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CHAPTER 1

THE PROBLEMS AND ITS BACKGROUND

Introduction

Laboratory courses are essential in engineering education in preparing

students for engineering experience and practice. Through laboratory

experiments, students can enhance their knowledge and skills in engineering

field. Facial recognition is a category of bio metric software that maps an

individual's facial features mathematically and stores the data as a face print.

The software uses deep learning algorithms to compare a live capture or digital

image to the stored faceprint in order to verify an individual's identity.

This project design entitled “NCST Engineering Tools Borrowing System

with Facial Recognition” allows the students to borrow equipment and materials

through kiosk machine.

The advantages of such a system over using paper are clear as they can

gain control and keep track of everything in one place, manage their stock levels

and new orders, create stock alerts, and easily share inventory locations with all

lab borrowers so everyone is up to date and in the security of the items. The

system can easily detect the students who are responsible for the return of all the

equipment used during laboratory classes.


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Missing or broken equipment that were borrowed because of student’s by

negligence will be entirely billed to the student’s school account. Failure to settle

the liability may cause a hold on student’s account for future enrollment.

For this reason, the proponents developed the project “NCST Engineering

Tools Borrowing System with Facial Recognition” that can improve the manual

process in National College of Science and Technology since borrowing

equipment and materials takes time specially if it has a queue.

Secondly, it has many of process that results to a time hold for the time of

the professor to teach the students

Lastly is to improve the inventory and security of items in Academic

Technology and Laboratory Office of National College Science & Technology.


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Background of the problem

The manual process in National College of Science and Technology in

terms of Borrowing tools in Academic Technology and Laboratory Office

comprises of numerous flaws that could lead into an inefficient transaction. For

an instance, borrowing equipment during laboratory abates when there are many

of equipment and materials to borrow which hinders the time of the professors to

teach their students. Furthermore, the laboratory tools borrowing operator tends

to struggle when there are multiple students borrowing equipment in the tools

room as it generates pressure when a long queue is created. Lastly current

system only uses tangible transaction records that can easily be lost and forged.
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Statement of the Problem

General Statement

These are the problems that we encountered in the manual process on


how Engineering proponents borrow laboratory tools.

The proponents aim to innovate the system of the project to be able to

give solution for the following question:

1. How does time of professor's wasted when students borrow laboratory

equipment?
2. How does laboratory operator encounter difficulties for example having

hard time locating tools especially if they do not have enough background

on engineering tools management?


3. How does transaction record can be easily forged and lost?

Objective of the Study


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General Objective

The purpose of this proposed project is to secure borrowed items, to

reduce the idle time in the classroom while borrowing laboratory tools, and to

make the inventory fully update.

Specific Objectives

1. To come up with an idea that will reduce the idle time in the classroom.
2. To locate tools quickly using digital device.
3. To have an intangible and secured transaction database.

Theoretical Framework
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According to educational research about laboratory work in natural

science education by Hellen (2005) in her study there are number of factors that

affect learning from laboratory other than the task itself. Students’ understanding

of the purpose of the lab and its context has been found very important. Where

and when the laboratory takes place is another important factor. If students may

work with the same laboratory in different settings, for example in a leisure

environment and in school, the result from the laboratory will be quite different

(Newman, Griffin & Cole, 1989). Based on recordings of students' conversations

with each other during lab sessions in zoology, Wickman (2002) has shown that

students made very few generalizations based on what they saw in the

laboratory. They took much more attention from what they had read in the

course books or picked up during lectures. This should however not be

interpreted as if the students lack the ability to make their own generalizations

(Wickman & Östman, 2002a). Learning from laboratory could rather be

described as a "change of discourse" (Wickman & Östman, 2002b). (Engström,

2006). The quality of the task given to students, how the task is presented and to

what extent the students are given the opportunity to explore the full potential of

the software is mentioned as important factors for learning in laboratory

situations.

A Page on a Website, no author named:


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Theory and practice in lab work, from http://www.it.uu.se/research

Conceptual Framework
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This part presents the graphical representations of the software project.

This part includes the Input, Process, and Output model of the project. It also

shows all the required information, processes to be considered and the expected

output of the project.

Figure 1.1 Conceptual Framework

The figure represents the input-process-output stages of the project

where the input stage for the pc, the model process where the contents of input
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stage are being process and connected to the pc and comes up to the output of

the project.

Scope and Limitation


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The scope and limitation are the following:

Scope

 The borrowers can access only if they have registered in the system.

 The system provides a receipt through kiosk machine.

 The system provides multiple database starting with a user database

which shows all the users registered in the system

 The database allows the operator to add and delete user accounts as well

as update the information of the users.

 Inventory database is given to the operator to know the availability of the

borrowed item.

 This also allows the operator to report inventory every end of the month.

 Transaction database that saves all the transaction happened in the

system is for future references and to inform the operator which items are

frequently borrow.
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Limitation.

 The system cannot function without the operator.

 The system cannot provide equipment and materials automatically.

 The borrower cannot login if the system recognizes multiple faces.


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Significance of the Study

This study will be significant to the following:

To the Instructor This project can help them to have more teaching time to

their students. They can also start the laboratory activity immediately without any

distractions.

To the Students This study may serve as a guide and reference for the

students conducting similar studies. This will also help them to improve their

learning capabilities

To NCST This project aims to help the ATLO office about manual process

of borrowing engineering tools, also for the operator who don’t have enough

knowledge about engineering materials.

To the Future Proponents The ideas used by the proponents for this study

can help to enhance their knowledge and skills in their own study. This will also

serve as a reference to give them an overview of this study.


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Definition of Terms

The following terms are defined operationally and lexically to provide a

common frame of reference:

Facial Recognition

Mostly used for security purposes, though there is an increasing interest in

other areas of use. In fact, facial recognition technology has received significant

attention as it has potential for a wide range of application related to law

enforcement as well as other enterprises.

DATABASE

Is a data structure that stores organized information Most databases

contain multiple tables, which may each include several different fields? For

example, a company database may include tables for products, employees, and

financial records. Each of these tables would have different fields that are

relevant to the information stored in the table.

NETWORK

A computer network is a set of computer devices connected together for

the purpose of sharing resources.


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LAN

A local area network is a computer network that interconnects computers

within a limited area such as a residence, school, laboratory, university campus

or office building
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CHAPTER 2

REVIEW OF RELATED LITERATURES AND STUDIES

This chapter consists of various related literatures and studies that guide

the proponents in preparing the manuscript and the proposed project. It includes

articles (both published and unpublished materials), books as well as internet

sources. There are many literature and studies in foreign than local. This chapter

consists of various related literature and studies about Facial recognition, also for

using LAN (Local Area Network)


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Foreign Literature

Eigen face

Pent land and Moghaddam (2001), as cited by Tolba, and Harby on their

paper entitled Face Recognition: A Literature Review a differential Eigen space-

based approach that allows the application of statistical analysis in the

recognition process. The main idea is to work with differences between face

images, rather than with single face images. In this way the recognition problem

becomes a two-class problem, because the so-called “differential image”

contains information of whether the two subtracted images belong to the same

class or to different classes. In this case the number of training images per class

increases so that statistical information becomes available, and a statistical

classifier can be used for performing the recognition. The system proposed in

used Dual-PCA projections and a Bayesian classifier.

In 2001, Turk and Pent land used PCA projections as the feature vectors

to solve the problem of face recognition, using the Euclidean distance as

similarity function. This system, later called Eigen faces, was the first Eigen

space-based face recognition approach and, from then on, many Eigen space-

based systems have been proposed using different projection methods and
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similarity functions. In particular, Belhumeur et al. proposed in 2001 the use of

FLD as projection algorithm in the so-called Fisher faces system. In all standard

Eigen space-based approaches a similarity function, which works as a nearest-

neighbor classifier, is employed.

Figure 2.1 Block diagram of a generic eigenspace-

based face recognition system

A Page on a Website:

Tolba, and Harby (2001). Face Recognition: A Literature Review,


retrieved from https://www.researchgate.net/publication

Neural Network Method

Neural networks-based approaches are learned from the example-images

and rely on the techniques from machine learning to find the relevant

characteristics of face images. The learned characteristics, in the form of


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discriminant functions (i.e. non-linear decision surfaces), are subsequently used

for face recognition. Conventionally, face images are projected to a low-

dimensional feature space and nonlinear decision surface is formed using

multilayer neural networks for classifications and recognition. Neural networks

have also been used successfully for face recognition problem. The advantage of

using the neural networks for face recognition is that the networks can be trained

to capture more knowledge about the variation of face patterns, and thereby

achieving good generalization.

The main drawback of this technique is that the networks have to be

extensively tuned to get exceptional performance. Among the neural networks

approaches for face recognition, multilayer perceptron (MLP) with back

propagation (BP) algorithm has been mostly used. However, the convergence of

the MLP networks is slow and the global minima of the error space may not be

always achieved. On the other hand, the RBF neural networks have fast learning

ability and best approximation property. So, in recent times, many researches

have used RBF networks for face recognition and show in figure. However, their

success rates are not so promising as the error rates vary from 5 to 9% under

variation of pose, orientation, scale and light. This may be due to the fact that the

selection of the centers of the hidden layer neurons might not have been done by

capturing the knowledge about the distribution of training patterns and variations

of face pose, orientation and lighting.


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Figure 2.2 Structure of RBF neural network

A Page on a Website:

Tolba, and Harby (2001). Face Recognition: A Literature Review,


retrieve from https://www.researchgate.net/publication

Graph Matching

Graph matching is another approach to face recognition. Dynamic link

architecture is an extension to classical artificial neural networks. Memorized

objects are represented by sparse graphs, whose vertices are labeled with a

multiresolution description in terms of a local power spectrum and whose edges

are labeled with geometrical distance vectors. Object recognition can be

formulated as elastic graph matching which is performed by stochastic

optimization of a matching cost function. They reported good results on a

database of 87 people and a small set of office items comprising different

expressions with a rotation of 15 degrees.


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The matching process is computationally expensive, taking about 25

seconds to compare with 87 stored objects on a parallel machine with 23

transputers. extended the technique and matched human faces against a gallery

of 112 neutral frontal view faces. Probe images were distorted due to rotation in

depth and changing facial expression. Encouraging results on faces with large

rotation angles were obtained. They reported recognition rates of 86.5% and

66.4% for the matching tests of 111 faces of 15-degree rotation and 110 faces of

30-degree rotation to a gallery of 112 neutral frontal views. In general, dynamic

link architecture is superior to other face recognition techniques in terms of

rotation invariance; however, the matching process is computationally expensive.

A Page on a Website:
Tolba, and Harby (2001). Face Recognition: A Literature Review,
retrieve from https://www.researchgate.net/publication

Fisher face

Fisher’s Linear Discriminant is a “classical” technique in pattern

recognition, first developed by Robert Fisher in 1936 for taxonomic classification.

Fisher’s Linear

Discriminant (FLD) is an example of a class specific method in the sense

that it tries to “shape” the scatter in order to make it more reliable for

classification. Belhumeur et al propose fisher faces method by using PCA and

Fisher’s linear discriminant analysis.


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The FLD remove the problem of eigenface method in Pentland by taking the

advantage of within class information, minimizing variation in same image due to

lighting condition

A Page on a Website:

Tolba, and Harby (2001). Face Recognition: A Literature Review,


retrieve from https://www.researchgate.net/publication
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Foreign Studies

Characterizing mobility and network usage in a corporate wireless local-

area network

According to Magdalena Balazinska and Paul Castro (2003) Wireless

local-area networks are becoming increasingly popular. They are commonplace

on university campuses and inside corporations, and they have started to appear

in public areas. It is thus becoming increasingly important to understand user

mobility patterns and network usage characteristics on wireless networks. Such

an understanding would guide the design of applications geared toward mobile

environments (e.g., pervasive computing applications), would help improve

simulation tools by providing a more representative workload and better user

mobility models, and could result in a more effective deployment of wireless

network components.

Several studies have recently been performed on wireless university

campus networks and public networks. In this paper, we complement previous

research by presenting results from a four-week trace collected in a large

corporate environment. We study user mobility patterns and introduce new

metrics to model user mobility. We also analyze user and load distribution across

access points. We compare our results with those from previous studies to

extract and explain several network usage and mobility characteristics. We find

that average user transfer-rates follow a power law.


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Load is unevenly distributed across access points and is influenced more

by which users are present than by the number of users. We model user mobility

with persistence and prevalence. Persistence reflects session durations whereas

prevalence reflects the frequency with which users visit various locations. We

find that the probability distributions of both measures follow power laws.

A Page on a Website:

Balazinska (2003). Characterizing mobility and network usage in a


corporate wireless local-area network retrieve from https://dl.acm.org

An Introduction to Local Area Networks

According to David D. Clark, Kenneth T. Porgan, and David P. Reed

Within a restricted area such as a single building, or a small cluster of building,

high speed (greater than 1 Mbit/s) data transmission is available at a small

fraction of the cost of obtaining comparable long-haul service from a tariffed

common carrier. Local area networks use this low-cost, high speed transmission

capability as the basis for a general-purpose data transfer network.

There are two basic issues in local area network design. First, how should

the hardware realizing the network be organized to provide reliable high-speed

communication at minimum cost? With the low cost of the raw transmission

capability, care is required to keep the associated hardware cost correspondently

low. Second, what protocols should be used for the operation of the network?
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While many protocol problems are common to local area networks and long-haul

networks such as ARPANET, new protocols are required to exploit the extended

capabilities to local area networks. It also considers the interconnection of local

area networks and long-haul networks and presents a case study which

describes in the detail the host computer interface hardware required for a typical

local area network. This study talks about Lan (Local Area Network) what are the

basic issues in local area network, cost and reliability, The study really help us

the proponents of the proposed project by giving us the idea how Lan works.

A Page on a Website:

Clark (2015). An Introduction to Local Area Networks retrieved from


https://groups.csail.mit.edu
Face recognition based on LBPH and regression of Local Binary features

The system recognize face by a variation of LBPH. They use this method

of regression of local binary features to get the landmark of face image whose

computational complexity is very low. They utilize these landmark points which

can be trained to align the face, to extract the facial features. By calculating the

Local Binary Patterns Histogram (LBPH) of these landmark points and its

neighborhood pixels, they can extract effective facial feature to realize face

recognition. This method can increase the calculating speed of LBPH and also

can improve the recognition rate. This project helps us proponents to understand
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how facial recognition process works and this is very suited for our proposed

project.

A Page on a Website:

Gao Xiang (2016). Face recognition based on LBPH and regression of


Local Binary features retrieved from https://ieeexplore.ieee.org

LBPH based improved face recognition at low resolution

Automatic individual face recognition is the most challenging query from

the past decade in computer vision. However, the law enforcement agencies are

inadequate to identify and recognize any person through the video monitoring

cameras further efficiently; the blur conditions, illumination, resolution, and

lighting are still the major problems in face recognition. Our proposed system

operates better at the minimum low resolution of 35px to identify the human face

in various angles, side poses and tracking the face during human motion. We

have designed the dataset (LR500) for training and classification. This project

employs the Local Binary Patterns Histogram (LBPH) algorithm architecture to

address the human face recognition in real time at the low level of resolution.

A Page on a Website:

Aftab Ahmed (2018). LBPH based improved face recognition at low


resolution retrieved from https://ieeexplore.ieee.org
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Local Literature

Local Area Network (LAN)

With the development of the computers, almost half of the business

establishments, commercial companies, schools and computer center in the

Philippines are completely automated Airlines, hotels, supermarkets and

department stores are computers to provide instantaneous and accurate data.

And it seems that companies are now taking notice of society’s changing

lifestyle.

Computers are being compared with the human brains. Like the Brain the

advised if, the computer can take data and process it, it can store the data either

in raw form or in processing result and can deliver the raw processed data to the

outside world demand. Computer works in a very fast way that you can ever

imagine. It involves almost everything especially in work like business or school

or we can just say a very large population of people.

For example, Philippines can compete because new technology from

other countries has flowed to us. Imagine running a school with large population

of students and how will you handle it. Also, it affects the kind of environment we

have. In this country not all business people can provide the needs of their
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companies. But still with the help of other technology we create a strategy on

how will we go on with this kind of problem. People create a system that supports

either big or small company, is reasonable because these systems meet the

requirements of the company and best solutions are suited both environment and

networked environment.

A Page on a Website, no author named:

Copyright: Attribution Non-Commercial (BY-NC). Local Area Network from


https://www.scribd.com

Face recognition: A literature survey

As one of the most successful applications of image analysis and

understanding, face recognition has recently received significant attention,

especially during the past several years. At least two reasons account for this

trend: the first is the wide range of commercial and law enforcement applications,

and the second is the availability of feasible technologies after 30 years of

research. Even though current machine recognition systems have reached a

certain level of maturity, their success is limited by the conditions imposed by

many real applications. For example, recognition of face images acquired in an

outdoor environment with changes in illumination and/or pose remains a largely

unsolved problem. In other words, current systems are still far away from the

capability of the human perception system.


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This project provides an up-to-date critical survey of still- and video-based

face recognition research. There are two underlying motivations for us to write

this survey paper: the first is to provide an up-to-date review of the existing

literature, and the second is to offer some insights into the studies of machine

recognition of faces. To provide a comprehensive survey, we not only categorize

existing recognition techniques but also present detailed descriptions of

representative methods within each category. In addition, relevant topics such as

psychophysical studies, system evaluation, and issues of illumination and pose

variation are covered.

A Page on a Website:

Zhao, and Chellappa (2003). Face recognition: A literature retrieve


from Published in: ACM Computing Surveys (CSUR) Surveys Homepage
archive,Volume 35 Issue 4, https://dl.acm.org

Using biometric facial recognition for verification and identification

Presented is a summary of the results from two research projects that

were carried out on a cooperative basis between the Bundeskriminalamt (Federal

Criminal Police Office) and the Bundesamt fur Sicherheit in der Information

Technik (Federal Office for Security in Information Technology). To sum up, the

result of the BioP I (identification of persons by using biometric facial recognition

systems) project can be stated as follows: Facial recognition is basically suitable


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for use with identification documents and, if certain criteria are met, performance

can even be very good.

Reservations must be made with regard to fake resistance and ageing

effects. The results obtained from the BioP I project are being verified during the

BioP II project on the basis of a larger test group and being compared with the

biometric methods of iris and fingerprint recognition. BioP II, the follow-up project

of BioP I, compares the methods of facial recognition, fingerprint recognition and

iris recognition. Information about the performance of the respective systems is

expected to result from a large-scale field test with more than 2000 participants.

A Page on a Website:

A. Pretzel. Using biometric facial recognition for verification and


identification from https://ieeexplore.ieee.org

Image Training and LBPH Based Algorithm for Face Tracking in Different B

ackground Video Sequence

Video and video types are changing day by day; due to which, video

processing is becoming complex time to time. There is a lack of particular

algorithm for automatic detection and tracking of human faces in video, to

overcome the challenges that are being faced nowadays. This paper describes a

model for detection and tracking of human faces in different background video

sequence using OpenCV platform. Both positive and negative image samples
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are trained and saved as xml file. With the help of trained samples, LBPH

algorithm clarifies whether the video frame contain faces or not. Further, HOG

descriptor is fed to SVM detector to compute the coefficients that are stored in

the xml file. Based on this, face regions are tracked until the last frame is

reached. We have tested our proposed algorithm on the videos of a technically

challenging dataset. Standard metrics helped to judge the success of the

proposed algorithm. Test results indicate the superiority of our proposed model,

compared to other similar algorithms.

A Page on a Website:

Ranganatha (2018). Image Training and LBPH Based Algorithm for Face
Tracking in Different Background Video Sequence retrieve from
https://www.ijcseonline.org
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Local Studies

Local Area Network Wired and Wireless Simulator

Bismaros, Dulay, and Ignacio (2013), stated that a Local Area Network

and Wireless Simulator is a type of networking that will let the users choose a

computer laboratory that will send the data to the target PC. The system has the

different types of topologies which are bus, ring, and star. It also has the wireless

network. With this new user-friendly simulation, it is possible to connect to the PC

Hub. With the help of this system, user can network the computer in a short

period of time. A computer network is nothing but a connection of two or more

computers by a wire (physical cable) or by a wireless connection to exchange

information. The two types of network that can be developed in home are

wireless network and traditional wired network (Ethernet). With regards the

problems of the students in the ground of networking and connecting to the

computer.
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The study focused on the simulation of computer network operation using

application software. The main propose of the study is to develop a system which

will provide its beneficiaries with information about the different network

topologies and how data is transferred within them. Each time the user needs to

connect to the computer, the program allows the user to choose from the three

types of computer laboratory i.e. Computer 1, Computer 2, and Computer 3.

Once the user had already chosen from the three options, the program could

allow the user to send the data to the target PC. The proposed system provides

option for the user in the types of topologies namely Bus, Star, and Ring. At that

time, the program can connect to the computer with the help of the PC Hub.

The program would solve the networking problem and will send the data by

clicking the send button.

In order to estimate the existing and the proposed system, as well as to

know which is better, the proponents conducted a survey. The respondents, who

are the students of Our Lady of Fatima University, participated in answering the

survey and testing the system and resolve which is better than the existing

system and proposed system. However, the user-friendly, effectiveness,

accessibility, and the speed rated as strongly agree in proposed system.

A Page on a Website:

Bismanos Jr. (2013). Local Area Network Wired and Wireless Simulator
retrieved from https://ejournals.ph
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Improving Face Recognition Systems Security Using Local Binary Patterns

Face recognition systems suffer from different spoofing attacks like

photograph-based and video-based spoofing attacks. This project presents a

new method to empower the face recognition systems against video-based

spoofing by employing efficient scene texture analyzing. To this end, the scene of

input and reference images are divided into same non-overlapped blocks and the

texture pattern of each block is extracted by local binary pattern (LBP) operator.

To reduce the sensitivity of LBP to noise and also to increase the reliability of the

proposed method, first input image transformed to YCbCr color space and then

similarity of texture pattern in Y, Cb and Cr channels are extracted independently.

The majority of similarity of three channels is used as the final similarity of each

block. The ratio of same blocks in the input image and reference image is used

as a measure for detecting video-based spoofing attacks.

The performance of the proposed algorithm is evaluated using several

scenarios. The obtained results show the effectiveness of the proposed algorithm

against video-based spoofing attacks in real environments. Face recognition

systems suffer from different spoofing attacks like photograph-based and video-

based spoofing attacks. The performance of the proposed algorithm is evaluated

using several scenarios. The obtained results show the effectiveness of the

proposed algorithm against video-based spoofing attacks in real environments.

A Page on a website:
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Abdolhossein (2015). Improving Face Recognition Systems Security


Using Local Binary Patterns retrieved from
https://www.researchgate.nethttps://www.researchgate.net

Real Time Face Recognition of Human Faces by using LBPH and Viola

Jones Algorithm

In our social life face is the primitive center for consideration, which plays

a vital task for identification and an emotion. Live Face Recognition has attained

enormously consideration in security systems, due to its non-intrusiveness,

accurate and fast results etc. Real time human Face recognition executes in two

levels, such as Face detection and Face recognition. For face detection we are

using viola-jones algorithm because of its high precision and high real time

permit rate which is deployed in OpenCV by python language. In Face

recognition two categories are considered: training phase and evaluation phase.

In training phase, the algorithm is trained with the samples of the image to

be learned and in estimation phase, the test image is compared among all the

trained samples in the dataset. The facial features are extracted with the

detected faces from live stream by Local Binary Patterns Histogram (LBPH). By

using the LBPH, face recognition is finished using Euclidean distance classifier.
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The Experimental results getting after implementations and testing is of accuracy

85%-95%.

A Page on a Website:

Suma(2018).Real Time Face Recognition of Human Faces by using LBP


H and Viola Jones Algorithm retrieved from https://www.isroset.org
A real-time face recognition system based on the improved LBPH algorithm

The Local Binary Pattern Histogram (LBPH) algorithm is a simple solution

on face recognition problem, which can recognize both front face and side face.

However, the recognition rate of LBPH algorithm under the conditions of

illumination diversification, expression variation and attitude deflection are

decreased. To solve this problem, a modified LBPH algorithm based on pixel

neighborhood gray median (MLBPH) is proposed. The gray value of the pixel is

replaced by the median value of its neighborhood sampling value, and then the

feature value is extracted by the sub blocks and the statistical histogram is

established to form the MLBPH feature dictionary, which is used to recognize the

human face identity compared with test image. Experiments are carried on

FERET standard face database and the creation of new face database, and the

results show that MLBPH algorithm is superior to LBPH algorithm in recognition

rate.

The Local Binary Pattern Histogram (LBPH) algorithm is a simple solution

on face recognition problem, which can recognize both front face and side face.
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However, the recognition rate of LBPH algorithm under the conditions of

illumination diversification, expression variation and attitude deflection are

decreased. To solve this problem, a modified LBPH algorithm based on pixel

neighborhood gray median (MLBPH) is proposed. The gray value of the pixel is

replaced by the median value of its neighborhood sampling value, and then the

feature value is extracted by the sub blocks and the statistical histogram is

established to form the MLBPH feature dictionary, which is used to recognize the

human face identity compared with test image. Experiments are carried on

FERET standard face database and the creation of new face database, and the

results show that MLBPH algorithm is superior to LBPH algorithm in recognition

rate. This project employs the Local Binary Patterns Histogram (LBPH) algorithm

architecture to address the human face recognition in real time at the low level of

resolution which we use on our proposed project.

A Page on a Website:

XueMei (2017). A real-time face recognition system based on the


improved LBPH algorithm retrieved from https://ieeexplore.ieee.org
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CHAPTER 3

RESEARCH METHODOLOGY

Methods of Research

This study used the descriptive method of research methodology aimed at

casting light on current issues and problems through a process of data collection

that enables them to describe the situation more completely.

The focus of this paper is to innovate an Engineering tools borrowing

system through an applicable implementation of the various stages involved in

facial authentication. The proponents used applied research to develop new and

innovative idea that is benefices to the community, as it focused on applying the

latest knowledge and technologies in the creation of useful products, services

and processes which are indicated to the systems' development life cycle of the

study using Spiral Model, the registration flowchart and system flowchart of the
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proposed project shows the process of system. It also includes the GUI graphical

User Interface, where illustrate the step-by-step procedure, Prototype

development that discussed the function of the materials in the project, software

development that discussed the software used for processing of bio metrics and

the evaluation instrument which shows the plans and procedures made by the

researchers to determine the suitability and functionality of the project.

System Development Life Cycle

A System Development Life Cycle (SDLC) is a conceptual model used in

project management that describes the stages involved in an information system

of the project, from an initial feasibility study through maintenance of the

completed application. It is an abstract of a development process.

In this part of figure 3.1 the methodology shows the system development

life cycle used by the researchers in presenting the project to make the study

acceptable and functional. The proponents show the procedures involved in the

Project Implementation of Facial Recognition Verification for Engineering Tools

Borrowing System and guide the proponents on the the steps needed to make it

functional. Spiral model is combining elements of both design and prototyping-

in-stages, in an effort to combine advantages of top-down and bottom-up

concepts. This model of development combines the features of the prototyping

model and the waterfall model. The spiral model is favored for large, expensive,

and complicated projects. These are some reasons of the proponents in choose
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Spiral Model among the other models, using this model the proponents can

estimates budget and schedule. The project became more realistic as work

progressed because important issues were discovered a head of time.

Furthermore, early involvement of developers and managing risks develops the

system into phases. Spiral Model is often chosen over Waterfall Model because

unlike Spiral Model, Waterfall approach does not define the process to go back

to the previous phase to handle changes in requirement .

DESIGNING OF A SYSTEM
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Figure 3.1 Software Development Life Cycle for the Project Innovation of

NCST Engineering Tools Borrowing System with Facial Recognition

Planning – The proponents first discussed the different ideas, process and

desired concept of each member regarding the project and to gather information

from different related sources that will help in making the system. Starting from

the name of the project, an applicable concept, logo design to layout design, the

researchers divided the tasks for each member.

Risk Analysis – The proponents discussed the possible problems that may

occur as the project development is ongoing. Each possible problem was

discussed thoroughly to conduct different solutions. The risk analysis for system

development design will help proponents in determination of problem such as the

existing technology and other related studies available.

Engineering – After discussing the risk analysis, the proponents continue giving

suggestion on layout design that was appropriate for the project while getting

more information about the kind of algorithm to use for the computer programs

and the mechanism inside.


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Evaluation –After finishing the software and hardware requirements, testing of

system is conducted to the target user to evaluate and to recommend some

suggestion for the maintenance and troubleshooting of the system.

Development Cost of Project

Here is the list of the proposed budget and materials during the

development of the project for the hardware components.

Unit cost Sub-Total


Materials Quantity/Unit
(PhP) (PhP)

Touch Screen 1pc. 8,500.00 8,500.00

Monitor

Camera 1pc. 1,800.00 1,800.00

RAM 1pc. 2,900.00 2,900.00

Prototype 1 1,940.00 2,832.00

Miscellaneous 4,125.00 4,125.00

TOTAL TOTAL (PhP) 20,157.00


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Table 3.1 Development Cost of Project

Time Consumed in the Development of the Project

2019
Task Jan Feb March April May

1 2 3 4 1 2 3 4 1 2 3 4 1 2 3 4 1 2 3 4

Project

Proposal
Researching

Analysis

Designing

Programming

Documentation

Testing

Table 3.2 Time Consumed in the Development of the Project

The table above (Table 3.2) The Gantt chart shows the time consumed

(in weeks) in developing the project. From third week of January to third week of

February the proponents started making project proposals, and end up with a

proposed project entitle “NCST Engineering Tools Borrowing System with Facial

Recognition”. During the second week of February until third week of April the
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proponents have done the research. Analyzing of the project was started last

week of February until second week of April. The proponents started to design

their actual project during the last week of March until last week of April.

Programming started from first week of March until last week of May. The

documentation of the project was started in the third week of March until last

week of April. And for the testing of the Project it was started in the second

week of April until now second week of May.


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Block Diagram of the Project

Figure 3.2 Block Diagram of the Project

Figure 3.2 represents the block diagram that serves as a development to

attain the goals of the design. The processor comprised of Touch Screen Monitor

where the GUI display, Camera for the Facial Recognition and Thermal Printer

for Student’s borrowed item receipts.


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Flowchart of the Project

User:
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Figure 3.3 User Flowchart

Admin:
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Figure 3.4 Admin Flowchart


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Design Project of the Prototype

Figure 3.5 Front View of the Design Project

Figure 3.6 Isometric View of the Design Project

The System Design of the project


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Figure 3.7 Registration Form

Figure 3.8 Login Form


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Figure 3.9 User Form

Figure 3.10 Return Form


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Figure 3.11 Borrow Form

Figure 3.12 Admin Login Form


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Figure 3.13 Admin Head Main Form

Figure 3.14 Admin Main Form


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Figure 3.15 Admin Student List

Figure 3.16 Admin Inventory List Form


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References

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resolution retrieved from https://ieeexplore.ieee.org

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identification from https://ieeexplore.ieee.org

9. Ranganatha (2018). Image Training and LBPH Based Algorithm for Face
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10. Bismanos Jr. (2013). Local Area Network Wired and Wireless Simulator
retrieved from https://ejournals.ph

11. Abdolhossein (2015). Improving Face Recognition Systems Security


Using Local Binary Patterns retrieved from
https://www.researchgate.nethttps://www.researchgate.net

12. Suma(2018).Real Time Face Recognition of Human Faces by using LBP


H and Viola Jones Algorithm retrieved from https://www.isroset.org

13. XueMei (2017). A real-time face recognition system based on the


improved LBPH algorithm retrieved from https://ieeexplore.ieee.org

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