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SVKM’s NMIMS

Mukesh Patel School of Technology Management and


Engineering, Vile Parle, Mumbai- 400056

Department of Electronics & Telecommunication

Lab Manual

Automation and ROBOTIC’s Lab

Academic Year-2013-14

Programme: B. Tech EXTC

Semester – VIII

Course: - ROBOTICS

SVKM’S NMIMS
Mukesh Patel School of Technology Management & Engineering

Department of Electronics &Telecommunication Engineering

Automation and ROBOTIC Lab

Course: ROBOTICS

Course Objectives:

1. To provide knowledge to students with the concepts and techniques in robot


manipulator control.
2. To expose students to evaluate, choose and incorporate robots in engineering systems
and programming of robots.
3. To understand and analyze the various applications of robots.

Course Outcomes:

1. After the successful completion of this course, the student will be able to know the
basics of Robots.
2. Apply the knowledge of vectorial mathematics and geometry for kinematics (Direct
and Inverse) motion.
3. Perform trajectory planning and work space analysis for robots.
4. Use image representation for robotic movement.
5. Perform chaotic analysis for non-linear dynamics.
SVKM’s NMIMS
Mukesh Patel School of Technology Management & Engineering
Department of Electronics &Telecommunication Engineering

B-TECH: - EXTC SEMESTER: - VIII

SUB: ROBOTICS

LIST OF EXPERIMENTS

SR. NO. NAME OF THE EXPERIMENTS

1 STUDY OF FUNDAMENTALS OF ROBOTIC’S

2 REVIEW OF DIFFERENT MOTORS USED IN INDUSTRIAL ROBOT’S.

3 REVIEW OF YASKAWA MOTOMAN ROBOTIC ARM DX100

TO LEARN CONTROL INSTRUCTION AND PROGRAMING OF YASKAWA


4
MOTOMAN ROBOTIC ARM

5 CALCULATE REPEATABILITY OF YASKAWA MOTOMAN ROBOTIC ARM

CALCULATE ACCURACY AND PRECISION OF YASKAWA MOTOMAN


6
ROBOTIC ARM
TO PERFORM ARC WELDING AND CUTTING OPERATIONS USING
7
YASKAWA MOTOMAN ROBOTIC ARM

8 REVIEW OF DIFFERENT GRIPPERS USED IN INDUSTRIAL ROBOT’S.

TO PERFORM PICK AND PLACE OPERATION USING YASKAWA


9
MOTOMAN ROBOTIC ARM

10 TO DRAW 2-D MODEL USING YASKAWA MOTOMAN ROBOTIC ARM

LAB ASSISTANT SUBJECT FACULTY HEAD OF DEPARTMENT

Mr. ARUN .AGARWAL Prof. VINOD. JAIN Dr. VAISHALI .KULKARNI


Mapping of Experiments to Course Outcomes

Experiment. CO1 CO2 CO3 CO4 CO5


No.
1 √
2 √
3 √
4 √
5 √
6 √
7 √
8 √
9 √
10 √ √
SVKM’s NMIMS
Mukesh Patel School of Technology Management & Engineering
Department of Electronics &Telecommunication Engineering

SUB: ROBOTICS

EXPERIMENT NO. 1

FUNDAMENTALS OF ROBOTICS

Aim: - To study fundamentals of robot’s and terms used in ROBOTIC’s.

Theory: - Robotics is defined as the combination of machine tool technology and


computer science and is a form of industrial automation, and is a
technology with a future and a technology for the future.

Topic’s to be covered: -
1. Definition of ROBOT: -
2. Classification of ROBOT: -
a. Drive Technologies.
b. Workspace Envelope
c. Motion control methods.
3. Important specifications of Robot: -
a. Degree of freedom.
b. Repeatability.
c. Accuracy.
d. Precision.
e. Resolution.
f. Reach and Stroke.
g. Yaw, Pitch and Roll.

Conclusion: - Fundamental concepts of ROBOTS were summarized.


SVKM’s NMIMS
Mukesh Patel School of Technology Management & Engineering
Department of Electronics &Telecommunication Engineering

SUB: ROBOTICS

EXPERIMENT NO. 2

ROBOTIC MOTOR’s

Aim: - Review of different Motors used in industrial ROBOT’s.

Theory: - Mainly two types of motors are widely used in industrial ROBOT’s:-
1. Servo Motors.
2. Stepper Motors.
Servo Motor: -
A servomotor is a rotary actuator that allows for precise control of angular
position, velocity and acceleration. It consists of a suitable motor coupled to a
sensor for position feedback. It also requires a relatively sophisticated
controller, often a dedicated module designed specifically for use with
servomotors.
Servomotors are not a different class of motor, on the basis of fundamental
operating principle, but uses servomechanism to achieve closed loop control
with a generic open loop motor.
Servomotors are used in applications such as robotics, CNC machinery or
automated manufacturing.
Stepper Motor: -
A stepper motor (or step motor) is a brushless DC electric motor that divides
a full rotation into a number of equal steps. The motor's position can then be
commanded to move and hold at one of these steps without any feedback
sensor (an open-loop controller), as long as the motor is carefully sized to the
application.
Switched reluctance motors are very large stepping motors with a reduced
pole count, and generally are closed-loop commutated.

Conclusion: Servo motors and stepper motors two widely used robotic motor were
- reviewed; their internal structure and working principle were analyzed.
SVKM’s NMIMS
Mukesh Patel School of Technology Management & Engineering
Department of Electronics & Telecommunication Engineering

SUB: ROBOTICS

EXPERIMENT NO. 3

YASKAWA MOTOMAN DX100

Aim: - Review of YASKAWA MOTOMAN DX100 6-axis industrial ROBOT.

Theory: - Using patented multiple robot control technology, MOTOMAN’s next-generation


DX100 controller easily handles multiple tasks including control of up to eight
robots (72 axes), as well as I/O devices and communication protocols. The energy-
saving DX100 features faster processing speeds, advanced robot arm control for
smoother interpolation, built-in collision detection, and quicker I/O response. These
advanced control functions take advantage of YASKAWA’s Sigma V motor
technology to optimise acceleration characteristics and reduce cycle time.

 Key benefits: -
 Patented multiple robot control (up to 8 robots/72 axes).
 Controller connections through back of unit optimise floor-space.
 Dynamic interference zones protect robot arm and provide advanced
collision detection.
 Faster processing, high performance.
 Reduces teaching time.
 Provides up to 25% energy savingsBottom of Form.
1. Programming Pendant Overview

The programming pendant is equipped with the keys and buttons used to conduct
manipulator teaching operations and to edit jobs

Specification of DX100:
2.
Controller Construction Free standing, enclosed type
Dimensions Small medium and large Capacity:
MA1400, MA1900, MH4, MH5,
MH50, MH50-20, MH50-35, MS80,
VS50, MA 1800, ES165D:
425(W)x1200(H)x450(D)mm
Cooling System Indirect cooling
Ambient Temp 0- +450C (During operation)
-100C- +600C (During transit)
Relative Humidity 10% to 90%RH (non-condensing)
Power Supply 3-phase, 200/220 VAC at 60Hz
200VAC at 50HZ
Grounding Grounding resistance: 100ohms or
less Excessive grounding
Digital I/O Specific signal (Hardware)
23 inputs and 5 outputs
General signals (standard, max.)
40inputs and 40 outputs
(Transistor: 32 outputs, relay: 8
outputs)
Positioning System By serial communication
Drive unit SERVOPACK for AC
servomotors
Acceleration/Deceleration Software servo control
Memory capacity 200000 steps, 10000 instructions

Programming Programming Interactive programming


Functions Language Robot language: INFORM II
Robot Motion Joint coordinates, Linear/Circular
Control interpolations, Tool Coordinates
Speed Setting Percentage for joint coordinates,
0.1mm/s units for interpolations,
Angular velocity for TCP fixed
motion
Program Control Jumps, calls, timer, robot stop,
Instructions execution of some instructions
Variable Global variable, Local variable
Variable type Byte, integer, double precision, real,
position, string
I/O instructions Discrete I/O, pattern I/O processing

3. Overview of Programming Pendant of DX100:

Material Reinforced thermoplastic enclosure with a detachable suspending


strap.
Dimensions 169(W) x 314.5(H) x 50(D) mm (excluding protrusions)
Displayed TFT Colour LCD, VGA (640 x 480)
Units Touch Panel
Operated 3-position enable switch, start switch, hold switch & mode select
Units switch.
Type of key for mode select switch: AS6-SK-132
Others Provided with CF (Compact Flash) card slot.
USB port (USB 1.1) x 1
Description of Units and Circuit Boards:
4.
 Power Supply Contractor Unit:
It consists of power supply sequence circuit board (JARCR-YPC01-1) and
contractor for servo power and line filter (1Z). It turns contractor servo
power ON or OFF and supplies power to the unit.

 Major Axes Control Circuit Board (SRDA-EAXA01):


It controls the servo motors of the manipulators six axes. It also controls the
converter, PWM amplifiers and power supply contractor board.
It also has the following functions:
i. Brake Power Supply Control Circuit
ii. Shock Sensor Input Circuit
iii. Direct-in Circuit
 CPU Unit:
It consists of circuit board racks, control circuit boards, robot I/F boards. The
JZNC-YRK01-1E CPU unit contains only circuit board and control circuit
boards.
 CPS Unit (JZNC-YPS01-E):
It supplies DC Power (DC5V, DC24V) for control systems. It also controls
power supply ON or OFF.

 Brake Control Board (JANCD-YBK01-E):


It controls ON/OFF of the brakes of total nine axes (Robot + external axes)
according to command signal from Major Axes Control Board.
 Robot I/O Unit (JZNC-YIU01-E):

 Machine Safety Unit (JZNC-YSU01-1E):


This unit contains dual processing circuits for safety signal. It
processes external safety signals with the dual processing circuits
and control ON/OFF of controller for SERVO power supply of
contractor unit.
 WAGO Connector:
CN211 on the machine safety unit, CN152 on the CPS Unit and CN303
on the Robot I/O are equipped with the connector made by WAGO.The
wiring tool for the WAGO Connector is necessary to wire the WAGO
Connector.

 Robot System Input Terminal Block (MXT):


It is equipped at lower part of right side of DX100. It is used for the
input of robot system signals.
5. Manipulator Co-ordinate System:
• Control groups and Coordinate systems:

A group of axes to be controlled at a time is called Control Group and the


group is classified into 3 units: ROBOT as manipulator itself, BASE that
moves in parallel, and STATION as jigs or tools. BASE & STATION are
called external axes.
• Types of Coordinate Systems:
a) Joint Coordinate:
Each axis of the manipulator moves independently.
b) Cartesian Coordinates:
Tool tip moves parallel to any of the X-, Y-, Z- axes.
c) Cylindrical Coordinates:
The θ axis moves around S-axis. The R-axis moves parallel to L-axis
arm.
d) Tool Coordinates:
The effective direction of the tool mounted in the wrist flange of
manipulator is defined as Z-axis.
e) User Coordinates:
The XYZ-Cartesian coordinates are defined at any point and angle.

Conclusion: -
SVKM’s NMIMS
Mukesh Patel School of Technology Management & Engineering
Department of Electronics &Telecommunication Engineering

SUB: ROBOTICS

EXPERIMENT NO. 4

PROGRAMMING OF ROBOTIC ARM

Aim: - To learn control instruction and programming of YASKAWA


MOTOMAN robotic arm

Apparatus:- Yaskawa Motoman DX100 Robotic Arm.

Theory: - Teaching Window: -


Teaching is conducted in the JOB CONTENT window. The JOB CONTENT
window contains the following items:

A. Line Numbers
The number of the job line is automatically displayed. Line numbers are
automatically updated if lines are inserted or deleted.
B. Cursor
The cursor for manipulator control. For the FWD, BWD, and test operation,
the manipulator motion starts from the line this cursor points.
C. Instructions, Additional Items, Comments, Etc.
Instructions: These are instructions needed to process or perform an operation.
In the case of MOVE instructions, the instruction corresponding to the
interpolation type is automatically displayed at the time position is taught.
Additional items: Speed and time are set depending on the type of instruction.
When needed, numerical or character data is added to the condition-setting
tags.
Instruction set: -
Move Instructions: -

MOVJ Function
Moves to a taught point with joint interpolation type.
Item
Position data,
Base axis position data,
Station axis position data
Example MOVJ VJ=50.00 PL=2 NWAIT UNTIL IN#(16)=ON

MOVL Function
Moves to a taught point with linear interpolation type.
Item
Position data,
Base axis position data,
Station axis position data
Example MOVL V=138 PL=0 NWAIT UNTIL IN#(16)=ON

MOVC Function Moves to a taught point with circular interpolation type.


Item
Position data,
Base axis position data,
Station axis position data
Example MOVC V=138 PL=0 NWAIT

MOVS Function Moves to a taught point with spline interpolation type.


Additional
Item
Position data,
Base axis position data,
Station axis position data
Example MOVS V=120 PL=0
SPEED Function
Sets play speed.
Example SPEED VJ=50.00

I/O Instructions: -

DOUT Function
Turns the external output signals ON and OFF.
Item
OT# (<output number>),
OGH# (<output group number>),
OG# (<output group number>)
Number of addressed output signals:
OT#(xx)=1;OGH#(xx)=4(per group);
OG#(xx)=8(per group)
Example DOUT OT#(12) ON
PULSE Function
Outputs a pulse signal as an external output signal.
Item
OT# (<output number>),
OGH# (<output group number>),
OG# (<output group number>)
T=<time (seconds)> 0.01 to
Example PULSE OT# (10) T=0.60

DIN Function
Sets input signals in variables.
Item
B<variable number>
IN# (<input number>),
IGH# (<input group number>),
IG# (<input group number>),
OT# (<output number>),
OGH# (<output group number>),
OG# (<output group number>),
SIN# (<system input number>),
SOUT# (<system output number>)
Number of addressed input signals:
IN#(xx)=1;IGH#(xx)=4(per group);
IG#(xx)=8(per group)
Number of addressed output signals:
OT#(xx)=1;OGH#(xx)=4(per group);
OG#(xx)=8(per group)
Example DIN B016 IN#(16)
DIN B002 IG#(2)

WAIT Function
Waits until the external input signal status matches the specified status.
Item
IN# (<input number>),
IGH# (<input group number>),
IG# (<input group number>),
OT# (<user output number>),
OGH# (<output group number>),
SIN# (<system input number>),
SOUT# (<system output number>)
<status>,B<variable number>
T=<time (seconds)> 0.01 to 655.35 s
Example WAIT IN# (12)=ON T=10.00
WAIT IN# (12)=B002

Control Instructions: -

JUMP Function
Jumps to the specified label or job.
Item
JOB:<job name>,
IG# (<input group number>),
B<variable number>,
I<variable number>,
D<variable number>
UF# (user coordinates number)
IF statement
Example JUMP JOB:TEST1 IF IN#(14)=OFF

(label) Function
Indicates a jump destination.
Item
<jump destination> 8 characters or
less
Example *123

CALL Function
Calls the specified job.
Item
JOB:<job name>,
IG# (<input group number>),
B<variable number>,
I<variable number>,
D<variable number>
UF# (user coordinates number)
IF statement
Example CALL JOB:TEST1 IF IN# (24)=ON
CALL IG#(2)

RET Function
Returns to the call source job.
Item
IF statement
Example RET IF IN#(12)=OFF

END Function
Declares the end of a job.
Item
Example END

NOP Function
No operation.
Item
Example NOP

TIMER Function
Stops for the specified time.
Item
T=<time (seconds)> 0.01 to 655.35 s
Example TIMER T=12.50

IF statement Function
Evaluates the specified condition and makes a judgment accordingly.
Described after an instruction that specifies a certain action.
Format:<Item1>=,<>,<=,>=,<,><Item2>
Item
<Item1>
<Item2>
Example JUMP *12 IF IN#(12)=OFF

Algorithm: -
Procedure: - Teaching a Job: -
1. Check the emergency stop buttons to be sure they function properly.
2. Set the mode switch to “TEACH”.
3. Register a job or create a NEW JOB
4. In the NEW JOB CREATE window, press [ENTER] or select
“EXECUTE.”
5. Move the cursor to the line immediately before the insert position.
6. Turn ON the servo power and press the axis operation key to move the
manipulator to the position to be inserted.
7. Press [INSERT].
8. Select a particular interpolation Joint, Linear, Circular or Spline.
9. Select Speed.
10. Press [ENTER].
11. Repeat Step 5 to 10 until the job is completed.

Playback: -
1. Check the emergency stop buttons to be sure they function properly.
2. Step away from the Robotic Arm assembly.
3. Set the mode switch to “PLAY”.
4. Select a particular JOB.
5. Press the START button.

Result: - A new job was created to draw a line from one point to another.
Code: - /DIR LINEPRINT
/JOB
//NAME LINEPRINT
//POS
///NPOS 8,0,0,0,0,0
///TOOL 0
///POSTYPE PULSE
///PULSE
C00000=2414,-17633,-8205,-182,-84244,-1026
C00001=45125,64020,14192,3310,-43741,-24871
C00002=45125,74053,14567,3822,-36520,-25318
C00003=49119,81577,28162,3617,-43318,-27120
C00004=50474,71476,9731,4479,-34337,-28527
C00005=45125,74053,14567,3822,-36520,-25318
C00006=45125,65588,14016,3389,-42400,-24945
C00007=2414,-17633,-8205,-182,-84244,-1026
//INST
///DATE 2019/08/02 09:39
///ATTR SC,RW
///GROUP1 RB1
NOP
MOVJ C00000 VJ=40.00
MOVJ C00001 VJ=40.00
MOVL C00002 V=25.0
MOVL C00003 V=25.0
MOVL C00004 V=25.0
MOVL C00005 V=25.0
MOVL C00006 V=25.0
MOVJ C00007 VJ=40.00
END
/CDATA
//TOOL 0
///NAME STANDARD TOOL111
0.000,0.000,0.000,0.0000,0.0000,0.0000
0.000,0.000,0.000
3.000
0.000,0.000,0.000
0.000,0,2
Conclusion:- Instruction set of YASKAWA MOTOMAN DX-100 was reviewed and a test
program was run to draw line from one point to another.This type of robot is
used in pick & place , cleaning , welding and painting .So it can be
reprogrammed like in this we programmed it for drawing a straight line.
SVKM’s NMIMS
Mukesh Patel School of Technology Management & Engineering
Department of Electronics &Telecommunication Engineering

SUB: ROBOTICS

EXPERIMENT NO. 5

PROGRAMMING OF ROBOTIC ARM

Aim: - To learn circular and spline interpolation using Yaskawa Motoman


Robot

Apparatus:- Yaskawa Motoman DX100 Robotic Arm.

Components: - A4 Size Paper, colored pencils.

Theory: - Circular Interpolation


The manipulator moves in an arc that passes through three points .When
circular interpolation is used for teaching a robot axis, the move
instruction is MOVC.

1.Singular Circular Arc


When a single circular movement is required, teach the circular
interpolation for three points, P1 to P3, as shown in the following
figure. If joint or linear interpolation is taught at P0, the point before
starting the circular operation, the manipulator moves from P0 to P1
in a straight line.
Point Interpolation Instruction
Type
P0 Joint or MOVJ
Linear MOVL
P1 Circular MOVC
P2
P3
P4 Joint or MOVJ
Linear MOVL

2.Continuous Circular Arc


As shown below, when two or more successive circular movements
with different curvatures are required, the movements must be
separated from each other by a joint or linear interpolation step.
This step must be inserted between the steps at an identical point.
The step at the end point of the preceding circular movement must
coincide with the beginning point of the following circular
movement.

Point Interpolation Instruction


Type
P0 Joint or MOVJ
Linear MOVL
P1 Circular MOVC
P2
P3
P4 Joint or MOVJ
Linear MOVL
P5 Circular MOVC
P6
P7
P8 Joint or MOVJ
Linear MOVL

Spline Interpolation
When performing operations such as welding, cutting, and applying
primer, using the spline interpolation makes teaching for
workpieces with irregular shapes easier. The path of motion is a
parabola passing through three points. When spline interpolation is
used for teaching a robot axis, the move instruction is MOVS.

1.Single Spline Curve


When a single spline curve movement is required, teach the spline
interpolation for three points, P1 to P3, as shown in the figure
below. If joint or linear interpolation is taught at point P0, the point
before starting the spline interpolation, the manipulator moves from
P0 to P1 in a straight line.
Point Interpolation Instruction
Type
P0 Joint or MOVJ
Linear MOVL
P1 Spline MOVS
P2
P3
P4 Joint or MOVJ
Linear MOVL
2.Continous Spline Curve
The manipulator moves through a path created by combining
parabolic curves. This differs from the circular interpolation in that
steps with identical points are not required at the junction between
two spline curves.
Point Interpolation Instruction
Type
P0 Joint or MOVJ
Linear MOVL
P1 Spline MOVS
to
P5
P6 Joint or MOVJ
Linear MOVL

Procedure of Teaching a Job: -


Circular 1. Check the emergency stop buttons to be sure they function properly.
Interpolation: - 2. Fix a pencil in the Robots Gripper.
3. Attach a Graph sheet on the table top in front of the robotic
manipulator.
4. Set the mode switch to “TEACH”.
5. Register a job or create a NEW JOB called “Repeatability”
6. In the NEW JOB CREATE window, press [ENTER] or select
“EXECUTE.”
7. Move the cursor to the line immediately before the insert position.
8. Turn ON the servo power and press the axis operation key to move the
manipulator to the position no.1 to be inserted.
9. Press [INSERT].
10. Select a particular Circular interpolation.
11. Select Speed.
12. Press [ENTER].
13. Repeat Step 5 to 10 and trace out position No. 2, 3 and 4.
14. Set a counter for robot to repeat the above operations a number of
times.
15. Measure the deviation between the curves traced.

Playback: -
1. Check the emergency stop buttons to be sure they function properly.
2. Step away from the Robotic Arm assembly.
3. Set the mode switch to “PLAY”.
4. Select the job “Repeatability”.
5. Press the START button.

Code:- CIRCLE CODE:-

/JOB
//NAME 1CIRPRINT
//POS
///NPOS 9,0,0,0,0,0
///TOOL 0
///POSTYPE PULSE
///PULSE
C00000=2192,-10822,-3753,-191,-83168,-896
C00001=50119,48072,-8180,4266,-35778,-28175
C00002=50120,62011,-8825,5931,-24719,-29418
C00003=50120,62011,-8825,5931,-24719,-29418
C00004=56288,69445,5399,5164,-32261,-31995
C00005=46799,71284,8906,4220,-33589,-26472
C00006=50120,62011,-8825,5931,-24719,-29418
C00007=50119,48072,-8180,4266,-35778,-28175
C00008=2192,-10822,-3753,-191,-83168,-896
//INST
///DATE 2019/08/16 08:54
///ATTR SC,RW
///GROUP1 RB1
NOP
MOVJ C00000 VJ=40.00
MOVJ C00001 VJ=40.00
MOVL C00002 V=11.0
MOVC C00003 V=11.0
MOVC C00004 V=11.0
MOVC C00005 V=11.0
MOVC C00006 V=11.0
MOVL C00007 V=11.0
MOVJ C00008 VJ=40.00
END

Procedure of Teaching a Job: -


Spline 16. Check the emergency stop buttons to be sure they function properly.
Interpolation:- 17. Fix a pencil in the Robots Gripper.
18. Attach a Graph sheet on the table top in front of the robotic
manipulator.
19. Set the mode switch to “TEACH”.
20. Register a job or create a NEW JOB called “Repeatability”
21. In the NEW JOB CREATE window, press [ENTER] or select
“EXECUTE.”
22. Move the cursor to the line immediately before the insert position.
23. Turn ON the servo power and press the axis operation key to move the
manipulator to the position no.1 to be inserted.
24. Press [INSERT].
25. Select a particular Spline interpolation.
26. Select Speed.
27. Press [ENTER].
28. Repeat Step 5 to 10 and trace out position No. 2, 3 and 4.
29. Set a counter for robot to repeat the above operations a number of
times.
30. Measure the deviation between the curves traced.

Playback: -
6. Check the emergency stop buttons to be sure they function properly.
7. Step away from the Robotic Arm assembly.
8. Set the mode switch to “PLAY”.
9. Select the job “Repeatability”.
Press the START button

Code:- SPLINE CODE:-


/JOB
//NAME SPLINE35
//POS
///NPOS 16,0,0,0,0,0
///TOOL 0
///POSTYPE PULSE
///PULSE
C00000=1313,-29821,-14512,-269,-91700,-479
C00001=47385,52900,-4060,-132,-38562,-24657
C00002=45652,64125,-844,-160,-33003,-23727
C00003=45652,64125,-844,-160,-33003,-23727
C00004=44525,76429,21071,-133,-43569,-23158
C00005=51042,72083,13191,-97,-39703,-26608
C00006=50882,61988,13127,-87,-47265,-26534
C00007=1313,-29821,-14512,-269,-91700,-479
C00008=1314,-29821,-14512,-269,-91701,-478
C00009=47729,53848,-3942,-133,-37957,-24839
C00010=45799,64449,-713,-164,-32881,-23803
C00011=45799,64449,-713,-164,-32881,-23803
C00012=51938,62979,-4114,-121,-30901,-27056
C00013=50503,71280,11758,-109,-39018,-26316
C00014=50503,65217,11372,-101,-43247,-26324
C00015=7679,-15481,-7218,-243,-87458,-3822
//INST
///DATE 2019/08/23 09:12
///ATTR SC,RW
///GROUP1 RB1
NOP
MOVJ C00000 VJ=40.00
MOVJ C00001 VJ=40.00
MOVL C00002 V=11.0
MOVS C00003 V=11.0
MOVS C00004 V=11.0
MOVS C00005 V=11.0
MOVL C00006 V=11.0
MOVJ C00007 VJ=40.00
MOVJ C00008 VJ=40.00
MOVJ C00009 VJ=40.00
MOVL C00010 V=11.0
MOVS C00011 V=11.0
MOVS C00012 V=11.0
MOVS C00013 V=11.0
MOVL C00014 V=20.0
MOVJ C00015 VJ=40.00
END

Result: - Repeatability of YASKAWA MOTOMAN DX100 6-axis industrial


ROBOT was observed by drew circle and elipse repeatedly on graph
paper.
Circle:

Elipse:
Conclusion: -
SVKM’s NMIMS
Mukesh Patel School of Technology Management & Engineering
Department of Electronics &Telecommunication Engineering

SUB: ROBOTICS

EXPERIMENT NO. 5

REPEATABILITY OF ROBOTIC ARM

Aim: - To measure the repeatability of repeated performance of YASKAWA


MOTOMAN DX100 6-axis industrial ROBOT.

Apparatus:- Yaskawa Motoman DX100 Robotic Arm.

Components: - Graph Paper, colored pencils.

Theory: - Repeatability is how well the robot will return to a programmed


position. Repeatability is usually the most important criterion for a robot.
This is not the same as accuracy. It may be that when told to go to a
certain X-Y-Z position that it gets only to within 1 mm of that position.
This would be its accuracy which may be improved by calibration. But if
that position is taught into controller memory and each time it is sent there
it returns to within 0.1mm of the taught position then the repeatability will
be within 0.1mm.
Typically a robot is sent to a taught position a number of times and the
error is measured at each return to the position after visiting 4 other
positions. Repeatability is then quantified using the standard deviation of
those samples in all three dimensions.
The value is important in planning robot work cells since industrial
robots are intended to perform tasks which repeat themselves many times.

Algorithm: - 1. Go to Position No. 1


2. Go to position No. 2
3. Go to position No. 3
4. Go to position No. 4
5. Draw curved line between points 1 to 2, 2 to 3, 3 to 4 and 4 to 1.
6. Repeat steps 1 to 4 until counter counts down to zero.
7. Get back to reference position.

Procedure: - Teaching a Job: -


31. Check the emergency stop buttons to be sure they function properly.
32. Fix a pencil in the Robots Gripper.
33. Attach a Graph sheet on the table top in front of the robotic
manipulator.
34. Set the mode switch to “TEACH”.
35. Register a job or create a NEW JOB called “Repeatability”
36. In the NEW JOB CREATE window, press [ENTER] or select
“EXECUTE.”
37. Move the cursor to the line immediately before the insert position.
38. Turn ON the servo power and press the axis operation key to move the
manipulator to the position no.1 to be inserted.
39. Press [INSERT].
40. Select a particular Circular interpolation.
41. Select Speed.
42. Press [ENTER].
43. Repeat Step 5 to 10 and trace out position No. 2, 3 and 4.
44. Set a counter for robot to repeat the above operations a number of
times.
45. Measure the deviation between the curves traced.

Playback: -
10. Check the emergency stop buttons to be sure they function properly.
11. Step away from the Robotic Arm assembly.
12. Set the mode switch to “PLAY”.
13. Select the job “Repeatability”.
14. Press the START button.

Result: - Repeatability of YASKAWA MOTOMAN DX100 6-axis industrial


ROBOT was observed by drawing lines and curves repeatedly on graph
paper.

Conclusion: - YASKAWA MOTOMAN DX100 6-axis industrial ROBOT has a very


high repeatability capability as it can accurately draw lines frm one point
to another over the period of time.
SVKM’s NMIMS
Mukesh Patel School of Technology Management & Engineering
Department of Electronics &Telecommunication Engineering

SUB: ROBOTICS

EXPERIMENT NO. 6

ACCURACY AND PRECISION OF ROBOTIC ARM

Aim: - To measure accuracy and precision for repeated performance of


YASKAWA MOTOMAN DX100 6-axis industrial ROBOT.

Apparatus:- Yaskawa Motoman DX100 Robotic Arm.

Components: - Graph Paper, colored pencils.

Theory: - Accuracy
Accuracy refers to a robot's ability to position its wrist end at a desired
target point within the work volume, and it is defined in terms of spatial
resolution. At first accuracy depends on robot technology and how closely
the control increments can be defined for each of the joint motions,
excluding for the moment the mechanical in-accuracy which includes the
robot manufacture quality. Initially we define accuracy as one-half of the
control resolution (Fig. 1.1), considering the worst case where the target
point is directly between two control points. A more realistic consideration
includes mechanical inaccuracies with a statistical distribution (Fig. 1.2),
in that case accuracy is defined as one-half of the spatial resolution.

Figure 1.1: Diagram of accuracy in two dimensions frame, without mechanical inaccuracy
consideration

Figure 1.2: Diagram of accuracy and spatial resolution in which mechanical inaccuracies are
represented by a statistical distribution

The term accuracy in robotics is often confused with the terms


resolution and repeatability. The final accuracy of a robotic system
depends on its mechanical inaccuracies, the computer control algorithms,
and the system resolution. The mechanical inaccuracies are caused mainly
by backlash in the manipulators joints and bending of the links. The
backlash exists in gear mechanisms, in lead screws, and in actuators of
hydraulic drives. The minimization of the link bending is the main design
requirement for the link, as any deflection of the link due to the load at the
robot's end causes positional errors. A higher rigidity of the links,
however, should not be achieved by a substantial increase in their mass. A
larger mass causes an increase in the time response of the arm. Control
algorithms might cause position errors due to round-off errors in the
computer. Computer round-off errors might be significant if a robot
controller uses scaled integer representation of Cartesian and angular
coordinates. If the computer uses floating point representation, then the
round-off errors will probably be insignificant.

Algorithm: - 1. Go to Position No. 1


2. Go to position No. 2
3. Go to position No. 3
4. Go to position No. 4
5. Draw linear lines between points 1 to 2, 2 to 3, 3 to 4 and 4 to 1.
6. Repeat steps 1 to 4 until counter counts down to zero.
7. Get back to reference position.

Procedure: - Teaching a Job: -


1. Check the emergency stop buttons to be sure they function properly.
2. Fix a pencil in the Robots Gripper.
3. Attach a Graph sheet on the table top in front of the robotic
manipulator.
4. Set the mode switch to “TEACH”.
5. Register a job or create a NEW JOB called “Accuracy & Precision”.
6. In the NEW JOB CREATE window, press [ENTER] or select
“EXECUTE.”
7. Move the cursor to the line immediately before the insert position.
8. Turn ON the servo power and press the axis operation key to move the
manipulator to the position no.1 to be inserted.
9. Press [INSERT].
10. Select a linear interpolation.
11. Select Speed.
12. Press [ENTER].
13. Repeat Step 5 to 10 and trace out position No. 2, 3 and 4.
14. Set a counter for robot to repeat the above operations twice.
15. Measure the deviation between the curves traced.

Playback: -
1. Check the emergency stop buttons to be sure they function properly.
2. Step away from the Robotic Arm assembly.
3. Set the mode switch to “PLAY”.
4. Select the job “Accuracy & Precision”.
5. Press the START button.
6. Observe if drawn line is traced point to point.

Result: - Accuracy of YASKAWA MOTOMAN DX100 6-axis industrial ROBOT


was observed by drawing lines and curves repeatedly on graph paper.

Conclusion: - YASKAWA MOTOMAN DX100 6-axis industrial ROBOT has an high


accuracy reading as it is capable of drawing lines and curves from one
point to another very accurately.
SVKM’s NMIMS
Mukesh Patel School of Technology Management & Engineering
Department of Electronics &Telecommunication Engineering

SUB: ROBOTICS

EXPERIMENT NO. 7

APPLICATIONS OF ROBOT

Aim: - To draw curves and lines used for arc welding and cutting operations
using yaskawa motoman robotic arm

Apparatus:- Yaskawa Motoman DX100 Robotic Arm.

Components: - Arc welder, sheet cutter, colored pencils.

Theory: - Arc Welding Robots: -

Arc welding utilizes an electric arc between an electrode and a metal


base using either consumable or non consumable electrodes. A welding
robot is commonly found in steel product and automobile manufacturing.

An arc welding robot uses a process which applies intense heat to


metal at a joint, causing the metal to melt and intermix. Robot welding
has several benefits, including improved weld consistency, decreased
cycle times, and enhanced efficiency.

The safety advantages of switching to welding robots include reduced


health hazards for your workers. From limiting exposure to hazardous
fumes to decreased risk of arc burn, arc welding robots help to save
workers from a once dangerous job.

Robot Cutting: -

Cutting is the process of removing material from a work piece or


dividing the work piece into several smaller, distinct parts. Automation
can give this application more precision and accuracy.

Robot cutting is faster than manual applications and can produce a


sleeker, higher-quality product for the consumer.

Cutting robots raise the level of safety in a shop, while saving the
manufacturer money. They are able to work continuously for long periods
of time without fatigue, and keep human workers at a safe range from the
hazardous dust and fumes that can occur during a cutting
application. Robot cutters will boost the productivity of any line by
speeding up the application process and minimizing errors.

Algorithm: - 1. Go to Position No. 1 (Start point of welding/cutting)


2. Start the tool.
3. Go to position No. 2 (End point of welding/cutting)
4. Stop the tool.
5. Get back to reference position.

Procedure: - Teaching a Job: -


1. Check the emergency stop buttons to be sure they function properly.
2. Fix a welding/cutting tool in the Robots Gripper.
3. Attach a sheet on the table top in front of the robotic manipulator.
4. Set the mode switch to “TEACH”.
5. Register a job or create a NEW JOB called “Welding and Cutting”.
6. In the NEW JOB CREATE window, press [ENTER] or select
“EXECUTE.”
7. Move the cursor to the line immediately before the insert position.
8. Turn ON the servo power and press the axis operation key to move the
manipulator to the position no.1 to be inserted.
9. Press [INSERT].
10. Select a linear interpolation.
11. Select Speed.
12. Press [ENTER].
13. Insert command for start of tool.
14. Move the robot to end point of the job.
15. Repeat steps 7 to 12.
16. Insert command to stop the tool.
17. Set a counter for robot if required to repeat the above operations.

Playback: -
7. Check the emergency stop buttons to be sure they function properly.
8. Step away from the Robotic Arm assembly.
9. Set the mode switch to “PLAY”.
10. Select the job “Welding and Cutting”.
11. Press the START button.

Result: - Various curve shapes and 2-D modules were drawn using YASKAWA
MOTOMAN DX100 6-axis industrial ROBOT.
Conclusion: - YASKAWA MOTOMAN DX100 6-axis industrial ROBOT is capable of
performing arc welding and cutting operations.
SVKM’s NMIMS
Mukesh Patel School of Technology Management & Engineering
Department of Electronics &Telecommunication Engineering

SUB: ROBOTICS

EXPERIMENT NO. 8

ROBOTIC GRIPPER’S

Aim: - Review of different grippers used in industrial ROBOT’s.

Theory: - Grippers are the devices which are attached to the end of the robot arm and
are used to lift an object from one place and keep it at another place.
Some of the commonly used grippers are as follows:-
1. A two jaw gripper: -
A two jaw gripper is one in which the tool tip position is variable and
the two fingers move in or out. As the gripper fingers opens and
closes the finger tips extend and retract. This are widely used
grippers.
2. A parallel jaw gripper: -
A parallel jaw gripper is one in which the tool tip position is fixed
and the two fingers move parallel to each other, in or out. It can pick
up only objects whose sides are parallel in nature such as blocks.
3. Vacuum gripers: -
Vacuum gripers operate by reducing the air pressure between the
component and the end effectors too below the atmospheric pressure.
It consists of suction pipes gunning from compressors upto the cups.
Vacuum grippers can be used to pick up delicate objects such as
glass, thin pipes, sheets etc.
4. Magnetic Gripper: -
Magnetic grippers are used to grip only magnetic or ferrite objects.
Electromagnets are used along with solenoids to grasp objects. When
the solenoid is energized, it behaves as a magnet and when it comes
in contact with the metallic object part the object sticks to it.
5. A screw activated gripper: -
It is one in which as the screw is rotated either in the clockwise
direction or in the anti clock wise direction by a motor, the two
fingers move outwards inwards because of the linear transformation
of the screw and the link joint.

6. Gear activated gripper: -


Consists of the lock which turns two gears, which are couple to it in
a perpendicular designed. Two fingers which are attached to the
guide rails move with the gears, thereby obtaining a parallel type
motion. It is used to pick up objects such as cube.
7. Cam Actuated gripper: -
Consists of cam to which two fingers are attached via pivots, roller
and spring. When the cam is pushed inwards, the two fingers open.
While it is pulled outwards, it closes. Pull the cam till the object is
being held in proper positions, then the object will be secured in
between its fingers.

Conclusion: - Different types of robotic grippers were revived and their application
working and importance studied.
SVKM’s NMIMS
Mukesh Patel School of Technology Management & Engineering
Department of Electronics &Telecommunication Engineering

SUB: ROBOTICS

EXPERIMENT NO. 9

PICK AND PLACE ROBOT

Aim: - To perform pick and place operation using yaskawa motoman robotic
arm.

Apparatus:- Yaskawa Motoman DX100 Robotic Arm.

Components: - Gripper, square objects.

Theory: - Pick and Place Robots: -

Robot pick and place automation speeds up the process of picking


parts up and placing them in new locations, while also increasing
production rates.

These pick and place robots are more accurate and do not fatigue while
doing back-breaking or hard to maneuver movements that may be difficult
for humans.

The consistency, quality and repeatability of a pick and place robot


system is unmatched. These systems are also versatile and can be
reprogrammed and tooled to provide multiple applications for consumers.

An increase in output with a pick and place robot system offer long-
term savings to companies. With the advancements in technology and
affordability of robots, more pick and place robotic cells are being
installed for automation applications.

Algorithm: - 1. Go to Position No. 1 (Start point)


2. Activate the gripper.
3. Go to position No. 2 (End point)
4. Deactivate the gripper.
5. Repeat the steps as required
6. Get back to reference position.
Procedure: - Teaching a Job: -
1. Check the emergency stop buttons to be sure they function properly.
2. Fix a Robotic Gripper.
3. Place objects at appropriate positions in front of the robotic
manipulator.
4. Set the mode switch to “TEACH”.
5. Register a job or create a NEW JOB called “Pick and Place”.
6. In the NEW JOB CREATE window, press [ENTER] or select
“EXECUTE.”
7. Move the cursor to the line immediately before the insert position.
8. Turn ON the servo power and press the axis operation key to move the
manipulator to the position no.1 to be inserted.
9. Press [INSERT].
10. Select a linear interpolation.
11. Select Speed.
12. Press [ENTER].
13. Insert command for gripper activation.
14. Move the robot to end point of the job.
15. Repeat steps 7 to 12.
16. Insert command for gripper deactivation.
17. Set a counter for robot if required to repeat the above operations.

Playback: -
12. Check the emergency stop buttons to be sure they function properly.
13. Step away from the Robotic Arm assembly.
14. Set the mode switch to “PLAY”.
15. Select the job “Pick and Place”.
16. Press the START button.

Result: - Various test objects were moved from one place to another using
YASKAWA MOTOMAN DX100 6-axis industrial ROBOT

Conclusion: - YASKAWA MOTOMAN DX100 6-axis industrial ROBOT can be used


as a pick and place robot to move objects from one place to other, used in
various industrial applications.
SVKM’s NMIMS
Mukesh Patel School of Technology Management & Engineering
Department of Electronics &Telecommunication Engineering

SUB: ROBOTICS

EXPERIMENT NO. 10

SELF EXPERIMENT

Aim: - To draw 2-d model using yaskawa motoman robotic arm.

Apparatus:- Yaskawa Motoman DX100 Robotic Arm.

Components: - Paper sheets, colored pencils.

Theory: - Industrial ROBOT’s: -


An industrial robot is defined by ISO as an automatically controlled,
reprogrammable, multipurpose manipulator programmable in three or
more axes. The field of robotics may be more practically defined as the
study, design and use of robot systems for manufacturing (a top-level
definition relying on the prior definition of robot).
Typical applications of robots include welding, painting, assembly,
pick and place (such as packaging, palletizing and SMT), product
inspection, and testing; all accomplished with high endurance, speed, and
precision.
Robot types, features: -
The most commonly used robot configurations are articulated robots,
SCARA robots, Delta robots and Cartesian coordinate robots, (aka gantry
robots or x-y-z robots). In the context of general robotics, most types of
robots would fall into the category of robotic arms (inherent in the use of
the word manipulator in the above-mentioned ISO standard). Robots
exhibit varying degrees of autonomy:
 Some robots are programmed to faithfully carry out specific
actions over and over again (repetitive actions) without variation
and with a high degree of accuracy. These actions are determined
by programmed routines that specify the direction, acceleration,
velocity, deceleration, and distance of a series of coordinated
motions.
 Other robots are much more flexible as to the orientation of the
object on which they are operating or even the task that has to be
performed on the object itself, which the robot may even need to
identify. For example, for more precise guidance, robots often
contain machine vision sub-systems acting as their "eyes", linked
to powerful computers or controllers. Artificial intelligence, or
what passes for it, is becoming an increasingly important factor in
the modern industrial robot.

Algorithm: - 1. Go to start position of job.


2. Start drawing with pencil.
3. Continue until end position of job.
4. Stop drawing.
5. Repeat or add the steps as required.
6. Get back to reference position.

Procedure: - Teaching a Job: -


1. Check the emergency stop buttons to be sure they function properly.
2. Fix a pencil in the Robots Gripper.
3. Place objects at appropriate positions in front of the robotic
manipulator.
4. Set the mode switch to “TEACH”.
5. Register a job or create a NEW JOB called “Job Name”.
6. In the NEW JOB CREATE window, press [ENTER] or select
“EXECUTE.”
7. Move the cursor to the line immediately before the insert position.
8. Turn ON the servo power and press the axis operation key to move the
manipulator to the position no.1 to be inserted.
9. Press [INSERT].
10. Select a particular interpolation.
11. Select Speed.
12. Press [ENTER].
13. Move the robot to end point of the job.
14. Repeat steps 7 to 12.
15. Set a counter for robot if required to repeat the above operations.

Playback: -
17. Check the emergency stop buttons to be sure they function properly.
18. Step away from the Robotic Arm assembly.
19. Set the mode switch to “PLAY”.
20. Select the job “Job Name”.
21. Press the START button.
Result: - Various 2-D and 3-D modules were drawn using YASKAWA
MOTOMAN DX100 6-axis industrial ROBOT.

Conclusion: - YASKAWA MOTOMAN DX100 6-axis industrial ROBOT can be used


as drawing or painting robot in various industrial applications.