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Abstract care facilities (maternity and lying-in clinics, public and private

hospitals, health centers) was acquired from the Las Piñas City
The abstract starts on the next page, page 2. The text starts at the Hall.
top, left flushed, double-spaced.
From 20 barangays, 3 will be picked through random sampling.
Abstract The health care facilities and institutions in these three barangays
will then be the target sources of respondents of the researcher.
[Abstract here]
The health care facilities and institutions will be contacted to
Body Text obtain a verbal consent to administer the questionnaire to
mothers at their places. A letter of consent will also be sent to
The body text starts on the next page, page 3. The text starts at them along with a sample copy of the questionnaire that will be
the top, left flushed, double-spaced. used, as well as the protocol of the researcher. A letter was also
addressed to the City Health Officer to obtain endorsement and
Introduction consent to conduct a research in selected barangays and distribute
questionnaires to the mothers in the vicinity.
The melamine controversy that erupted during the last quarter of
year 2008 brought people’s attention back to the debates Data collection was conducted throughout the facilities‟ and
between breastfeeding and the use of breast milk substitutes like health centers‟ operating hours from Mondays through Sundays
commercial infant formula. This wasn’t the first time that infant in order to include both working and non-working mothers.
formula had caused illnesses and even deaths to infants
worldwide - hence the continuous campaign of World Health Respondents
Organization (WHO) and UNICEF along with other breastfeeding
advocates, for mothers to breastfeed their children at least until 6 The respondents in this research will all be coming from one single
months of age. location - Las Piñas City, specifically the randomly selected
barangays of Pamplona I, CAA/BF International and Pamplona III.
Infant feeding practices refer generally to meet the nutritional and The researcher chose Las Piñas City because of the socio-
immunological needs of the baby. A study of infant feeding economic conditions present in the area that is relevant to the
practices was carried out on a sample of 100 mother and infant study and also as it fits the time frame and resources of the
pairs. The results revealed that only 20% of mothers in the study researcher. The randomly sampled respondents will be asked by
currently exclusively breastfeed their babies. It also shows that the researcher for consent and approval to answer the
socio-economic factors like mother’s work status, marital status questionnaire until the desired number of respondents which is
and educational attainment had direct bearing on these practices. 100 is reached. The opinion of experts will also be sought in this
Employed mothers tend to cease from breastfeeding their babies research to provide explanations regarding the respondents‟
and eventually stop and just resort to formula feeding as they go infant feeding behaviors and practices.
back to work. The study also showed that mothers who are
married and living with their partners are more likely to Questionnaire
breastfeed their infants than single mothers. Those with higher
The questionnaire requires information about the socio-economic
educational attainment resort more to formula feeding and mixed
and demographic background of the mother. It also has questions
feeding than those with lower educational attainment. Health care
related to previous infant feeding practices and the birth of her
professionals influence mothers the most when it comes to infant
youngest infant and also regarding the baby’s general health and
feeding decisions.
Statements that are perceived to be factors that influence
Type of Research mothers‟ infant feeding decisions were presented. The description
of the type of infant formula given by formula and mixed feeding
The type of research that will be used in this study is qualitative mothers will also be asked in the material.
research and quantitative research. Qualitative researchers aim to
gather an in-depth understanding of human behavior and the Conclusion
reasons that govern such behavior. The discipline investigates the
Majority of the mothers formula feed their child and only a
“why” and “how” of decision making. Besides this, the researcher
minority exclusively breastfeeds their children, especially as per
will also examine the phenomenon through observations in
recommendation of the World Health Organization. While
numerical representations and through statistical analysis. Along
majority of the mothers in this study showed a positive attitude
with questionnaires that will be given out to respondents for the
towards breastfeeding, most of them decided only to formula feed
statistical representation of the findings in the study, interviews
due to the reasons of insufficient milk supply and work.
with the respondents and a few experts in this field will also be
conducted. Based on the results of the study, the educational attainment,
work status, marital status, and seminars in the barangay the
Sampling Method
respondents are part of, about breastfeeding, are the significant
The research sampling method that will be used in this study is factors that affect the infant feeding decision of mothers in Las
random sampling to obtain a more scientific result that could be Piñas City.
used to represent the entirety of the population. A list of all health
Majority of the mothers that served as respondents in this study based studies. These elements include building the research team,
fall under the age range of 17-30 years old. More than half of preparing data collection guides, defining and obtaining an
them were also college graduates while a significant number are adequate sample, collecting and organizing qualitative data, and
undergraduates and have only reached until high school. Most of coding and analyzing the data. With a discussion on potential
the mothers are housewives and the others remaining have full- ethical considerations unique to qualitative research as it relates
time jobs, part-time jobs and self-employed. A few of them are to emergency care research.
still students. While majority of them were married, a lot were still
in a status of live-in and are single. More than half of the mothers Example using methodological triangulation:
did not have previous children before the current one. Majority of
Sewdas, R. et al. (2017) Why older workers work beyond the
the respondents also have an annual gross household income that
retirement age: a qualitative study. BMC Public Health, 17: 672.
does not exceed P50,000.
This study is based on a combination of semi-structured telephone
Among the several information sources namely, media through
interviews and focus groups.
televisions/radios and printed/published materials, the social
support system comprised of the mother’s family, friends and Interviews
other relatives and health institutions, the mothers who give their
babies infant formula are influenced the most by health care Interviews are useful to explore experiences, views, opinions, or
institutions through health professionals and other health care beliefs on specific matters. Accounts can be explored and
personnel. They influence the mothers in deciding to feed the compared to others, to develop an understanding of the
baby with formula and in choosing, as well, which brand of underlying structures of beliefs (See chapter 4 in Green &
formula is best for their babies. Mothers trust their baby’s doctor Thorogood, 2010). There are different grades of structuring the
because of their expertise in the said field hence this kind of interview: structured, semi-structured or open/in-depth,
relation is achieved. dependent on the characteristics of structuring the interview by
the researcher. Often the researcher develops a topic list before
Mothers were overall not concerned about the possible side the start of the interview, which can be used in a flexible manner.
effects of breastfeeding as a few were only worried as shown in As the interview is a product of interaction between the
the data presented. researcher and the interviewee, the setting and skills of the
researcher are of importance (e.g. the ability to build a sense of
It can be concluded that numerous internal as well as external
trust (developing rapport), the way of phrasing questions, give the
factors influence a mother in making infant feeding decisions, and
interviewee room to tell a story, body language). Furthermore, it is
a greater fraction of these is socio-economic in nature.
important to think about the type of transcription of audio tapes.
Read more:
Different methods are used in qualitative research. The most
Britten, N. (1995) Qualitative interviews in medical research. BMJ,
common are interviews, focus group discussions, observational
311, 251-253.
methods and document analysis. Combining two or more data
collections methods, for instance interviews as well as focus This paper provides an outline of qualitative interview techniques
groups (‘data triangulation’) enhances the credibility of the study. and their application in medical settings. With a practical guidance
Irrespective of the data collection method applied, it is important for conducting interviews.
to keep a diary during the study, with reflections on the process
(e.g. regarding method and participant selection) and the role and Green, J. & Thorogood N. (2010) Qualitative Methods for Health
influence of the researcher (‘reflexivity’). Research. Third Edition. London: Sage Publications.

Read more: See chapter 4 on in-depth interviews.

Choo, E.K. et al. (2015) Qualitative research in emergency care Gubrium, J.F. & Holstein, J.A. (2001) Handbook of Interview
part I: Research Principles and common Applications. Academic Research. Context & Method. London: SAGE Publications.
Emergency Medicine, 22: 1096-1102
This handbook offers information on different forms of
Part I of a two-article series, provides an introduction to general interviewing, interviewing distinctive respondents (e.g. children or
principles of applied qualitative health research and examples of ill people), technical aspects, different analytic strategies, and the
its common use in emergency care research, describing study topic of reflection and representation.
designs and data collection methods most relevant to our field,
including observation, individual interviews, and focus groups. Gubrium, J.F. et al. (2012) The SAGE Handbook of Interview
Table 2 in this article provides an overview of different qualitative Research. The Complexity of the Craft. London: SAGE Publications.
data collection methods with their advantages and challenges.
This second version of the handbook also offers information on
Ranney, M.L. et al. (2015) Interview-based Qualitative Research in the logistics of interviewing, the self and other in the interview
Emergency Care Part II: Data collection, Analysis and Results and ethics of the interview.
Reporting. Academic Emergency Medicine, 22: 1103-1112.
Ranney, M.L. et al. (2015) Interview-based Qualitative Research in
Outlines the specific steps necessary to conduct a valid and Emergency Care Part II: Data collection, Analysis and Results
reliable qualitative research project, with a focus on interview- Reporting. Academic Emergency Medicine, 22: 1103-1112
Gives an outline the specific steps necessary to conduct a valid This article introduces focus group methodology, explores ways of
and reliable qualitative research project, with a focus on conducting such groups and examines what this technique of data
interview-based studies. These elements include building the collection can offer researchers. It concentrates on one feature
research team, preparing data collection guides, defining and which inevitably distinguishes focus groups from one-to-one
obtaining an adequate sample, collecting and organizing interviews or questionnaires – namely the interaction between
qualitative data, and coding and analyzing the data. With a research participants – and argues for the overt exploration and
discussion on potential ethical considerations unique to exploitation of such interaction in the research process.
qualitative research as it relates to emergency care research. Table
1 provides an outline of an Interview Guide for Focus Groups or Kitzinger, J. (1995) Introducing focus groups. BMJ, 311, 299-302.
Semi-structured Interviews. Table 2 gives examples of qualitative
This paper introduces focus group methodology, gives advice on
questions suitable for a topic list
group composition, running the groups, and analysing the results.
Dutch reference:
Evers, J. (red.), (2007) Interviewen: kunst én kunde. Den Haag:
Middelweerd, A. et al. (2015) What features do Dutch university
Boom Lemma uitgevers.
students prefer in a smartphone application for promotion of
Examples: physical activity? A qualitative approach. International Journal of
Behavioral Nutrition and Physical Activity, 12: 31.
Bakker, M. et al. (2015) Need and value of case management in
multidisciplinary ALS care: A qualitative study on the perspectives Observational methods
of patients, spousal caregivers and professionals. Amyotrophic
Observational methods are used to understand phenomena by
Lateral Sclerosis and Frontotemporal Degeneration, 16(3-4), 180-
studying people’s accounts and actions in an everyday context.
There are different types of observations, with various degrees of
Bakker, M. et al. (2016) Experiences and perspectives of patients research participation, like non-participating observation (e.g. by
with post-polio syndrome and therapists with exercise and using video recordings), and participant observation or
cognitive behavioural therapy. BMC neurology, 16(1), 23-34. ethnography. Ethnography ‘usually involves the researcher
participating, overtly or covertly, in people’s daily lives for an
Ockhuijsen, H.D.L. et al. (2014) Pregnancy After Miscarriage: extended period of time, watching what happens, listening to
Balancing between Loss of Control and Searching for Control. what is said, and/or asking questions through informal and formal
Research in Nursing & Health, 37, 267-275. interviews, collecting documents and artefacts’ (Hammersley &
Atkinson, 2007: 3).
Focus group discussions
Read more
Focus group discussions are useful to examine how social
knowledge is produced. The researcher stimulates discussion in Atkinson, P. et al. (2001) Handbook of Ethnography. London: Sage
order to examine how knowledge and ideas develop and operate Publications
in a given group. Most of the times, a facilitator guides a
discussion about a particular topic in a group of usually 6-12 Offers chapters on various aspects of (conducting) ethnography.
people. Some sensitive issues might be more easy discussed
Emerson, R.M., Fretz, R.I. & Shaw, L.L. (2011) Writing ethnographic
within a group, although other (personal) information might be
fieldnotes (2nd edition). Chicago: The University of Chicago Press.
withheld, for instance when persons are acquainted with each
other or because of hierarchical relations within the group. The Green, J. & Thorogood N. (2010) Qualitative Methods for Health
role of the facilitator is to create an open atmosphere, involve Research. Third Edition. London: Sage Publications
participants in the discussion and manage this discussion. The
organization of a focus group requires careful attention. This See chapter 6 on Observational Methods.
includes the sampling and recruitment of participants, the
composition of the topic list and how the data will be collected. Hammersley, M. & Atkinson, P. (2007) Ethnography. Principles in
practice. Third edition. London: Routledge.
Read more:
Reeves, S. & Hodges, B.D. (2008) Qualitative research
Green, J. & Thorogood N. (2010) Qualitative Methods for Health methodologies: ethnography. BMJ, 337: a1020.
Research. Third Edition. London: Sage Publications.
This article provides background for those who will encounter this
See chapter 5 on Group Interviews. methodology in their reading rather than instructions for carrying
out such research.
Gubrium, J.F. & Holstein, J.A. (2001) Handbook of Interview
Research. Context & Method. London: SAGE Publications. Example:

Offers a chapter on focus groups. Pasman, H.R.W. et al. (2003) Feeding nursing home patients with
severe dementia: A qualitative study. Journal of Advanced
Kitzinger, J. (1994) The methodology of Focus Groups: the Nursing, 42, 3, 304-311.
importance of interaction between research participants.
Sociology of Health & Illness, 16, 1, 103-121.
This paper is based on participant observation by two researchers she should keep journal notes on how his or her personal
in two Dutch nursing homes. characteristics, feelings, and biases may be influencing the work
and how he or she tries to manage them to the extent possible.
Document analysis
Read more:
Document analysis is based on existing sources, like government
reports, personal documents, articles in newspapers, books or Devers, K.J. (1999) How Will We Know “Good” Qualitative
medical records.. Research When We See It? Beginning the Dialogue in Health
Services Research. Health Services Research, 34 (5): 1153-1188.
Quality procedures
The purpose of this article is to lay the foundation for an explicit
Devers (1999) formulated several strategies for enhancing the review of, and dialogue about, the criteria that should be used to
rigor of qualitative research: evaluate qualitative health services research.

Criteria Strategies Frambach, J.M. et al. (2013) AM Last Page: Quality Criteria in
Qualitative and Quantitative Research. Academic Medicine. 88; 4:
Credibility / Internal validity
Triangulation. The purpose of triangulation is to make use of
This page provides an overview of quality criteria in qualitative
multiple data sources, investigators, methods or theory to the
research and a number of techniques that researchers can use to
extent possible to provide corroborating evidence.
meet these.
Search for Disconfirming Evidence (“deviant” or “negative” cases).
Mays, N. & Pope, C. (2000) Assessing quality in qualitative
Instead of ignoring cases or information that “doesn’t fit”, the
research. BMJ, 320: 50-52.
researcher actively looks for cases that do not fit the pattern and
refines the theory and working hypotheses in light of this This article outlines two views of how qualitative methods might
evidence. The researcher(s) continues this process until all cases be judged and argues that qualitative research can be assessed
fit, eliminating all outliers and exceptions. according to two broad criteria: validity and relevance.

Subject Review (Also called “member checking” and “dialogue Responsibilities and ethics
with participants”). The researcher(s) solicits research “subject”,
group member, or participant views of the credibility of It is important to carefully reflect on and think about ethical
interpretation and findings. In some cases, this strategy is also dilemmas related to the practice of qualitative research as well as
used to increase the probability that research results will be used. responsibilities of the researchers, especially regarding
respondents. These are for instance related to informed consent,
Transferability / External validity protecting the privacy of respondents or dealing with different
stakeholders. Please consult the guideline on privacy. For specifics
Detailed Description of the Context, i.e. the study context, the
in a study, contact the privacy offi
investigator’s role in the context and of how the context affects
the ability to answer the original research question. Collecting Data in Qualitative Research

Dependability / Reliability Very often data collecting takes place in a defined time period and
qualitative data analysis is viewed as a next step in the research
Data Archiving/Creating an Audit Trail. The researcher(s) should
process after all data have been collected and transcribed.
ensure the completeness and accuracy of documents (e.g.
Researchers forego many opportunities and miss out on some of
interviews, observations, etc.) and be clear about the coding
the great advantages of qualitative research – flexibility and
schemes and data analysis process. Theoretically, this would allow
adaptation – when they handle their project like this. Sometimes
someone not connected with the study to review the primary
there is no way around it as organizational matters or cooperation
documents and coding schemes to assess whether the findings,
within a team won’t allow for a process where data collection and
interpretations, and conclusions are supported.
analysis go hand in hand. But when you are free to plan your
Skeptical Peer Review. A skeptical peer-reviewer plays the role of project and your time frame is sufficient; then I recommend the
devil’s advocate, asking difficult questions about methods, grounded theory method of data collection. This does not mean
meanings, and interpretation of the data. This process provides an that you conduct a grounded theory study; you just take
external check on the research. advantage of one of the general procedures of research that they
and others before them have described (see for example Blumer,
Confirmability / Objectivity 1969). Strauss (1987/1991) writes about the triad of the research
process: data collection followed by coding and memo writing.
Triangulation. See description above. Both, codes and memos guide the search for new data and can
lead to more coding and more memo writing. In later phases of
Skeptical Peer Review or Audits. See above.
the research project, it is not unusual that the researcher goes
Search for Disconfirming Evidence or Negative Cases. See above. back to already analyzed data, revises coding and refines memos.
Coding and memo writing continues until the end. When the
Reflective Journal Keeping by the Researcher. Because the researcher has the feeling that the achieved level of data
researcher is the research instrument in qualitative research, he or
integration is not sufficient and there are gaps in the data, new participants also lacked access to consistent information, advice
data may even be collected in the process of report writing. and support on the benefits of physical activity during pregnancy.

Transcribing and analyzing data early has the advantage of being Conclusions
able to adjust interview questions, asking about new and different
aspects that first have come up in the interviews; questions that Interventions to encourage recommended levels of physical
are truly grounded in the field and not based on your desktop activity in pregnancy should be accompanied by accessible and
research. Especially novices learn a lot when first transcribing consistent information about the positive effects for mother and
data. Then they realize what went well in the interview and what baby. More research is required to examine how to overcome
didn’t work out. They get a better picture of themselves as barriers to physical activity and to understand which interventions
interviewer and can also improve their own interview skills. Taking could be most effective for overweight/obese pregnant women.
it a step further beginning with coding, discovering first Midwives should be encouraged to do more to promote activity in
preliminary linkages in the data adds further information that pregnancy.
supports and helps you in the continuing data collection process.
Above I mentioned the time frame. When you only have three
Physical Activity Healthy Eating Normative Belief Control Belief
months to complete your research project from start to finish, it
Topic Guide
may be difficult to implement the dialectic process of data
collection and analysis. But you could at least try to fit in the These keywords were added by machine and not by the authors.
transcription during the phase of data collection. Analysis begins This process is experimental and the keywords may be updated as
while you transcribe and this is at least something you can take as the learning algorithm improves.
input with you into the next interview.
An increasing proportion of women in the UK are obese or
Background overweight at the start of their pregnancy [1, 2]. This may result in
adverse consequences for the immediate and longer-term health
Whilst there has been increasing research interest in interventions
of the mother and child [3, 4]. In light of this, pregnancy is
which promote physical activity during pregnancy few studies
emerging as a priority area for interventions which aim to address
have yielded detailed insights into the views and experiences of
the obesity epidemic. Pregnancy is a unique and critical period in
overweight and obese pregnant women themselves. The
the life course for women and, consequently, they may be more
qualitative study described in this paper aimed to: (i) explore the
receptive to behaviour change interventions [5]. Physical activity
views and experiences of overweight and obese pregnant women;
promotion is a key component of weight control interventions [6]
and (ii) inform interventions which could promote the adoption of
as it has beneficial effects on glucose metabolism. It has also been
physical activity during pregnancy.
suggested that this may improve pregnancy outcomes
Methods independent of weight [7]. National guidance in the UK
recommends at least 30 minutes of moderate intensity activity a
The study was framed by a combined Subtle Realism and Theory day throughout pregnancy for most women [8, 9]. However,
of Planned Behaviour (TPB) approach. This enabled us to examine research has highlighted that pregnant women often have low
the hypothetical pathway between beliefs and physical activity total physical activity levels [10] and that these tend to reduce
intentions within the context of day to day life. The study sample further in the later stages of pregnancy [11].
for the qualitative study was chosen by stratified, purposive
sampling from a previous study of physical activity measurements There is a dearth of information regarding women's attitudes to
in pregnancy. Research participants for the current study were physical activity in pregnancy. A small number of studies have
recruited on the basis of Body Mass Index (BMI) at booking and highlighted significant barriers to participation, including lack of
parity. Semi-structured, in-depth interviews were conducted with time, lack of facilities (including childcare) and physical barriers
14 overweight and obese pregnant women. Data analysis was [12, 13, 14, 15]. Indeed it has been found that some women
undertaken using a Framework Approach and was informed by perceive physical activity to be an unsafe behaviour when
TPB. pregnant [16, 17]. However, few studies have offered detailed
insights into the views and experiences of overweight and obese
Results women themselves. This paper provides qualitative insights into
how overweight and obese pregnant women living in the UK feel
Healthy eating was often viewed as being of greater importance about physical activity in pregnancy within the context of their day
for the health of mother and baby than participation in physical to day lives. The findings highlight the barriers and motivators
activity. A commonly cited motivator for maintaining physical which surround physical activity in pregnancy, the conflicting
activity during pregnancy is an aid to reducing pregnancy-related advice and information which women receive during pregnancy,
weight gain. However, participants often described how they and which criteria should be considered when designing effective
would wait until the postnatal period to try and lose weight. A interventions for physical activity in pregnancy.
wide range of barriers to physical activity during pregnancy were
highlighted including both internal (physical and psychological) Methods
and external (work, family, time and environmental). The study
Theoretical Framework
The study was framed by a theoretical approach which combined experiences using a flexible and responsive approach [19].
both Subtle Realism [18] and the Theory of Planned Behaviour Interviews were audio-recorded at the participant's home, with
(TPB). This combined approach enabled an examination of the participant permission, and lasted between 45-55 minutes. The
hypothetical pathway between beliefs and physical activity topic guide included the following prompts to elicit participant
intentions within the context of a woman's day to day life. The views and experiences: (i) what a 'healthy lifestyle' means and its
Subtle Realism approach [18] stipulates that the social world does relative relevance for pregnancy; (ii) physical activity in pregnancy
exist independently of individual subjective understandings, but is (the benefits, barriers and influences); (iii) healthy lifestyle
only accessible to us via research participants' interpretations interventions in pregnancy and the improvements that could be
[19]. The TPB is a psychological model widely used in the design of made.
behaviour change interventions [20]. The TPB approach stipulates
that intentions predict behaviour, and that three sets of beliefs Data analysis was undertaken using a Framework Approach to
mediate behavioural intentions in relation to the following criteria: manage, describe and explore the original data in relation to the
(i) behavioural beliefs, i.e. attitudes based on perceived benefits underlying TPB [19]. The interview transcripts were indexed and
and harms, (ii) control beliefs, i.e. perceptions relating to control mapped on the basis of recurring themes. The synthesised data
over necessary resources and support to engage in the relevant were examined to identify explanatory accounts, and preliminary
behaviour; and (iii) normative beliefs i.e. subjective norms, typologies were developed [19].
determined by perceptions of the views of others. Using a
It is important that researchers reflexively examine their research
combined TPB and Subtle Realism approach it was possible to
as "knowledge is produced in specific circumstances and that
examine women's views and experiences within the context of
those circumstances shape it in some way" (Rose, 1997, p.305)
their day to day concerns and priorities.
[23]. For the research design and analysis phases of the study
Study participants there were three checks on validity (i) A topic guide was used to
ensure a similar range of topics was discussed with each
Ethical approval was given by the Durham and Tees Valley 2 Rec participant. (ii) In order to ensure the reliability of the study's
(Ref:07/H0908/53), and written informed consent was obtained coding framework two members of the research team (ZW and JB)
from the study participants. The sampling frame consisted of 65 read five of the interviews and agreed the coding framework and
women participating in a feasibility study of physical activity (iii) A topic guide was used to ensure a similar range of topics was
measurement methods. Inclusion criteria for the previous study discussed with each participant. Although only a small number of
were: (i) any woman booking with a normal, singleton pregnancy, interviews were conducted, data saturation (i.e. where no new
(ii) a measured body mass index (BMI) at booking (in the first themes were emerging) was achieved after only 12 interviews and
trimester) greater than or equal to 25 kg/m2 (i.e. overweight or confirmed with the two final interviews.
obese), (iii) adequate verbal and written English and (iv) older
than 16 yrs. Of the women participating in the measurement Results
study, around 40% were obese, 47% were nulliparous (no previous
The findings are presented according to the analytical typologies:
children), 93% were white, 76% were employed at recruitment
(i) behavioural beliefs and attitudes, (ii) control beliefs and (iii)
and 33% were educated to degree level. These women agreed to
normative beliefs. Verbatim quotes from the study participants
wear an accelerometer for seven days at two or three time points
are labelled in terms of their age, whether they were overweight
during pregnancy and to complete two different physical activity
(BMI 25-30 kg/m2) or obese (BMI over 30 kg/m2) and whether
questionnaires at each data collection. The measurement study
they were nulliparous (NP) or multiparous (MP).
was designed to compare self report and objective measurement
methods in pregnant women during normal daily activities.

Previous research has highlighted that weight and family size may
influence physical activity participation in non-pregnant women
[21, 22]. Thus, a stratified purposive sample [19] for the current
study was undertaken according to BMI and parity. These criteria
allowed some diversity in the sample and thus a broad range of
women's experiences was explored. Of the 22 women invited to
participate in the study, 14 agreed to be interviewed. All of the 8
women who declined to be interviewed, or were not contactable,
were in the obese category (BMI 30 kg/m2 or more). Reasons
given for non-participation included chronic health problems and
time constraints. The final sample of 14 interviewees included
eight who were obese and eight who were in their first pregnancy.
Thirteen were white, thirteen were employed and five were
educated to degree level. All women were interviewed in late

Data collection and analysis

Semi-structured, in-depth interviews based on a topic guide were

used to enable a detailed exploration of women's views and