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ELEC 375: Biomedical Engineering – L01, Spring 2018

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Formula Sheet:
1
𝑋𝑐 =
2𝜋𝑓𝐶
𝐹𝑢𝑙𝑙 𝑆𝑐𝑎𝑙𝑒 𝑉𝑜𝑙𝑡𝑎𝑔𝑒
𝑆𝑡𝑒𝑝 𝑠𝑖𝑧𝑒 =
2𝑁
max(𝑥) − min(𝑥)
𝑄𝑢𝑎𝑛𝑡𝑖𝑧𝑎𝑡𝑖𝑜𝑛 𝑒𝑟𝑟𝑜𝑟, 𝑞 =
2𝑁+1
1
𝑓=
2𝜋𝑅𝐶
2𝑅 = (𝐾 − 1)𝑅𝐹 𝐼𝐼 𝑅𝐹
 Best of luck 

Q1: A body-surface electrode placed against skin used for recording electromyographic signals (EMG).
a) Draw the total electrical equivalent circuit along with electrode-skin interface and layers. Redraw the
equivalent circuit after removing the effect of epidermis. (4 Marks)
b) The electrode-skin interface has following characteristics:
 The resistance of the electrolyte in which it is immersed is 15Ω
 The electrode/electrolyte interface has a capacitance of 0.5F and a resistance of 50 kΩ.
 The epidermis/dermis interface has a capacitance of 0.1 F and a resistance of 5 kΩ.
 The resistance of the dermis is 5Ω
Calculate the impedance of this electrode-skin interface (without epidermis) at (4 Marks)
i) 10 Hz
ii) 10 kHz

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1
i) 10 Hz: Xcd = 𝜔×0.5×10−6 = 31830.99

31830.99×50×103
Zelec = 15 + √31830.992 + 5 = 20 +26851.46 = 26871.46
+(50×103 )2

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1
ii) 10 kHz: Xcd = 𝜔×0.5×10−6 = 31.83

31.83×50×103
Zelec = 15 + √31.832 + 5 = 20 +31.69 = 51.69
+(50×103 )2

Q2.
a) What is Nyquist’s theorem? (1 Mark)
b) An ECG signal contains components with frequencies up to 100 Hz, although no useful information is contained
at frequencies above 40 Hz. What is the minimum frequency at which the signal should be sampled? (1 Mark)
c) A certain digital-to-analog converter (ADC) has a step size of 0.0075V and a full-scale output of 7.68V.
Determine the percent of resolution and the number of input binary bits. (2 Marks)
d) Calculate the maximum quantization error for this ADC if the ECG signal ranges uniformly between 0V and
7.68 V. Comment on how to decrease quantization error. (2 Marks)
e) A 100 Hz signal is samples at 80 samples/second. What frequency will be “aliased” digital signal look like? (2
Marks)

Answer:
a) Nyquist theorem states that to sample a signal with maximum frequency (fmax) properly without losing
data and without aliasing, the sample frequency (fs) should be at least be two times higher than fmax.
fs 2fmax
b) To sample ECG signal without information loss: fs (min) = 2×40 = 80 Hz
𝐹𝑢𝑙𝑙 𝑠𝑐𝑎𝑙𝑒 𝑣𝑜𝑙𝑡𝑎𝑔𝑒 7.68
c) 2N = = = 1024 = 210
𝑠𝑡𝑒𝑝 𝑠𝑖𝑧𝑒 0.0075

N = 10 bits
𝑠𝑡𝑒𝑝 𝑠𝑖𝑧𝑒×100 0.0075×100
% Resolution = 𝐹𝑢𝑙𝑙 𝑠𝑐𝑎𝑙𝑒 𝑣𝑜𝑙𝑡𝑎𝑔𝑒 = = 0.0976%
7.68

d)
𝑠𝑡𝑒𝑝 𝑠𝑖𝑧𝑒 0.0075
q= = = 3.75 𝑚𝑉
2 2

e)
Aliasing frequencies…
[f-kfs]
[f-0×fs], [f-1×fs], [f-2×fs], [f-3×fs]
[100], [100-80], [100-160], [100-240]
[100], [-20], [-60], [-140]

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Only 20Hz fulfills Nyquist criteria and the signal will look like 20 Hz.
Q3.
a) Using the two diagrams of Figure 1, draw the circuits for obtaining leads VL and aVL of an ECG.
(4 Marks)

Figure 1

b) Show that the voltage in lead aVL is 50% greater than that in lead VL. (4 Marks)

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Q4.

a) An engineer attempts to measure the ECG on an oscilloscope using a differential amplifier with a gain
of 500. For Figure 2, Zin = 5MΩ, Z1 = 25kΩ, Z2 = 10kΩ, ZG = 30kΩ, and idb = 0.7A. Calculate the power-
line interference that will be observed at the output of his amplifier. (3 Marks)
b) For the same system, draw the circuit diagram for a driven-right-leg circuit and derive the expression
for common-mode voltage for this circuit. (3 Marks)
c) Design RLD circuit, which will reduce the common-mode voltage to 2 mV. (2 Marks)

Figure 2

Answer:

= 0.7 × 10−6 × 30 × 103 = 21 mV

10𝑘−25𝑘
= 21 mV ( ) = -62.56V
5𝑀

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At the output of the amplifier,
V0 = G×(VA – VB) = 500×(-62.56V) = -31.28mV

𝑅𝑓 0.7𝜇𝐴 ×30𝑘Ω 1
= -
𝑅𝑎 2×1𝑚𝑉 2
𝑅𝑓
= 4.75
𝑅𝑎
If we choose Rf = 1 MΩ, Ra = 211kΩ

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Q5.

Design a bio potential signal recording system considering the signal varies between 200 V to 1mV along with a
DC offset of 3V and signal frequency ranges between 0.33 Hz to 10 Hz. Note that the full-scale voltage of the
system is 5V.
a) Draw the block diagram of the signal recording system and label them properly. (1 Mark)
b) Show the mathematical design steps of the pre-amplifier, filters, and post-amplifier if necessary. Draw the
relevant circuit diagram for each stage. (7 Marks)

a)

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