Vous êtes sur la page 1sur 23

oad an approved document, you will be able to download the document

Thesis Documentation

Don't want to upload?


Get unlimited downloads as a member

Sign Up Now
Upload a documenA frequency
1.4.3 Quantization of Continuous-Amplitude Silassification o f Signals 6
1.2.1 Multichannel and Multidimensional Signals. 7caling of CMOS processes.
? Design resources: Circuit and system design in CMOS is supported by vast number
resources. Many design techniques and design libraries for analog and digital
design are
available.
? Availability: CMOS processes are now readily available for prototype designs
through
fabrication brokers, at low prices. This has boosted the design knowledge by real
implementations, rather than pure theoretical treatments.
? Price: CMOS is the cheapcaling of CMOS processes.e demo. Get to Market Quickly.
Drive New Revenue Growth. Reduce Business Costs. Get A Free Demo. 24/7 Support.
Types: E-Commerce, Business Intelligence, Enterprise, Mid-Market, Small Business.
Search Results
Web results
Thesis Documentation | E Bay | Online Shopping - Scribd

https://www.scribd.com � doc � Thesis-Documentation


Rating: 4 - ?8 votes
1 SHOP-ONLINE: A PROPOSED E-COMMERCE SITE AND INVENTORY SYSTEM FOR BAHANDI
PASALUBONG CENTER. A Thesis Proposal Presented to ...
154257678-Thesis-Documentation.txt | E Bay | Online Shopping - Scribd

https://www.scribd.com � document � 154257678-Thesis-Documentation-txt


This system entitled SHOP-ONLINE: A PROPOSED E-COMMERCE SITE AND .... ne e-commerce
and inventory system for Bahandi Pasalubong Center as an ...
Online store thesis - ddns.net

thaigusehoro.ddns.net � online-store-thesis-cia
Online Shopping PhD Thesis Statement - Write a Ph.D ... service to write a
university Online Shopping thesis for a masters thesis research proposal. ... A
CASE STUDY ANALYSIS OF E-COMMERCE STRATEGIES FOR RETAIL BUSINESSES A .... SITE AND
INVENTORY SYSTEM FOR BAHANDI PASALUBONG CENTER.
Thesis About Online Shopping System

americanmusicclassics.com � 2211-thesis-about-online-shopping-system
1 SHOP-ONLINE: A PROPOSED E-COMMERCE SITE AND INVENTORY SYSTEM FOR BAHANDI
PASALUBONG CENTER. A Thesis Proposal Presented to.
Images for SHOP-ONLINE: A PROPOSED E ...
Image result for SHOP-ONLINE: A PROPOSED E-COMMERCE SITE AND INVENTORY SYSTEM FOR
BAHANDI PASALUBONG CENTER
Image result for SHOP-ONLINE: A PROPOSED E-COMMERCE SITE AND INVENTORY SYSTEM FOR
BAHANDI PASALUBONG CENTER
Image result for SHOP-ONLINE: A PROPOSED E-COMMERCE SITE AND INVENTORY SYSTEM FOR
BAHANDI PASALUBONG CENTER
Image result for SHOP-ONLINE: A PROPOSED E-COMMERCE SITE AND INVENTORY SYSTEM FOR
BAHANDI PASALUBONG CENTER
Image result for SHOP-ONLINE: A PROPOSED E-COMMERCE SITE AND INVENTORY SYSTEM FOR
BAHANDI PASALUBONG CENTER
Image result for SHOP-ONLINE: A PROPOSED E-COMMERCE SITE AND INVENTORY SYSTEM FOR
BAHANDI PASALUBONG CENTER
Image result for SHOP-ONLINE: A PROPOSED E-COMMERCE SITE AND INVENTORY SYSTEM FOR
BAHANDI PASALUBONG CENTER
Image result for SHOP-ONLINE: A PROPOSED E-COMMERCE SITE AND INVENTORY SYSTEM FOR
BAHANDI PASALUBONG CENTER
Image result for SHOP-ONLINE: A PROPOSED E-COMMERCE SITE AND INVENTORY SYSTEM FOR
BAHANDI PASALUBONG CENTER
Image result for SHOP-ONLINE: A PROPOSED E-COMMERCE SITE AND INVENTORY SYSTEM FOR
BAHANDI PASALUBONG CENTER
View all
More images for SHOP-ONLINE: A PROPOSED E-COMMERCE SITE AND INVENTORY SYSTEM FOR
BAHANDI PASALUBONG CENTER
Report images
Web results
7 Best Ecommerce Platforms to Launch Your Online Store (2019)

https://www.adamenfroy.com � ecommerce-platforms
Jul 20, 2019 - If you want to start your e-commerce store, choosing the best ...
product options, shipping, fulfillment, control panel experience, and more. ...
offer coupons and discounts, and automatically track inventory. ... You can also
customize the look of your mobile ecommerce site with their online store builder
tool.
Missing: BAHANDI ?PASALUBONG
Thesis online store - granincor

https://granincor.cf � 597367-thesis-online-store
1 SHOPONLINE: A PROPOSED ECOMMERCE SITE AND INVENTORY SYSTEM FOR BAHANDI PASALUBONG
CENTER. A Thesis Proposal Presented to the ...
Retail POS System - Retail POS Software for selling in store or anywhere

https://www.shopify.com � pos � retail


Retail Point of Sale Systems - Sell in-store and online with Shopify POS retail
package. ... of POS Hardware and Retail Software enabling you to take your business
anywhere. ... Inventory, sales, orders, and customers auto-syncs with Shopify. ...
cart Ecommerce hosting Mobile commerce Ecommerce software Online store ...
Missing: BAHANDI ?PASALUBONG
E-Commerce Website (Online Shop)?Quantum X, Inc.

https://www.quantumx.com � ecommerce-online-shop
Start your online store with an e-commerce website to showcase your selling
products. ... product merchandising, payment integration, product delivery to
inventory ... MASTER organizes crew documents online for fast and easy management.
Missing: BAHANDI ?PASALUBONG
Ecommerce, Ecommerce Software, E-commerce � NetSuite ...

https://www.netsuite.com � portal � products � ecommerce � products


SuiteCommerce enables businesses to move from siloed online, in-store and phone ...
seamlessly connects ecommerce and in-store POS to order management, inventory, ...
Unlimited flexibility enables B2C sites to deliver the engaging and ...
Missing: BAHANDI ?PASALUBONG
Searches related to SHOP-ONLINE: A PROPOSED E-COMMERCE SITE AND INVENTORY SYSTEM
FOR BAHANDI PASALUBONG CENTER
online shopping system project documentation

online shopping information system

online shopping project documentation doc

online shopping thesis philippines


waterfall model for online shopping system

thesis about online shopping in the philippines pdf

local thesis about online shopping in the philippines

thesis for online shopping

Page navigation
1
2
3
Next

? Design resources: Circuit and system design in CMOS is supported by vast number
resources. Many design techniques and design libraries for analog and digital
design are
available.
? Availability: CMOS processes are now readily available for prototype designs
through
fabrication brokers, at low prices. This has boosted the design knowledge by real
implementations, rather than pure theoretical treatments.
? Price: CMOS is the cheapcaling of CMOS processes.
? Design resources: Circuit and system design in CMOS is supported by vast number
resources. Many design techniques and design libraries for analog and digital
design are
available.
? Availability: CMOS processes are now readily available for prototype designs
through
fabrication brokers, at low prices. This has boosted the design knowledge by real
implementations, rather than pure theoretical treatments.
? Price: CMOS is the cheapcaling of CMOS processes.
? Design resources: Circuit and system desi
? Availability: CMOS processes are now readily available for prototype designs
through
fabrication brokers, at low prices. This has boosted the design knowledge by real
implementations, rather than pure theoretical treatments.
? Price: CMOS is the cheapcaling of CMOS processes.
? Design resources: Circuit and system design in CMOS is sue demo. Get to Market
Quickly. Drive New Revenue Growth. Reduce Business Costs. Get A Free Demo. 24/7
Support. Types: E-Commerce, Business Intelligence, Enterprise, Mid-Market, Small
Business.
Search Results
Web results
Thesis Documentation | E Bay | Online Shopping - Scribd

https://www.scribd.com � doc � Thesis-Documentation


Rating: 4 - ?8 votes
1 SHOP-ONLINE: A PROPOSED E-COMMERCE SITE AND INVENTORY SYSTEM FOR BAHANDI
PASALUBONG CENTER. A Thesis Proposal Presented to ...
154257678-Thesis-Documentation.txt | E Bay | Online Shopping - Scribd

https://www.scribd.com � document � 154257678-Thesis-Documentation-txt


This system entitled SHOP-ONLINE: A PROPOSED E-COMMERCE SITE AND .... ne e-commerce
and inventory system for Bahandi Pasalubong Center as an ...
Online store thesis - ddns.net

thaigusehoro.ddns.net � online-store-thesis-cia
Online Shopping PhD Thesis Statement - Write a Ph.D ... service to write a
university Online Shopping thesis for a masters thesis research proposal. ... A
CASE STUDY ANALYSIS OF E-COMMERCE STRATEGIES FOR RETAIL BUSINESSES A .... SITE AND
INVENTORY SYSTEM FOR BAHANDI PASALUBONG CENTER.
Thesis About Online Shopping System

americanmusicclassics.com � 2211-thesis-about-online-shopping-system
1 SHOP-ONLINE: A PROPOSED E-COMMERCE SITE AND INVENTORY SYSTEM FOR BAHANDI
PASALUBONG CENTER. A Thesis Proposal Presented to.
Images for SHOP-ONLINE: A PROPOSED E ...
Image result for SHOP-ONLINE: A PROPOSED E-COMMERCE SITE AND INVENTORY SYSTEM FOR
BAHANDI PASALUBONG CENTER
Image result for SHOP-ONLINE: A PROPOSED E-COMMERCE SITE AND INVENTORY SYSTEM FOR
BAHANDI PASALUBONG CENTER
Image result for SHOP-ONLINE: A PROPOSED E-COMMERCE SITE AND INVENTORY SYSTEM FOR
BAHANDI PASALUBONG CENTER
Image result for SHOP-ONLINE: A PROPOSED E-COMMERCE SITE AND INVENTORY SYSTEM FOR
BAHANDI PASALUBONG CENTER
Image result for SHOP-ONLINE: A PROPOSED E-COMMERCE SITE AND INVENTORY SYSTEM FOR
BAHANDI PASALUBONG CENTER
Image result for SHOP-ONLINE: A PROPOSED E-COMMERCE SITE AND INVENTORY SYSTEM FOR
BAHANDI PASALUBONG CENTER
Image result for SHOP-ONLINE: A PROPOSED E-COMMERCE SITE AND INVENTORY SYSTEM FOR
BAHANDI PASALUBONG CENTER
Image result for SHOP-ONLINE: A PROPOSED E-COMMERCE SITE AND INVENTORY SYSTEM FOR
BAHANDI PASALUBONG CENTER
Image result for SHOP-ONLINE: A PROPOSED E-COMMERCE SITE AND INVENTORY SYSTEM FOR
BAHANDI PASALUBONG CENTER
Image result for SHOP-ONLINE: A PROPOSED E-COMMERCE SITE AND INVENTORY SYSTEM FOR
BAHANDI PASALUBONG CENTER
View all
More images for SHOP-ONLINE: A PROPOSED E-COMMERCE SITE AND INVENTORY SYSTEM FOR
BAHANDI PASALUBONG CENTER
Report images
Web results
7 Best Ecommerce Platforms to Launch Your Online Store (2019)

https://www.adamenfroy.com � ecommerce-platforms
Jul 20, 2019 - If you want to start your e-commerce store, choosing the best ...
product options, shipping, fulfillment, control panel experience, and more. ...
offer coupons and discounts, and automatically track inventory. ... You can also
customize the look of your mobile ecommerce site with their online store builder
tool.
Missing: BAHANDI ?PASALUBONG
Thesis online store - granincor

https://granincor.cf � 597367-thesis-online-store
1 SHOPONLINE: A PROPOSED ECOMMERCE SITE AND INVENTORY SYSTEM FOR BAHANDI PASALUBONG
CENTER. A Thesis Proposal Presented to the ...
Retail POS System - Retail POS Software for selling in store or anywhere

https://www.shopify.com � pos � retail


Retail Point of Sale Systems - Sell in-store and online with Shopify POS retail
package. ... of POS Hardware and Retail Software enabling you to take your business
anywhere. ... Inventory, sales, orders, and customers auto-syncs with Shopify. ...
cart Ecommerce hosting Mobile commerce Ecommerce software Online store ...
Missing: BAHANDI ?PASALUBONG
E-Commerce Website (Online Shop)?Quantum X, Inc.
https://www.quantumx.com � ecommerce-online-shop
Start your online store with an e-commerce website to showcase your selling
products. ... product merchandising, payment integration, product delivery to
inventory ... MASTER organizes crew documents online for fast and easy management.
Missing: BAHANDI ?PASALUBONG
Ecommerce, Ecommerce Software, E-commerce � NetSuite ...

https://www.netsuite.com � portal � products � ecommerce � products


SuiteCommerce enables businesses to move from siloed online, in-store and phone ...
seamlessly connects ecommerce and in-store POS to order management, inventory, ...
Unlimited flexibility enables B2C sites to deliver the engaging and ...
Missing: BAHANDI ?PASALUBONG
Searches related to SHOP-ONLINE: A PROPOSED E-COMMERCE SITE AND INVENTORY SYSTEM
FOR BAHANDI PASALUBONG CENTER
online shopping system project documentation

online shopping information system

online shopping project documentation doc

online shopping thesis philippines

waterfall model for online shopping system

thesis about online shopping in the philippines pdf

local thesis about online shopping in the philippines

thesis for online shopping

Page navigation
1
2
3
Next
pported by vast number
resources. Many design techniques and design libraries for analog and digital
design are
available.
? Availability: CMOS processes are now readily availab
Saved
Bestsellers

Save
Save Thesis For Later

Embed

Share

Print
RELATED TITLES
Carousel Next
Dell Guide to Greener Electronics 14
Dell Guide to Greener Electronics 14
FlexiPacket Multi Radio 2.4 Commission
FlexiPacket Multi Radio 2.4 Commission
Summary of EPEAT Criteria(IEEE 1680)
Summary of EPEAT Criteria(IEEE 1680)
pAINT PRODUCTION
pAINT PRODUCTION
Pollution Control in Recycling Industry
Pollution Control in Recycling Industry
SENATE HEARING, 109TH CONGRESS - ELECTRONIC WASTE
SENATE HEARING, 109TH CONGRESS - ELECTRONIC WASTE
RoHS
RoHS
Toxic Avengers
Toxic Avengers
E-Waste Mgt in Lagos_MA Social Policy_JYU 2012
E-Waste Mgt in Lagos_MA Social Policy_JYU 2012
DIGC 102 Dossier
DIGC 102 Dossier
TBC UE-9000 Manual
TBC UE-9000 Manual
Summa D75 Manual
Summa D75 Manual
Electronic Waste Recycling
Electronic Waste Recycling
A Manual for Water and Waste Management - What the Tourism Industry Can Do to
Improve Its Performance
A Manual for Water and Waste Management - What the Tourism Industry Can Do to
Improve Its Performance
1 Introduction to Electronics (E-waste) Recycling
1 Introduction to Electronics (E-waste) Recycling
Recycling Essay
Recycling Essay
LEGRAND 20161004_148894_1
LEGRAND 20161004_148894_1
3KXE341007R4401-CI_TZIDC_110_120_EN_B_07_2012 abb positionneur.pdf
3KXE341007R4401-CI_TZIDC_110_120_EN_B_07_2012 abb positionneur.pdf
Untitled
Untitled
gold ex pdf.pdf
gold ex pdf.pdf
Download Now
Jump to Page
1
You are on page 1of 267

Search inside document


Search document

Modeling and Issues in India: Pr


Submitted in par D
BIRLA INSTITU PILANI
ssessment of e-wa
Books
Audiobooks
le for prototype designs through
fabrication brokers, at low prices. This has boosted the design knowledge by real
implementations, rather than pure theoretical treatments.
? Price: CMOS is the cheap
1.2.2 Continuous-Time Versuation, and testing) and basic software skills (C++). I
am eager to learn newation, and testing) and basic software skills (C++). I am
eager to learn news Discrete-Time Signals. 8
1.2.3 Continuous-Valued Versus Discrete-Valued Signals. 10
1.2.4 Deterministic Versus Random Signals, 11
T h e C o n c e p t o f F re q u en cy in C o n tin u o u s-TIn CMOS integrated
circuit design there is a trade-off between static power consumption and
technology scaling. Leakage power accounts for an increasingly larger portion of
total power
consumption in deep submicron technologies. Recently, the power density has
increased � im e an d
D isc rete-T im e Signals 14
1.3.1 Continuous-Time Sinusoidal Signals, 14
1.3.2 Discrete-Time Sinusoidal Signals. 16PinoyBIX Engiation, and testing) and
basic software skills (C++). I am eager to learn newneering
WLP technology differs from other ball grid array, leaded, and laminate-based CSPs
because no bond wires or interposer connections are required.
What are you looking for?

START HERE ASK A QUESTION ANSWER QUESTIONS MCQ LIST ADVERTISE HERE

In CMOS integrated circuit design there is a trade-off between static power


consumption and
technology scaling. Leakage power accounts for an increasingly larger portion of
total power
consumption in deep submicron technologies. Recently, the power density has
increased �

At the end of the 18th century, a kilogram was the mass of a cubic decimeter of
water. In 1889, the 1st CGPM sanctioned the international prototype of the
kilogram, made of platinum-iridium, and declared: This prototype shall henceforth
be considered to be the unit of mass.

HomeUncategorizedChapter 1: Introduction to Electronic Communications by Wayne


Tomasi � Review Notes
Chapter 1: Introduction to Electronic Communications by Wayne Tomasi � Review Notes
Engr 4 Years Ago
FACEBOOK PREV ARTICLE NEXT ARTICLE

(Last Updated On: December 8, 2017)


Chapter 1: Introduction to Electronic Communications

This is the summary notes of the important concepts in Chapter 1 of the book
�Introduction to Electronics Communications� by Wayne Tomasi. The notes are
properly synchronized and concise for better understanding of the book. Make sure
to familiarize this review notes to increase the chance of passing the ECE Board
Exam.
CHAPTER 1
INTRODUCTION TO
ELECTRONIC COMMUNICATIONS

Items
Definitions
Terms

1
Its fundamental purpose is to transfer information from one
place to another.
Electronic Communication System

2
The transmission, reception, and processing of information
between two or more locations using electronic circuits.
Electronic Communication

3
Electronic Communications Time Line
1830: American Scientist and professor Joseph
Henry transmitted the first practical electrical signal.
1837: Samuel Finley Breese Morse invented the
telegraph.
1843: Alexander Bain invented the facsimile.
1861: Johann Phillip Reis completed the first
nonworking telephone.
1864: James Clerk Maxwell released his
paper �Dynamic Theory of the Electromagnetic Field�, which concluded that
light electricity, and magnetism were related.
1865: Dr. Mahlon Loomis became the first person
to communicate wireless through the Earth�s atmosphere.
1866: First transatlantic telegraph cable was
installed
1876: Alexander Graham Bell and Thomas Watson
Invented the telephone.
1877: Thomas Alva Edison invents the
phonograph.
1880: Heinrich Hertz discovers electromagnetic
waves.
1887: Heinrich Hertz discovers radio waves.
Marchese Guglielmo Marconi demonstrates wireless radio wave propagation.
1888: Heinrich Hertz detects and produces radio
waves. Heinrich Hertz conclusively proved Maxwell�s prediction that
electricity can travel in waves through the Earth�s atmosphere.
1894: Marchese Guglielmo Marconi builds his
first radio equipment, a device that rings a bell from 30 ft. away.
1895: Marchese Guglielmo Marconi discovered
ground wave propagation.
1898: Marchese Guglielmo Marconi established
the first radio link between England and France.
1900: American Scientist Reginald A. Fessenden
the world�s first radio broadcast using continuous waves.
1901: Marchese Guglielmo Marconi transmits
telegraphic radio messages from Cornwall, to Newfoundland. Reginald A.
Fessenden transmits the World�s first radio broadcast using continuous waves.
First successful transatlantic transmission of radio signal.
1903: Valdemar Poulsen patents an arc
transmission that generates continuous wave transmission 100-kHz signal that
is receivable 150 miles away.
1904: First radio transmission of music at
Graz, Austria.
1905: Marchese Guglielmo Marconi invents the
directional radio antenna.
1906: Reginald A. Fessenden invents amplitude
modulation (AM). First radio program of voice and music broadcasted in the
United States by Reginald Fessenden. Lee DeFrorest invents triode
(three-electrode) vacuum tube.
1907: Reginald Fessenden invents a high-
frequency Electric generator that produces radio waves with a frequency of
100 kHz.
1908: General Electric develops a 100-kHz, 2-kW
alternator for radio communications.
1910: The Radio Act of 1910 is the first
concurrence of government regulation of radio technology and services.
1912: The Radio Act of 1912 in the United
States brought order to the radio bands by requiring station and operator�s
licenses and assigning blocks of the frequency spectrum to the existing
users.
1913: The cascade-tuning radio receiver and the
heterodyne receiver are introduced.
1914: Major Edwin Armstrong develops the
superheterodyne radio receiver.
1915: Vacuum-tube radio transmitters
introduced.
1919: Shortwave radio is developed.
1920: Radio Station KDKA broadcasts the first
regular licensed radio transmission out of Pittsburgh, Pennsylvania.
1921: Radio Corporation of America (RCA) begins
operating Radio Central on Long Island. The American Radio League establishes
contact via shortwave radio with Paul Godley in Scotland, proving that
shortwave radio can be used for long distance communications.
1923: Vladimir Zworykin invents and
demonstrates television.
1927: A temporary five- member Federal Radio
Commission agency was created in the United States.
1928: Radio station WRNY in New York City
begins broadcasting television shows.
1931: Major Edwin Armstrong patents wide- band
frequency modulation (FM).
1934: Federal Communications Commission (FCC)
created to regulate telephone, radio, and television broadcasting.
1935: Commercial FM radio broadcasting begins
with monophonic transmission.
1937: Alec H. Reeves invents binary coded
pulse-code modulation. (PCM)
1939: National Broadcasting Company (NBC)
demonstrates television broadcasting. First use of two-way radio
communications using walkie-talkies.
1941: Columbia University Radio Club opens the
first regularly scheduled FM radio station.
1945: Television is born. FM moved from its
original home of 42 MHz to 50 MHz to 88 MHz to 108 MHz to make room.
1946: The American Telephone and Telegraph
Company (AT&T) inaugurated the first mobile telephone system for the
public called MTS (Mobile Telephone System).
1948: John Von Neumann created the first store
program electronic digital computer. Bell Telephone Laboratories unveiled the
transistor, a joint venture of scientist William Shockley, John Bardeen and
Walter Brattain.
1951: First transcontinental microwave system
began operation.
1952: Sony Corporation offers a miniature
transistor radio, one of the first mass produced consumer AM/FM radios.
1953: RCA and MBC broadcast first color
television transmission.
1954: The number of radio stations in the world
exceeds the number of newspapers printed daily.
1954: Texas Instruments becomes the first
company to commercially produce silicon transistors.
1956: First transatlantic telephone cable
systems began carrying calls.
1957: Russia launches the world�s first
satellite. (Sputnik)
1958: Kilby and Noyce develop first integrated
circuits. NASA launched the United States first satellite.
1961: FCC approves FM stereo broadcasting,
which spurs the development of FM. Citizens band (CB) radio first used.
1962: U.S. radio stations begin broadcasting
stereophonic sound.
1963: T1 (transmission 1) digital carrier
systems introduced.
1965: First commercial communications satellite
launched.
1970: High-definition television (HDTV) introduced
in Japan.
1977: First commercial use of optical fiber
cables.
1983: Cellular telephone networks introduced in
the United States.
1999: HDTV standards implemented in the United
States.
1999: Digital Television (DTV) transmission
began in the United States.

4
Are time-varying voltages or currents that are continuously
changing such as sine and cosine waves.
analog signals

5
Is sometimes referred to as a power loss.
Attenuation

6
Is sometimes referred to as a ____________ , If Pout = Pin,
the absolute power gain is 1, and the dB power gain is 0 dB.
Unity Power Gain

7
Are voltages or currents that change in discrete steps or
levels.
digital signals
8
In 1876, Alexander Graham Bell and Thomas A. Watson were the
first to successfully transfer human conversation over a crude metallic- wire
communications systems using this device.
Telephone

9
The first commercial radio broadcasting station in 1920 that
broadcasted amplitude modulated signals in Pittsburgh.
KDKA

10
Is a logarithmic unit that can be used to measure ratio.
Decibel ( dB )

11
Is a unit of measurement used to indicate the ratio of a power
level with respect to a fixed reference level (1mW).
dBm

12
One-tenth of a decibel.
Bel

13
A collection of one or more electronic devices or circuits
that converts the original source information to a form more suitable for
transmission over a particular transmission medium.
Transmitter

14
Provides a means of transporting signals between a transmitter
and a receiver.
Transmission Medium

15
A collection of electronic devices and circuits that accepts
the transmitted signals for the transmission medium and then converts those
signals back to their original form.
Receiver

16
Is any unwanted electrical signals that interfere with the
information signal.
System Noise

17
Because it is often impractical to propagate information
signals over standard transmission media, it is often necessary to modulate
the source information onto a higher-frequency analog signal called a ______.
Carrier

18
The process of changing one or more properties of the analog
carrier in proportion with the information signal.
Modulation

19
A system in which energy is transmitted and received in analog
form (a continuously varying signals such as a sine wave).
Analog Communication System

20
A true digital system where digital pulses (discrete levels
such as +5V and ground) are transferred between two or more points in a
communications system.
Digital Transmission

21
The transmittal of digitally modulated analog carriers between
two or more points in a communications system.
digital radio

22
A modulation technique where the information signal is analog
and the amplitude (V) of the carrier is varied proportional to the
information signal.
Amplitude Modulation ( AM )

23
A modulation technique where the information signal is analog
and the frequency (f) of the carrier is varied proportional to the
information signal.
Frequency Modulation ( FM )

24
A modulation technique where the information signal is analog
and the phase (q) of the carrier is varied proportional to the information
signal.
Phase Modulation

25
A modulation technique where the information signal is digital
and that amplitude (V) of the carrier is varied proportional to the
information signal.
Amplitude Shift Keying ( ASK )

26
A modulation technique where the information signal is digital
and the frequency (f) of the carrier is varied proportional to the
information signal.
Frequency Shift Keying ( FSK )

27
A modulation technique where the information signal is digital
and the phase (q) of the carrier is varied proportional to the information
signal.
Phase Shift Keying
( PSK )

28
A modulation technique where both the amplitude and the phase
of the carrier are varied proportional to the information signal.
Quadrature Amplitude Modulation
( QAM )

29
Modulation is performed in a transmitter by a circuit called
________.
Modulator

30
The reverse process of modulation and converts the modulated
carrier back to the original information.
Demodulation

31
Demodulation is performed in a receiver by a circuit called
_______.
Demodulator

32
2 Reasons why modulation is necessary in
electronic communications :
1. It is extremely difficult to radiate low-frequency signals
from an antenna in the form of electromagnetic energy.
2. Information signals often occupy the same frequency band
and, if signals from two or more sources are transmitted at the same time,
they would interfere with each other.

33
A specific band of frequencies allocated a particular service.
Channel

34
Process of converting a frequency or band of frequencies to
another location in the total frequency spectrum.
Frequency Translation

35
The purpose of an electronic communications system is to
communicate information between two or more locations commonly called
_____________ .
Stations

36
The number of times a periodic motion, such as a sine wave of
voltage or current, occurs in a given period of time.
Frequency

37
Each complete alternation of the waveform.
Cycle

38
Is an international agency in control of allocating
frequencies and services within the overall frequency spectrum.
International Telecommunications Union (
ITU)

39
In the United States, assigns frequencies and communications
services for free-space radio propagation.
Federal Communications Commission ( FCC )

40
Chapter 1: Introduction to Electronic Communications by Wayne Tomasi - Review Notes

41
Are signals in the 30Hz to 300Hz range and include ac power
distribution signals (60Hz) and low frequency telemetry signals.
Extremely Low
Frequencies ( ELF )

42
Are signals in the 300Hz to 3000Hz range and include
frequencies generally associated with human speech.
Voice Frequencies
( VF )

43
Are signals in the 3kHz to 30kHz range which include the upper
end of the human hearing range.
Very Low Frequencies
( VLF )

44
Are signals in the 30kHz to 300kHz range and are used
primarily for marine and aeronautical navigation.
Low Frequencies
( LF )

45
Are signals in the 300kHz to 3MHz range and are used primarily
for commercial AM radio broadcasting (535kHz-1605kHz).
Medium Frequencies
( MF )

46
Are signals in the 3MHz to 30MHz range and are often referred
to as short waves. Used for most two-way radio communications.
High Frequencies
( HF )

47
Are signals in the 30MHz to 300MHz range and are used for
mobile radio, marine and aeronautical communications, commercial FM
broadcasting (88 to 108 MHz) and commercial TV broadcasting of Ch 2 to 13
(54MHz to 216MHz).
Very High Frequencies
( VHF )

48
Are signals in the 300MHz to 3GHz range and are used by
commercial television broadcasting of channels 14 to 83, land mobile
communications services, cellular telephones, certain radar and navigation
systems, and microwave and satellite radio systems.
Ultrahigh Frequencies
( UHF )

49
Are signals in the 3GHz to 30GHz range and include the
majority of the frequencies used for microwave and satellite radio
communications systems.
Super High Frequencies
( SHF )

50
Are signals in the 30GHz to 300GHz range and are seldom used
for radio communications except in very sophisticated, expensive, and
specialized applications.
Extremely High Frequencies
( EHF )

51
Are signals in the 0.3THz to 300THz range and are not
generally referred to as radio waves. Used in heat seeking guidance systems,
electronic photography, and astronomy.
Infrared

52
Includes electromagnetic frequencies that fall within the
visible range of humans (0.3PHz to 3PHz).
Visible Light

53
Used for optical fiber systems.
Light-wave Communications

54
The length that one cycle of an electromagnetic wave occupies
in space (i.e., the distance between similar points in a repetitive wave).
Wavelength

55
Chapter 1: Introduction to Electronic Communications by Wayne Tomasi - Review Notes

56
Radio transmitter classifications according to bandwidth,
modulation scheme, and type of information.
Emission Classifications

57
Chapter 1: Introduction to Electronic Communications by Wayne Tomasi - Review Notes
� The first symbol is a letter that designates the type of
modulation of the main carrier.
� The second symbol is a number that identifies the type of
emission.
� The third symbol is another letter that describes the type
of information being transmitted.

58
The two most significant limitations on the performance of a
communications system are ________and ________.
Noise and Bandwidth

59
The difference between the highest and lowest frequencies
contained in the information.
Bandwidth

60
The bandwidth of a communications channel is the difference
between the highest and lowest frequencies that the channel will allow to
pass through it.
Passband

61
A highly theoretical study of the efficient use of bandwidth
to propagate information through electronic communications systems.
Information Theory

62
The measure of how much information can be propagated through
a communications system and is a function of bandwidth and transmission time.
Information Capacity

63
The most basic digital symbol used to represent information.
Binary Digit / Bit

64
The number of bits transmitted during one second and is
expressed in bits per second (bps).
Bit Rate

65
In 1928, R. Hartley of Bell Telephone Laboratories developed a
useful relationship among bandwidth, transmission time, and information
capacity.
Hartley�s Law
I � B x t

66
In 1948, mathematician Claude E. Shannon published a paper in
the Bell System Technical Journal relating the information capacity of a
communications channel to bandwidth and signal-to-noise ratio.
Shannon limit for information capacity
Chapter 1: Introduction to Electronic Communications by Wayne Tomasi - Review Notes

67
Any undesirable electrical energy that falls within the
passband of the signal.
Electrical Noise

68
Noise present regardless of whether there is a signal present
or not.
Uncorrelated Noise

69
Noise that is generated outside the device or circuit.
External Noise

70
Noise that is naturally occurring electrical disturbances that
originate within Earth�s atmosphere.
Atmospheric Noise

71
Atmospheric noise is commonly called ____________.
Static Electricity

72
Noise consists of electrical signals that originate from
outside Earth�s atmosphere and is sometimes called deep-space noise.
Extraterrestrial Noise

73
Extraterrestrial noise is sometimes called ____________.
Deep-Space Noise

74
Noise generated directly from the sun�s heat.
Solar Noise

75
Noise sources that are continuously distributed throughout the
galaxies.
Cosmic Noise

76
Noise that is produced by mankind.
Man-made Noise

77
Electrical interference generated within a device or circuit.
Internal Noise

78
Noise caused by the random arrival of carriers (holes and
electrons) at the output element of an electronic device.
Shot Noise

79
Any modification to a stream of carriers as they pass from the
input to the output of a device produces an irregular, random variations.
Transit-time Noise

80
Associated with the rapid and random movement of electrons
within a conductor due to thermal agitation.
Thermal Noise

81
THERMAL AGITATION HAS SEVERAL NAMES,
INCLUDING :
� Thermal Noise, because it is temperature dependent;
� Brownian Noise, after its discoverer;
� Johnson Noise, after the man who related Brownian particle
movement of electron movement;
� White Noise, because the random movement is at all
frequencies;

82
Johnson proved that thermal noise power is proportional to the
product of bandwidth and temperature.
Noise Power
N = KTB
83
A form of internal noise that is correlated (mutually related)
to the signal and cannot be present in a circuit unless there is a signal. �
no signal, no noise! �
Correlated Noise

84
Occurs when unwanted harmonics of a signal are produced
through nonlinear amplification (nonlinear mixing).
Harmonic Distortion

85
The generation of unwanted sum and difference frequencies
produced when two or more signals mix in a nonlinear device.
Inter-modulation Distortion

86
The original signal and also called the fundamental frequency.
First Harmonic

87
A frequency two times the original signal frequency.
Second Harmonic

88
A frequency three times the original signal frequency.
Third Harmonic

89
Another name for harmonic distortion.
Amplitude Distortion

90
Characterized by high-amplitude peaks of short duration in the
total noise spectrum.
Impulse Noise

91
Chapter 1: Introduction to Electronic Communications by Wayne Tomasi - Review Notes

92
A form of external noise and as the name implies it means to
disturb or detract form.
Interference

93
Noise produced when information signals from one source
produce frequencies that fall outside their allocated bandwidth and interfere
with information signals from another source.
Electrical interference

94
The ratio of the signal power level to the noise power level.
Signal-to-Noise Power Ratio ( S/N )
Chapter 1: Introduction to Electronic Communications by Wayne Tomasi - Review Notes

95
Figures of merit used to indicate how much the signal �
to-noise ratio deteriorates as a signal passes through a circuit or series of
circuits
Noise Factor ( F )
and
Noise Figure ( NF )

96
Chapter 1: Introduction to Electronic Communications by Wayne Tomasi - Review Notes

97
FORMULA FOR NOISE FIGURE
NF ( dB ) = 10 log F

98
A convenient parameter often used rather than noise figure in
low noise, sophisticated VHF, UHF, microwave, and satellite radio receivers.
It indicates the reduction in the signal-to-noise ratio a signal undergoes as
it propagates through a receiver.
Equivalent Noise Temperature
( Te )
Te = T ( F � 1 )
Complete List of Reviewers in Electronic Communications System per Chapter
Reviewer in Electronic Communications System by Wayne Tomasi
Important List of Communications Engineering Materials
Communications Engineering Coaching Materials
Series of Communications Engineering Exams: ECE Pre-Board
Series of Questions and Answers in Communications Engineering
Multiple Choice Questions in Data Communications and Networking
5 (100%) 1 vote

Custom Search

FACEBOOK PREV ARTICLE NEXT ARTICLE


ADD COMMENT

Comment Text*

Name*

Email*
Notify me of follow-up comments by email. Notify me of new posts by email.

Custom Search

CONNECT WITH ME:

GET YOUR FREE REVIEW COURSE


Subscribe to our mailing list and get reviewers and updates to your email inbox.
transmission, reception, and processing of information
between two or more locations using electronic circuits.
Electronic Communication

3
Electronic Communications Time Line
1830: American Scientist and professor Joseph
Henry transmitted the first practical electrical signal.
1837: Samuel Finley Breese Morse invented the
telegraph.
1843: Alexander Bain invented the facsimile.
1861: Johann Phillip Reis completed

Enter your best email here


we respect your privacy and take protecting it seriously

RECENT POSTS
?? Complete List of Reviewers to Pass Engineering Board Exam
MCQ in Electrical Circuit Part 18 | ECE Board Exam
MCQ in Electrical Circuit Part 17 | ECE Board Exam
MCQ in Power Generators (Cells and Batteries) Part 10 | �
MCQ in Power Generators (Cells and Batteries) Part 9 | �
MCQ in Electrical Circuit Part 16 | ECE Board Exam

Powered by Google TranslateTranslate


PinoyBIX Engineering Copyright � 2019. Theme by MyThemeShop
About Me Copyright Terms of Use & Privacy Policy Advertise with Us
� 2014 PinoyBIX� Engineering. � 2018 All Rights Reserved | How to Donate?
1.3.3 Harmonically Related Complex Exponentials, 19
A n alo g -to -D ig ita l an d D ig ital-to -A n alo g C o n v e rsio n 21
1.4.1 Sampling of Analog Signals, 23
1.4.2 The Sampling Theorem , 29
1.4.3 Quantization of Continuous-Amplitude Silassification o f Signals 6
1.2.1 Multichannel and Multidimensional Signals. 7
1.2.2 Continuous-Time Versus Discrete-Time Signals. 8
1.2.3 Continuous-Valued Versus Discrete-Valued Signals. 10
1.2.4 Deterministic Versus Random Signals, 11
D isc rete-T im e Signals 14
1.3.1 Continuous-Time Sinusoidal Signals, 14
1.3.2 Discrete-Time Sinusoidal Signals. 16
1.3.3 Harmonically Related Complex Exponentials, 19
A n alo g -to -D ig ita l an d D ig ital-to -A n alo g C o n v e rsio n 21
1.4.1 Sampling of Analog Signals, 23
1.4.2 The Sampling Theorem , 29
1.4.3 Quantization of Continuous-Amplitude Si

and d allows for leading power factor operation and null


regulation. The leading power factor operation is shown in the
phasor diagram of Fig. 12.54.
The control scheme of the voltage source load-controlled
rectifier is characterized by the following: i) there are neither
input current sensors nor dc voltage sensor; ii) it works with a
fixed and predefined PWM pattern; iii) it presents very good
stability; iv) its stability does not depend on the size of the dc
capacitor; v) it can work at leading power factor for all load
conditions; and vi) it can be adjusted with Eq. (12.70) to work
at zero regulation. The drawback appears when R in Eq. 12.70
becomes negligible, because in such a case the control system
is unable to find an equilibrium point for the dc link voltage.
This is why this control method is not applicable to large
systems.
12.3.5 New Technologies and Applications of
Force-Commutated Rectifiers
The additional advantages of force-commutated rectifiers with
respect to line-commutated rectifiers make them better candidates
for industrial requirements. They permit new applications
such as rectifiers with harmonic elimination capability
(active filters), power factor compensators, machine drives
with four-quadrant operation, frequency links to connect 50-
Hz with 60-Hz systems, and regenerative converters for
traction power supplies. Modulation with very fast valves
such as IGBTs permit almost sinusoidal currents to be
obtained. The dynamics of these rectifiers is so fast that they
can reverse power almost instantaneously. In machine drives,
current source PWM rectifiers, like the one shown in Fig.
12.35a, can be ustransmission, reception, and processing of information
between two or more locations using electronic circuits.
Electronic Communication

3
Electronic Communications Time Line
1830: American Scientist and professor Joseph
Henry transmitted the first practical electrical signal.
1837: Samuel Finley Breese Morse invented the
telegraph.
1843: Alexander Bain invented the facsimile.
1861: Johann Phillip Reis completeded to drive dc machines from the three-phase
supply. Four-quadrant applications, using voltage-source
PWM rectifiers, are extended for induction machines,
synchronous machines with starting control, and special
machines such as brushless-dc motors. Back-to-back systems
are being used in Japan to link power systems of different
frequencies.
12.3.5.1 Active Power Filter
Force-commutated PWM rectifiers can work as active power
filters. The voltage-source current-controlled rectifier has the
capability to eliminate harmonics produced by other polluting
loads. It only needs to be connected as shown in Fig. 12.55.
The current sensors are located at the input terminals of the
power source, and these currents (instead of the rectifier
currents) are forced to be sinusoidal. As there are polluting
loads in the system, the rectifier is forced to deliver the
harmonics that loads need, because the current sensors do
not allow the harmonics going to the mains. As a result, the
rectifier currents become distorted, but an adequate dc capacitor+
Prentice-Hall of Australia Pty. Limited, Sydney
Prentice-Hall Canada, Inc., Toronto
Prentice-Hall Hispanoamericana. S.A., M exico
Prentice-Hall of India Private Limited, New Delhi
Prentice-Hall of Japan, Inc., T okyo
Simon & Schuster Asia Pie, Ltd., Singapore
Editora Prentice-Hall do Brasil, Ltda., R io de Janeiro
Prentice-Hall, Inc, Upper Saddle River
Prentice-Hall of Australia Pty. Limited, Sydney
Prentice-Hall Canada, Inc., Toronto
Prentice-Hall Hispanoamericana. S.A., M exico
Prentice-Hall of India Private Limited, New Delhi
Prentice-Hall of Japan, Inc., T okyo
Simon & Schuster Asia Pie, Ltd., Singapore
Editora Prentice-Hall do Brasil, Ltda., R io de Janeiro
Prentice-Hall, Inc, Upper Saddle River
vasd
4. Which of the following is not a major
communications medium?
Ans: Water
5. Random interference to transmitted
signals is called
Ans: noise
6. The communications medium causes the
signal to be
Ans: attenuated
7. Which of the following is not a source of
noise?
Ans: Another communications signal
8. One-way communications is called
Ans: simplex
9. Simultaneous two-way communications is
called16. Measuring physical conditions at some
remote location and transmitting this
data for analysis is the process of
Ans: Telemetry
17. Receiving electromagnetic emissions
from stars is called
Ans: Radio-astronomy
18. A personal communications hobby for
individuals is
Ans: ham radio
19. Radar is based upon
Ans: reflected radio signals
20. A frequency of 27MHz has a wavelength26. A micron is
Ans: One-millionth of a meter
27. The frequency range of infrared rays is
approximately
Ans: 0.7 to 100�m
28. The approximately wavelength of red
light is
Ans: 7000 ?
29. Which of the following
negative (VMOD lags V), the power flow goes from the ac to
8. a.False
9. b.4x10^-4
10. a.25.7 at%
11. b.74.3 at%
12. b. 45.7 at%
13. c. 53.1 at%

1. Numerical Methods = Approximate


Arduino Pins
SDA 10
#define innerSensorPin 2 //IR sensor at after the gate(innersensorPin2) at digital
pin 2
#define buzzerPin 6 //Buzzer at digital pin 6
int gateSensorPin = 3; //IR sensor on gate to arduino pin 3

int innerSensor = 0;
int outerSensor = 0;

#define RST_PIN 9 //reset at digital pin 9


#define SS_PIN 10 //sda at digital pin 10

unsigned long card1Balance = 5000; //Initial balance of the RFID card1


SCK 13
MOSI 11
MISO 12
RQ N/A
GND GND
RST 9
3.3v 3.3v

2.Liqiud Crystal I2c


Arduino Pins
VCC 5v
GND GND
SDA A4
SCL A5

3. IR Sensor
2. Analytical Methods = Exact

Part II

1. MATHEMATICAL MODELING
Real world problem = Mathematical Model - Assumptions, Approximations
Example:
1. Financial, Transportation, Energy, Environmental
Finding optimize solutions to problems.

Part III
14. a. 1.2 at%
17. b.composition
18. d.synthesis
19. c.processing
20. b.semiconductor
21. b.toughness
22. a.ionic bonding
23. c.structure
24. b.covalent bonding

WLP technology differs from other ball grid array, leaded, and laminate-based CSPs
because no bond wires or interposer connections are required.