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1. Renewable sources are sources that that can be replaced overtime.

Most renewable

resources have continuous supply or take greater time to replenish. Examples of

renewable sources of energy include biomass, tides, oxygen, solar and wind. Renewable

sources are sustainable and cost effective. Non renewable resources are natural resources

that are depleted and cannot be renewed. Non renewable resources include relic fuels,

nuclear energy and minerals (Kumar, Fuji & Managi, 2015).

2. The three factors that determine the location of the sun include; current latitude because

earth axis is tilted from its orbital plane. The second factor is the solstice in relation to

celestial equator. The third factor is revolution or the season the position of the sun varies

with the season.

3. The most common form of energy used in the United States is electricity; several devices

used are electrical. Current statistics show that residential utility consumption was about

10,766 kWh an average of eight hundred and ninety seven kilowatt-hours per month. The

United States has the highest energy consumption per capita across the globe.

4. Before sizing a renewable energy source an individual should assess the current electrical

use, consider local codes and requirements. Ascertain whether you require electric grid to

run your systems. You then supposed to understand technology options available at your

site. Consider money, maintenance required and ecosystem sustainability.

5. KW is an abbreviation for kilowatt a measure of power. On the other hand kWh is an

abbreviation for kilowatt hour a measure of energy, in fact it is a measure used to

calculate energy cost. This measure is crucial in determine the amount of electricity

required and amount of PV energy required to save electricity.

6. Net metering is a utility resource usage as well as a payment scheme where any energy

consumer who generates his own power is compensated monetarily or by use of certain

schemes. The main theme of this scheme is to promote the use of renewable power

sources. In case of excess amount of energy the consumer meter is allowed to run


7. A solar panel should have a tilt which should be adjusted seasonally. Panels tracking sun

movement can trap 10% during winter and 40% during the summer. Twisting of the solar

panel should be equal to the latitude + 15o in the winter and -15 degrees in the summer.

For instance our latitude is below 25 degrees and fifty degrees apply latitude times 0.87

8. The number of battery required is determined by load and up time requirements. For

instance number of days required recharging the battery, the size of the solar panel which

should be larger to compensate for voltage drop and energy loss and finally the time

required to deplete the reserve. The bigger the batteries you have the more convenient

energy supply becomes because shallow discharge cycles are expected

9. Temperature, the efficiency of a solar system decreases with increase in temperature.

Maintenance in terms of wiring and shade observation to ensure optimum amount of

energy is stored. Finally the type of the solar panel and type of power required, during

DC to AC conversation significant amount of energy is lost.

10. Active solar systems depend on external energy sources to capture, store and convert

solar energy into electric power. They use hydronic collectors or air collectors to conduct

and convert energy. On the other hand passive solar systems don’t rely on external

devices. They apply laws of thermodynamics. Its success depends on orientation and

thermal mass of its walls (Mayer et.al 2015).

11. Several scholarly articles indicate that the average speed of wind required to sustain a

small wing turbine that cost effective is about four to eight meters per second or 15km/hr

per annum. When considering its effectiveness additional cost must be included. In order

to identify the viability of the system wind supply must be sufficient.

12. Wind speed of over four m/s that is constant throughout the year and non turbulent,

altitude is another factor- wind blows faster at high altitudes due to reduced lower air

velocity. The third factor is security concern and possible barriers such as the wind park


13. Blades and the hub form the rotor which is connected to the main shaft whose role is to

spin the generator that aids in electric production. A 2 bladed rotor is considered essential

in offshore application on the other hand three bladed rotors have been studied severally

and most common but several wakes have been identified. Two blade rotors are

significantly stronger compared to three blade turbines (Jamieson, 2018).

14. Fuel cell is a cell producing electric current with the aid of a chemical reaction

of hydrogen fuel with oxygen or another oxidizing agent but no combustion is involved.

Stationary cell fuels are beneficial because they don’t rely on nature, are quite, and

produce minimal emissions thus can be installed in any location. Have few losses

associated with long range grid transmission (O’hayre, Cha, Prinz & Colella, 2016).
15. Hydropower is a reliable, renewable and an affordable source of renewable source of

energy. It is more reliable compared to other forms of energy such as fossil fuels that are

currently depleting at a very high rate.

16. Hydropower is expensive to construct because it requires a lot of resources. After

construction it can be detrimental to the ecosystem for instance fish movements and

terrestrial plants which later lead to drought (Williams & Horsey, 2017).


O'hayre, R., Cha, S. W., Prinz, F. B., & Colella, W. (2016). Fuel cell fundamentals. John Wiley

& Sons.

Mayer, J. N., Simon, P., Philipps, N. S. H., Schlegl, T., & Senkpiel, C. (2015). Current and future

cost of photovoltaics. Long-term scenarios for market development, system prices and

LCOE of utility-scale PV systems.

Williams, M., & Horsey, K. (2017). Harnessing the Power of Water.

Jamieson, P. (2018). Innovation in wind turbine design. John Wiley & Sons.

Kumar, S., Fujii, H., & Managi, S. (2015). Substitute or complement? Assessing renewable and

nonrenewable energy in OECD countries. Applied Economics, 47(14), 1438-1459.