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# Eleventh Session - November 28, 2012

## Five Simple Rules to Find Region of Convergence (ROC)

1- ROC must be bounded by poles or extends to infinity (it means ROC can not include poles).
2- If the signal in time-domain is right-sided, ROC is right-sided (ROC is the right side of rightmost pole).

3- If the signal in time-domain is left-sided, ROC is left-sided (ROC is the left side of leftmost pole).

## 5- If the signal in time-domain has a finite duration, ROC is everywhere.

System Properties and ROC:
a) Causality:
If the system is causal, ROC must be right-sided (the other way is not necessarily true).

## Three Simple Rules to Find Causality:

1- If ROC is not right-sided, system is not causal.
2- If ROC is right-sided and the Laplace transform is a rational function, system is causal.
3- If ROC is right-sided and the Laplace transform is not a rational function, we must find the system
in time-domain and then we can decide if the system is causal or not.

b) Stability:
System is stable if and only if ROC includes imaginary axis.
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Equalization:
In general, equalizer tries to follow the inverse of the communication channel, i.e. the transfer function of
the equalizer is the inverse of the transfer function of the channel.

NOTE:
For your convenience, my office hours on December 10, 2012 (the day before
the final exam) are from 11 am to 7 pm.