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A PROJECT REPORT

ON

“STUDY OF CUSTOMER PERCEPTION AND


SATISFACTION WITH RESPECT TO
SAFEX INDIA PVT. LTD.”
SUBMITTED IN THE PARTIAL FULFILLMENT FOR THE AWARD OF

DEGREE OF MASTER IN BUSINESS ADMINISTRATION


(MARKETING MANAGEMENT)

UNDER THE GUIDANCE OF:

Ms./ Mr./ Dr./ Prof. B.K. Sharma

Assistant Professor/ Associate Professor/ Professor

SUBMITTED BY:

KAMAL SHARMA
Enrollment NO.JNU-jpr/de/17/02/81/01950

JAIPUR NATIONAL UNIVERSITY, JAIPUR


STUDENT’s DECLARATION

This to certify that I have completed the project titled “STUDY OF CUSTOMER
PERCEPTION AND SATISFACTION WITH RESPECT TO SAFEX INDIA
PVT. LTD.” under the guidance of Mr. B.K. Sharma in the partial fulfillment of
the requirement for the award of the degree of “Master in Business Administration”
from “Jaipur National University" This is an original work and I have not submitted
it earlier elsewhere.

Name:
ACKNOWLEDGEMENT
I offer my sincere thanks and humble regards to “Jaipur National University" for
imparting me valuable professional training in MBA.

I pay my gratitude and sincere regards to Mr. B.K Gupta my project Guide for giving me
the cream of his knowledge. I am thankful to him/her as he/she has been a constant
source of advice, motivation and inspiration. I am also thankful to him/her for giving
his/her suggestions and encouragement throughout the project work.

I am also thankful to my family and friends for constantly motivating me to complete the
project and providing me an environment which enhanced my knowledge.

Name:
Table of Contents

Student Declaration…………………………………………………………………… ………i


Certificate from Company.…………………...…………………………………....…..............ii

Certificate from Guide…….………………...…………………………………....…...............iii


a
Acknowledgement............................................................................................................iv

Executive Summary………………………………………………………………..……………..v

 A summary statement designed to provide a quick overview of the full length


report on which it is based.

List of Tables………………………………………………………………………………….vi

List of Graphs…………………………………………………………………………………vii

List of Charts………………………………………………………………………………viii

List of Abbreviations, if any………………………………………………ix


Page no.
CHAPTER- 1: INTRODUCTION
1.1 About the Industry
1.2 About Organization/Company Profile………………………………

CHAPTER – 2: LITERATURE REVIEW


2.1 Literature Review and Research Gap…………………………….. ……………

2. 2 About The Topic………………………………………………… ……………

CHAPTER – 3: RESEARCH METHODOLOGY

3.1 Purpose of the study……………………………………… ..………...…


………
3.2 Research Objectives of the study…………………………… …..

3.3 Research Methodology of the study………………………… …….


…… ……… ……………..
3. 3.1 Research Design…………… … …… ....
3.3.2Method of data collection ……………………………… …

3.3.2.1 Drafting of a questionnaire

3.3.3 Sample design…………………………………………………… ………….

3.3.3.1 Population………………………………… …………………………..

3.3.3.2 Sample size……………………………… ……………………………

3.3.3.3 Sampling method…………………… ………………………………...

3.3.4 Duration of the Study…………………………………………………… ………….


3.3.5 Limitations…………………………………………………………… ………

CHAPTER – 4: ANALYSIS & INTERPRETATION

4.1 Analysis & Interpretation ………………………………………………….

CHAPTER- 5: FINDINGS & SUGGESTIONS

5.1 Findings …………………………………………………………………………..


5.2 Suggestions…………………..…………………..…………………..………………

CHAPTER- 6: CONCLUSION
6.1 Conclusion …………………………………………………………………………..

BIBLIOGRAPHY

Bibliography……..………………..…………………..…………………..……………

ANNEXURES (if any)

Annexures 1

Annexure 2

FEEDBACK FORM FROM THE INDUSTRY

PLAGIARISM REPORT
CHAPTER 1
PROFILE OF FERTILISER INDUSTRY

The primary sector agriculture plays a dominant role in our Indian economy. Nearly
70.6% of the population depends on the agriculture for their livelihood. The agriculture
contributes 30% of the national income. A mere 10% of the earth surface area is used to grow
agriculture crops. The population on the earth is increasing continuously and even greater
quantities of food are required. Obviously ,there is a need to increase the soil fertility as
cultivated area cannot be expand.

India is having agrarian economy, uses the method of agriculture still largely traditional.
It is dependent on the variation weather. Only ¼ th of net swan area is irrigated from potential
surface and water resources. India’s agriculture is on constant toil of the food production.
Continuous cropping removes plant nutrients and depletes soil fertility.

Available plant nutrients can be lost through grazing, leaching and run off of excess water
and by wind version. To maintain the soil fertility and obtain the higher yields year by year,
nutrients have to add in the soil. The materials generally used to add nutrients are known as
“Fertilizers”. Fertilizers contain one or more of these essential plant nutrients, 16 elements are
essential for growth and developing of all plants there are Carbon, Hydrogen and Oxygen,
Phosphorus, Potassium, Sulphur, Calcium, Iron, Zinc, Manganese, Chlorine, Molybdenum.
Each nutrient performs certain specific tasks in the plant and one cannot substitute for another
.The defiance of particular nutrient can be correct by supplying that nutrient and by correction
and other limiting factor that may be hindering it’s availability or absorption by the roots

Whenever any nutrient is in short supply in the plants, food, the plant protests. It does not
grow well, gives a sick appearance and several abnormal signs appear on its leaves, bud and
other parts. These are known as “Sighs of Hunger” or more technically “Nutrient Defiance
Symptoms”. Appearance of the symptoms of defiance reflects an already aggrieved situation
and not the begging of the problem. Nutrients loss in the plant lead to loss in yield and this loss
can be avoided only to get more yields from a given quality of fertilizer use.

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ADVANTAGES OF EFFICIENT (FERTILIZERS) USE:

 It results in higher yield gain per unit nutrient

 It pulls all investments and efforts to best possible use

 It reduces per unit cost of crop production

 It can be accomplished without major investment

India is the 4th largest producer and user of fertilizers in the world. Fertilizers are
being produced in a large number of factories .

TYPES OF FERTILIZERS:

1Straight Fertilizers

 Straight Nitrogenous Fertilizers(Urea)

 Straight Phosphate Fertilizers

 Straight Potassium Fertilizers

2. Complex Fertilizers

3. Mixed Fertilizers

4. Micro Fertilizers

NEED FOR FERTILIZERS:

Fertilizers are one of the essential inputs for Agricultural production. A fertilizers
refers to a material added to the soil inorder to supply a chemical element needed for plant
nutrition and improving soil fertility . Fertilizer represent the most common currency used by
farmers to deposit plant nutrients into their soils to ensure that adequate nutrients are available
to feed the crop. Fertilizers play a crucial role in realizing the goal of self –suffiency through the
green revolution.

FERTILIZERS INDUSTRY IN INDIA:

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The fertilizer Industry in India is energy deficient comparable to the rest of the world.
The Indian fertilizer Industry continuous to be adversely effected by consistent practices of the
retention – pricing scheme.

India‘s fertilizer Industry has made steady progress. It’s energy consumption and
capacity utilization are comparable to the best in the world. The investment costs as well as
conversion cost are low. However plants in India are seriously handicapped by the substantially
higher cost of feed stock. The Rs.350 Billion Industries are not free from troubles. In fact there
has been no new investment in the fertilizer sector in the 10 years.

THE FERTILIZER SCENARIO:

The growth of Indian economy is based on consumption of food grain by 200 A.D. During
the 1980-1990 food grain consumption increased by about 65% million tones tones. Over the
next five years period this has to about 65 million tones which as a challenge task. Due to the
population explosion in India the net per capital availability of cultivated land reduced from 0.3
to 0.14 heater by turn of the century. As the cultivating land cannot be expected, it is a must to
increase the fertility of soil. Hence , there is a great demand for fertilizers in countries like India.

OPPORTUNITIES:

Food consumption of the average Indian would jump up as he begins to look for
nutritious foods. This would call for increased use of fertilizers.

THREATS:

Consumption will flow from the gulf countries, which are planning to setup gas based
fertilizer plant in their own countries.

FOOD FOR THE GROWING WORLD:

INDUSTRY AT A GLANCE:

Since1883 the industry has worked to promote the advance in the development and
application of fertilizers that have helped to feed hungry world. The revolutionary concept of
plant nutrition was born from the discovery of the biological role of chemical elements in plant
nutrition and the need to feed a growing population concentrated away from the farm in the

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rising industrial centers of the world. Because of modern fertilizer, world food production since
1960 has more than doubled, keeping pace with population explosion. Today, the fertilizer
industry is poised to help produce the food that will be needed to feed the world’s projected
9billionpeople in 2005.

The fertilizer industry is essentially concerned with the provision of three major plant
nutrients-nitrogen(N),phosphorous(P) and potassium(K) in plant available form. Each nutrient
is responsible for different aspects of plant growth and health.

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COMPANY PROFILE

Safex Chemicals India Ltd., is a leading company having a strong foothold in the Indian

agrochemicals industry. Setting up benchmarks in the formulation and marketing of pesticides

and other agrochemicals, with a strong countrywide network, commitment to quality and a

mission to make available the most effective, economical and environmentally sustainable

pesticides and agrochemicals to the farmers. It’s brands occupy prominent positions in their

respective categories and are among the most trusted in the market.

The company was incorporated in the year 1991 and set up its manufacturing facility at

Bahadurgarh (Haryana) in 1992. Along the way, a need was felt to expand the manufacturing

facilities to meet the growing demands of its products and therefore a second industrial unit was

established at Battal Ballian, Udhampur (Jammu and Kashmir) in the year 2004 furnished with

state of the art machinery and testing equipments. The company has progressed slowly and

steadily over the years increasing its products line to more than 150 products by the end of

2015.

With a countrywide network of offices, distributors and dealers, Safex is in the service of its

customers throughout the country. Safex was established with an objective to contribute to the

growth of agricultural world and cater the demands of teeming billions and thus all its

endeavors are focused towards providing the most effective and environmentally sustainable

molecules at affordable and competitive prices enabling increased production of food grains and

other commercial crops.

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The range of products varies from herbicides, weedicides, fungicides and insecticides to plant

growth regulators and plant micronutrients (Iron, Zinc, Sulphur, Manganese etc). Safex believes

in providing complete solutions to the farmer for better productivity by offering guidance,

counseling and farm support through professionally qualified staff. It plans to establish farmer

help centers to facilitate soil testing, disease diagnosis and expert guidance to enable increased

production.

“SAFEX, Caring for you to grow ” is our mission statement. Every effort of Safex is

directed towards the safety of farmers’ dreams i.e. healthy crops.ABOUT THE

Our broad portfolio of products and services include:

* Nutrition solutions:
Macro and Micro fertilizers and Farm Management services
* Micro Irrigation solutions

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We offer our expertise for the management of chemical process plants, which include
Specialist Services and Total Project Management.

Our operations and offerings have been aligned into three strategic business units:

* Straight Nutrition Business


* Nutrition Solutions Business
* Safex Management Services

To survive, grow and attain leadership position in our areas of operation it is essential
for us to identify and capitalise on emerging opportunities.

Preparing for the future, proactively, we are addressing the most important aspects of
our organisation:

Strategy– Having a long term vision for the company


Structure– To facilitate achieve our strategy
People– Aligning related policies with Strategy and Structure. In turn to build the right
capability, attitude and behaviour in employees.
Process– To enable employees to work more efficiently and effectively, to have the best in
class internal business processes.Our endeavour is to unlock the full potential of our people by
transforming into a performance driven organisation that attracts the best talent, nurtures a more
productive and results-focused workforce and implements initiatives, which align people
strategies with organisational objectives.

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PRODUCTS SERVICES

Our aim is to help the farmer in maximizing qualitative and quantitative output. Our specific

goals in order to have a pleased customer are to offer an attractive cost-benefit ratio by

delivering superior products and services in terms of functionality, in terms of quality, offering

better prices, increasing choice of products, offering better conveniences like ease of use and

availability.

Efficient fertilizers and fertilization methods have become the only answer to the ever-

growing demand for farm produce. Modern agriculture must supply crops with optimal rates of

nutrients throughout the growth cycle in the most efficient manner and without degrading soil

and water resources. This can be achieved through adoption of modern and precision practices

in terms of nutrient management with Specialty Fertilizers.

Specialty Fertilizers (SF) are fully water-soluble solid fertilizers having high content of

primary nutrients with low salt index. They may or may not have Secondary/micro-nutrients.

These water-soluble fertilizers can be advantageously utilized for foliar feeding and

Nutrigation/Fertigation, thus helping in precision agriculture. The simultaneous delivery of

water and fertilizers to the crop through the irrigation system ensures that plant nutrients are

directed to the active root zone. Nutrigation/Fertigation amplifies the nutritional and

environmental benefits of this technique by using pure plant nutrients exclusively. A well-

balanced Nutrigation program will satisfy the exact needs of the plant as they change along the

season.

Specialty fertilizers require distinct attention as it is relatively unknown to Indian farmers

and comes with a new concept of precision agriculture. The consumption of specialty fertilizers

is growing and indicating the improved acceptance of the concept and products. The

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consumption of specialty fertilizer is expected to grow in coming years in view of greater

commercialization of agriculture, mandatory provision of fertilizer tank in government projects

of Micro Irrigation systems along with growing concern towards quality of output and need to

achieve higher productivity from every unit of land.

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I. PRODUCTS

A. MANUFACTURED PRODUCTS

1. Urea (46% N) (White free flowing) – Prilled

Specifications as per the Fertilizer Control Order 1985

(i) Moisture per cent by weight, maximum 1.0


(ii) Total nitrogen, per cent by weight, (on dry basis) minimum 46.00
(iii) Biuret per cent by weight, maximum 1.5
(iv) Particle size--90 per cent of the material shall pass through 2.8 mm is sieve and not less
than 80 per cent by weight shall be retained on 1mm is sieve

1. Anhydrous Ammonia

2. Specifications as per the Fertilizer Control Order 1985


(i) Ammonia per cent by weight, minimum 99.0
(ii) Water per cent by weight, maximum 1.0
(iii) Oil content by weight, maximum 20 ppm

Application:

 Used for production of Urea, DAP, Ammonium Sulphate and Ammonium Nitrate (for
fertilizer, explosives, herbicides and insecticides)

 Used for water treatment, fermentation, tanning and food additives

B. Marketed Products

1. Diammonium Phosphate (18-46-0) - DAP

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Specifications as per the Fertilizer Control Order 1985
(i) Moisture per cent by weight, maximum 1.5
(ii) Total nitrogen per cent by weight, minimum 18.0
(iii) Ammoniacal nitrogen form per cent by weight,
minimum 15.5
(iv) Total nitrogen in the form of urea per cent
by weight, maximum 2.5
(v) Neutral ammonium citrate soluble phosphates
(as P 205) per cent by weight, minimum 46.0
(vi) Water soluble phosphates (as P 206) per cent
by weight, minimum 41.0
(vii) Particle size -90 per cent of the material shall pass through 4 mm IS sieve and be retained
on 1 mm IS sieve. Not more than 5 per cent shall be below than 1 mm size.

2. Muriate of Potash – MOP (Potassium Chloride)

Specifications as per the Fertilizer Control Order 1985


(i) Moisture per cent by weight, maximum 0.5.
(ii) Water soluble potash content (as K20) per cent.
by weight, minimum 60.0.
(iii) Sodium as NaCl per cent by weight.
(on dry basis) maximum 3.5.
(iv) Particle size- 95 cent of the material shall pass through 1.7 mm IS sieve and be retained on
0.25 mm IS sieve.

Application: Fertilizer

 The largest industrial use for potash is in the manufacture of potassium hydroxide
(KOH). KOH is a feedstock for other potassium chemicals used in a wide variety of
industrial processes such as glass making, pharmaceuticals, food processing, and the
manufacture of textiles.

 As Water softener: Potash is a dietary alternative to salt. The ability of potash to reduce
water hardness is virtually the same as salt

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Potash is used in the preparation of hydraulic fracturing solutions for oil well drilling to
control swelling in certain clay formations

 Food processors and pharmaceutical manufacturers use potash in various products.


Potash is also used as an animal feed supplement

3. Zinc Sulphate Heptahydrate (ZnSO4 7H2O)

Specifications as per the Fertilizer Control Order 1985


(i) Free flowing crystalline form
(ii) Matter insoluble in water per cent by weight, maximum 1.0
(iii) Zinc (as Zn) per cent by weight, minimum 21.0
(iv) Lead (as Pb) per cent by weight, maximum 0.003
(v) Copper (as Cu) per cent by weight, maximum 0.1
(vi) Magnesium (as Mg) per cent by weight, maximum 0.5
(vii) pH not less than 4.0

4. Zinc Sulphate Mono-hydrate (ZnSO4 H2O)

Specifications as per the Fertilizer Control Order 1985


(i) Free flowing powder form
(ii) Matter-insoluble in water, per cent by weight, maximum 1.0
(iii) Zinc (as Zn). per cent by weight. Minimum 33.0
(iv) Lead (as Pb), per cent by weight, maximum 0.003
(v) Copper (as Cu), per cent by weight, maximum 0.1
(vi) Magnesium (as Mg), per cent by weight, maximum 0.5
(vii) Iron (as Fe), per cent by weight, maximum 0.5
(viii) pH not less than 4.0

5. Chelated Zinc as Zn-EDTA

Specifications as per the Fertilizer Control Order 1985

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(i) Free flowing crystalline / powder form
(ii) Zinc content (Expressed as Zn), per cent by weight, minimum 12.0
in the form of Zn-EDTA
(iii) Lead (as Pb), per cent by weight, maximum 0.003
(iv) pH 6.0 – 6.5

6. Formulation No. 4 (in Haryana only)

Nutrient contents on percentage basis

(i) Iron (as Fe), per cent by weight, minimum 4.00


(ii) Manganese, per cent by weight, minimum 3.00
(iii) Zinc (as Zn). per cent by weight. minimum 6.00
(iv) Copper (as Cu), per cent by weight, minimum 1.00
(v) Molybdenum (as Mo), per cent by weight, minimum 0.05
(vi) Boron (as B), per cent by weight, minimum 2.00

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7.Di-Sodium Octa Borate Tetra Hydrate (Na2 B8O13.4H2O)

Specifications as per the Fertilizer Control Order 198

(i) Boron (as B), per cent by weight, minimum 20.0


(ii) Matter insoluble in water, per cent by weight, maximum 1.0
(iii) Lead (as Pb), per cent by weight, maximum 0.003

8. Speciality Fertilizers

PRODUCT Available Nutrients % As

NO3 NH4 NH2 P2O5 K2O EC @ 1% pH @ 1%

MULTI -K (13-00-46) 13.2 - - 46 1.2 9.0-11.0

Poly feed: 19-19-19+MEN 5 4 10 19 19 0.88 5.3

MAP (12-61-00) - 12.5 - 61 - 0.69 4.0-5.0

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MKP (00-52-34) - - - 52 34.5 NA 4.0-5.0

MULTI – K Potassium Nitrate 13-00-46

Mono Ammonium
MAP 12-61-00
Phosphate

Mono Potassium
MKP 00-52-34
Phosphate

Polyfeed NPK Blend 19-19-19 + MEN*

Polyfeed NPK Blend 13-40-13+ 2MgO + MEN*

Polyfeed
NPK Blend 15-15-30+ME
(Non-nominated FCO Grade)

SOP Sulphate of Potash 00-00-50

Calcium Nitrate Calcium Nitrate 15.5-00-00-19

Foliar Application

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People:

We believe in creating a culture that encourages values, teamwork, innovation,


leadership and performance.

The plant site at Kakinada provides several employee friendly facilities like well managed
canteen, club house with most modern recreational facilities including indoor games, swimming
pool, theater etc. Several programs are regularly organised for employees and their families like
sports and cultural events. A school with most modern facilities is being run for the children of
employees.

Talent

The company has a pool of immensely talented people with wide experience in the
industry. Specialising in Operation and Maintenance, Project Management, Technical Services,
E H & S, the team has experience in large modern integrated process plants across the globe.

Training & Development

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The company has recognised well in advance the need for training and development of its
human resources, to help them develop their skills to adapt to the changing world business and
technological scenario.

The plant has world class training infrastructure facilities. Spacious classrooms
congenial for learning sessions are well equipped with the latest and modern gadgets.

SAFEX MANAGEMENT SERVICES

A strategic business unit of NFCL, Safex Management Services (NMS) offers its expertise on
a long-term basis for the management of chemical process plants, especially to ammonia and
urea complexes worldwide.

Our team of professionals managing the Kakinada plant have acquired wide and rich

experience in smooth operation, troubleshooting and emergency handling. Our engineers and

operators have visited fertilizer sites in Iran, Libya and Venezuela as requisitioned by Process

Licensors in the past. The NMS team has been rated excellent by all our clients. We offer our

services for taking over total responsibility of operation and maintenance and other specialist

services on long-term basis. Our services aim at fullest satisfaction of client in achieving pre-

agreed targets on performance parameters. A comprehensive package of services includepre-

commissioning, commissioning, guarantee run, normal operation, maintenance (routine as well

as turnaround), inspection and condition monitoring, environment and safety services,

laboratory and quality assurance, purchase and stores, process engineering and general

engineering. In addition to O&M, we can take-up total project management services too, during

project phase. We also provide class room as well as field training to clients’ personnel for

developing competencies and enhancing skills in plant services. This would enable the clients’

team taking over the operations subsequently at an appropriate time.

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Working on the principle of core competence, we are backed by our business partners who

are well known names in their respective fields.

Environment:

The underlying motto of the Group is “We give back more to society than what we take from

it”. Going much beyond the statutory requirements of law for environment protection, the

company has implemented a comprehensive environmental protection plan in the plant,

resulting in near zero pollution of air and water through treatment of chemical pollutants,

recycling and effluent control. A team was set up before commissioning of plant to look into

environmental issues. Based on the Environmental Impact Assessment made by the team,

utmost care was taken to incorporate the findings and create a man made forest. The green belt

was the outcome of the combined wisdom and experience of the country’s best experts in such

diverse disciplines as forestry, horticulture, soil chemistry, ornithology and landscaping.

Creating ecology in a barren saline infested marshy land, over two-thirds of the plant

complex (nearly 700 acres) was earmarked and has been completely developed into a green belt

which extends over a kilometre with more than 0.35 million trees of 170 species, eleven water

bodies with marine life, animals and birds. It is a favourite of nearly 70 species of migratory

birds.

In addition to the monitoring stations at Kakinada Plant, an ambient air monitoring mobile
van is also available to monitor the quality of air outside the factory premises.

The plant has the state of the art facilities for continuous monitoring of Ambient Air, Soil &
Ground water quality and analyses of gaseous emissions and liquid effluents. The data is
continuously analysed and recorded in the computer situated in the central laboratory.

COMPETITORS:

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STATE COMPETITORS

HARYANA KRIBCHO,RCF,SPIC,MFL,NFL&ZACC

ORISSA IFFCO,TCL,NFL,OSWAL&DIL

MAHARASTA RCF,KRIBHCO,IFFCO&GSFC

KARNATAKA MFL, RCF, ZACL, KRIBHCO&SPIC.

STRENGTHS:

 A broad and modern product range.

 Good corporate image especially in Haryana.

 Excellent dealer network in most of other states.

 Open work culture/good working environment.

 Qualified trained and motivated team.

WEAKNESS:

 Broad product range is not synergies yet.

 Some complacency about market attention

OPPORTUNITIES:

 Huge gap between usage outside and inside India.

 Expansion project (starting product in 1989) offering double the quality.

 New irrigation projects increases the market demands.

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THREATS:

 Decontrol.

 Joint venture.

 International cartels.

 Non- availability of raw materials in future.

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CHAPTER 2

LITERATURE REVIEW

Consumer Perception Theory

Merchants aim to increase their sales by determining what drives their customers' purchase

decisions. Consumer perception theory attempts to explain consumer behavior by analyzing

motivations for buying -- or not buying -- particular items. Three areas of consumer perception

theory relate to consumer perception theory: self perception, price perception and perception of

a benefit to quality of life.

Definition

Consumer perception applies the concept of sensory perception to marketing and advertising.

Just as sensory perception relates to how humans perceive and process sensory stimuli through

their five senses, consumer perception pertains to how individuals form opinions about

companies and the merchandise they offer through the purchases they make. Merchants apply

consumer perception theory to determine how their customers perceive them. They also use

consumer perception theory to develop marketing and advertising strategies intended to retain

current customers -- and attract new ones.

Self Perception

Selfperception theory attempts to explain how individuals develop an understanding of the

motivations behind their own behavior. Self perception by customers relates to values and

motivations that drive buying behavior -- which is also an important aspect of consumer

perception theory. For instance, a study by researchers at the University of Massachusetts at

26
Amherst addressed how self perception shaped consumers' buying behavior. The study

considered the question of whether consumers believed their buying decisions had a real effect

on issues such as environmental impact. The researchers concluded that consumers' self

perception was a driving factor in whether or not they placed a priority on socially conscious

purchase and consumption practices. Consumers who viewed themselves as socially conscious

tended to place more weight on issues such as environmental impact when making buying

decisions than consumers who did not hold similar views of themselves.

Price Perception

While mass merchandisers such as Wal-Mart emphasize low prices as an inherent virtue,

upscale merchants attempt to emphasize quality and value for money to appeal to potential

customers. Researchers at the School of Business Administration at LaSalle University and

LeBow College of Business at Drexel University considered several factors, including price

perception -- whether consumers believed they were being charged fair prices -- in determining

whether online shoppers would make repeat purchases through the same website. The

researchers concluded that price perception strongly influenced whether customers were

satisfied with their purchases and whether they would make future purchases. Two factors that

shaped price perception were the perceived quality of the merchandise or service in question

and price comparisons with merchants offering similar merchandise or services.

Benefit Perception
"It's good, and it's good for you." Many consumers are familiar with this phrase frequently

associated with food advertising. Researchers from Marquette University, Louisiana State

University and the University of Arkansas surveyed customers to determine how nutrition

claims associated with food affected their perception of that food's nutritional value. The

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researchers found that consumers tend to reject general, unsupported claims of enhanced

nutrition, especially concerning high nutritional value for foods that are traditionally viewed as

unhealthy. The researchers also theorized that consumers would demonstrate a trend toward

applying more scrutiny to nutrition claims and would demand more specific information about

the foods they purchase.

Buyer behaviour: stimulus-response model


A well-developed and tested model of buyer behaviour is known as the stimulus-response
model, which is summarised in the diagram below:

In the above model, marketing and other stimuli enter the customers “black box” and produce

certain responses.

Marketing management must try to work out what goes on the in the mind of the customer – the

“black box”.

The Buyer’s characteristics influence how he or she perceives the stimuli; the decision-making

process determines what buying behaviour is undertaken.

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Characteristics that affect customer behaviour

The first stage of understanding buyer behaviour is to focus on the factors that determine he

“buyer characteristics” in the “black box”. These can be summarised as follows:

Information Acquisition and Processing


To make purchasing decisions, consumers acquire and process information from the web,
friends and neighbours and their own experiences with products. Acquiring information means
that consumer must gather information from various sources based on their need.

Consumer Information Acquisition

Consumers must acquire information before they can process it. The role of information
acquisition in consumer decision making is shown in Figure 7.1

Search for Additional


Information

CONSUMER’S Acquisition of Information is Brand Purchase and

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ENVIRONMENT Information Perceived Evaluation Consumption
(1) (External)

Acquisition of
Information Past
(Internal Experience

Retention in
Memory

Consumers must acquire information before they can process it and the information is acquired
from their environment - from advertisement, salespeople, word of mouth communication with
friends and neighbours impartial sources such as Consumer Reports etc. Consumers uses four
different processes for acquiring such external information, with each process being related to
the consumers involvement with the product.

Retention in Memory - from consumptions and past experiences information are retained in
memory which can assist in future information search.

Table 7.1 – Processes for Acquiring External Information

Acquisition Process Type of Involvement

1. Directed ongoing search 1. Enduring Involvement


2. Directed purchase-specific search 2. Situational Involvement, prior knowledge
3. Non-directed purchase-specific search 3. Situational Involvement, little prior
4. Passive Acquisition knowledge
4. Low Involvement
Ongoing Search – Characterize the consumer with enduring involvement in the product. For
example the computer buff who subscribes to computer magazines is aware of a wide variety of
opinion.

Directed Purchase-Specific Search – This type of search is characteristic of the consumer with
situational involvement who collects information when making a purchase decision. Example a
consumer who wants to buy a mini-van might visit the dealers or ask friends who owns a mini-
van.
Non-directed Purchase-Specific Search – This type of search is most often done by a
consumer who needs general information. For example a consumer may need a new computer
but is unsure what kind of computer she is looking for.

Passive Acquisition of Information – The minimal search characterizes the un-involved


consumer. Information is acquired in passing, with little effort on the consumer’s part.
Determinants of Information Search

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Several factors encourage consumers to actively acquire more information, whether the process
is active or passive.
1. High Consumer Involvement – The higher the level of involvement, the greater the
amount of information acquired.
2. High Perceived Risk – The higher the perceived risk in purchasing, the greater the
amount of information search. When risks are high, consumers normally search for more
information.
3. Product Uncertainty – The more uncertain the consumer is about brand choice, the
greater the product search.
4. Little product knowledge and experience – Consumers with less knowledge of these
products were more likely to search for more information.
5. Clear Goals – Information search is likely to be greater when consumers have clear
goals.
6. Less Time Pressure – Time pressure to make a decision discourages information
search.
7. High Price – The higher the price, the greater the information search.
8. More Product Difference – Searching for information has a higher pay-off when
substantial differences exist between brands.
9. Cost-effectiveness of Information Search – Another determinant of information search
is its cost factor.

SOURCES OF INFORMATION
Personal Non-Personal
Salespeople Media Advertising
Telemarketing In-store display
Marketer Trade Show Sales Promotions
Controlled email Packaging
Internet Advertising

Word of Mouth Publicity


Professional Advice Neutral Sources (e.g. Consumer
Non-Marketer Experience from Reports)
Controlled Consumption Infomediaries
Chat rooms BOTS
BOTS, or Internet robots, are applications designed for simple, repetitive jobs
Amount of Information Search
Despite consumers’ reasons for undertaking a search for information, their amount of
information search for all but the most expensive products in very limited. In subscribing to
principles of cognitive economy, consumers often consider the search for additional information
not worth the time and effort involved.
Limits of Information Acquisition
Some consumer advocates and government agencies assume that consumers should be supplied
with as much information as possible to permit a comparison of brand alternatives. The same
assumption underlies economic theory; Optimal choice requires access to information on all
alternatives.
The realities, however is that consumer rarely seek all of the available information. They find
the cost of search and the complexity of processing just too great to attempt to consider all

31
brand alternatives. Therefore, more information is not necessarily better. In fact, too much
information may create information overload; that is confusion in the decision task, resulting
in an ineffective decision.

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CONSUMER INFORMATION PROCESSING MODEL
Once information is acquired, consumers must process it. Marketers are interested in
information processing because it determines which information consumers remember and how
this information is used.

Short-term memory which acts as a filter to determine the information consumer stores and
information consumer ignores.
Selective Retention – States that only the most important and relevant information to the brand
decision will be stored in long-term memory.
Involvement and Information Processing

The way consumers’ process information depends largely on their level of involvement with the
product decision.
When consumers are involved in a product, they actively search for information and analyze it
to assess alternative brands effectively. For low-involvement products, consumers are more
likely to receive and process information passively.
Table 7.4 High- vs. Low-Involvement Information Processing
High Involvement Low-Involvement

1. Active Processing 1. Passive Processing


2. Extensive Brand evaluation 2. Minimal Brand Evaluation
3. Additional Information seeking is likely 3. Additional Information seeking is likely
4. Rely more on product information 4. Rely more on past experience

Memory Processing
In both the high – and low – involvement cases, processing information requires that;
1. Information is filtered through short-term memory
2. It is stored in long-term memory
3. It is retrieved for purposes of brand evaluation
Information is filtered through short-term memory
When consumers perceive information, they briefly evaluate it in short-term memory to
determine whether to store it in long-term memory or to filter it out as unimportant or
undesirable information.
Consumers decide whether to retain information or to filter it out by relating it to information
they already have stored in memory. If the information is important they store it.
It is stored in long-term memory
Information in long-term memory is stored as images that reflect our memory of past events
(episodic memory) or as words and sentences that reflect facts and concepts we remember
(semantic memory).
Consumers’ memories of brands are in the form of both words and images. The “Nike” may
evoke other ideas such as “Just Do It” and physical exertion during sports. It may also evoke
images learned from advertising and from past experiences.
It is retrieved for purposes of brand evaluation
Once consumers filter information through short-term memory and store in long-term memory
it is available for retrieval. When retrieving information from long-term memory, consumers
briefly store it in short-term memory and use it to evaluate brands.

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Factors Encouraging Retrieval
Activation, Placement and Transfer.
Activate – e.g. “Nike” would activate various nodes associated with the word. (Athletes
wearing Nike sport products.).
Placement – which other nodes consumers will connect the activated node.
Transfer – Retrieve from long-term memory to short-term memory. This information is
important in making decision.
Factors Inhibiting Retrieval
Forgetting, Interference, Inconsistency.
Forgetting – the inability to retrieve information from long-term memory.
Interference – occurs when related information node blocks the recall of the relevant
information.
Inconsistency – the information delivered to the consumer can also inhibit activation or
retrieval of a brand.

BRAND EVALUATION
Information on Brands comes from many sources. As a result consumers need a set of
guidelines or decision rules for evaluating brands. These decision rules are the information-
processing strategies consumers use in evaluating brands;
Consumers use a variety of strategies, depending on;
 the level of involvement with the brand
 the amount of knowledge about the brand
 Information new?
 Information stored in memory?
Evaluative versus Non-evaluative Processing
Evaluative Strategies – require the organization of information about alternative brands.
Non-evaluative Strategies – involve the use of a simple decision rule to avoid the necessity of
evaluating brands.

Category-Based versus Attribute-Specific Processing

Evaluative strategies can be divided into category-based strategies and attribute-specific


strategies.

Category-based strategy – involves evaluation of a brand as a totality rather than on specific


attributes. Such brand evaluation requires development of a schema for the brand so that
consumers can retrieve a set of associations as a whole for long-term memory.
Attribute-specific strategy – requires comparison of each brand alternative on specific
attributes such as quick service, good taste, or nice atmosphere; then consumers decide which
brand to choose.
Compensatory versus Non-compensatory Processing – The use of attributes specific
evaluation.

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Compensatory evaluation – Consumers can evaluate brands one at a time across a range of
attributes.
Non-compensatory evaluation – evaluate specific across the range of brands being
considered.
Table 7.5 - Non-compensatory Processing Strategies
NEC Toshiba Compaq IBM
Processing speed 2 7 7 5
Storage Capacity 6 6 4 6
Keyboard/Display 7 5 3 7

Conjunctive Processing
NEC is eliminated because of poor rating on processing speed
Compaq is eliminated because of poor rating on keyboard/display & storage capacity
Select between Toshiba & IBM

Lexicographic Processing
Assume most important attributes are listed in same order as in table above
Toshiba and Compaq are tied for first. Go to next most important attributes and select Toshiba
on this basis

SOCIETAL IMPLICATIONS OF INFORMATION PROCESSING


Consumers have the right to adequate information to give them the capability to make
reasonable decisions. Societal issues emerge in this regard;
1. Should consumers be given more information?
2. Do consumers sometimes use poor strategies to process complex brand information?
Evidence of less efficient information processing among younger and older consumers
particularly on the web.
More of Less Information – Studies have found that for some product categories - more
information increases consumers’ confusion and leads to less efficient choices.
Governments are taking an increasingly activist view that consumers need additional
information. E.g. Medicines, drugs etc…. There are compelling reasons to support this trend.
Reasons being;
1. Consumers use such information and therefore it is important
2. When consumer uses this type of information, they often make more efficient purchase

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About Topic

CUSTOMER SATISFACTION

Customer satisfaction, a term frequently used in marketing, is a measure of how


products and services supplied by a company meet or surpass customer expectation. Customer
satisfaction is defined as "the number of customers, or percentage of total customers, whose
reported experience with a firm, its products, or its services (ratings) exceeds specified
satisfaction goals."

It is seen as a key performance indicator within business and is often part of a balanced
scorecard. In a competitive marketplace where businesses compete for customers, customer
satisfaction is seen as a key differentiator and increasingly has become a key element of
business strategy.

Within organizations, customer satisfaction ratings can have powerful effects. They
focus employees on the importance of fulfilling customers’ expectations. Furthermore, when
these ratings dip, they warn of problems that can affect sales and profitability. These metrics
quantify an important dynamic. When a brand has loyal customers, it gains positive word-of-
mouth marketing, which is both free and highly effective.Therefore, it is essential for businesses
to effectively manage customer satisfaction. To be able do this, firms need reliable and
representative measures of satisfaction.

In researching satisfaction, firms generally ask customers whether their product or


service has met or exceeded expectations. Thus, expectations are a key factor behind
satisfaction. When customers have high expectations and the reality falls short, they will be
disappointed and will likely rate their experience as less than satisfying. For this reason, a
luxury resort, for example, might receive a lower satisfaction rating than a budget motel even
though its facilities and service would be deemed superior in “absolute” terms.

The importance of customer satisfaction diminishes when a firm has increased


bargaining power. For example, cell phone plan providers, such as AT&T and Verizon,

36
participate in an industry that is an oligopoly, where only a few suppliers of a certain product or
service exist.

As such, many cell phone plan contracts have a lot of fine print with provisions that they
would never get away if there were, say, a hundred cell phone plan providers, because customer
satisfaction would be way too low, and customers would easily have the option of leaving for a
better contract offer.

Customer satisfaction:

Customer satisfaction is defined as "the number of customers, or percentage of total


customers, whose reported experience with a firm, its products, or its services (ratings) exceeds
specified satisfaction goals."

Consumer satisfaction:

Satisfaction of a consumer want is an essential part of the marketing operation.


Fundamentally, a person buys (acquires) a product for the satisfaction it will provide.

Purpose:

A business ideally is continually seeking feedback to improve customer


satisfaction.Customer satisfaction provides a leading indicator of consumer purchase intentions

37
and loyalty. Customer satisfaction data are among the most frequently collected indicators of
market perceptions. Their principal use is twofold:

 Within organizations, the collection, analysis and dissemination of these data send a
message about the importance of tending to customers and ensuring that they have a
positive experience with the company’s goods and services.
 Although sales or market share can indicate how well a firm is performing currently,
satisfaction is an indicator of how likely it is that the firm’s customers will make further
purchases in the future. Much research has focused on the relationship between
customer satisfaction and retention. Studies indicate that the ramifications of satisfaction
are most strongly realized at the extremes. Willingness to recommend is a key metric
relating to customer satisfaction.

Measuring customer satisfaction:

Organizations need to retain existing customers while targeting non-customers.


Measuring customer satisfaction provides an indication of how successful the organization is at
providing products and/or services to the marketplace.

Customer satisfaction is measured at the individual level, but it is almost always


reported at an aggregate level. It can be, and often is, measured along various dimensions. As
research on consumption experiences grows, evidence suggests that consumers purchase goods
and services for a combination of two types of benefits: hedonic and utilitarian. Hedonic
benefits are associated with the sensory and experiential attributes of the product. Utilitarian
benefits of a product are associated with the more instrumental and functional attributes of the
product.

Customer satisfaction is an ambiguous and abstract concept and the actual manifestation
of the state of satisfaction will vary from person to person and product/service to
product/service.

The state of satisfaction depends on a number of both psychological and physical


variables which correlate with satisfaction behaviors such as return and recommend rate. The

38
level of satisfaction can also vary depending on other options the customer may have and other
products against which the customer can compare the organization's products.

The usual measures of customer satisfaction involve a survey with a set of statements
using a Likert Technique or scale. The customer is asked to evaluate each statement and in term
of their perception and expectation of performance of the organization being measured. Their
satisfaction is generally measured on a five-point scale.

Regardless of the scale used, the objective is to measure customers’ perceived


satisfaction with their experience of a firm’s offerings. It is essential for firms to effectively
manage customer satisfaction. To be able do this, we need accurate measurement of satisfaction.

Good quality measures need to have high satisfaction loadings, good reliability, and low
error variances. In an empirical study comparing commonly used satisfaction measures it was
found that two multi-item semantic differential scales performed best across both hedonic and
utilitarian service consumption contexts.

It seems that dependent on a trade-off between length of the questionnaire and quality of
satisfaction measure, these scales seem to be good options for measuring customer satisfaction
in academic and applied studies research alike. All other measures tested consistently performed
worse than the top three measures, and/or their performance varied significantly across the two
service contexts in their study. These results suggest that more careful pretesting would be
prudent should these measures be used.

Finally, all measures captured both affective and cognitive aspects of satisfaction,
independent of their scale anchors.Affective measures capture a consumer’s attitude towards a
product, which can result from any product information or experience. On the other hand,
cognitive element is defined as an appraisal or conclusion on how the product’s performance
compared against expectations, was useful, fit the situation, and exceeded the requirements of
the situation.

39
Tools For Tracking And Measuring Customer Satisfaction:

There are various ways of measuring customer satisfaction. Each has its own
importance; one cannot just stick to a particular concept and say this is the accurate way of
measuring customer satisfaction.

Complaint and suggestion system:

A customer concerned organization makes it easy to the customers to register

suggestions and complaints. Some customer-centered companies, which are in FMCG line like-

P&G, whirlpool, establish hot lines with toll free members. Certain companies are using

websites and emails for quick, prompt response from the consumer and in return there is a two
way communication.

Customer satisfaction surveys:

Studies show that although customers are dissatisfied with one out of every purchase,

less than 5% will complain. Most customers will buy less or switch suppliers. Responsive

companies measure customer satisfaction directly by conducting periodic surveys, While

collecting data, it is also useful to ask additional questions the likelihood or willingness to
recommend the product or service to others.

Ghost shopping:

Companies can hire people to pose as potential buyers to report the strong and weak

points experienced in buying the company’s and competitor’s products. The mystery shoppers

can even test how the company’s sales personnel handle various situations and complaints to
see how the calls are handled.

Delivering Customer Value And Satisfaction:

40
In a hyper competitive economy, with increasingly rational buyers, a company can win by
creating & delivering superiors value.

This involves the following five capabilities.

 Understanding customer value

 Creating customer value

 Delivering customer value

 Capturing customer value

 Sustaining customer value

Companies succeed in attaining these value chain and value delivery network.

Value Chain:

Michael porter of Harvard proposed the value chain is a tool for identifying ways to

create more customer value. Every firm is a synthesis of activities that are performed to design,

produce and market, deliver and support its product. The value chain identifies 9 strategically

relevant activities that create value and cost in a specific business. These 9 values creating

activities consists of 5 primary activities and 4 support activities. The primary activities

represent the sequence of bringing materials into the business, converting them into final

products, shipping out final products, marketing them and serving them.

The support activities are the procurement, technology, development, human resource

management and firm’s infrastructure. These are handled by certain specialized departments.

The firm’s infrastructure covers the costs of general management, planning, finance,

accounting, legal and government affairs that are borne by all the primary and support activities.

41
The firm’s task is to examine its costs and performance in each value. Creating activity

and to look for ways to improve it. The firm should estimate its competition costs and

performance as bench marks against which to compare its own costs and performance. It should

go further and study the best of class practices of the world’s best companies.

The firm’s success depends not only on how well each department performs its work,

but also on how well the various departmental activities are coordinated. Too often company

departments act to maximize their interests. A credit department may take a long time to check

prospective customer’s credit worthiness so as not to incur bad debts. Meanwhile, the customer

waits and the sales person is frustrated. A traffic department chooses to ship the goods by the

rail to save money and again the customer waits. Each department has created walls that slow

down the delivery of quality customer service. The solution to these problems is to place more
emphasis on the smooth management of core business process.

The core business process includes the following concepts:

The marketing sensing process:

All the activities involved in gathering market intelligence disseminating it with the
organization and acting of information.

The new offering Realization process:

All the activities in research, developing and launching new high quality offerings
quickly and within the budget.

The customer relationship management:

All the activities involved in building deeper understanding relationships and offerings
to individual customers.

The fulfillment management process:

42
All activities involved in receiving and approving orders, shipping the goods on time and
collecting payment.

The value delivery network:

To be successful a firm or an organization also needs to look for competitive advantage


beyond its own operations into the value chains of its supplier distributing and customers. Many
companies today partnered with specific suppliers and distribution to create a superior value
delivery network.

Customer Relationship Management:

The aim for customer relationship management is to produce high customer equity.
Customer equity is the total of the discounted lifetime values of all firm’s customer’s. Clearly,
the more loyal the customer’s the higher the customer equity, value equity, brand equity and
relationship equity.

Value Equity:

Value equity is the customer’s objective assessment of the utility of an offering based on
perception of its benefits relative to its costs the sub drivers of the value equity and quality,
price and convenience. Each industry has to define the specific factors underlying each sub
driver in order to find programs to improve value equity. An air line passenger might define
equity as seat width; a hotel guest might define equity as room size. Value equity makes the
biggest contribution to consumer equity. When products are differentiated and when they are
more complex and need to be evaluated. Value equity especially drives customer equity in
business market.

Brand Equity:

Brand equity is the customer’s subjective and intangible assessment of the brand above
and beyond its objectivity perceived value. The sub drivers of brand equity and customer brand
awareness, customer attitude towards the brand and customer perception of brand ethics.
Companies use advertising, public relations and other communication tools to affect these sub

43
drivers. Brand equity is more important than the other drivers of customer equity where
products are less differentiated and have more emotional impact.

Relationship Equity:

Relationship equity is the customer’s tendency to stick with brand above and beyond
objective and subjective assessment of its worth. Sub drivers of relationship equity include
loyalty programs, special recognition and treatment program, community building programs.
Relationship equity is especially important where personal relationship count for a lot and
where customers tend to continue with supplier out of habit.

Some customers inevitably become inactive or dropout. The challenge is to reactive


dissatisfied customers through win-back strategies. It is often easy to attract ex-customers than
to find new ones. The key is to analyze the causes of customer detection through exit interviews
and lost customer surveys. The aim is to win back only those customers who have strong profit
potential.

Forming Strong Customer Brands:

The basic companies that want to form strong relationship need to attend the following
basics:-

 Get cross departmental participation in planning and managing customer satisfaction and
retention process.

 Integrate the voice of the customer in all business decisions.

 Create superior product, services and experience for the target market.

 Organize and make accessible a database of information on individual customer needs


preferences, contacts, purchase frequency and satisfaction.

 Make it easy for customers to reach appropriate company personnel and express their
needs, perception and complaints.

 Run award programs recognizing outstanding employers.

44
There are 3 relation building approaches. They are as follows:

 Adding Financial Benefits

 Adding Social Benefits

 Adding Structural Benefits

Adding Financial Benefits:

The two financial benefits that companies can offer are frequency programs and club
marketing programs. Frequency programs are designed to provide rewards to customer who buy
frequently and in substantial amounts. Frequency is an acknowledgment of the fact that 20% of
a customer’s customer might account for 80% of the business.

Adding Social Benefits:

Company personnel work on increasingly social bonds with customers by individually


and personalizing customer relationships. Customers may be nameless to the institution, but
eliminated cannot be nameless. Customers are served as a part of larger segments. Clients are
served by individual basis. Customers are served by anyone who happen to be available, who
know to explain the details of the product or service.

Adding Structural Benefits:

Company can supply customers with special equipments or computer linkages that help
customer manage orders, payroll and inventory.

People can be loyal to their country, family and beliefs bur less to their toothpaste, soap
or even better. The marketer should aim at increasing the consumer’s productivity to repurchase
the company’s brands.

Rationale Of The Study:

Customer satisfaction is one of the most important functions of marketing. In the present
globalization era, it is very important for any organization. So, effective maintenance of
customer satisfaction is needed for every organization. Thus SafexIndia Pvt. Ltd.., should

45
follow the best methods of customer satisfaction to increase their sales as well as brand image in
the market.

For every organization maintaining best customer satisfaction is the first step. If this
foundation is strong then there is a lot of chance for the organization to increase
theireffectiveness at key points. So, finally customer satisfaction becomes heart of particular
organization.

So, studying is made to understand the customer satisfaction activities in the


organization and to know what extent their activities have been successful in organization
development.

46
CHAPTER 3
RESEARCH METHODOLOGY

Objective of the Study

During the project my main objectives of study was to:

1. To Study Products & marketing of Safex chemical

1.to Study customers Satisfaction level for products of Safex Chemical.

 2.To Study Customer perception for Safex Chemical Products


 Research design:
 It is a way to systematically solve the research problem by applying various research
techniques according with logic behind the problem.
 Data collection:
 The study is based on both primary and secondary data.
 Primary data: To collect primary data two detailed questionnaires were posed to
respondents.
 Secondary data: The secondary data available in leading business magazines were also
utilized to fortify the result.
 For collecting the primary data cluster sampling technique was administered. The
sample consists of 100 customers in Faridabad.

47
 Construction of tools and pre testing:
The questionnaire was used to make the study effective. The questions relate to rank
the Safex Fertilizers and Chemicalss, quality, price, service, credit facility, promotion,
opinion regarding the delivery system, comparison of various parameters, and growth
promotion of Safex Fertilizers and Chemicals in the market and problems face with Safex
Fertilizers and Chemicals distribution network were there.
And in the customers’ questionnaires, the questions related to factors influencing to
purchase and Fertilizers and Chemicals; aware of various varieties of Safex Fertilizers and
Chemicals; factors influencing to purchase Safex Fertilizers and Chemicals and satisfaction
level of customers with the output (yield) of Safex Fertilizers and Chemicals were asked to
solicit desired information. In the light of experience gained, the views include answers in
the questionnaire and final shape came out.

 Sample design:
Theconsumption pattern of Safex brand is also quite high in Haryana. That’s why the
researcher has decided himself purposively to undertake the study in Haryana area.

 Sample size:
It was decided to collect 100 sample respondents which consist of Fertilizers and
Chemicals customers.

 Analysis of the data:


In view of the nature and objectives of the study, efforts were taken to analyze the
data that fell in questionnaire was checked to see that all questions were answered by the
re spondent. Researcher has taken substantial care while classifying and editing the data and
tabulated the data with the help of calculated two way table and followed by analysis of
data.

 Tools of analysis:

48
The data were analyzed and interpreted with the help of statistical tools such
percentage analysis, Bar chart.

49
SCOPE OF THE STUDY

 By creating “customer satisfaction” we can know the intention of the customers that
it helps to increase the demand.

 The study also gives the information about the satisfaction levels of the Customers.

 Customers aim at innovation, so as to satisfy them with new features which are to be
introduced.

 Overall scope of the study is to understand effectiveness on creating customer


satisfaction in Faridabad.

50
LIMITATIONS OF THE STUDY

 This study is confined to only Faridabad district and not to entire Haryana.

 The 100 sample size does not present an actual scenario of the entire universe.

 Most of the customers don’t like to answer the questions posed at them why
because they are very busy with their work.

 The study is limited to 45 days.

 Time constraint is the main problem.

51
CHAPTER 4

DATA ANALYSIS & INTERPRETATION

1. Duration of Cultivation

Table 4.1:

S.No Parameters No. Of Respondents % Of Respondents

1 <2 years 7 7

2 >2<4 years 17 17

3 >4<6 years 25 25

4 More than 6 years 51 51

Total 100 100

Interpretation:
From the above table it is interpreted that out of 100 respondents 7 members i.e. 7%
of the respondents were cultivating for less than two years, 17 members i.e. 17% of the
respondents were cultivating for more than two years and less than 4 years, 25 members i.e.
25% of the respondents were cultivating for more than 4 years and less than 6 years and 51
members i.e. 51% of the respondents were cultivating for more than 6 years.

52
Graph 4.1:

Duration Of Cultivation

60

50

40

30
NO.OF RESPONDENTS

20

10

0
<2 years >2<4 years >4<6 years More than 6
years

53
2. Time Duration Of Using SafexIndia Pvt. Ltd.

Table 4.2:

S.No Parameters No. Of Respondents % Of Respondents

1 <1year 5 5

2 >1<3 years 22 22

3 >3<5 years 56 56

4 More than 5 years 17 17

Total 100 100

Interpretation:
From the above table it is interpreted that out of 100 respondents 5 members i.e. 5%
of the respondents were using SafexIndia Pvt. Ltd. products for less than 1 year, 22
members i.e. 22% of the respondents were using SafexIndia Pvt. Ltd. products for more
than 1 year and less than 3 years, 56 members i.e. 56% of the respondents were using
SafexIndia Pvt. Ltd. products for more 3 years and less than 5 years and 17 members i.e.
17% of the respondents were using SafexIndia Pvt. Ltd. products for more than 5 years.

54
Graph 4.2:

Time Duration Of Using SafexIndia Pvt. Ltd.

60

50

40

30
NO.OF RESPONDENTS

20

10

0
<1year >1<3 years >3<5 years More than 5
years

55
3. Awareness Of About The Company Products

Table 4.3:

S.No Parameters No. Of Respondents % Of Respondents

1 Advertising 34 34

2 Distributors 50 55

3 Friends & relatives 10 10

4 Others 6 6

Total 100 100

Interpretation:
From the above table it is interpreted that out of 100 respondents 34 members i.e.
34% of the respondents came to know SafexIndia Pvt. Ltd. through advertising, 50 members
i.e. 50% of the respondents came to know about SafexIndia Pvt. Ltd.through distributors, 10
members i.e. 10% of the respondents came to know about SafexIndia Pvt. Ltd.through
friends and relatives and 6 members i.e. 06% of the respondents came to know about
SafexIndia Pvt. Ltd.through others.

56
Graph 4.3:

Awareness Of About The Company Fertilizers and Chemicals

60

50

40

30
NO.OF RESPONDENTS

20

10

0
Advertising Distributors Friends & Others
relatives

57
4. Satisfaction About Company Prices

Table 4.4:

S.No Parameters No. Of Respondents % Of Respondents

1 Highly satisfied 76 76
2 Satisfied 14 14
3 Neutral 10 10
4 Dissatisfied 0 0
5 Highly Dissatisfied 0 0

Total 100 100

Interpretation:
From the above table it is interpreted that out of 100 respondents 76 members i.e.
96% of the respondents were highly satisfied with the Safex Fertilizers and Chemicals
company’s price and 14 members i.e. 14% of the respondents were satisfied with the Safex
Fertilizers and Chemicals company’s price,10 members i.e 10% of the respondents were
neutral with the Safex Fertilizers and Chemicals company’s prices,o% members i.e 0% of
the respondents were dissatisfied with the Safex Fertilizers and Chemicals company’s
prices,0 members i.e 0% of the respondents were highly dissatisfied with the Safex
Fertilizers and Chemicals company’s prices.

58
Graph 4.4:

Satisfaction About Company Prices

80

70

60

50

40
NO.OF RESPONDENTS
30

20

10

0
Highly Satisfied Neutral Dissatisfied Highly
satisfied Dissatisfied

59
5. Satisfaction With The Quality Of The Fertilizers and Chemicals

Table 4.5:

S.No Parameters No. Of Respondents % Of Respondents

1 Highly satisfied 85 85

2 Satisfied 10 10

3 Neutral 5 5

4 Dissatisfied 0 0

5 Highly Dissatisfied 0 0

Total 100 100

Interpretation:
From the above table it is interpreted that out of 100 respondents 85 members i.e.
85% of the respondents were highly satisfied with the quality of Safex Fertilizers and
Chemicals and 10 members i.e. 10% of the respondents were satisfied with the quality of
Safex Fertilizers and Chemicals,5 members i.e. 5% of the respondents were neutral with the
quality of Safex Fertilizers and Chemicals, 0 members i.e. 0% of the respondents were
dissatisfied with the quality of Safex Fertilizers and Chemicals, 0members i.e. 0% of the
respondents were highly dissatisfied with the quality of Safex Fertilizers and Chemicals.

60
Graph 4.5:

Satisfaction With The Quality Of The Fertilizers and Chemicals

90

80

70

60

50

40 NO.OF RESPONDENTS

30

20

10

0
Highly Satisfied Neutral Dissatisfied Highly
satisfied Dissatisfied

61
6. Information Provided By Company About Using Of Fertilizers and
Chemicals

Table 4.6:

S.No Parameters No. Of Respondents % Of Respondents

1 Yes 95 95

2 No 5 5

Total 100 100

Interpretation:
From the above table it is interpreted that out of 100 respondents’ 95 members i.e.
95% of the respondents felt that the company is providing information regarding the use of
Fertilizers and Chemicalsand 5 members i.e. 5% of the respondents felt that the company is
not providing any information regarding the use of Fertilizers and Chemicals.

62
Graph 4.6:

Information Provided By Company About Using Of Fertilizers and Chemicals

63
7. Relationship With The Dealer

Table 4.7:

S.No Parameters No. Of Respondents % Of Respondents

1 Very good 23 23

2 Good 45 45
3 Average 22 22
4 Poor 10 10

Total 100 100

Interpretation:
From the above table it is interpreted that out of 100 respondents 23 members i.e.
23% of the respondents rated the availability of the Safex Fertilizers and Chemicals
verygood, 45members i.e. 45% of the respondents rated the availability of the Safex
Fertilizers and Chemicals good, 22 members i.e. 22% of the respondents rated the
availability of the Safex Fertilizers and Chemicals average and 10 members i.e. 10% of the
respondents rated the availability of the Safex Fertilizers and Chemicals poor.

64
Graph 4.7:

Relationship With The Dealer

50

45

40

35

30

25
NO.OF RESPONDENTS
20

15

10

0
Very good Good Average Poor

65
8. Availability Of Fertilizers and Chemicalss Of The Company

Table 4.8:

S.No Parameters No. Of Respondents % Of Respondents

1 Highly satisfied 10 10
2 Satisfied 38 38
3 Neutral 35 35
4 Dissatisfied 8 8
5 Highly Dissatisfied 9 9
Total 100 100

Interpretation:
From the above table it is interpreted that out of 100 respondents 10 members i.e.
10% of the respondents were highly satisfied with the availability of Safex Fertilizers and
Chemicals and 38 members i.e. 38% of the respondents were satisfied with the availability
of Safex Fertilizers and Chemicals,35 members i.e. 35% of the respondents were neutral
with the availability of Safex Fertilizers and Chemicals, 8 members i.e. 8% of the
respondents were dissatisfied with the availability of Safex Fertilizers and Chemicals,
9members i.e. 9% of the respondents were highly dissatisfied with the availability of Safex
Fertilizers and Chemicals.

66
Graph 4.8:

Availability Of Fertilizers and Chemicalss Of The Company

40

35

30

25

20
NO.OF RESPONDENTS
15

10

0
Highly Satisfied Neutral Dissatisfied Highly
satisfied Dissatisfied

67
9. Reaction Related To The Complaint

Table 4.9

S.No Parameters No. Of Respondents % Of Respondents

1 Quickly respond 45 45

2 Respond 30 30

3 Neutral 20 20

4 Does no respond 5 5

Total 100 100

Interpretation:
From the above table it is interpreted that out of 100 respondents 45 members i.e.
45% of the respondents rated the company reaction related to the complaint is quickly
respond, 30 members i.e. 30% of the respondents rated the company reaction related to the
complaint is respond, 20 members i.e. 20% of the respondents rated the company reaction
related to the complaint is neutral, 5 members i.e. 5% of the respondents rated the company
reaction related to the complaint is does no respond.

68
Graph 4.9:

Reaction Related To The Complain

50

45

40

35

30

25
NO.OF RESPONDENTS
20

15

10

0
Quickly respond Respond Neutral Does no
respond

69
10. Continue With The SafexFertilizers and Chemicalss

Table 4.10:

S.No Parameters No. Of Respondents % Of Respondents

1 Yes 86 86

2 No 14 14

Total 100 100

Interpretation:
From the above table it is interpreted that out of 100 respondents 86 members i.e.
86% of the respondents felt that SafexIndia Pvt. Ltd. is maintaining good standards in
production and 14 members i.e. 14% of the respondents felt that SafexIndia Pvt. Ltd.
doesn’t maintain good standards in production.

70
Graph 4.10:

Continue With The SafexFertilizers and Chemicalss

71
11. Opinion About Distributor Make You Force To Buy Only The Safex
Fertilizers and Chemicals

Table 4.11:

S.No Parameters No. Of Respondents % Of Respondents

1 Yes 16 16

2 No 84 84

Total 100 100

Interpretation:
From the above table it is interpreted that out of 100 respondents 16 members i.e.
16% of the respondents felt that the distributer make you force to buy only the
SafexFertilizers and Chemicals and 84 members i.e. 84% of the respondents felt that the
distributer make you not force to buy only the Safex Fertilizers and Chemicals

Graph 4.11:

72
Opinion About Distributor Make You Force To Buy Only The

SafexFertilizers and Chemicals

73
12. Factors Which Motivate The Using Of Safex Fertilizers and Chemicals

Table 4.12:

S.No Parameters No. Of Respondents % Of Respondents

1 Quality 83 83

2 Price 7 7

3 Brand 8 8

4 Others 2 2

Total 100 100

Interpretation:
From the above table it is interpreted that out of 100 respondents 83% of the
respondents using Safex Fertilizers and Chemicals on the basis of quality, 8% of the
respondents using Safex Fertilizers and Chemicals for brand image, 7% for price and
remaining 2% of the respondents using Safex Fertilizers and Chemicals on the others
basis.

74
Graph 4.12:

Factors Which Motivate The Using Of Safex Fertilizers and Chemicals

90

80

70

60

50

NO. OF RESPONDENTS
40

30

20

10

0
Quality Price Brand Others

75
13. No Of Persons Used Other Company Fertilizers and Chemicals Before
Using Safex Fertilizers and Chemicals

Table 4.13:

S.No Parameters No. Of Respondents % Of Respondents

1 Yes 45 45

2 No 55 55

Total 100 100

Interpretation:
From the above table it is interpreted that out of 100 respondents 55% of the
respondents are using only Safex Fertilizers and Chemicals products and the remaining 45%
of the respondents using other company Fertilizers and Chemicalss before using Safex
Fertilizers and Chemicals.

76
Graph 4.13:

No Of Persons Used Other Company Fertilizers and Chemicalss Before


Using Safex Fertilizers and Chemicalss

77
14. Difference Identify By The Respondents After Using Safex Fertilizers
and Chemicals

Table 4.14:

S.No Parameters No. Of Respondents % Of Respondents

1 More yield 75 75

2 Quality of output 18 18

3 Nothing identified 4 4

4 Other 3 3

Total 100 100

Interpretation:
From the above table it is interpreted that out of 100 respondents most of the
respondents identify the difference that Safex Fertilizers and Chemicals are giving more
yield compare with the company Fertilizers and Chemicalss i.e 75%, 18% of the
respondents identify Safex Fertilizers and Chemicals giving quality of output and someone
does not identify any difference after using Safex Fertilizers and Chemicals products.

78
Graph 4.14:

Difference Identify By The Respondents After Using Safex Fertilizers and


Chemicals

80

70

60

50

40
NO. OF RESPONDENTS
30

20

10

0
More yield Quality of output Nothing Other
identified

79
15. Time Duration For Yield

Table 4.15:

S.No Parameters No. Of Respondents % Of Respondents

1 3 months 33 33

2 3 months 10 days 26 26

3 3 months 20 days 27 27

4 4 months 14 14

Total 100 100

Interpretation:
From the above table it is interpreted that out of 100 respondents 33% of the
respondents get yield within 3 months, 27% of the respondents get yield within 3 months 20
days,26% of the respondents get yield within 3 months 10 days and remaining got yield
after 4 months from Safex Fertilizers and Chemicals.

80
Graph 4.15:

Time Duration For Yield

35

30

25

20

15 NO. OF RESPONDENTS

10

0
3 months 3 months 10 3 months 20 4 months
days days

81
16.Suggessions To The Company

a) Table 4.16a:

S.No Parameters No. Of Respondents % Of Respondents

1 Yes 3 3

2 No 97 97

Total 100 100

Interpretation:
From the above table it is interpreted that out of 100 respondents 3 members i.e. 3%
of the respondents offered suggestions and 97 members i.e. 97% of the respondents didn’t
offer any suggestions.

82
Graph 4.16a:

Suggestions To The Company

83
b)If Yes What Suggestion

Table 4.16b:

S.No Parameters No. Of Respondents % Of Respondents

1 R&D 33 33

2 Quality 0 0

3 Price 0 0

4 All the above 67 67

Total 100 100

Interpretation:
From the above table it is interpreted that out of 100 respondents 33 respondents i.e.
33% felt that the Research and Development has to be improved and 67 respondents i.e.
67% felt that all the above i.e. Research and Development, Quality and Price has to be
improved.

84
Graph 4.16b:

If Yes What Suggestion

80

70

60

50

40
NO. OF RESPONDENTS

30

20

10

0
R&D Quality Price All the above

85
CHAPTER 5

FINDINGS

 The majority of the dealers deal with SafexFertilizers and Chemicals.

 It was found that Safex is the fastest moving brand as given by dealers.

 The large majority of dealers are getting the 10 – 15 % of profit.

 The majority of dealers preferred print media is the best media for advertising.

 The majority of dealers getting more discounts from SafexFertilizers and Chemicals
company.

 It was found that farmers are major customers.

 It was found that dealers feel that excellent towards quality of Safex Fertilizers and
Chemicals.

 It was found that most of the customers are giving first preference to buy Safex
Fertilizers and Chemicals.

 Majority of the customers of Safex Fertilizers and Chemicals states that the future
Fertilizers and Chemicals industry would be good.

86
SUGGESTIONS

 The company has to give priority to satisfy the customer’s requirements


continuously.

 The company has to provide information about the changes and other information to
the customers.

 Company has to distribute according to the demand of the product in the market.

 Company has to put some attractive offers to attract dealers and customers.

 Credit period must be expanded and give consideration to the customers.

 It is necessary to avoid high stock to remove under sale pricing.

 To asses the improvement and services by external parameters of customer


satisfaction level and services by external agencies on regular period.

 Marketing officials are paying more attention on big distributors/dealers only. They
should realize that cost of acquiring new customer is four times more than retaining
the existing customers.

87
CHAPTER 6

CONCLUSION

It is very essential and important activity for the company to maintain Quality
according to the standards. Company has to satisfy as well as consumers by offering Quality
products to the users. Company has to participate in social activities by taking the support of
the government to save the society in better way.

88
BIBILOGRAPHY
BOOKS

Marketing Management: Philip Kotler

Marketing Management: Ramaswamy & Ramakumary

Marketing Management: G.S.Beri

Research Methodology: C.R.Kothari

Websites:

www.google.com

www.Fertilizers and Chemicalsindustry.com

www.safex.com

Journals:
 Vasilika, K. and Besa, S. (2013). Entrepreneurial Characteristics amongst

University Students in Albania. European Scientific Journal June 2013

edition vol.9, No.16, pp206-225.

 Reynolds P D (1991). Sociology and Entrepreneurship: Concepts and

Contributions. Entrepreneurship Theory and Practice, Winter, pp. 47-70.

89
ANNEXURE
QUESTIONNAIRE
Name:

Address:

Mobileno:

Cultivation Land:

1. From how many years you have been cultivating?

a) <2 years b) >2<4 years

b) c) >4 <6 years d) More than 6 years

2. From how many years you have been using Safex Fertilizers and Chemicals Pvt. Ltd
products?

a) <1year b) >1<3 years

c) >3<5 years d) More than 5 years

3. How do you know about the company Fertilizers and Chemicalss?

a) Through advertising b) Through others

c) Through distributors d) through any other way

4. Are you satisfied with the company’s prices?

a) Highly satisfied b) Satisfied

c) Neutral d) Dissatisfied

e) Highly dissatisfied

90
5. Are you satisfied with the quality of the Fertilizers and Chemicalss?

a) Highly satisfied b) Satisfied

c) Neutral d) Dissatisfied

e) Highly dissatisfied

6. Is the company giving any information related to the using of Fertilizers and Chemicalss?

a) Yes b) No

7. How was the relationship with dealer?

a) Very good b) Good

c) Average d) Poor

8. Are you satisfied with the availability of Fertilizers and Chemicalss of the company?

a) Highly satisfied b) Satisfied

c) Neutral d) Dissatisfied

e) Highly dissatisfied

9. What was company’s reaction elated to the complaint?

a) Quickly respond b) Respond

c) Does not respond d) through any other

10. Do you continue which the company Fertilizers and Chemicalss?

a) Yes b) No

91
11. Is the distributor make you force to buy only the SafexFertilizers and Chemicalss?

a) Yes b) No

12. On what basis you are using the SafexFertilizers and Chemicalss?

a) Quality b) Price

c) Brand d) Other

13. Have you been tried any other company Fertilizers and Chemicalss before using Safex
Fertilizers and Chemicals?

a) Yes b) No

14. After using the Safex Fertilizers and Chemicals what was the difference you identified?

a) More yield b) Quality of output

c) Nothing identified d) other

15. How many months will you wait to get yield from the Fertilizers and Chemicalss?

a) 3 months b) 3 months 10 days

c) 3 months 20 days d) 4 months

16.a) Do you offer any suggestions to the company?

a) Yes b) No

b) If yes, what you suggest?

A) R&D b) Quality

c) Priced) All the above

92