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Dr.

Jochen Smuda
Jochen Smuda: Desarrollo sostenible en la minera

I. Definición y motivación
II. Mineria polimetalica
III. Problemas ambientales principales
de mineria
IV. Gerenciamiento del manejo
ambiental
V. Desarrollo sostenible de la actividad
minera
Jochen Smuda: Desarrollo sostenible en la minera
Jochen Smuda: Desarrollo sostenible en la minera

Motivaciones
Jochen Smuda: Desarrollo sostenible en la minera

10 g oro
Jochen Smuda: Desarrollo sostenible en la minera

2% pirita
=> 20 kg pirita
1 ton = 167 moles
pirita
=> 667 moles H+
=> 333 moles
H2SO4
0.5 g oro/t 2% pirita = 32,67 kg H2SO4
Jochen Smuda: Desarrollo sostenible en la minera

EXOTICA DEPOSITE CHUQUICAM ATA DEPOSITE

LEACHED ZONE
MINERALIZED GRAVEL
OXIDATION ZONE
BARREN GRAVEL PRIMARY ZONE
ENRICHED ZONE

MINERALIZED BEDROCK PRIMARY ZONE

6 km 4.5 km
Jochen Smuda: Desarrollo sostenible en la minera

Mining
Waste material of
Flotation
Cu-sulfide-ore
99 %
Milling
Gold-ore
99.9 %

Crushing Including
“non-economic” sulfides
E.g., pyrite, enargite, galena, ...

Waste-dump
SULFIDE-ORE Tailings impoundment
Jochen Smuda: Desarrollo sostenible en la minera

After Mining
Waste-dump
Pit-lake
Tailings impoundment

ORE
ORE
Jochen Smuda: Desarrollo sostenible en la minera

Differencias entre relaves y botaderos


relaves botaderos

H2O O2 H2O O2
Jochen Smuda: Desarrollo sostenible en la minera

Procesos que producen acidez


 Oxidación de sulfuros (e.g. pirita)
FeS2 + 7/2O2 + H2O --> Fe2++ 2SO42- + 2H+
Fe2+ + 1/4O2 + H+ <-> Fe3++ 1/2H2O (catalizado vía bacterias e.g.,
A.ferrooxidians)

FeS2 + 14 Fe3+ + 8H2O --> 15 Fe2+ + 2SO42- + 16H+ (2H+)

 Hidrólisis
Fe3+ + 3H2O --> Fe(OH)3 + 3H+

 Transformación (jt & sh => gt)


KFe3(SO4)2(OH)6 = 3FeO(OH)+ K+ + 2SO42- + 3H+
Fe8O8 (OH)6SO4 + 2H2O = 8FeO(OH)+ SO42- + 2H+
Jochen Smuda: Desarrollo sostenible en la minera

pH
3 4 5 6 7
Neutralización
 Carbonatos
Fe(OH)3 CaCO3 + H+ = Ca2+ + HCO3- calcita
pH 7
Al(OH)3 FeCO3 + H+ = Fe2+ + HCO3- siderita
pH 5

siderita
 Hidróxidos
Al(OH)3 + 3H+ = Al3+ + 3H2O gibbsita
pH 4.3
Fe(OH)3 +3H+ = Fe3+ + 3H2O ferrihydrita
pH 3.5
calcita
 Silicatos
2KAlSiO3O8 + 9H2O + 2H+ = Al3Si2O5(OH)4 + 2K+ + 4H4SiO4
K-feldespato caolinita
Jochen Smuda: Desarrollo sostenible en la minera

Liberación de metales
% bound to surface

80 2- CrO4
2- oxyanions
SeO4 2-
60 2- HVO4
S 4 3-
40 O - AsO4
HMoO4
20

0 2 4 6 8 10 12
100
% bound to surface

80 bivalent cations
2+
60 Cu Zn2+
Cr3+ 2+
Pb Ni
2+
40
Cd2+
20 Ca 2+ after Dzombak & Morel, 1990;
Mo data from Goldberg & Forster, 1998
0
3 4 5 6 7 8
pH
Melanterite
2+
(Fe , Cu, Zn) SO4·7H2O
Jochen Smuda:
Smuda Desarrollo sostenible en la minera
Jochen Smuda:
Smuda Desarrollo sostenible en la minera
Jochen Smuda:
Smuda Desarrollo sostenible en la minera
Jochen Smuda:
Smuda Desarrollo sostenible en la minera

Step Name Description

1 Establish the context Define policy, purpose, objectives, success criteria, assessment
endpoints, and receptors

2 Identify the risk Define sources, pathways, concerns, and consequences

3 Analyze the risk Calculations (identify concerns and possible outcomes); certainty
and uncertainty

4 Assess and prioritize Compare with criteria; prioritize


risks

5 Manage (treat) the Mitigation, communication; develop and implement contingency and
risks management plans

6 Review and monitor Risk management plan; continue reviewing and monitoring; assess
effectiveness of treatment
Jochen Smuda: Desarrollo sostenible en la minera

Formación de aguas ácidas (ARD)

Retratamiento y
depositación segura
Capturación de ARD Instalación de un
muro reactivo Instalación de una
(precipitación de cubierta
Tratamiento súlfuros)
(hydrometalúrgico)

Wetlands  Muy caro


(precipitación de
súlfuros)  Costos a largo
plazo
Jochen Smuda: Desarrollo sostenible en la minera

ARD Treatment - Treatment


Plant
purified water

dam

precipitation settling or filter


AMD e.g. BaCl2
Ion exchange
sorption

Advantages: recovery of most metals


possible, sometimes economically
well
Disadvantages: expensive, long term,
toxic waste
Jochen Smuda: Desarrollo sostenible en la minera

ARD Treatment - wetlands


(natural or constructed)

purified water

dam

SO42- + 2CH2O => H2S +


AMD 2HCO3-
Me2+ + HS- => MeS(s) + H+
sulfate reducing bacteria
(SRB)

Advantages: sulfide precipitation of


metals, economical
Disadvantages: no selective recovery,
long term, toxic waste which
has to be maintained anoxic
Sulfur Excreting Thiobacillus
Jochen Smuda: Desarrollo sostenible en la minera

ARD Treatment - permeable


reactive barrier
sulfate reducing bacteria
(SRB)

SO42- + 2CH2O => H2S +


dam 2HCO3-
Me2+ + HS- => MeS(s) + H+

purified water

AMD plume
Advantages: passive in-situ treatment
Precipitation of metals as sulfides,
economical
Disadvantages: no selective recovery,
long term, limited lifetime,
toxic waste has to be maintained anoxic
Jochen Smuda: Desarrollo sostenible en la minera

1. cover
Remediation
Advantages: - no eolic transport
- limitation of O2 and H2O
input
Disadvantages: - expensive
- can not be used for
oxidized tailings

AMD plume

2. revegetation Advantages: - green -> ecological


image
- may limit eolic transport
- can be applied on a soil
cover
Disadvantages: - expensive (lime, fertilizer)
- no limitation of
AMD formation
AMD plume
Jochen Smuda: Desarrollo sostenible en la minera

Evitar la
movilización
Clasificación de la roca Flotación de los
de mina en AP y NP relaves Evitar la oxidación
e.g. súlfuros, carbonatos, (pirita)
alteración
Menos NP
mezclar necesario

Prevención de aguas
Material ácidas
geoquímicamente  Material de la mina
seguro
 Mucho más economico
Jochen Smuda: Desarrollo sostenible en la minera

Desarrollo de estrategias sostenibles 2


pH
7

FeS2 + 7/2O2 + H2O --> FeSO4 + SO42- + 2H+


FeS2 + 14 Fe3+ + 8H2O --> 15 Fe2+ + 2SO42- + 16H+ (2H+)
Fe2+ + 1/4O2 + H+ <-> Fe3++ 1/2H2O (catalyzed e.g., T.ferrooxidans)

Relaves frescos

0 20%
Jochen Smuda: Desarrollo sostenible en la minera

Cobertura geomembrana
pH
2 7
Cubierta de suelo

Geomembrana (HDPE)

Relaves primarios

0 20%
Jochen Smuda: Desarrollo sostenible en la minera

Cobertura fosphate de fierro 2


pH
7

Pyrite rich material => additon of PO4-rich material and carbon-rich material

Formation of a cemented zone FePO4•2H2O (e.g. strengite)

Tailings with 40 -60% Fe sulifdes e.g. pyrrhotite, pyrite

0 20%
Jochen Smuda: Desarrollo sostenible en la minera

Cobertura con carbonato 2


pH
7

Relaves con carbonatos

Relaves no mezclados

0 20%
Jochen Smuda: Desarrollo sostenible en la minera

Cobertura con carbon orgánico


pH
Cubierta de suelo 2 7

Relaves con carbon organico


=> consumo del oxigeno via bacterias heterotrofas

Relaves primarios

0 20%
Jochen Smuda: Desarrollo sostenible en la minera

Relaves desulfrizados
pH
Relaves sin sulfuros y con suelo/materia organica 2 7

Relaves sin sulfuros


=> Substrato sostenible

Relaves primarios

0 20%
Mineria de Lignita, Alemania
Mineria de Lignita, Alemania
Jochen Smuda: Desarrollo sostenible en la minera
Jochen Smuda:
Smuda Desarrollo sostenible en la minera

ARD Risk Management Focus Areas for Risk Management Example Risk Assessment Tools
Management Process Probability Consequences Uncertainty
Characterization Risk assessment Sampling Heterogeneity Representativeness Potential problem assessment (PPA)
Testing methods Tier approach
Mineralogy
Temporal variability
Spatial variability
Prediction Risk assessment Testing Seepage characteristics Assessment criteria Ecological and human health risk
interpretation Testing duration assessment
Particle size effect
Prevention Risk management System malfunction Seepage characteristics Waste variability Engineering reliability analysis (e.g.,
Effluent quality Climatic variability FMEA)
Treatment Risk management System malfunction Effluent quality Sample holding time Engineering reliability analysis (e.g.,
Sample preservation FMEA)
Testing interferences
Quantitation limits
Treatment effectiveness
Influent quality
Influent quantity
Monitoring Risk management Source Assimilative capacity Sample holding time Ecological and human health risk
characteristics receptors Sample preservation assessment
pathway analysis Testing interferences
Quantitation limits
Seepage variability
Assessment criteria
Performance Risk management Human error KPIs Applicability of Management system audit
assessment Contingency planning Management error Effluent quality performance measures
/management Emergency response System error Receiving water quality

Communication Risk communication Stakeholder views Stakeholder acceptance Stakeholder Values Stakeholder mapping and surveys
Sustainability Risk acceptance Impacts and benefits Environmental Sustainability Balance Sustainability risks and opportunities
aspects social assessment
economic
governance
Jochen Smuda:
Smuda Desarrollo sostenible en la minera
Jochen Smuda
Jochen Smuda:
Smuda Desarrollo sostenible en la minera

Discipline Typical Involvement


Geology To define the geological distribution of rock types and mineralogy, for developing the geological model on which the geochemical
zones and their characterization are developed.

Mineralogy To identify minerals that control the oxidation and neutralization potential and products.
Geochemistry To evaluate the oxidation and neutralization processes, dissolution, and solubility controls that determine mine water quality,
modeling of ARD, and the determination of ARD control requirements.

Mining engineering and planning To develop the mining methods and schedules for waste extraction and ore placed in stockpiles and waste rock dumps, and for
integration of the ARD management plan into mining operations.

Mineral processing/metallurgy To determine the characteristics of the heap leach, milled wastes or tailings and the control technologies that can be applied in
processing to minimize ARD potential.
Analytical chemistry To support mine and metallurgical operations by implementing proper test methods for sample handling.
Water treatment To design water treatment plants to remove deleterious constituents in ARD and supervise water treatment plant operations.

Geotechnical engineering To design pit slopes and waste storage facilities such as tailings dams and waste rock piles, covers, and erosion stability of the post
closure drainage system and landforms.
Social sciences To ensure effective and open communication with stakeholders and to ensure that their concerns are integrated into the
management plan.
Hydrogeology To evaluate groundwater inflows to underground and open pit mines and groundwater flows that have contact with ARD sources.

Hydrology and limnology To determine flood flows and water balance required for design water management facilities.
Soil sciences To design and implement surficial soils (covers) in the closure landscape to facilitate growth of self sustaining vegetation.

Agronomy/botany forestry To evaluate sustainable vegetation to meet the management plan and closure objectives.
Biology/ecology To evaluate ecological impacts of residual surface and groundwater contamination and establish conditions for ecosystems of
restored lands that meets operating and closure objectives.

Environmental law To determine the regulatory requirements that the mine needs to comply with
Accounting and financial To estimate and monitor costs, and make appropriate provisions for funding the management plan and sustain post-closure
management monitoring and maintenance requirements.
Contract management To ensure that ARD management plan issues and measures are incorporated into all relevant contracts that the mine enters into
with suppliers and contractors.
Project management and To manage and supervise all aspects of management plan development and implementation, including long-term post closure
supervision activities, where applicable.
Senior management To ensure management plan adherence, implementation and continuous improvement are incorporated into the key performance
indicators of all relevant personnel.
Jochen Smuda: Desarrollo sostenible en la minera
Jochen Smuda: Desarrollo sostenible en la minera

Los retos futuros

... Mejorara el uso de los recursos


... Minar los desechos (... reciclar...)
... Desarrollar nuevas tecnologias de trabajar mas
limpio
... Desarrollar nuevas estrategias para cierres
sostenibles
... Incorporar el desarrollo sostenible de las
comunidades vecinos
Jochen Smuda: Desarrollo sostenible en la minera