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Types of
Communicative Strategy
People communicate every day to establish and maintain relationships, know and understand
themselves, and find meaning in the daily grind. Moreover, since humans are social beings who survive more
effectively through sensible discourses, they are always driven to learn the skills of creating and sustaining
meaningful conversations. Successful communication requires understanding of the relationship between
words and sentences and the speech acts they represent. However, a conversation may be complex at times;
that is why some people get lost along the way and misunderstand each other. It is only when we willingly
cooperate and speak in socially approved ways that we can make a conversation meaningful.

Types of Communicative Strategy

Since engaging in conversation is also bound by implicit rules, Cohen (1990) states that strategies must be
used to start and maintain a conversation. Knowing and applying grammar appropriately is one of the most
basic strategies to maintain a conversation. The following are some strategies that people use when
communicating.

1. Nomination. It is the process whereby a speaker launches or provides a background for the discussion
topic. Topic nomination or initiation also happens when the speaker prompt other members to introduce a
new topic so that the topic will not end.

2. Restriction in communication refers to any limitation you may have as a speaker. It involves restricting the
discussion to the topic offered or presented. To achieve this, all the participants should have noted and
accepted the topic introduced and keep it all throughout the discussion.

3. Turn-taking. It is the process of providing equal opportunities to all the participants to express their views
and insights to the discussion.

4. Topic Control. This involves the act of sustaining the topic for the discussion. Part of this allowing the
participants to contribute to the maintenance of the topic. Topic control is making sure that the discussion
sticks to the topic on hand.

5. Topic Shifting. It refers to the process of transition from one topic to another with a purpose of possibly
closing the conversation. This happens when the participants already achieved the purpose of a prior talk or
to avoid possible conflicts in the present discussion.

6. Topic Repair. This refers to solving problems or errors which may interrupt the discussion. The topic
repair has two kinds: self-initiated repair and other-initiated repair.

7. Termination. Termination refers to the conversation participants’ close-initiating expressions that end a
topic in a conversation. Most of the time, the topic initiator takes responsibility to signal the end of the
discussion as well.
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Exercise VI (Individual). Identify the type of communicative strategy in each statement.

1. “Do you have anything to say?”


2. “One of the essential lessons I gained from the discussion is the
importance of sports and wellness to a healthy lifestyle.”
3. “Excuse me? I think we should speak one at a time, so we can clearly
understand what we want to say about the issue.”
4. “Go on with your ideas. I’ll let you finish first before I say something.”
5. “Have you heard the news about the latest achievement of our
government?”
6. “Hey, how are you? I missed you!”
7. “Best regards to your parents! See you around!”
8. “Good to see you. Anyway, I came to visit you because I want to
personally offer apologies for what I did yesterday.”
9. “Sorry, I can’t decide on that now. I am still focused on my writing
assignment. Let’s talk next time, okay?”
10. “Now, it’s your turn to ask questions.”

II. Group Activity/Mini-project.


1. Form a group with five to six members.
2. Create a three-minute tourism commercial.
3. Plan and present a tourism commercial about the place you visited in the Imaginary Trip activity or any
place that you actually visited.
4. Mention the things that make the tourist spot a dream destination. Remember, this activity will help you
practice making positive statements about a vacation site and responding to how people see this place
differently.

When writing your script for the commercial, answer these 10 questions.
 Why do tourists visit this place?
 What do many visitors like to do here?
 What would be best for a day trip?
 What should one do for a good night out?
 Where can visitors get the best food?
 Where can visitors buy their souvenirs?
 What outdoor activities are famous?
 What is amazing about the weather?
 What is the best thing to do here during summer?
 What do tourists say about this vacation spot?
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Type of
Speeches
“It is the delivery that makes the orator’s success.”
-Johann Wolfgang Von Goethe

Since speech delivery is an oral presentation, it is more on how a speaker delivers it rather than what
he delivers. Of course, the content matters but it is the manner of delivery that aids the audience’s
understanding. The listeners have to rely on the speaker in terms of verbal and non-verbal cues. Speeches
are categorized according to several types. In speech delivery, 2 P’s are needed: practice and preparation. By
practice, it means delivering the speech for many times. While, preparation means doing a research and
planning the speech in terms of content and organization.

Types of Speech According to Purpose

Type of Speech Characteristics


1. An informative/expository speech provides the  Presents/give factual information.
audience with a clear understanding of a concept or  The content has to be carefully research, lanned
idea. The lectures of your teachers are the best and organized.
examples of this type.  The main objective is to inform audience.
2. A persuasive speech seeks to provide the  The most challenging of the types of speeches.
audience with favorable or acceptable ideas that can  Aims to change the attitude and beliefs of the
influence their own ideas and decisions. The listener on topics/issues.
campaign speeches of the running candidates for  Aims to incite the listeners to do a
government posts are the best examples of this type. recommended course of action.
3. An entertainment speech amuses the audience.  The listener is not obliged to remember the
The humorous speeches of comedians and information nor follow a course of action.
performers are the best examples of this type.  The listener only has to sit back and enjoy the
information received.

Types of Speech According to Delivery

Type of Speech According to Delivery Characteristics


1. Manuscript Delivery is the word-for-word  The speech is written.
iteration of a written message. In a manuscript  The speaker reads it to the audience word
speech, the speaker maintains his or her attention for word.
on the printed page except when using visual aids.  The main purpose is precision.
 It is used to avoid errors.
2. Memorized Speech is the rote recitation of a
written message that the speaker has committed to  The speech is committed to memory and
memory. Actors, of course, recite from memory recited to the audience word for word.
whenever they perform from a script in a stage play,
television program, or movie scene. When it comes
to speeches, memorization can be useful when the
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message needs to be exact and the speaker doesn’t


want to be confined by notes.
 It creates an illusion that the speaker
delivers his speech spontaneously.
 The speaker can maximize the use of the
3. Impromptu Delivery is the presentation of a stage or podium, eye contact with the
short message without advance preparation. audience since he is not limited to the
Impromptu speeches often occur when someone is manuscript.
asked to “say a few words” or give a toast on a special  This is used for short speeches.
occasion. You have probably done impromptu  The speech is made at the spur of the
speaking many times in informal, conversational moment.
settings. Self-introductions in group settings are  There is little to no preparation.
examples of impromptu speaking.  It is relatively short.
 It is used in occasions like ceremonial
toasts, grace before meals, an
acknowledgement, an introduction, an
accetance speech, etc.
4. Extemporaneous Speech is the presentation of
a carefully planned and rehearsed speech, spoken
in a conversational manner using brief notes. By  The speech is not completely written out
using notes rather than a full manuscript, the rather notes or references are used in the
extemporaneous speaker can establish and maintain delivery.
eye contact with the audience and assess how well  It is a carefully planned and researched and
they are understanding the speech as it progresses. prepared delivery.
The opportunity to assess is also an opportunity to  Length of time is monitored.
restate more clearly any idea or concept that the
audience seems to have trouble grasping.

In speech delivery, what matters


more is how the speaker delivers it
rather than what he delivers.
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PRINCIPLES OF SPEECH WRITING

Writing for the spoke word is a specific discipline. Speeches should be written giving ample
consideration that is heard not read. The written speech should reflect the intention as well as the style of the
speaker. The main purpose is for listeners to easily understand it. In developing a speech manuscript, you
have to follow the following steps: (1) choosing a topic; (2) analyzing the audience; (30 sourcing the
information; (4) outlining and organizing the speech contents.

1. CHOOSING A TOPIC