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SMAW WELDING PARTICLES

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A Thesis

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Presented to
The faculty of the College of Senior High School
Abra State Institute of Sciences and Technology
Bangued Campus, Bangued, Abra

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In Partial Fulfillment
of the Requirement for Senior High School

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Gerald Bejarin
Justine Patrick Ballo
Christian Jay Alcantara
CERTIFICATION

This thesis is titled “SMAW WELDING PRACTICES”, prepared and submitted by

GERALD BEJARIN, JUSTINE PATRICK BALLO, and CHRISTIAN JAY ALCANTARA,

in partial fulfillment of the requirements for SENIOR HIGH SCHOOL has been examined and

is hereby recommended for approval and acceptance for proposal defense.

ELIZABETH C. FETALVERO, MA English


Critic

REYMOND S. VASQUEZ, MAME


Statistician and Adviser
APPROVAL SHEET

Approved by the Panel of Examiners on Oral Defense with a grade of ______.

FERDINAND B. PIAS CHARLIE A. VITALIS


Member Member

GENEVA N. PABLO, Ph. D


Chairman

Accepted and approved in partial fulfillment of the requirements for Senior High

School.

MARIAN LOREN B. VALERA, Ed. D.


Chairperson, College of Teacher Education

ALEXIS A. ENRIQUEZ, Ed. D.


Dean, College of Teacher Education
ACKNOWLEDGEMENT

The researcher’s foremost gratitude to the Almighty God, the giver of life, full of blessings
and grace, and the source of all wisdom, all the bountiful enlightenment and guidance. He provided
in making everything possible in the completion of this research work.

Sincere gratitude is also extended to the following individuals who showed genuine support
to the completion of this research work:

To Mr. Reymond S. Vasquez, for having been the researcher’s adviser, statistician, and
one of the best teachers of ASIST for his patience in giving brilliant pieces of advice,
encouragement and assistance in analyzing gathered data;

To the teachers of San Jose Elementary School for being the respondents and for the
pieces of advices for the fulfillment of the study;

To Mrs. Elizabeth C. Fetalvero for being the researcher’s critic and for her priceless
patience in checking our thesis paper;

To the Panel Examiners, Dr. Geneva N. Pablo, Prof. Ferdinand Pias and Prof. Charlie
Vitalis who carefully examined this study, for their constructive criticisms, suggestions and
recommendation;

FACULTY of ASIST, for teaching all the necessary principles and strategies needed and
for molding the researcher to become a better person in the society;

To their parents for their love, kindness, moral and care especially to financial support
which led to the completion of this study;

To their friends for the gift of friendship, encouragement, laughter and cheers.

Thank you very much.

The Researcher
DEDICATION

This study is humbly dedicated to our thesis adviser, Mr. Reymond S. Vasquez.

Who always there to guide and help us in every ways he can;

To our parents, Mr. and Mrs. Jose Cardenas, Mr. and Mrs. Crisencio Gines, Mr. and Mrs.

Ernesto Sabino and Mr. and Mrs. Domingo Ulibas Jr. who gave financially support for the

beginning until the end of this study

To our lovely sisters, Charity and Julie, and to our handsome brothers, Cris and Erwin, for

their full support and understanding.

And to our Almighty God,

Who gave us knowledge and strength to finish this study.

Gerald , Justine ,Christian


ABSTRACT

This study was undertaken to determine the Extent of Use of Cooperative

Learning in Teaching Mathematics to the Pupils of San Jose Elementary School, Manabo,

Abra during the School Year 2016-2017.

There were 6 teacher - respondents of the study which comprised of 1 male and 5

females. Further, there were one hundred fifty-three (153) pupil-respondents of the study.

This study applied the descriptive correlational methods of investigation. The performance

of the pupils was measured by the level of competency which are assignments, quizzes,

periodical test and projects taken from the horizontal grade sheets of the teachers. However,

the extent of use of the different cooperative learning was measured through the researchers

– made questionnaire.

The researchers asked permission from the principal of San Jose Elementary School

to conduct the study. Upon approval, the researchers floated the questionnaire-checklist to

the teachers and the researchers got the second grading grade of the pupils in Mathematics.

The data gathered in this study were analyzed using the frequency counts and percentages,

weighted mean and the bivariate analysis to which the level of the significance was set at

0.01 and 0.05 level of probability.


TABLE OF CONTENTS

Preliminaries

Title Page ……………………………………………………………………….. i

Certification ………………………………………………………………………... ii

Approval Sheet ……………………………………………………………….. iii

Acknowledgement ……………………………………………………………….. iv

Dedication ………………………………………………………………………… v

Abstract ………………………………………………………………………... vi

Table of Contents ………………………………………………………………… viii

CHAPTER

1 THE PROBLEM

Background of the Study ………………………………………………............ 1

Theoretical Framework ……………………………………………………… 7

Conceptual Framework ……………………………………………………… 12

Statement of the Problem ……………………………………………………… 15

Hypothesis ………………………………………………………………………. 16

2 DERSIGN AND METHODOLOGY

Research Design ………………………………………………………………. 17

Population and Locale of the Study ………………………………………………. 18

Data Gathering Tools ………………………………………………………………. 18

Data Gathering Procedure ………………………………………………………. 19

Statistical Treatment of Data ………………………………………………………. 20


3 PRESENTATION, ANALYSIS AND INTERPRETATION OF DATA

4 SUMMARY, CONCLUSION AND RECOMMENDATIONS

Summary ……………………………………………………………………… 40

Findings …………………………………………………………………….... 40

Conclusions ……………………………………………………………………… 43

Recommendations ……………………………………………………………… 44

REFERENCES ……………………………………………………………… 46

APPENDICES ……………………………………………………………… 47

Letter to the Principal………………………………………………………. 48

Questionnaire-Checklist ……………………………………………… 49

CURICULUM VITAE ………………………………………………………. 50


LIST OF FIGURES

Figure 1. The Research Paradigm ……………………………………….. 13


LIST OF TABLES

Table Title Page

1 Profile of the Teachers of San Jose Elementary School 21

2 Extent of Use of Cooperative Learning in Teaching 24


Mathematics

3 The Level of Competency in Mathematics of the Pupils of San 31


Jose Elementary School

4 Correlation Matrix Showing the Relationship between the 34


Extent of Use of Cooperative Learning in Teaching
Mathematics and the Profile of the Teachers

5 Correlation Matrix Showing the Relationship between the 35


Level of Competency in Mathematics and the Profile of the
Teachers

6 Correlation Coefficient Showing the Relationship between 37


the Cooperative Learning and Level of Performance in
Mathematics of the Pupils of San Jose Elementary School
LIST OF APPENDICES

A. Letter ……………………………………………………………………… 49

B. Questionnaire – Checklist ……………………………………………………… 50


Chapter 1

THE PROBLEM

Background of the Study

Welding first evolved as a technique of primary economic importance when the use of

iron became widespread, it being required not only to make finish products but also as part of

iron making itself (Lancaster 1999).

Worldwide, welding is a multibillion-dollar fabrication technology used extensively in

the construction of buildings and bridges and in the automotive, aircraft, energy, shipbuilding,

and electronic industries. Perhaps, because welding is a construction technique, it is viewed by

many as a primitive science. In the last several decades, welding has evolved as an

interdisciplinary activity requiring synthesis of knowledge from various disciplines and

incorporating the most advanced tools of various basic and applied sciences.

Agarsal and Manghanni (1992) in their book entitled, “Welding Engineering” stated that,

“welding involves more sciences and variables than any other industrial process. The principal

sciences involved in welding are Physics, Chemistry, and Metallurgy.

One method of welding called SMAW welding, which stands for (Shielded Metal Are

Welding), is one of the world’s most popular welding process. Also known as sick welding, flux

shielded arc welding and manual metal are welding (MMAW), this is relatively uncomplicated

process as it uses simple equipment and it’s fairly straightforward to learn. Welding is a core part

of the industrial fabrication process with the quality and integrity of the finish product directly
linked to the quality of the welding itself. This makes it extremely important for welder’s best

practices to be followed to ensure top quality output.

According to an article entitled “Discontinuity Detection in the Shield Metal Arc Welding

Process” at htpps://worldwidesscience.org/topicpages/s/shielded+metal-arc+welding.html

retrieved on February 23, 2019 reiterated that Shielded metal arc welding (SMAW) process is one

of the most commonly employed material joining processes utilized in the various industrial sector

such as marine, ship-building, automotive, aerospace, construction and petrochemical etc. SMAW

defined as a welding process, which melts and joins metals with an arc between a welding filler

(electrode rod) and the work pieces.

According to an article entitled “Five Step to Improving Your Stick Welding Technique”

at htpps://www.millerwelds.com/recourses/article-library/five-steps-to-improving-your-stick-

welding-technique retrieved on February 23, 2019 said that many people, especially those who are

new to it or perhaps don’t weld every day, stick welding, otherwise known as shielded metal arc

welding (SWAM), is one of the more difficult process to learn. Experienced welders who can pick

up a stinger, pop an electrode in and lay down great welds time after time can inspire great awe in

the rest of us. They make it look easy.

According to an article entitled “The Ultimate Guide to SMAW & Stick Welding

Techniques, Tips & Process” at htpps://weldinghelmetpros.com/smaw-stick-welding retrieved on

February 23, 2019 reiterated that SMAW welding, which stands for Shielded Metal Arc Welding,

is one of the world’s most popular welding process. SMAW welding is a process which uses a

consumable electrode which is covered with a flux. The welding machine is hooked up to a power
source, which creates either alternating current (AC) or direct current (DC) to form an arc between

the electrode1 and the metal.

In the same manner, according to an article entitled “SMAW: A welder’s guide- Advice

and Troubleshooting Tips for Beginners” at

htpps://www.thefabricator.com/article/arcwelding/smaw-a-werlder-guid---advice-and-

troubleshooting-tips-for-beginners retrieved on February 23, 2019 said that Shielded metal arc

welding (SMAW) is the most common form of arc welding. However, creating a good weld is not

always easy, especially for beginners. Unlike gas metal arc welding (GMAW), in which you

basically point and shoot, SMAW requires a higher skill level and a mastery of certain techniques.
Chapter II

Theoretical Framework

This chapter gives an extensive background of the research and an introduction to the areas

which is needed to comprehend to develop the welding process in relation to fatigue.

According to Holley 1877, advanced the theory that irons weld in proportion to their

mobility or flowing, and inversely as oxidation of the welding surfaces occurs. He thought that the

more plastic r more nearly melting point the irons were, the more readily they would weld. But

with the every increase in heat was a corresponding readiness to oxidize especially on the part of

carbon and iron. This oxide interposed a mechanical difficulty to perfect welding.

This theory does not satisfy Campbell2 who insists that impurities tend to crystallization

in the body of the iron. Carbon, which is the principal offender, and sulfur, phosphorus, and other

ingredients, all form alloys or compounds with the pure ferrite.

According to Campbell, then, those impurities which caused decided crystallization with

accompanying brittleness, interfered with the flow at high heat and prevented welding. Manganese,

it is true, makes a more brittle iron, up to 1.20 per cent; but it prevents crystallization of sulfur,

etc., and is an aid in welding.

According to C. Heiple J.R Roper that the essential science of welding is presented for the

first time in a style that is comprehensible to the craftsman, engineer and scientist. The application

of welding technology requires familiarity with a broad spectrum of engineering and science. The

practitioners of this technology need to be familiar with mathematics, physics, chemistry

metallurgy, electrical engineering, and mechanical engineering to mention the basics.


According to Lincoln that arc welding is one of several fusion processes for joining metals.

By applying intense heat, metal at the joint between two parts is melted and caused to intermix-

directly, or more commonly, with an intermediate molten filler metal. Upon cooling and

solidification, a metallurgical bond is created. Since the joining is an intermixture of metals, the

final weldment potentially has the same strength properties as the metal of the parts. This is a sharp

contrast to non-fusion processes of joining in which the mechanical and physical properties of the

base materials cannot be duplicated at the joint.

According to Everlast, welding is the method in which metals are joined together by

melting them and using a filler to join the parts. To weld, a combination of heat and pressure is

issued. The earliest form of welding is called forge welding and dates back to 2000 B.C. In this,

the metals are heated and hammered to fuse them.

Conceptual Framework

The paradigm illustrates the Shielded Metal Arc Welding which shows the relationship of

Fatigue resistance/ Load conditions to welding procedures, welding requirements, quality

assurance/quality control and operation.

WELDING PROCEDURES

Fatigue
resistance/Load
condition
Welding Quality assurance/
Procedures Quality control

Welding Operation
requirements

The subject of fatigue of weldments is not completely understood even if it’s common

failure type. The welding process is seen as a mature industrial process. But when digging deep

into welding and fatigue, there are still new things to learn and explore. Welding is a

workmanship with its own rules and traditions which have been not questioned for decades and

in need of an update. We have through this research contributed with new knowledge input and

set the direction for the future welding of structures subjected to fatigue.

Statement of the Problem

This research study aimed to determine the SMAW welding practices.

Specifically, it sought to do the following:

1. What are the welding procedures?

2. What are the welding requirements?


3. What are the good effects of SMAW welding practices?

a. high quality

b. high income

c. easy to apply

Hypothesis

1. SMAW welding practices has a good effects with us.

2. Through SMAW we can gain high income.

3. And it was easy for us to apply, most especially it was in demand in foreign countries.

Scope of Research

Identify critical points of the welds which set the fatigue life of the welded structure.

a. Develop welding procedures to optimize the fatigue properties of the weld in relation to

the load conditions. This means improved properties at the weld toe or at the weld root.

b. Define appropriate weld requirements which contribute a high focus on critical

characteristics, merging best knowledge of the welding process, fatigue properties and

the weld requirements.


c. Set design rules for the improved welding procedures to connect the expected fatigue

properties of the weld and design limits.

d. Use the new requirements and design guideline to design structures which are optimized

for both cost and fatigue.

Significant of the Study

Welder- welder is the one higher salary

Welding shop owner – owner can get a higher income because of the quality of the product

Customer- important for them because they can buy higher product

Operation definition of terms (ODT)

Welding- many different energy resources can be used for welding, including a gas flame

(chemical) , an electric arc(electrical),a laser, an electron beam, friction, and ultrasound. While

often an industrial process, welding may be performed in many different environments, including

in open air, under water, and in outer space. Welding is a hazardous undertaking and precautions

are required to avoid burns, electric shock, vision damage, inhalation of poisonous gases and

fumes, and exposure to intense radiation.

SMAW- SMAW welding is a process which uses a consumable electrode which is covered with

a flux. The welding machine is hooked up to a power source, which creates either alternating

current (AC) or direct current (DC) to form an arc between the electrode and the metal.

Interdisciplinary activity- assigning a project without instruction


Chapter 2

DESIGN AND METHODOLOGY

This section presents the discussion of the research design, data gathering tools, data

gathering procedures and statistical treatment of the data used in the study.

Research Design

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