 )
    2
 A2  A 2  

ρ 1− 
  A1  
 

2( P1 − P2 )
Q = A2
  A 2 
ρ 1 −  2  
  A1  
 

πd 22 2( P1 − P2 )
Q=
4   d 4 
ρ 1 −  2  
  d1  
 

Where:
3 3
Q = rate of flow in ft /s or m /s
2
P1 = pressure at section 1 in lb /ft or Pa
2
P2 = pressure at section 2 in lb/ft or Pa
2 2
A1 = cross-sectional area of section 1 in ft or m
2 2
A2 = cross-sectional area of section 2 in ft or m
d1 = diameter of section 1 in ft or m
d2 = diameter of section 2 in ft or m
3 3
ρ = density in slug/ft or kg/m

Problems:

1. A Venturi tube narrows down from 4 in. in diameter to 2 in. in diameter. What is the rate of flow of
water if the pressure at the throat is 2 lb. per sq. in. less than at the larger section?
Ans. Q = 0.388 cu ft per sec.
2
2. A Venturi tube in 6 in. in diameter at the entrance, where the pressure is 10 lb/in (gage). The
2
throat is 4 in. in diameter; there the pressure is 6 lb/in (gage). What is the flow of water?
Ans. Q = 2.73 cu ft per sec.

3. Consider a Venturi with a throat-to-inlet area ratio of 0.8 mounted in a flow at standard sea level
conditions. If the pressure between the inlet and the throat is 335 Pa, calculate the velocity of the
flow at the inlet.
Ans. V1 = 31.18 m/s

9
III. COMPRESSIBILITY EFFECTS

When the air is regarded as compressible, the internal energy of the air mass must be
considered.

A. ISENTROPIC EQUATION OF STATE

P
= cons tan t
ργ
γ
P1 P2 P2 ρ 
= , =  2 
ρ1γ ρ2 γ P1  ρ1 

THERMODYNAMIC PARAMETER RELATIONSHIP

γ 2γ
γ γ  Va  γ −1
P2  ρ2   T2  γ −1 w 
=   =   =  2  = 2 
P1  ρ1   T1   w1   Va
 1

Problems:
3
1. Air at standard pressure and temperature, has density of 1.225 kg/m . If the air is compressed
adiabatically to 3 atm, what are the specific weight, density and the temperature?
Ans. w2 = 26.33 N/m3 , ρ2 = 2.685 kg/m3 , T2 = 394.20 K

2. Air at standard pressure and temperature is permitted to expand adiabatically to one-half


atmospheric pressure. What are a) the density and b) the temperature?
Ans. (a) ρ2 = 0.747 kg/m3 (b) T2 = 236.26 K

3. Air at standard pressure and temperature is adiabatically compressed to 50 lb. per sq. in. (gage)
pressure. What is the temperature?
Ans. T2 = 792.59 oR

4. Air at standard pressure and temperature is permitted to expand adiabatically until it is one-half
standard density. a) What is the pressure? b) What is the temperature?
Ans. (a) P2 = 38,395 Pa , (b) T2 = 218.26 K

B. THE SPEED OF SOUND ,Va

γP
Va =
ρ

English System

Va = γgRT

Where:
γ = 1.4

R = 53.342 ft/ °R

10
Va = 49.02 T

Where:
Va = speed of sound in air in ft/s

T = absolute temperature in °R

Metric System

Va = 20.05 T

Where:
Va = speed of sound in air in m/s

T = absolute temperature in K

Problems:

1. Find the speed of sound in air at standard sea level conditions.


Ans. Va = 340.26 m/s

2. Find the speed of sound in air at 7,000 ft. altitude in the standard atmosphere.
Ans. Va = 1,089.57 ft/sec

C. COMPRESSIBLE BERNOULLI EQUATION

V2 γ P
+ = constant
2 γ −1 ρ

or:

V12 γ P1 V2 2 γ P2
+ = +
2 γ − 1 ρ1 2 γ − 1 ρ2

Problems:
3
1. In an undisturbed airstream the pressure is 101,325 Pa, the density is 1.225 kg/m , and the
velocity is 150 m/s. What is the pressure if the velocity is 190 m/s?
Ans. P = 93,236.71 Pa

2. In an undisturbed airstream, where the pressure is 14.7 lb. per sq. in. and the temperature is 59oF,
the velocity is 520 ft. per sec. Where the velocity is 600 ft. per sec., what is the local pressure?
Ans. P = 2,012.23 lb per sq ft

3. In an undisturbed airstream, where the pressure is 14.7 lb. per sq. in. and the temperature is 59oF,
the velocity is 550 ft. per sec. What is the velocity where the pressure is 13.9 lb. per sq. in.?
Ans. V = 633.83 ft/sec

11
IV. AIRSPEED MEASUREMENT

(a) LOW-SPEED AIRSPEED INDICATORS (INCOMPRESSIBLE FLOW)

PVρ
Pt Vt ρ t

Pitot – Static Tube


Where:
PVρ = parameters of airflow initially
Ptvtρt= parameters of the airflow at the stagnation point

Pitot-static tube- an instrument consisting of two tubes, having their points of origin in the open end
unobstructed airstream. One of the tube ends is closed but slotted on the side in such a manner so that static air
pressure is maintained in the tube and the other tube having an end open to the airstream so that it receives the
full impact pressure of the airstream.

Static pressure (P) – the force per unit area exerted by a fluid on a surface at rest relative to the fluid.

Stagnation pressure or total pressure (Pt) – the pressure at stagnation point wherein the velocity of the
medium is equal to zero.

Applying the incompressible Bernoulli equation:

V 2 P Vt2 Pt
+ = +
2 ρ 2 ρ

1
Pt − P = ρV 2
2

1
Pt = P + ρV 2
2

Pt = P + q

Where:

1
q = ρV 2 = dynamic pressure
2

2(Pt − P )
V=
ρ
12
Application:

Definition of equivalent airspeed Ve:

2(Pt − P )
Ve =
ρ0
Where:

Pt= total pressure or stagnation pressure


P = static pressure
ρo= density at sea level

Definition of true airspeed V:

Ve
V =
σ

Where:

ρ
σ= , density ratio
ρ0

Problems:

1. An airplane is flying at standard sea level conditions at 45 meters per second. What is the difference
between total and static pressure?
Ans. Pt - P = 1,240.31 Pa

2. An airplane is flying at standard sea level conditions at airspeed of 75 meters per second. What is the
total pressure?
Ans. Pt = 104,770.31 Pa

3. An airplane is flying at standard sea level, the difference between total and static pressure is 1,750
Pa. What is the airspeed in meters per second?
Ans. V = 53.45 m/s

(b) HIGH-SPEED AIRSPEED INDICATORS (COMPRESSIBLE FLOW)

Mach number (M) – is the ratio of the local velocity of the fluid to the velocity of sound at
that same point.

V
M=
Va

Where:
M = Mach number
V = velocity of fluid
Va= ambient speed of sound

13
Three different regimes of aerodynamic flows

1. If M <1, the flow is subsonic.


2. M = 1, the flow is sonic.
3. If M > 1, the flow is supersonic.

Two other specialized aerodynamic regimes

1. If 0.8 < M < 1.2, the flow is transonic.


2. If M > 5, the flow is hypersonic

Applying the compressible Bernoulli equation:

V2 γ P Vt2 γ Pt
+ = +
2 γ −1 ρ 2 γ − 1 ρt

V2 γ P  Pt  ρ  
=    − 1
2 γ − 1 ρ  P  ρ t  

 −
1 
V2 γ P  Pt  Pt  γ 
=    − 1
2 γ − 1 ρ  P  P 
 
 
 γ −1 
V2 γ P  Pt  γ 
=    − 1
2 γ −1 ρ  P 
 
 
 γ −1 
2   
P 
V2 = Va2  t  γ − 1
 
γ −1 P

 
 γ −1 
V2 2  Pt  γ 
=   − 1
Va2 γ − 1  P  
 
 γ −1 
2  tP − P  
M2 =  + 1 γ − 1
γ −1  P 
 
 

For some applications, it is convenient to solve (Pt – P) in terms of M:


 γ 
 γ − 1 2  γ −1 
Pt − P = P 1 + M  − 1 applicable if M ≥ 2.24
 2  
 
γ  1 1 1 
Pt − P = PM 2 1 + M 2 + M 4 + M6 + ⋅ ⋅ ⋅ applicable if 0.3≤M<2.24
2  4 40 1,600 

14
Application:

Definition of calibrated airspeed Vc:

P −P  Pt − P 
Note that if  t  is replaced by   and Va by Vao , the resulting airspeed is called the
 P  P
 o 
calibrated airspeed (Vc ) :

2
γ −1 
2 V a   P − P  γ 
Vc 2 = 0

t + 1 − 1
γ − 1  P0  
 
 2 
 γ − 1  Vc   
Pt − P = Po  1 + − 1
 2  Va o   
  

 γ −1 
  γ   γ 
    
  γ −1
2
2  1  γ − 1  Vc     
M2 =   1+ − 1 + 1 − 1
γ − 1  δ  2  Va o  
    


    
    
 

For air,γ = 1.4.

 0.286 
 1  2  3.5   
2   Vc   

M = 5   1 + 0.2  − 1 + 1 − 1
 δ   661.5     
     
 

STREAM FUNCTION

In studying the two-dimensional flow of fluid, it is desirable to have a name for the quantity of fluid
passing between a given point and a reference point. The quantity is termed the stream function ψ of the given
point. In two-dimensional flow, the dimensions of stream function are in square feet per second.

In Figure 2.8a, 0 is the reference point, 0AP and 0BP are any two lines connecting 0 and P is the amount
of fluid crossing line 0AP per second must be the same as the amount of fluid crossing 0BP per second: this
amount per second is the stream function of P.

In Figure 2.8b, points P and P’ are two points on the same streamline. The stream function of P is the
amount of fluid crossing line 0P per second. Since fluid cannot cross line PP’, the quantity of fluid crossing line
0P’ per second is the same as the quantity of fluid crossing the line 0P per second. Therefore points on the same

15
streamline have the same stream function, and conversely, points having the same stream function are the on the
same streamline. Similarly if 0’ is on s streamline passing through 0, the fluid crossing 0P per second is the
same quantity as that crossing 0’P per second, since no fluid crosses 00’. Then the stream function of P with
respect to 0 is the same as the stream function of P with respect to 0’.

RELATION BETWEEN VELOCITY AND STREAM FUNCTION IN TWO-DIMENSIONAL


FLOW

In two-dimensional flow, the velocity V may be resolved into two components, parallel to the X and Y
axes respectively. The velocity component parallel to the X axis is termed u; its direction is positive if from
lower to greater values of x, i.e., to the right. The component parallel to the Y axis is termed v; it is positive if
the direction is toward increasing positive values of y, i.e., upward.

Stream function is positive if the flow is clockwise about the origin 0.

If P and P’ are points on adjacent streamlines (see Figure 2.9) and if dψ is the difference between their
respective stream functions and dx and dy, the difference between their coordinates, the quantity of fluid
crossing PP’ per second must equal the quantity crossing PA plus the quantity crossing AP’ per second. Then

dψ = udy − vdx

Note: v is negative because its direction is downward.

From differential calculus, if ψ is a function of x and y,

∂ψ ∂ψ
dψ = dx + dy
∂x ∂y
Then
∂ψ
u=
∂y
∂ψ
v=−
∂x

When the value of ψ is known as a function of the x and y coordinates for all points in a two- dimensional fluid
flow, the velocity may be determined.

Example: If fluid is flowing so that ψ = x 2 − y 2 , determine the velocity at the point (3, 2).
Solution:
∂ψ ∂ 2
u= = (x − y2 )
∂y ∂y
u = −2 y = −(2)(2) = −4 ft / sec
∂ψ ∂
v=− = (x2 − y 2 )
∂x ∂x
v = −2 x = −(2)(3) = −6 ft / sec
V = u 2 + v 2 = (−4) 2 + (−6) 2 = 7.21 ft / sec
16
v
tan θ =
u
v  −6
θ = tan −1 = tan −1   = 236.31
0

u  −4
Problems:

1. What is the velocity at point (-2, 4), if ψ = x 2 − y 2 ?


Ans. V = 8.94 ft/sec
θ = 153.430
2. What is the velocity at point (3, 5), if ψ = x 2 + y 2 ?
Ans. V = 11.66 ft/sec
θ = 329.040
3. For the flow ψ = x 2 + y 2 , what is the velocity at point (4, 5)?
Ans. V = 12.81 ft/sec
θ = 321.340
4. For the flow ψ = x 2 + y 2 , what is the velocity at point (5, 5)?
Ans. V = 14.14 ft/sec
θ = 315.00
5. What is the velocity at point (4, 4), if ψ = ln( x 2 + y 2 ) ?
Ans. V = 0.35 ft/sec
θ = 315.00

SOURCES AND SINKS

In the mathematical study of fluid flow, a useful concept is a source, or a sink. A source is a point at
which fluid is appearing at a definite, uniform rate: if there is no disturbance to the flow the fluid will travel
radically outward from the source. A sink is a negative source or a point at which fluid is disappearing at a
definite, uniform rate. With no disturbance, the fluid travels radially inward equally from all directions.

The strength m of a source is the quantity of fluid appearing per second; in two-dimensional flow it is
measured in square feet per second. The streamlines from a source are radial lines. If one of these streamlines is
designated as a base or reference line, and the streamline through point P makes an angle θ with these
reference line, θ being measured counterclockwise from the reference line, the stream function for the point P
is


ψ= , θ in radians


ψ= , θ in deg rees
360

Since he flow is radially outward, the magnitude of the velocity V is


m
V=
2πr
and the direction of V makes the angle the angle θ with the reference line.

UNIFORM FLOW PLUS A SOURCE

Because stream function is a scalar quantity, stream functions may be added.

The stream function of a source, of strength m, located at the origin is ψ = mθ /(2π ), θ being measured
in radians in a counterclockwise direction from the positive X axis. The stream function, straight-line flow
parallel to the X axis and flowing in a positive direction is ψ = +Uy, where U is the constant velocity.

17
The stream function of these two flows when combined is

ψ = +Uy +

m y
ψ = +Uy + tan −1
2π x
Having the equation for ψ in terms of the constant U and m, and the variables x and y, curves are
plotted for various streamlines, as in Figure 2.10a. The streamline representing ψ = 0 is the X axis plus a curve
resembling a parabola, PP’, shown as a heavy solid line in Figure 2.10a.

As no fluid may cross a streamline, any streamline may be replaced by a solid boundary, so that the
streamlines of Figure 2.10a may be considered as the flow of a horizontal wind striking a hill shaped like PP’ in
Figure 2.10b.

The velocity being ascertainable at any point in the flow, if the pressure is known at some one point,
Bermoulli’s law may be used to find the pressure at any other point on a given streamline.

Example: A source of strength of 600 sq ft per sec located at the origin (0, 0) is superimposed on a uniform
flow of 500 ft per sec parallel to the X axis in a negative direction. If the pressure in the flow remote from this
source is standard atmospheric, what is the pressure at the point (0, 1.5)? Note: This point is on the streamline
ψ = 0.

Given:
m = 600 sq ft per sec
U = - 500 ft/sec
P0 = 2,116.8 lb/ft2

Solution:

∂ψ ∂  m y
u= =  + Uy + tan −1 
∂y ∂y  2π x
m  x  600  0 
u =U +  2  = − 500 + ( )   = −404.51 ft / sec
2π  x + y 2  2π  (0) 2 + (1.5) 2 
∂ψ ∂  m y
v=− = −  − Uy + tan −1 
∂x ∂x  2π x
m  y  600  1 .5 
v=+  2 =(
2 
) 2 2 
= 63.66 ft / sec
2π  x + y  2π  (0) + (1.5) 
V = u 2 + v 2 = (−404.51) 2 + (63.66) 2 = 409.49 ft / sec

18
By Bernoulli’s law,

V 2 P U 2 P0
+ = +
2 ρ0 2 ρ0
1
P = P0 + ρ 0 (U 2 − V 2 )
2
1
[ ]
P = 2,116.8 + ( )(0.002377) (−500) 2 − (409.49) 2 = 2,214.63lb / ft 2
2

Problems:

1. With a source and uniform flow as in the example, find the pressure at the point (0.557, 1.0).
Ans. P = 2,117.9 lb/ft2
2. With a source and uniform flow as in the example, find the pressure at the point (-1.15, 2).
Ans. P = 2,109.3 lb/ft2
3. With a source and uniform flow as in the example, find the pressure at the point (0.995, 0).
Ans. P = 2,128.1 lb/ft2

SOURCE PLUS SINK PLUS UNIFORM FLOW

If a source with a strength m is located on the X axis at x = c and if a sink with a strength –m is located
on the X axis at x = -c (see Figure 2.11), the stream function of point P (x, y) is

mθ1 mθ 2
ψ= −
2π 2π

but
y
tan θ1 =
x−c
and
y
tan θ 2 =
x+c

By trigonometry,
tan θ1 − tan θ 2
tan(θ1 − θ 2 ) =
1 + tan θ1 − tan θ 2
y y

= x−c x+c
 y  y 
1+   
 x − c  x + c 
2cy
= 2
x + y2 − c2

19
mθ1 mθ 2
Then Eqn. ψ = − may be written in the form
2π 2π

m  2cy 
ψ= tan −1  2 2

2 
2π  x + y −c 

Superimposing a uniform flow of –U ft per sec parallel to the X axis on the outward flow of the source
and the inward flow of the sink given, for the point P (x, y),

m  2cy 
ψ = −Uy + tan −1  2 2

2 
2π  x + y −c 

By assigning values to ψ, streamlines may be plotted for the form of flow as in Figure 2.12. The
streamline for ψ = 0 in the X axis and a symmetrical curve, tan (2πUy)/m=2cy/(x2 +y2 –c2), resembling an
ellipse. The flow may be considered as the two-dimensional flow about a cylindrical surface having for its cross
section the quasi-elliptic shape of the ψ = 0 line.

The component velocities, u and v, may be found at any point by differentiating the stream function
∂ψ
u=
∂y
m  x−c x+c
u = −U +  2 − 2 
2π  r1 r2 
∂ψ
v=−
∂x
my  1 1
v=+  2 − 2 
2π  r1 r2 
Where

r12 = ( x − c) 2 + y 2
r22 = ( x + c) 2 + y 2

The components of the velocity being known, the resultant velocity may be found. The pressure being
known at same point in the flow, the pressure at another point on the same streamline may be calculated by
Bernoulli’s law. Owing to the symmetry of the streamlines, the pressure on the surface, ψ = 0, are symmetric
about the X and Y axes. The sum of the vertical pressures is zero, and the sum of the horizontal pressures is
zero.

Example: A source whose strength is 314. 2 sq ft per sec and a sink, whose strength is -314.2 sq ft per sec are
located at (1.0) and (-1.0) respectively. They are superimposed in a uniform flow of -100 ft per second parallel
to the X axis. If the pressure in the flow remote from the source and sink is atmospheric and if the fluid is air,
what is the pressure at the point (1.05, 0.6)? Note: This point is on the streamline ψ = 0.
20
Solution:

r12 = ( x − c) 2 + y 2 = (1.05 − 1.0) 2 + (0.6) 2 = 0.3625


r22 = ( x + c) 2 + y 2 = (1.05 + 1.0) 2 + (0.6) 2 = 4.5625
 x−c x+c 314.2 1.05 − 1.0 1.05 + 1.0 
 2 − 2  = −100 + 
m
u = −U +  − 4.5625
2π  r1 r2   2π  0.3625 
= −115.57 ft pers sec
my  1 1
 2 − 2  = 
(314.2)(0.6)  1 1 
v=+   − 
2π  r1 r2   2π  0.3625 4.5625 
= 76.19 ft per sec
V = u 2 + v 2 = (−115.57) 2 + (76.19) 2 = 138.42 ft per sec

V 2 P U 2 P0
+ = +
2 ρ0 2 ρ0
1
P = P0 + ρ 0 (U 2 − V 2 )
2
1
[ ]
P = 2,116.8 + ( )(0.002377) (−100) 2 − (138.42) 2 = 2,105.91 lb / ft 2
2
Problems:

1. For the flow described in the example, what is the pressure at point (1.38, 0.2)?
Ans. P = 2,124.4 lb/ft2
2. For the flow described in the example, what is the pressure at point (1.27, 0.4)?
Ans. P = 2,115.3 lb/ft2
3. For the flow described in the example, what is the pressure at point (1.18, 0.5)?
Ans. P = 2,110.2 lb/ft2
4. For the flow described in the example, what is the pressure at point (0.56, 0.8)?
Ans. P = 2,099.2 lb/ft2
5. For the flow described in the example, what is the pressure at point (0.0, 0.86)?
Ans. P = 2,098.6 lb/ft2

FLOW ABOUT A CIRCULAR CYLINDER

It was shown that the stream function of a source and a sink, each located on the X axis at a distance of
2c apart, is
m  2cy 
ψ= tan −1  2 2

2 
2π  x + y −c 
and the streamline for ψ = 0 is the X axis and a curve resembling an ellipse.
If the distance 2c between the source and the sink is made smaller while the strengths m and -m are
made larger, the product, 2cm, always being kept constant, the ratio of the length of the major axis to the length
of the minor axis of the elliptic figure will become less. As the distance 2c approaches zero in value, the figure
will become more nearly circular, when it is combined with a uniform flow. Letting µ = 2cm, Eqn.
m  2cy 
ψ= tan −1  2 2
 may be written
2 
2π  x + y − c 
 2cy 
tan −1  2 2

2 
 x + y −c 
ψ=
4πc
µ
As c approaches zero, the right-hand side of the above equation becomes indeterminate, but, by applying
a standard method of calculus (Hospital’s rule), differentiating separately the numerator and the denominator
21
with respect to c, and letting c approach zero, a solution is obtained. Performing this on Equation
 2cy 
tan −1  2 2

2 
 x + y − c 
ψ= gives, for the source-sink doublet,
4πc
µ
µ y
ψ=
2π x + y 2
2

When this flow is combined with a uniform, negative flow parallel to the X axis, the stream function
becomes

µ y
ψ = −Uy +
2π x + y 2
2

Letting
µ
a2 =
2πU
Ua2 y
ψ = −Uy +
x2 + y 2

The streamline for µ = 0 will be the X axis and a circle whose center is at the origin and whose radius is
a.

Anywhere in the flow, the component velocities are

∂  y 
u=  − Uy + Ua 2 2 
∂y  x + y 2 
 x2 − y2 
u = −U + Ua 2  2 2 2
 (x + y ) 
∂ 1 
v = −  − Uy + Ua 2 y 2 
∂x  x + y 2 
 2 xy 
v = +Ua 2  2 2 2 
 (x + y ) 

On the circumference of the circle, ψ = 0, since y 2 = a 2 − x 2


dy x
=−
dx y
Also
V2
u = −2U
a2

xy
v = 2U
a2

22
The resultant velocity V makes an angle tan −1 (v / u) with the X axis, but

2Uxy
v 2
= a 2
u − 2Uy
a2
v x
=−
u y

This shows that the resultant velocity V is tangent to the circumference of the circle.

V 2 = u 2 + v2
2 2
 − 2Uy 2   2Uxy 
=  2
 +  2 
 a   a 
4U 2 y 2
=
a2

2Uy
V=
a

In polar coordinate, this becomes

V = 2U sin θ

The pressure at any point on the surface of a circular cylinder in a uniform flow is, from Bernoulli’s law,

V 2 P U 2 P0
+ = +
2 ρ0 2 ρ0
1
P = P0 + ρ 0 (U 2 − V 2 )
2
1
[
= P0 + ρ 0 U 2 − (2U sin θ ) 2
2
]
1
P = P0 + ρ 0 (U 2 − 4U 2 sin 2 θ )
2

V = 2U sin θ

23
Where:
V = tangential velocity in ft/s or m/s
U = freestream velocity in ft/s or m/s
θ = angle through the point on the surface of the cylinder with the main
direction of the air flow in deg.
P = pressure at any point on the surface of a circular cylinder in psf or Pa
P0 = freestream pressure in psf or Pa
ρ0 = freestream density in slug/ft3 or kg/m3

Problems:

1. A uniform current of air with a speed of 100ft. per sec flows around a circular cylinder. At a distance
from the cylinder the pressure is atmospheric. What is the pressure at a point on the surface of the
cylinder so located that a radial line through the point makes an angle of 150 with the direction of
airflow?
Ans. P = 2,125.50 lb per sq ft

2. For the flow in the above problem, what is the pressure on the cylinder surface at a 90o arc from the
direction of airflow?
Ans. P = 2,081.14 lb per sq ft

Lift due to Circulation

Vortex - the circulation of particles of fluid having the same energy content and center of rotation.

Γ Γ
V = 2V∞sinθ V= V = 2 V∞ sinθ +
2π r 2π r

V∞

24
V∞

Where:

dF = force acting normal to the element of area, rdθ

rdθ = area of element

sin θ = − dL
dF

dL =-sinθdF

dL =-Prsinθdθ

By Incompressible Bernoulli Equation:

P V2 P∞ V∞ 2
+ = +
ρ∞ 2 ρ∞ 2
ρ
P = P∞ + ∞ V∞
2
( )
2 − V2

ρ  2  Γ  
2
P = P∞ + ∞ V∞ −  2V∞ sin θ +  
2 
  2πr  

π  ρ∞  2  Γ   
2
L 
∫0 dL = ∫−π P∞ + 2 V∞ −  2V∞ sin θ + 2πr    r sin θdθ
   

L =ρ∞V∞Γ

Where:
L = lift per unit span in lb/ft or N/m
ρ ∞ =freestream density in slug/ft3 or kg/m3
V∞ = freestream velocity in fps or mps
Γ = strength of circulation in ft2/s or m2/s (= 2пrV)
V = tangential velocity in fps or mps (= 2пrN)
r = radius of cylinder in ft or m
N = rotational speed in rps

25
For total lift

LT = L x l

Where:
LT = total lift in lb or N
l = length of the cylinder in ft or m

Problems:

1. A cylinder 30 in. in diameter rotates in an airstream of 70 mph. If develops 40 lb of lift per


foot of length, what is the rotational speed?
Ans. N = 2.66 rev/sec

2. A cylinder 1.22 m in diameter and 3.5 m long is rotating at 100 rpm in an airstream of 18 m/s.
Determine the total lift of the cylinder at standard sea level conditions.
Ans. LT = 1,889.49 N

VISCOUSEFFECTS, THE BOUNDARY LAYER AND FLOW SEPARATION

SKIN FRICTION - skin friction is air resistance, and it is the tangential component of force on the surface of a
body due to the friction between the two particles.

STREAMLINE AND TURBULENT FLOW - a streamline flow may be defined as smooth non-turbulent flow.
A turbulent flow is defined as a flow characterized by turbulence that is a flow in which the velocity varies
erratically in both magnitude and direction with time.

LAMINAR FLOW – the word laminar is derived from the Latin word lamina meaning a thin plate of metal or
some other material. Laminar flow employs the concept that air is flowing in thin sheets or layers close to the
surface of a wing with no disturbance between the layers of air.

BOUNDARY LAYER– the boundary layer is that layer of air adjacent to the airfoil surface. The cause of the
boundary layer is the friction between the surface of the wing and the air.

LAMINAR BOUNDARY LAYER – in the laminar boundary layers the flow is steady and smooth. As a
result, the layer is very thin, and so the form drag is very small. Also, the velocity gradient at the walls, though
large enough to give significant viscous stress, is yet only moderate, so that the skin friction, though not
negligible, is also very small.

5.2X
δ=
R Nx
Where:
δ = laminar boundary layer thickness

26
X = transition point
R N x = transition Reynolds number

The “rubbing” of the boundary layer on the flat plate gives rise to friction forces Df: friction drag. The skin-
friction drag coefficient for a plate in laminar flow is given by:

Df 2.656
Cf = =
1 ρV 2 S RN
2
Where:
RN = Reynolds number based on the total plate length

TURBULENT BOUNDARY LAYER – in turbulent boundary layers the flow is unsteady and not smooth, but
eddying.

When the flow is transitioned to turbulent flow, the boundary layer thickness will be increased. In fact, this
phenomenon is often used to determine the location of the transition region. The boundary layer thickness can
be determined by:

0.37 X
δ=
(R Nx )1 / 5
The skin-friction drag coefficient for a flat plate can be calculated with Schlichting’s formula:

Df 0.910
Cf = =
1 ρV 2S (log10 R N )2.58
2

Where:
ρVL ρVc
RN = =
µ µ
ρ = air density in slug /ft3 or kg/m3
V = air velocity in ft/s or m/s
L = characteristic length of the body in the flow direction and is equal to the chord length for
an airfoil in feet or meters.
slug kg
µ = coefficient of dynamic viscosity in or
ft − sec m − sec

For air, µ increases with temperature and can be calculated by the following approximate formula for the
standard atmosphere:

3
2.329 x10−8 T 2 slug
µ= , , T in °R
T + 216 ft − sec

or
3
1.458 x10−6 T 2 kg
µ= , , T in K
T + 110.4 m − sec

At low Reynolds numbers, the flow in the boundary layer is laminar (laminar boundary layer). Above
certain “transition Reynolds numbers”, the flow becomes turbulent (turbulent boundary layer).

27
Transition takes place on a flat plate at point x determined by:

 ρVx 
(R N x )crit. =   = 3.5 x10 5 to 10 6
 µ  crit.

Problems:

1. Two plates, one having 6 ft. span and 3 ft. chord, the other having 9ft. span and 6 ft. chord, are placed
in different airstreams. The freestream velocity for the smaller plate is 100ft/sec. It is found that the
total skin-friction drag for the two plates is the same. Find the airspeed for the larger plate. Assume
laminar flow at standard sea level conditions.
Ans. V2 = 60.57 ft/sec.

2. Consider the stabilizer on a light airplane as a flat plate for the purpose of determining its skin-friction
drag. If the transition RN is 750,000, what is the skin-friction drag of a rectangular stabilizer having a
span of 1.83 m and a chord of 0.91 m at a speed of 44.7 meters per second? Assume standard sea
level conditions.
Ans. Df total = 11.65 N

3. An airplane is flying at a density altitude of 4,500 m at an ambient temperature of 234K. If the wing
chord is 1.83 m and the equivalent airspeed is 103 meters per second, what is the overall Reynolds
number of the wing?
Ans. RN = 12,131,685.15

WIND TUNNEL

A device for testing aircraft and its force components in a controlled airstream under laboratory
conditions.

TYPES OF LOW – SPEED WIND TUNNELS

1. Open –circuit tunnel

28
2. Closed circuit tunnel

Forces and motion of airplane under testing

a. lift d. pitching moment


b. drag e. yawing moment
c. side force f. rolling moment

Importance of RN
Used in comparison of flow pattern of different bodies which are geometrically similar but not in
dimension.

Flow pattern similarity at a particular point

1. magnitude of velocity at constant proportion

2. direction of flow is the same

3. both bodies must be oriented or positioned in similar altitudes

4. both bodies must be positioned at the same eagle of attack

Problems:
1. Find RN, for an airplane wing, 4 ft. chord, moving at 130 mph through standard atmosphere.
Ans. RN = 4,850,847.34

2. Find RN for an airplane wing, 4 ft. chord, moving at 150 mph, air is 400C; barometer reading is
29 in. Hg.
Ans. RN = 4,662.149.66

3. Find the velocity at which test should be run in a wind tunnel on a model wing of 0.10 m chord
in order that RN, shall be the same as for a wing with a 1.22 m chord at 44.7 m/s. Air under
standard conditions in both cases.
Ans. VM = 545.34 m/s

4. In a variable – density wind tunnel, under what pressure should test be run on a model with a 3-
in chord, air velocity being 60 mph, in order that the RN shall be the same as for a full-size wing,
of 4ft chord, moving at 100 mph through the air? Air temperature is the same in each case.
Ans. PM = 26.67PFS

Variable Density Wind Tunnel - a wind tunnel in which the air density can be increased by
means of compressed air.

29
Flat Plates

(a) Flat plates perpendicular to airstream


ρ
F = 1.28 AV 2
2
Where:
F = force on a flat plate normal to airstream in lb or N
ρ = freestream density in slug/ft3 or kg/m3
A = cross-sectional area of the plate in ft2 or m2
V = freestream velocity in fps or mps

Problems:

1. What is the total force of a 45-mph wind on a hangar door 40 ft by 25ft?


Ans. F = 6,626.70 lb

2. An automobile windshield is 40 in. wide by 15 in. high and is vertical. What is the force against
the windshield at 60 mph?
Ans. F = 49.09 lb

3. What is the force against the side of a building 70ft. long and 40 ft. high in a 90 – mph wind?
Ans. F = 74,218.99 lb

4. What force is required to push a flat plate 3 ft. by 2 ft. at a speed of 35 ft/s in a direction
perpendicular to its surface?
Ans. F = 11.18 lb

(b) Curved Deflecting Surfaces

FH = ρAV 2 (1 − cos ε )

FV = ρAV 2 sin ε

2 2
F = FH + FV

F = ρAV 2 2(1 − cos ε )

Where:
FH = horizontal component of force F in lb or N
FV = vertical component of force F in lb or N
F = resultant force in lb or N
V = freestream velocity in ft/sec or m/s
ε = angle of deflection in deg.
A = cross –sectional area of airstream in ft2 or m2

Problems:
1. A stream of air 60 ft. wide and 8 ft. high is moving horizontally at a speed of 100 mph. What force
is required to deflect it downward 10o without loss in speed.
Ans. F = 4,278.18 lb

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2. A stream of air 60 ft. wide and 8 ft. high is moving horizontally at a speed of 75mph. What
forceisrequired to deflect it downward 8o without loss in speed
Ans. F = 1,926.06 lb

AIRFOIL THEORY

An airfoil is a streamlined body which when set at a suitable angle of attack, produces more lift than
drag.

DEFINITION OF AIRFOIL GEOMETRY

MEAN CAMBER LINE – is the line joining the midpoints between the upper and lower surfaces of an airfoil
and measured normal to the chord line.

CHORD LINE – is the line joining the end points of the mean camber line.

THICKNESS- is the height of profile measured normal to the chord line.

t
THICKNESS RATIO – is the maximum thickness to chord ratio, .
c

CAMBER – is the maximum distance of the mean camber line from the chord line.

LEADING – EDGE RADIUS – is the radius of a circle, tangent to the upper and lower surfaces, with its center
located on a tangent to the mean camber line drawn through the leading edge of this line.

AERODYNAMIC FORCES AND MOMENTS ON AN AIRFOIL

Definition of Section Forces and Moment

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FACTORS AFFECTING THE AERODYNAMIC FORCE (F):

1. Velocity of air, V
2. Air density, p
3. Characteristic area or size, S
4. Coefficient of dynamic viscosity, µ
5. Speed of sound (compressibility effect), Va
6. Angle of attack, α

FORMULAS:

LIFT FORCE

1
l = Cl ρV 2c
2

DRAG FORCE

1
d = Cd ρV 2c = Cd q c
2

PITCHING MOVEMENT

1
m = Cm ρV 2 c 2 = C m q c 2
2
Where:

1 = lift force in lb/ft or N/m


d = drag force in lb/ft or N/m
m = pitching moment in ft.lb/ft or N.m/m
cl = sectional lift coefficient
cd = sectional drag coefficient
cm = pitching moment coefficient
1
q = ρV 2 = dynamic pressure in lb/ft2 or N/m2
2
ρ = density in slug/ft3 or kg/m3
V = velocity in ft/sec or m/s
c = airfoil chord in ft or m

IMPORTANT AIRFOIL CHARACTERISTICS

The following relationships are of fundamental importance to airplane design and airplane analysis:

LIFT CURVE :clversus α

The linear portion of the lift curve can be represented mathematically by the equation:

c l = a (α − α o )

or:
c l = c l α (α − α o )

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Where:

a or c l α = lift-curve slope per radian ( the theoretical value is 2π per radian)


αO= angle of attack for zero lift

DRAG POLAR: cl versus cd

An important parameter representing the aerodynamic efficiency of airfoil is the lift-


drag ratio. The maximum cl/cd magnitude can be obtained by drawing a tangent to the cd –
clcurve.

PITCHING MOMENT CURVE: Cm versus α or Cm versus Cl

The magnitude of cm depends on the location of the moment center. One important moment
center which is often used is the so-called aerodynamic center (a.c.). It is defined as the point about
which the moment coefficient is independent of α.

Geometry for finding the aerodynamic center

AIRFOIL PRESSURE DISTRIBUTION

The pressure distribution is normally expressed in terms of the pressure coefficient, Cp.

P − P∞ P − P∞
Cp = =
q∞ 1
ρ ∞ V∞ 2
2

At low speeds, according to the incompressible Bernoulli Equation,

2
 V 
Cp = 1 −  
 V∞ 

CRITICAL VELOCITY, Vcr

1
 (γ − 1)M 2 + 2  2
Vcr = Va ∞  ∞ 
 γ +1 

FOR AIR, γ = 1.4.

1
 M 2 + 5 2
Vcr = Va ∞  ∞ 
 6 

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CRITICAL PRESSURE, Pcr

γ
 (γ − 1)M 2 
Pcr = P∞  ∞ + 2  γ −1
 γ +1 

FOR AIR, γ = 1.4.

3.5
 M 2 + 5
Pcr = P∞  ∞ 
 6 

CRITICAL PRESSURE COEFFICIENT, C Pcr

Pcr − P∞
C p cr =
q∞

 γ 
  2
2  (γ − 1)M ∞ + 2  γ − 1 
C p cr =    −1 
γM ∞ 2   γ +1  
 

FOR AIR, γ = 1.4.

3 .5
 M 2 + 5
 ∞  −1
 6 
C p cr =  
0 .7 M ∞ 2
Problems:
1. An airplane is flying at an altitude of 3,500m at an airspeed of 300 m/s. Find the critical speed,
critical pressure and critical pressure coefficient.
Ans. Vcr = 322.32 m/s , Pcr = 59,981.66 Pa ,CPcr = -0.146

2. What is the critical value of the pressure coefficient for an airplane flying at 500 knots in air at 25
0
F?
Ans. CPcr = -0.494

3. For an airplane flying at 270 meters per second at 25, 0000 ft. attitude, find the critical value of the
pressure coefficient.
Ans. CPcr = -0.254

4. An airfoil has a lift-curve slope of 6.3 per radian and angle of zero lift of -20. At what angle of
attack will the airfoil develop a lift of 140lb/ft at 100mph under standard sea level conditions?
Assume c = 8ft.
Ans. α = 4.22 deg.

DESIGN OF AIRFOIL

To design an airfoil for any specific use, the following effects of airfoil geometry should be noted:

1. Camber shape will affect mainly α0 and cm. Any increase in camber will make α0 and cm more negative.

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2. Thickness distribution will change the value of lift curve slope, a.c. location, and center of pressure
location.

3. The leading-edge shape has a pronounced effect on stall characteristics and on

NACA AIRFOIL DESIGNATION

4 – digit airfoils : Example NACA 4412

4 = camber 0.04c

4 = position of camber at 0.4c from L.E.

12 = maximum thickness 0.12c

5 –digit airfoils: Example NACA 23015

2 = camber 0.02c

This design lift coefficient is 0.15 times the first digit for this series.

0.30
30 = position of camber at c = 0.15c
2
15 = maximum thickness 0.15c

6 –series airfoils: Example NACA 653-421

6 = series designation

5 = minimum pressure at 0.5c

3 = the drag coefficient is near its minimum value over a range of lift coefficient of 0.3 above
and below the design lift coefficient.

4 = design lift coefficient 0.4

21 = maximum thickness 0.21c

7- series airfoils: Example NACA 747A315

7 = series designation

4 = favorable pressure gradient on the upper surface from L.E. to 0.4c at the design lift
coefficient.

6 = favorable pressure gradient on the lower surface from L.E. to 0.7c at the design lift
coefficient.

A = a serial letter to distinguish different sections having the same numerical designation
but different mean line or thickness distribution.

3 = design lift coefficient 0.3

15 = maximum thickness 0.15c

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AIRFOIL SELECTION

In selecting an airfoil for an airplane lifting surface (wing, tail, or canard) the following considerations
are important:

1. Drag (for example: to obtain the highest possible cruise speed)


2. Lift –to-drag ratio a values of cl important to airplane performance
3. Thickness (to obtain the lowest possible structural weight)
4. Thickness distribution (to obtain favorable span loading and/or high fuel volume)
5. Stall characteristics (to obtain gentle stall characteristics)
6. Drag-rise behavior (associated with item 1)
7.
GEOMETRIC FACTORS AFFECTING AIRFOIL MAXIMUM LIFT AT LOW SPEEDS

The main features of airfoil design which affect wing stall and hence, the maximum lift coefficient, are:

1. THICKNESS RATIO
t
For a given thickness ratio, , C lmax very much depends on the leading-edge radius. It seen
c
that the new NASA LS = (Low speed airfoils, a thickness ratio of about 13% will produce the best
volume of maximum lift. For the newer LS airfoils the maximum lift occurs at around 15%
thickness.

2. LEADING EDGE RADIUS

Clmax depends not only on the thickness ratio, but also on the ratio of section thickness at 5%
t t
chord to the maximum thickness . The ratio is indicative of leading–edge radius. Therefore, a
c c
relatively large leading-edge radius is beneficial to producing large C lmax at low speeds.

3. CAMBER AND LOCATION OF MAXIMUM THICKNESS

The addition of camber is always beneficial to C lmax and the benefit grow with increasing camber.
The increment to maximum lift due to camber is least for sections with relatively large leading edge
t
radius (i.e., the benefit of camber grows with reducing ; and camber is more effective on thin
c
sections than on thick sections). In addition, a forward position of maximum camber produces higher
values of C lmax For example, the NACA 23012 airfoil (with 2% maximum camber at 0.15 chord) has a
C lmax of 1.79 as compared with 1.67 for NACA 4412 (with 4% camber at 0.4 chord but the same
thickness distribution) at a Reynolds number of 9 x 106

4. REYNOLDS NUMBER

For airfoils with moderate thickness ratio, there is a significant because increase in C lmax with
increasing Reynolds number. On the other hand, for thin airfoils the effect of Reynolds number is
relatively significant. In general, these Reynolds number effects are less for cambered than for
symmetrical sections. At low Reynolds number, the effect of camber is more insignificant. The
opposite is true at Reynolds number greater than 6 x 106, where camber losses some of its effects

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EFFECT OF HIGH LIFT DEVICES ON AIRFOIL MAXIMUM LIFT

TRAILING –EDGE FLAPS

Plain Flaps

1. Formed by hinging the rear-most par of the wing section about within the contour.
2. The main effect produced by the flap deflection is an increase in the effective camber of the wing.
3. The optimum flap angle is approximately 0.25.
4. The optimum flap angle is approximately 60o.
5. Leakage through gap 1330th of the chord resulted on a loss of 0.35 in C lmax .
6. The maximum achievable increment is C lmax is approximately 0.9.

Split Flaps

1. The unusual split flaps is formed by deflecting the aft portion of the lower surface about a hinge
point on the surfaces of the forward edge of the deflected portion.
2. The optimum flap chord ratio is approximately 0.3 for 12% thick airfoils, increasing to 0.4 or higher
for thicker airfoils.
3. The optimum flap angle is approximately 70o
4. The maximum achievable increment in C lmax is approximately 0.9.
5. The optimum thickness ratio is approximately 18%.

Slotted Flaps

1. Slotted flaps provide one or more slots between the main portion of the wing section and the
deflected flap.
2. The optimum flap chord ratio is approximately 0.9
3. The optimum flap angle is approximately 40o for single slots and 70o for double-slotted flaps.
4. The optimum thickness ratio is approximately 16%
5. The maximum achievable increment in C lmax is approximately 1.5 for single slots and 1.9 for double
slotted flaps.

Fowler Flaps

The Fowler Flaps uses the same principles as the slotted flap, except that the flap also moves
backwards in addition to a downward deflection. Thus, the effective wing area is increased!

LEADING –EDGE DEVICES

Slats

Leading –edge slats are airfoils mounted ahead of the leading edge of the wing such as to assist in turning the
air around the leading edge at high angle of attack and thus delay leading-edge stalling. They may be either
fixed in position of retractable. The use of slats may increase C lmax by as much as 0.5.

Slots

When the slots is located near the leading edge, the configuration differs only in detail from the leading edge
slat. Additional slots may be introduced at various chordwise stations. The effectiveness of the slot derives
from its BLC (= Boundary Layer control)effect. At low angle of attack, the minimum profile drag may be
greatly increased with such slots.

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Leading –Edge Flaps

A leading flap may be formed by bending down the forward portion of the wing section to form a droop. Other
types of leading –edge flaps are formed by extending a surface downward and forward from the vicinity of the
leading edge (Kruger flap) Leading Edge flaps reduce the severity of the pressure peak ordinarily associated
with high angle of attack and thereby delay separation.

BOUNDARY LAYER CONTROL

Higher maximum lift coefficient can also be achieved by boundary layer control (BLC). The idea may involve
injecting high-speed for parallel to the wall (called “blowing”), removing the low energy boundary layer flow
by “suction”, or both. Blowing is done to re-energize the boundary layer flow to delay the separation, while
suction is equivalent to eliminating the low energy shear layer.

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