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Quartz School for Well

12. Casing Site Supervisors


Exit Options

Module – 13
Work Over Operations

Section –12
Casing Exit Options

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12. Casing Exit Options

Contents

1. Casing Exit Applications


• Well abandonment due to mechanical problems
• Vertical “Re-Drill” Well
• High Angle / Horizontal “Re-Entry” Well
• Multi-Lateral Well
2. Casing Section Cutting (pipe milling)
3. Cut and recovery of casing string
4. Casing window cut off (window milling)

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12. Casing Exit Options

1. Casing Exit Applications


•Reasons for Well Abandonment

• Non repairable & collapsed casing


• Non reparable casing with axial cracks
• Casing string severely parted
• Production / injection strings stuck inside casing
& non recoverable
• Unavoidable entrance of unwanted fluids
• Extreme corrosion of casing production string

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12. Casing Exit Options

1. Casing Exit Applications


•Vertical Re-Drill Well

Basic Procedure:
• Abandonment of active (open) intervals
• Casing exit with no directional restrictions
• Lateral displacement to avoid collisions &
surveys interferences
• Directional drilling to return well to vertical
• Drilling of vertical section to intercept the
same objectives of the original hole

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12. Casing Exit Options
1. Casing Exit Applications
•High Angle / Horizontal Re-Entry Well

Objectives:
Drill a new well using the same location and surface
casing of an abandoned well caused by critical
damage of reservoir around the well
• Increasing the flow area by drilling a lateral /
horizontal well bore along the reservoir of the
original well
• Produce from thin pay zones non attractive for
vertical wells
• Reactivation of abandoned oil and gas fields
developed with vertical wells
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12. Casing Exit Options

1. Casing Exit Applications


•Multi – Lateral Wells

• A number of lateral / horizontal well bores (branches) drilled


from a central main bore and converging to it to get
production from several pay zones simultaneously

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12. Casing Exit Options
2. Cemented Casing
• Section of casing cut (milled) for side Track

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12. Casing Exit Options
2. Cemented Casing
• Section of casing cut (milled) for side Track

• Operational Procedure:
• Move and rig up the work over unit
• Control flowing well (if apply). R/D Christmas Tree &
surface lines
• Install & test BOP stack and WC equipment
• POOH production / injection string. L/D tools & accessories
• Make up Section Mill cutter and RIH with work over string
• Run Section Mill and locate it inside the casing string at
the top of the interval to be milled out
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12. Casing Exit Options
2. Cemented Casing
• Section of casing cut (milled) for side Track
• Operational Procedure – continued..
• Mill the programmed length of casing with the “section
mill” using the proper parameters and procedure
• Select a section of casing well cemented above the
cut point
• It is recommended to cut the casing section in front
of a soft formation to make easy the side track
• Cut a casing length of about 15 to 20 meters to
avoid magnetic interference / noise to MWD tools
• If a Gyro survey is planned to for directional
surveys, the section can be cut of less length

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12. Casing Exit Options
2. Cemented Casing
• Section of casing cut (milled) for side Track
•Operational Procedure – continued...
• Have a viscous fluid like gelled brine to improve the
carrying capacity of the metal shavings
• Select a flow rate that gives a good hole cleaning. Collect
metal shavings returns with ditch magnets installed in the
flow channel after the shale shakers. Circulate until clean
returns.
• Verify top and base of section cut applying slight tension
to the “section mill” open
• Stop circulation and check fluid column static (no fluid
losses to the formations exposed)
• POOH section mill and L/D tools
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12. Casing Exit Options
2. Cemented Casing
• Section of casing cut (milled) for side Track
•Operational Procedure – continued…
• M/U diffuser to a tail pipe and RIH with work over string
to balance a cement plug for side track as per the
specific design and procedure
• RIH and position the base of tail of diffuser approximate
100 meters below the base of the casing section cut
• Circulate to condition mud system.
• Mix and displace a high viscosity pill to cover 50 m of
casing below the cement plug
• Pick up the diffuser above the top of the viscous pill
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12. Casing Exit Options
2. Cemented Casing
• Section of casing cut (milled) for side Track

•Operational Procedure – continued…


• Balance a cement plug of approximate 200 m length
on the top of the viscous pill left in hole (sub displace
the cement to avoid contaminations)
• Slowly pick the diffuser 150 – 200 m above the top of
cement.
• Reverse circulation to clean any excess of cement
inside the work string. POOH to surface
• L/D tools and wait for cement setting (12 – 24 hrs)

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12. Casing Exit Options
2. Cemented Casing
• Section of casing cut (milled) for side Track
•Operational Procedure – continued…
• Make up directional assembly:
•Connect bit to DHM or RSS
•Set BH angle or program RSS to
follow the well plan.
•Perform shallow test to MM, PD and
MWD tools
•Verify the specs of all components of
BHA and make an sketch with
dimensions

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12. Casing Exit Options
2. Cemented Casing
• Section of casing cut (milled) for side Track

•Operational Procedure – continued…


• RIH with directional BHA 200 m above the estimated top of
cement.
• Wash and ream slowly until hard cement is detected
• Test consistency of cement plug with weight and pressure
• Dress cement off until the programmed KOP (Kick off point)
• Orient DHM or re-test RSS program
• Drill side track hole as per specific DD program
• POOH and L/D tools
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12. Casing Exit Options
3. Free Casing
• Non cemented casing cut and recovered for Side Track

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12. Casing Exit Options
3. Free Casing
• Non cemented casing cut and recovered for Side Track

•Operational Procedure
• Rig up and test work over unit
• Control well flowing (if applies). L/D Christmas tree
and surface lines
• N/U and test BOP stack and WC equipment
• POOH completion string
• Make up Section Mill to the WO string
• RIH Section Mill (Internal Casing Cutter) to the
programmed depth
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12. Casing Exit Options
3. Free Casing
• Non cemented casing cut and recovered for Side Track
•Operational Procedure:
• Operate the Section Mill to cut the casing string. Use a
viscous / gelled fluid to improve metal shaving transport
to surface.
• Collect metal shaving with ditch magnets
• A drop in the circulating pressure at surface is a good
indication of a positive casing cut. POOH
• POOH and L/D tools
• M/U fishing assembly with casing spear
• RIH spear, engage casing cut and work to free casing
• POHH and L/D casing string
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12. Casing Exit Options
3. Free Casing
• Non cemented casing cut and recovered for Side Track

•Operational Procedure – continued…


• M/U diffuser to a tail pipe and RIH with work over string
to balance a cement plug for side track as per the
specific design and procedure
• RIH and position the base of tail of diffuser approximate
100 meters below the base of the casing section cut
• Circulate to condition mud system.
• Mix and displace a high viscosity pill to cover 50 m of
casing below the cement plug
• Pick up the diffuser above the top of the viscous pill
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12. Casing Exit Options
3. Free Casing
• Non cemented casing cut and recovered for Side Track

•Operational Procedure – continued…


• Balance a cement plug of approximate 200 m length
on the top of the viscous pill left in hole (sub displace
the cement to avoid contaminations)
• Slowly pick the diffuser 150 – 200 m above the top of
cement.
• Reverse circulation to clean any excess of cement
inside the work string. POOH to surface
• L/D tools and wait for cement setting (12 – 24 hrs)

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12. Casing Exit Options
3. Free Casing
• Non cemented casing cut and recovered for Side Track

•Operational Procedure – continued…


• Make up directional assembly:
•Connect bit to DHM or RSS
•Set BH angle or program RSS to
follow the well plan.
•Perform shallow test to MM, PD and
MWD tools
•Verify the specs of all components of
BHA and make an sketch with
dimensions

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12. Casing Exit Options
3. Free Casing
• Non cemented casing cut and recovered for Side Track

•Operational Procedure – continued…


• RIH with directional BHA 200 m above the estimated top of
cement.
• Wash and ream slowly until hard cement is detected
• Test consistency of cement plug with weight and pressure
• Dress cement off until the programmed KOP (Kick off point)
• Orient DHM or re-test RSS program
• Drill side track hole as per specific DD program
• POOH and L/D tools
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12. Casing Exit Options
4. Window Cutting
• Whipstock and Mills to cut window in casing

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12. Casing Exit Options
4. Window Cutting
• Whipstock and Mills to cut window in casing

•Operational Procedure:
• Rig up and test work over unit
• Control well if flowing. N/D Christmas tree and surface lines
• N/U BOP stack and WC equipment
• POOH completion string & L/D tools
• M/U bit and scraper with work string and RIH 50 meters
below the exit point
• Circulate until clean returns and POOH work string
• Run “gage basket” 50 meters below whipstock setting depth

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12. Casing Exit Options
4. Window Cutting
• Whipstock and Mills to cut window in casing

•Operational Procedure – continued…


• Make up BHA for cutting window in one trip:
• Whipstock anchor
• Whipstock
• Starting mill
• (1) Short Drill Collar
• Water Mellon
• MWD / Gyro orienting tools
• (1) Drill Collar
• HWDP
• DP
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12. Casing Exit Options
4. Window Cutting
• Whipstock and Mills to cut window in casing

•Operational Procedure – continued…


• RIH the milling assembly until the whipstock setting
depth
• Record string weight up and down
• Run Gyro and set on the orienting sub above the
whipstock
• Orient the whipstock to the programmed direction
• POOH Gyro
• Set anchor or sump packer below it

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12. Casing Exit Options
4. Window Cutting
• Whipstock and Mills to cut window in casing
•Operational Procedure – continued…
• Apply weight or tension to shear the attaching pin of
starting mill to the whipstock
• Pick the drill string up 1 to 3 ft above and start rotating
inside the casing
• Go down and continue rotating on the whipstock and start
milling against casing wall
• Mill out the window and close monitor torque, pressure
and returns on shale shakers.
• Collect metal shavings with ditch magnets
• Increase the WOB to help in building angle out of casing

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12. Casing Exit Options
4. Window Cutting
• Whipstock and Mills to cut window in casing

•Operational Procedure – continued…


• Continue milling window and let the watermelon to
ream and polish the opening. Check the shakers for
cement and formation percentage in the cuttings
coming out of hole
• Make the water melon to pass several times through
the window opening to dress and polish the exit
• Continue drilling and building angle out of the
whipstock / casing

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12. Casing Exit Options
4. Window Cutting
• Whipstock and Mills to cut window in casing
•Operational Procedure – continued…
• Drill about 3 meters outside the casing. Circulate
clean and POOH milling string
• M/U and run directional assembly to drill the side
track hole as per the plan (high angle or horizontal
well)
• For conventional operations, the side track hole is
completed with cemented liner, slotted liner or pre-
packed screens
• In the case of ML wells the whipstock is retrievable
and other lateral boreholes from the main hole may
be constructed with similar procedures

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12. Casing Exit Options
4. Window Cutting
• Whipstock and Mills to cut window in casing

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12. Casing Exit Options

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12. Casing Exit Options

Two Trips Side Tracking Procedure:

• First trip would achieve setting the


packer shearing off from the top of the
whipstock and commence cutting the
window

• Second trip is required for the window


milling assembly to complete cutting
the window in the casing and drilling
the rat hole in the formation

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12. Casing Exit Options

Single Trip Side Tracking Procedure:

• As technology improved casing windows can


be cut in one trip, saving thousands of dollars
daily rig cost and well planning

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12. Casing Exit Options

Single Trip Side Tracking Procedure:

• Step 1 – Orientate whipstock with


MWD tool and when in correct
position set packer

• Step 2 – Once the packer is set the


lead mill which was bolted to the
top of the whipstock is sheared off
ready to commence milling.

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12. Casing Exit Options

• Cross sectional picture before shear off.


• Lead mill sheared off from top of the whipstock and gain full circulation
• Start milling wall of casing
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12. Casing Exit Options

• Continue milling wall of the casing, the deeper the progress the more the
“whipstock” is pushing out the lead mill
• Now the following mill is cleaning the window after the lead mill
• The casing window is cut and rat hole bored
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12. Casing Exit Options

• Ream window several times and circulate hole clean before pulling out of hole
• Finished window shape on the side of the casing

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12. Casing Exit Options

Side Track and Casing Exit Videos

• Cemented Whipstock
• Open Hole Whipstock 1
• Open Hole Whipstock 2
• Cased Hole Whipstock (opening window)
• Cased Hole Whipstock (opening window)

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