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PPC

CE EMM22 –– 22000066--22000077
FFAACCUULLTTEE DDEE M
MEEDDEECCIINNEE PPIIEERRRREE EETTM
MAARRIIEE C
CUURRIIEE
Responsable : Dr Pascaline Faure
Département d'Anglais Médical - Bureau 222
Faculté de Médecine Pierre et Marie Curie
"Site Pitié-Salpêtrière"
91, boulevard de l'Hôpital
75013 Paris
tél.: 01 40 77 81 78/ fax: 01 40 77 81 79
Courriel: pascaline.faure@chups.jussieu.fr

Cours les lundi et mercredi de 13h30 à 17h30 du 5 mars au 23 mai 2007


Le programme de l’enseignement d’anglais médical s’inscrit dans la perspective plus
générale des enseignements fondamentaux et des enseignements préparatoires à la clinique
dispensés en PCEM2 et a pour double objectif d’offrir aux étudiants les bases lexicales et
grammaticales nécessaires à une bonne maîtrise de la langue et de leur donner les moyens de
s’approprier un document en langue anglaise.
L’enseignement se déroule sur 10 séances (ED) de 2 heures sur le site « Saint-
Antoine ». Les étudiants seront répartis dans les groupes en fonction de leur note au test de
niveau qui se déroule en septembre.
Pour proposer un enseignement transversal anglais/médecine, la formation en anglais
porte sur les thèmes suivants :
• Cardiologie
• Appareil respiratoire
• Neurologie

EVALUATION
• Contrôle continu
Exercices de vocabulaire/grammaire
Compréhension d’un document écrit
Présentation orale d’une maladie choisie
Les étudiants choisissent une maladie dans les thèmes au programme (cardiologie,
pneumologie et neurologie)

• Examen final
Exercices de vocabulaire/grammaire et Compréhension d’un document écrit

Les points de grammaire seront les suivants


• Les temps du présent et du passé
• Les articles
• Les quantifieurs
PHONETIQUE/PHONOLOGIE

2
3
4
Phonétique et Phonologie
Règles d’Accentuation

Accent sur la dernière syllabe


-ee, -eer, -ese, -oo, -oon
consul'tee
volun'teer
manga'nese
tat'too
ba'boon

-ette, -esque, -ade

ciga'rette
gro'tesque
persu'ade

Accent sur l’avant-dernière syllabe


-ic (s), -ical, -ically, -ion
scien'tific
ge'netics
'medical
scien'tifically
car'nation

-ian, -ial, -iar, -ual


phy'sician
diffe'rential
pe'culiar
re'sidual

-id, -it, -ish


in'sipid
il'licit
di'minish
-itis, -osis

appendi'citis
tubercu'losis

-escence, -iscence
ado'lescence
remi'niscence

5
Accent sur l’avant-avant-dernière syllabe

-ity, -ety, -itive, -utive, -itant, -itude


a'bility
cons'titutive
'attitude
-logy, -logist, -logism, -logize

pa'thology
gynae'cologist
a'pologize
-graphy, -grapher
pho'tography
pho'tographer
-ous
'feverous
ca'daverous

Exercice d’application

Mettre l’accent tonique sur les syllabes porteuses.


1) murderous
2) intrepid
3) intentionally
4) confidential
5) serviette
6) paradoxical
7) attention
8) inhibit
9) inferior
10) biologist
11) abolish
12) rhinology
13) spontaneous
14) mycosis
15) typhoon
16) agree
17) apprehension
18) vegetarian
19) infirmity
20) turgescence

6
GRAMMAIRE

7
LES TEMPS ET PHASES

8
Pré-test « Les Temps et Phases »

Les énoncés suivants méritent une seule réponse. Merci d’entourer la lettre
correspondant à votre réponse.

1. Peter ___________ on patients in the morning so it’s no use ringing him.


a) operates b) has operated
c) is operating d) operated

2. The patient _______________ stubborn. He won’t take his pill.


a) is being b) has been
c) is d) was

3. He ___________ to his patient when he was called to the emergency ward.


a) has spoken b) spoke
c) was speaking d) has been speaking

4. The nurse will tell him as soon as he ___________.


a) arrived b) will be arriving
c) arrives d) will arrive

5. Peter _________________________ married since 1990.


a) has b) has been
c) is d) was

6. He lived in New York ___________ 5 years.


a) for b) during
c) since d) after

7. He looks exhausted. He ______________ for hours!


a) worked b) was working
c) has been working d) has worked

8. He ___________ half of it so far.


a) has been writing b) wrote
c) was writing d) has written

9. Peter _________________________ in New York for 3 years when I went to see him.
a) was living b) has been living
c) had been living d) lived

10. Yet it’s time he ______________.


a) has retired b) retired
c) was retiring d) retires

11. It’s the first time he _____________ retirement.


a) mentions b) mentioned
c) is mentioning d) has mentioned

9
Les Temps et Phases
A man is driving home late one night and is feeling very horny. As he is passing a pumpkin
patch, his mind starts to wander. He thinks to himself, you know a pumpkin is soft and squishy
inside, and there is no one around here for miles. He pulls over to the side of the road, and
picks out a nice juicy looking pumpkin, cuts the appropriate size hole in it, and begins to
screw the pumpkin. After a while, he is really into it, and does not notice the police car
pulling up.
The cop walks over and says, “Excuse me sir, but do you realise that you are screwing a
pumpkin?”
The man looks at the cop in complete horror, thinks fast and says, “A pumpkin? Is it midnight
already?”

/ MOMENT D'ÉNONCIATION PHASE 1 PHASE 2

VALIDE
(présent)
he treats he is treating

Have he has treated he has been treating


NON-VALIDE
(passé &
irréel) he treated he was treating

Have he had treated he had been treating

On parlera de phase 1 lorsque l’énonciateur mentionnera une relation de façon nouvelle, sans
lien évident avec le contexte avant. Cette phase sera celle de l’information pure.

Toute relation issue d’un repérage préalable sera en phase 2. La phase 2 sera celle du rappel
et du commentaire.

LES TEMPS DE PHASE 1

LE P RESENT
Ecstasy, otherwise known as MDMA, damages cells which release the neurotransmitter
serotonin. The bodies of these cells sit in the brain stem, at the base of the brain, and send out
axons to the forebrain and the spinal cord. (Nature, Fév. 1996)

LE P RÉSENT AVEC HAVE


The isolation reported from Hong Kong on Aug 20, of an avian influenza-virus strain from a
3-year-old Chinese boy has alerted public-health officials worldwide to the possibility of a flu
pandemic. This is the first time the virus strain involved, H5N1, has been identified in man.
(The Lancet, Vol. 350, p.717)

Owing to the ethical, virological, and physiological drawbacks of using primates as a source
of organs, most UK xenotransplantation research is focused on pigs. […] Transgenic pigs are
being bred to express human complement-inhibiting protein so that their organs suppress the
human immune reaction. Wallwork reported that a baboon has survived for 3 months with a
« humanized » pig’s kidney. (The Lancet, Vol. 350, p.868)

10
La relation a commencé dans le passé et est toujours d’actualité au moment présent soit parce
qu’elle est encore en cours soit par ce qu’elle a laissé une empreinte. Ce temps ne peut
s’utiliser que lorsque le dateur renvoie au présent (so far, up to now, today, since, for
(depuis)) ou lorsqu’il est absent.

LE PRETERIT

Ce temps s’utilise lorsque la relation est marquée par d’un dateur passé (ago, last year…).

LE PRÉTÉRIT AVEC HAVE


[…] a patient who developed Churg-Strauss syndrome […] had a positive history of atopy,
including paroxysmal asthma and seasonal rhinosinusitis since childhood. Repeated bacterial
infections had been treated with penicillin and quinolones without side-effects. (The Lancet,
Vol. 350, p.563)

La relation a commencé à un point T-2 lui-même antérieur à un point passé T-1.

11
LES TEMPS DE PHASE 2
Dans tous les exemples qui suivent, l’analyse des temps est la même mais nous nous situons
au niveau du commentaire et non plus de l’information.

LE PRÉSENT

In India, researchers estimate that by the year 2000, anywhere from 15 million to 50 million
people could be HIV positive. Half the prostitutes in Bombay are already infected, and
doctors report that the disease is spreading along major truck routes and into rural areas, as
migrant workers bring the virus home.(Time, janv. 1997)

LE P RÉSENT AVEC HAVE


« […] Good morning, Mr. Harding – why, look, your fingertips are red and raw. Have you
been chewing your fingernails again ? » (One Flew Over the Cuckoo’s Nest, p.90)

LE PRÉTÉRIT
All week-end, and the next week, he was just as hard on her and her black boys as he ever
was, and the patients were loving it. (One Flew Over the Cuckoo’s Nest, p.138)

They all laughed. They're all more relaxed now, certain they've come round to the plan she
was wanting. (One Flew Over the Cuckoo’s Nest, p.135)

LE PRÉTÉRIT AVEC HAVE


A drunkard staggered into a Pennsylvania ER complaining of severe pain while trying to
remove his contact lenses. He said that they would come out half way, but they always popped
back in. A nurse tried to help using a suction pump, but without success. Finally, a doctor
examined him and discovered that the man did not have his contact lenses in at all. He had
been trying to rip out the membrane of his cornea.

12
Liste des verbes irréguliers les plus courants
arise arose arisen survenir
be was/were been être
bear bore borne/born porter, supporter
beat beat beat battre
become became become devenir
begin began begun commencer
bet bet bet parier
bite bit bitten mordre
bleed bled bled saigner
blow blew blown souffler
break broke broken casser
bring brought brought apporter
build built built construire
burn burnt burnt bruler
buy bought bought acheter
cast cast cast jeter, lancer
catch caught caught attraper
choose chose chosen choisir
come came come venir
cost cost cost coûter
cut cut cut couper
do did done faire
draw drew drawn dessiner
drink drank drunk boire
drive drove driven conduire
eat ate eaten manger
fall fell fallen tomber
feed fed fed (se) nourrir
feel felt felt (se) sentir
fight fought fought se battre
find found found trouver
fly flew flown voler (avion, oiseau)
forbid forbade forbidden interdire
forget forgot forgotten oublier
forgive forgave forgiven pardonner
freeze froze frozen geler
get got got obtenir
give gave given donner
go went gone aller
grow grew grown grandir, faire pousser
hang hung hung pendre
have had had avoir
hear heard heard entendre
hide hid hidden cacher
hit hit hit frapper
hold held held tenir
hurt hurt hurt faire mal
keep kept kept garder
know knew known savoir
lay laid laid poser à plat

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lead led led mener, diriger
learn learnt learnt apprendre
leave left left quitter, partir
lend lent lent prêter
let let let laisser, louer
lie lay lain être allongé
lose lost lost perdre
make made made faire
mean meant meant signifier
meet met met (se) rencontrer
pay paid paid payer
put put put poser
read read [e] read [e] lire
ring rang rung sonner
rise rose risen se lever
run ran run courir
say said said dire
see saw seen voir
sell sold sold vendre
set set set poser, régler
shake shook shaken secouer
shine shone shone briller
show showed shown montrer
shut shut shut fermer
sing sang sung chanter
sink sank sunk couler
sit sat sat être assis
sleep slept slept dormir
speak spoke spoken parler
spend spent spent passer (temps), dépenser
spit spat spat cracher
stand stood stood être debout
steal stole stolen voler, dérober
stick stuck stuck coller
sting stung stung piquer (insecte)
strike struck struck frapper
swear swore sworn jurer
swell swelled swollen gonfler
swim swam swum nager
take took taken prendre
teach taught taught enseigner
tear tore torn déchirer
tell told told dire, raconter
think thought thought penser
throw threw thrown jeter, lancer (caillou, balle)
understand understood understood comprendre
wake woke woke/woken réveiller
wear wore worn porter (vêtement)
win won won gagner
write wrote written écrire

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Exercices d’application

I. Traduisez les phrases suivantes qui sont toutes au présent en français mais
qui correspondent à 4 formes différentes en anglais.
1. L’eau bout à 100°.
2. Faites attention ! L’eau bout.
3. L’eau bout depuis 10 minutes.
4. Je le connais depuis 2 ans.
5. Il est mort depuis 6 mois maintenant.
6. C’est la première fois que je viens dans cette pharmacie.

II. Traduisez les phrases suivantes qui sont toutes au passé en français mais qui
correspondent à 4 formes différentes en anglais.
1. Il a travaillé à Saint-Antoine il y a 2 ans.
2. Je travaillais quand il est arrivé.
3. Je travaillais depuis 10 minutes quand il est arrivé.
4. C’était la première fois qu’un patient atteint du sida venait me consulter.
5. Il avait fini ses consultations bien avant l’heure.
6. Etes-vous déjà allé à New York ?

III. Adaptez la forme verbale de « WORK » aux situations entre parenthèses.


1. I __________________ with Pr Anderson (last year).
2. I __________________ with Pr Anderson (already).
3. I __________________ with Pr Anderson (from 1995 to 1998).
4. I __________________ with Pr Anderson (not yet).
5. I __________________ with Pr Anderson (since 1985).
6. I __________________ with Pr Anderson (for 2 weeks when he died).
7. I __________________ with Pr Anderson (for 2 years and then he left).
8. I __________________ with Pr Anderson (2 years ago).
9. I __________________ with Pr Anderson (not … so far).
10. I __________________ with Pr Anderson (for 2 years now).

IV. Choisissez entre la forme simple et la forme en Be + ing du present perfect.


Justifiez votre choix.
1. How many times have you taken/been taking this pill?
2. How long have you taken/been taking this pill?
3. It’s the first time I have visited/been visiting my cousin in hospital.
4. I have known/been knowing Pr Jenner for 10 years.
5. How many patients have you seen/been seeing up to now?
6. You look exhausted. What have you done/been doing?
7. I have written/been writing the case report. You can read it.
8. Look at yourself. You have drunk/been drinking again.
9. He’s gone/been going to Australia.
10. He has read/been reading 30 pages so far.

V. Dans les expressions suivantes, utilise-t-on For ou Since.


1. one year
2. last year
3. 1995
4. he was 10
5. a few months

15
6. she moved to Paris
7. the summer holiday
8. Christmas
9. 2 o’clock
10. 2 hours

VI. Dites à quel temps sont les formes verbales soulignées, expliquez brièvement
pourquoi et proposez une traduction.
1. He stopped smoking 2 years ago.
2. I wish he stopped smoking.
3. I’d rather he stopped smoking.
4. It’s time he stopped smoking.
5. They wish they had had safe sex.
6. I would do it if I had enough time.
7. I would have done it if I had had enough time.
8. You’ll tell me when he comes.
9. You’ll tell me when he has come.

VII. Mettre le verbe à la forme qui convient.


1. My friend _________________ to work at Mac Donald’s 6 years ago. (start)
2. She __________________ there for 5 years now. (work)
3. ____________ you already _____________ hamburgers? (eat)
4. Yes. I _______________ one last week. (eat)
5. It was the first time I _________________ one. (eat)
6. And I ___________________ ill since then. (be)
7. It’s time they __________________ Mac Donald’s. (close down)
8. Fat people probably wish they _________________ there. (never eat)
9. Tell me when you ______________ a craving for hamburgers. (have)
10. I’d rather you ______________ the ones I make. (eat)

VIII. Les temps - Traduire les phrases suivantes :


1. C’est la deuxième fois que j’ai la grippe cet hiver.
2. La température du corps est stable depuis plusieurs heures.
3. Ca fait longtemps que j’exerce la médecine.
4. Elle travaille à la Pitié depuis l’année dernière.
5. Les résultats du labo étaient prêts depuis un bon moment.
6. Ca faisait des heures que le patient attendait.
7. Jusqu’à présent personne ne s’est plaint.
8. Elle est malade depuis 2 mois.
9. Il est temps que le patient mange un peu.
10. Donne lui 40 mg de morphine IV lorsqu’il arrivera.
11. Quand êtes-vous né ?
12. Je préfèrerais qu’il voit le Professeur Saillant.
13. Pendant combien de temps avez-vous pris ce médicament.
14. Depuis combien de temps est-il hospitalisé ?
15. Il était mort depuis plusieurs heures lorsque la police l’a trouvé.

IX. Les phases - Traduire les phrases suivantes :


1. Je sectionne l’artère puis j’insère le cathéter.
2. Les infirmiers sont en grève. Ils protestent contre leur condition de travail.

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3. Je m’excuse.
4. Quand le médecin est entré dans la chambre, le patient fumait.
5. Que faisiez-vous hier soir dans le service ?
6. Qu’avez-vous fait hier soir dans le service ?
7. Tu plaisantes !
8. Quand les buralistes vendent leurs cigarettes, ils vendent du poison.
9. Suis-je indiscrète ?

X. Traduire les phrases suivantes :


1. Je préfèrerais qu’il voit un spécialiste.
2. Il est de garde depuis 2 jours.
3. Le patient était à jeun depuis 18 heures lorsqu’il a été opéré.
4. L’infirmière te donnera les résultats lorsque tu lui demanderas.
5. Depuis combien de temps n’a-t-il pas fumé ?
6. Pendant combien de temps a-t-il fumé ?
7. Si je voulais, je pourrais faire cardiologie.
8. Il a vu Gérard Saillant il y a 4 jours.
9. C’est la première fois que je viens à la Pitié.
10. J’aurais préféré qu’il ne soit pas de garde ce soir.

17
LES DETERMINANTS

18
Pré-test «Les noms et détermination»
Les énoncés suivants méritent une seule réponse. Merci d’entourer la lettre
correspondant à votre réponse.

1. We need more _______________.


a) information
b) informations

2. Genetics __________ a fascinating subject.


a) are
b) is

4. _______ insulin lowers blood glucose level.


a) Ø
b) the

3. _____ ovarian cancer is the 6th most common form of cancer in females.
a) the
b) Ø

4. My husband works in ________ Philippines.


a) Ø
b) the

5. He is ________ oncologist.
a) an c) a
b) Ø

6. Without _______ treatment, the patient’s going to die.


a) a
b) Ø

7. They are looking for the virus natural reservoir, _______ animal that can house the
microbe without being sick.
a) Ø
b) an

8. In America, ______________ are not being taken care of.


a) the poors
b) the poor

9. ____________ Professor Uzan is the Dean of the Faculty.


a) the
b) Ø

10. To do medicine, one needs _____________ courage.


a) Ø
b) the

19
CLASSIFICATION ET PLURALISATION DU NOM

Certains noms tels que ceux qui renvoient aux pays sont utilisés avec un pronom féminin :
China has herself developed a small number of antimalarial drugs [...]. (The Lancet, Vol.
349, Supp., p.4)

D’autres noms du type fetus, infant et baby sont parfois repris par un pronom neutre :
Mouth movements per se may have little function for the fetus but are essential for the
newborn infant to enable it to suck, gain nourishment, and hence survive. (The Lancet, Vol.
350, p.1820)

En vieil anglais, il existait plusieurs façons de former un pluriel : selon la nature de la


composition du nom en présence, on pouvait ajouter les suffixes : -s, -en ; modifier la voyelle
interne : o/a devenaient e ; ou la consonne interne : f devenait v. Et, si c’est l’utilisation du
suffixe -s qui prévaut à présent, les Anglais ont tout de même conservé certains pluriels à
l’ancienne :
child ð children
ox ð oxen
tooth ð teeth
wolf ð wolves
knife ð knives
mouse ð mice

En revanche, tous les mots nouvellement créés sont pluralisés à l’aide du suffixe -s. On
remarquera que ceci vaut aussi pour des mots moins récents mais qui ont pris un sens
nouveau: mouse donne parfois mouses si on fait référence aux souris des ordinateurs...

Rappelons également les quelques principes de pluralisation en latin et en grec ayant encore
cours en anglais moderne tels que um qui devient a (bacterium ð bacteria, datum ð data,
phenomenon ð phenomena), ou encore is se transformant en es (crisis ð crises, analysis ð
analyses), et dont l’anglais médical fait une utilisation importante. Des noms tels species et
series peuvent être à la fois singulier et pluriel (in one/two series of consecutive patients…).

Les noms dérivés d’un adjectif en ic renvoyant aux sciences tels que physics (la physique),
mathematics (les mathématiques) ou genetics (la génétique) se présentent sous une forme
plurielle mais entraînent un accord singulier au niveau du verbe : physics has evolved a lot
recently.

Les noms tels que scissors, tongs (tenailles), glasses, goods, braces (bretelles) qui, comme en
français, sont toujours au pluriel et ceux qui, singuliers en français, tels que balance,
correspondent à un nom pluriel en anglais : scales.

Enfin, il existe, en anglais, comme en français, des noms qui ne sont pas comptables. La
difficulté réside tantôt dans le fait que ces noms ne sont pas nécessairement les mêmes en
français, tantôt parce que ce qui peut se compter dans la réalité peut ne pas se compter sur le
plan linguistique. De plus, parce que c’est le caractère comptable du nom qui détermine le
choix de l’opérateur, il est important d’avoir à l’esprit tous les noms « non-comptables »,
sachant qu’il s’agit surtout de substances (glucose, insuline), de matériaux (cotton),
d’aliments (bread), d’activités (care) et de notions abstraites (knowledge, science).

20
21
La communication orale scientifique en anglais, Alain et Françoise Souillard, Langue pour
t o u s.

22
Exercices d’application

Translate the following sentences into English:

1) Les nouvelles sont-elles bonnes ?

2) Ils viennent d’avoir un bébé. Vu les parents, il doit peser au moins 6 kilos…

3) L’infirmier s’est penché au dessus du lit sur lequel la patiente reposait.

4) Les 3 litres de vin qu’il boit au petit déjeuner n’arrangent pas sa santé.

5) La génétique est une science passionnante.

6) Le patient de la chambre 17 a perdu son pyjama et la patiente de la chambre 20 cherche sa

culotte.

7) Ne mangez pas trop de fruits. Vous allez avoir mal au ventre.

8) Pour les conseils et les informations, adressez-vous au guichet 21.

23
LES DETERMINANTS
• Ø N ET LE RENVOI À LA MATIÈRE
Whereas glucagon raises blood glucose level, Insulin lowers it.

Aspirin has been a registered drug for 100 years

• Ø N ET LA MALADIE
Ovarian cancer is the sixth most common form of cancer in females.

Congenital adrenal hyperplasia is a genetic disorder characterized by enlarged adrenal


glands.

Down syndrome is a disorder that results from nondisjunction of chromosome 21.


Fragile X syndrome is a recently recognized disorder due to a defective gene on the X
chromosome.

A 39-year-old woman visited the Pyrenées mountains in autumn, 1996, where she spent an
afternoon walking in the woods. A week later she developed a fever [...]. (The Lancet, Vol.
350, p.112)

Six new rickettsioses have been identified in the past 13 years, including Japanese fever,
Astrakhan fever, Flinders island spotted fever [...]. (The Lancet, Vol. 350, p.112)

• Ø N ET LE NOM PROPRE
Luc Montagnier, French co-discoverer of HIV, is to move much of his research from the
Pasteur Institute, Paris, France, to Queens College, New York, USA. (The Lancet, Vol. 349,
p.1305)

• Ø N ET LES EXPLORATIONS/INTERVENTIONS
A 33-year-old man was referred to the neurological department at our hospital in May, 1996,
with an 8-year history of right sciatic pain [...] He had sought several opinions and
undergone radiography, computed tomography scans, and magnetic resonance imaging of the
lumbosacral spine; pelvic ultrasound; and blood tests - none of which had shown any
abnormality. (The Lancet, Vol. 349, p.846)

• Ø N ET LES PAYS
[...] one clone of multiresistant Streptococcus pneumoniae, first isolated in Spain, was later
identified in [...] Mexico, Portugal, France, Croatia, [...]. A study in Thailand revealed that
36% of inpatients treated with anti-microbials did not have an infectious disease.
Overprescribing of anti-microbials occurs in most other countries (e.g., Canada). A study of
Escherichia Coli in stool samples of healthy children in China, Venezuela and the USA
showed that multiresistant strains were more widespread in Venezuela and China, where less
control is maintained over antibiotic prescribing. (The Lancet, Supp, Vol. 349, p.10)

Mais, parallèlement, certains noms peuvent être suivis de the :

24
Ainsi, The Congo, qui peut s’expliquer par le fait que les Anglo-saxons avaient l’habitude de
se référer tantôt au Congo belge (the Belgian Congo), tantôt au Congo français (the French
Congo), et ont, de ce fait, conservé the devant Congo. Peut-être est-ce aussi le fait que le pays
porte le nom du fleuve, ce qui permettrait d’expliquer aussi The Gambia (la Gambie) ?

Lorsque le nom de pays est au pluriel, on utilise the: USA (the United States of America),
USSR (the Union of Soviet Socialist Republics), Philippines ou Netherlands.

A (AN) OU L'OPÉRATION DE PRÉLÈVEMENT


A 44-year-old white woman was seen in May, 1996, complaining of diarrhoea for 6 months
and recent onset of double vision. (The Lancet, Vol. 349, p.1882)

Dr Jha is first a general practitioner and then a surgeon, as well as a physician, a


paediatrician, an obstetrician, and a gynaecologist when needed.

After the Kikwit outbreak, health officials stepped up the search for the virus' natural
reservoir - an animal that can house the microbe and not suffer ill-effects, or at least not fatal
ones. (Time, Mars 1996, p.53)

THE, INDICE DE REPRISE


Patient: Doctor, I've been feeling terrible all week".
Doctor: "Well, get undressed and I'll examine you".
Doctor ... (20 minutes later) ... "Sorry, - I can't find
anything wrong with you. It must be the beer".
Patient: "OK - I'll come back when you're sober".
(The World's Best Doctor Jokes)

THE ET L'ANATOMIE
The digestive system is a long tube called the gastrointestinal tract and associated organs that
include the salivary glands, the liver, the gall-bladder, and the pancreas.

THE ET LES INSTRUMENTS DE DIAGNOSTIC ET DE TRAITEMENT


The microscope remains the single most useful diagnostic tool in tropical medicine. (The
Lancet, Vol. 349, Supp, p.6)

[...] the laser is used to drill channels in damaged heart muscle to enhance blood flow in
myocardial sinusoids. (The Lancet, Vol. 350, p.268)

THE ET LES CLASSES HUMAINES


[In Brazil] The wealthy have access, through private physicians and health insurance, to
treatment that is virtually identical to what is offered in the best centres in Europe and the
USA [...]. For the rich, new drugs and treatments are available almost as soon as they are in
developed countries [...]. For the less well-off, newer (and older) drugs and diagnostic tools
are unavailable or have very limited availability [...]. (The Lancet, Vol. 349, Supp, p.29)

25
Exercices d’application
I. Mettre l’opérateur qui convient:
1) ______ gold in my necklace is ______ 18-carat gold.
2) Try to give a definition of ______ toughness.
3) Did you notice ______ toughness of this block?
4) ______ chemistry is a difficult subject.
5) ______ carbon monoxide is noxious.
6) ______ British are quite happy with their health-care system.
7) Did you notice ______smell of chlorine?
8) ______Professor Harrington and ______ Doctor Collinge at ______ Imperial College
School of ______ Medicine in London have been working on ______ gene-therapy.
9) I've never seen ______Professor on ______television but I've heard him on ______
radio.
10) ______ Creutzfeldt Jacob disease is also called ______mad cow disease.
11) ______ earth revolves round ______ sun.
12) ______ most doctors are interested in ______ genetics.
13) ______most of ______physicians in our hospital are very efficient.
14) We spent three weeks in ______ America ______ last year.
15) I have a conference in ______ Netherlands ______ next week?

II. Traduire les énoncés suivants:


1) Le Premier Ministre et le Professeur Schwarzenberg se sont rencontrés à plusieurs
reprises.

2) La plupart des gens ont peur des virus.

3) La bactérie se multiplie très vite.

4) Les Anglais croient beaucoup à la recherche en génétique.

5) La semaine prochaine sera la dernière semaine des vacances.

6) Le médicament que l’on prend le soir est moins toxique pour le foie.

7) Son frère, chercheur célèbre, est mort d’un cancer.

8) Il ne peut pas accéder aux soins sans carte de sécurité sociale.

9) Ils vont à l’hôpital deux fois par semaine.

10) La morphine est plus efficace que le paracétamol.

26
LES QUANTIFIEURS

27
Quantifieurs – Pré-test
Les énoncés suivants méritent une seule réponse. Merci d’entourer la lettre
correspondant à votre réponse.
1. Peter and his friend practise medicine and __________ of them have specialised.
a) none b) all
c) both d) either

2. Three patients are waiting for me, but I do not know __________ of them.
a) either b) any
c) neither d) none

3. You can take __________ bus. They both go to St George’s hospital.


a) any b) all
c) either d) every

4. The patient is prepared to try __________ treatment.


a) either b) any
c) neither d) no

5. I would like __________ information about lung cancer.


a) any b) a few
c) some d) all

6. I have two patients but __________ has responded to the treatment.


a) either b) any
c) neither d) none

7. There is no history of STD in _________ the patient __________ her partner.


a) either … or b) neither … or
c) neither … nor d) either … nor

8. He is __________ doctor!
a) any b) some
c) either d) none

9. The surgeon is __________ to be seen.


a) elsewhere b) anywhere
c) somewhere d) nowhere

10. He presents follicles, but without__________ infiltration of lymphoma cells.


a) Ø b) no
c) some d) any

11. Unfortunately, the suffering of Africans attracts __________ interest.


a) few b) little
c) much d) many

28
12. Thanks to the vaccine, __________ cases of TB have been seen in Europe.
a) few b) little
c) a few d) a little

13. ________ practitioners have become reluctant to rely on clinical judgement.


a) much b) any
c) many d) none

14. _________ case of acute paralysis in children has to be investigated quickly.


a) all b) each
c) some d) every

15. __________ six patients were assessed clinically.


a) every b) each
c) all d) some

16. Alcohol is not __________ important __________ smoking.


a) so … as b) so … than
c) as … as d) as … than

17. Mothers who have twins are __________ likely to develop breast cancer.
a) two times less b) twice less
c) two times fewer d) twice fewer

18. _______ the labour, ________ the risk of fever in women given an epidural.
a) The longer … the greater b) Longer … greater
c) The longest … the greatest d) Longest … greatest

19. In America, __________ people die of cancer than of heart disease.


a) as many as three times b) more than three times as many
c) as many more d) more than three times as much

20. __________ medical students want to specialise in psychiatry.


a) the most of b) the most of the
c) most d) most of the

29
SOME & ANY DOSE VAGUE

En utilisant SOME, l’énonciateur affirme que la notion existe concrètement même si la


quantité demeure vague.
Tu veux du gâteau ? ð Do you want some cake? On ne peut pas proposer quelque chose que
l’on n’a pas! ð SOME

A rare exception to this usually benign infection [Loa loa] is a poorly understood and
commonly fatal encephalopathy, first described in 1908. Some cases occur spontaneously, but
most follow diethylcarbamazine treatment of persons with microfilaria counts of around
50000/mL or greater. (The Lancet, Vol. 350, p.3)

Dans certains contextes, il peut prendre une valeur très positive :


He is some doctor! (Ça, c'est un médecin!)

ANY signale qu’on ne peut plus parler d'existence concrète. C'est pour cette raison que ANY
apparaîtra dans des contextes négatifs/privatifs ou dans des énoncés exprimant le doute.
Vous auriez de la morphine ? ð Do you have any morphine? Peu de chance a priori que
votre voisin de palier possède de la morphine! Mais, bon, sait-on jamais ? ð ANY

Groups in the USA that are opposed to abortion announced on April 2 [1997] that they will
boycott a new antihistamine as part of their effort to prevent the introduction of the
abortifacient mifepristone into the country. But makers of fexofenadine hydrochloride
(Allegra) say that the protest is misplaced since they no longer have any control over the fate
of the abortion pill in the USA. (The Lancet, Vol. 349, p.1079)

Upper endoscopy showed chronic gastritis with lymphoid follicles but without any infiltration
of lymphoma cells. (The Lancet, Vol. 350, p.115)

On March 21, 1996, all neurologists in the UK were circulated with a description of the
clinicopathological features of nvCJD [new variant Creutzfeldt-Jakob disease], and asked to
refer any suspect cases to the CJD Surveillance Unit in Edinburgh. (The Lancet, Vol. 349,
p.847). (n'importe quel cas suspect...)

Il peut prendre le sens de “n’importe quel/le”:


I was certain that any minute he was going to do some crazy thing to get him up on Disturbed
for sure. (OFOCN, p.170)

Il donne les composés suivants :


anything, anyone, anywhere, anyhow,...

LITTLE/FEW
Construit à partir de l’adjectif little (petit), LITTLE N possède une valeur minorante (peu
de). Il exprime une quantité insuffisante, et s’utilise avec des noms non-comptables :

30
Early exposure to cow's milk has been implicated in the occurrence of insulin-dependent
diabetes mellitus but there is little information about infant-feeding practices and subsequent
non-insulin-dependent diabetes mellitus. (The Lancet, Vol. 350, p.166)

FEW Ns traduit le même manque que LITTLE mais il intervient sur des noms comptables :
The gut of premature neonates is immature and colonised with few bacteria, and Gregor
Lawrence and colleagues postulated that in such infants a non-pathogen, with few or no
competitors, is able to multiply without interference. Thus, bacterial metabolites, which are
overproduced, may be absorbed and cause mucosal damage, thus initiating NEC [Neonatal
Necrotising Enterocolitis]. (The Lancet, Vol. 349, p.33)

A LITTLE/A FEW,

L'émergence de l’opérateur A permet de faire basculer la petite quantité que LITTLE/FEW expriment
dans le domaine positif.

A LITTLE N s’utilise avec des noms non-comptables :


In Africa, Father Joe also had gained a knowledge of basic first aid, a little knowledge being
a particular dangerous thing. (The Lancet, Vol. 349, Jabs and Jibes, p.740)

A FEW Ns s’applique à des noms comptables :


[a 16-year-old girl] weighed only 41 kg and in November, 1996, she had been admitted to
hospital as an emergency, having eaten only a few slices of cucumber in the previous ten
days. (The Lancet, Vol. 349, p.860)

On April 24, at the first full meeting of the US Food and Drug Administration's committee on
transmissible spongiform encephalopathies, panellists heard evidence that gelatine, made
from bovine hides and bones, may carry bovine spongiform encephalopathy. [...]
The panel was asked to investigate gelatine - one of the few cow products not subject to US
restrictions. (The Lancet, Vol. 349, p.1305)
Traduction: ... un des rares produits d'origine bovine non-visés par les restrictions
américaines.

Résumons-nous :
J’ai peu de patients ð I have FEW patients –
J’ai quelques patientsð I have A FEW patients +

J’ai peu de tempsð I have LITTLE time –


J’ai un peu de temps ð I have A LITTLE time +

A LOT OF N/NS - MUCH N - MANY NS, OPÉRATEURS HYPERTROPHIQUES


A LOT OF peut être suivi indifféremment d’une notion nominale non-comptable au
singulier (a lot of practice) ou d’une notion nominale comptable au pluriel (a lot of
antibiotics).
« The [Nobel] Prize [for physiology or medicine] », says Bruce [Institute for Animal Health,
Edinburgh, UK], « acknowledges Prusiner’s enormous contribution to the field but there are
still a lot of questions hanging over the prion hypothesis ». (The Lancet, Vol. 350, p.1079)

MUCH permet de quantifier un nom non- comptable :

31
A 10-month-old boy presented to us with his first attack of obstructive bronchitis. [...]
Hospital admission led - without much therapeutic effort - to a quick improvement. (The
Lancet, Vol. 350, p.114)

MANY s’emploie devant un nom comptable :


Laboratory studies have shown that many anti-cancer agents with differing modes of action
achieve their cytotoxic effect by inducing apoptosis. (The Lancet, Vol. 349, p.849)

Ils peuvent fonctionner avec l’opérateur THE :


Despite many reports addressing the management of febrile infants and young children [...].
The many studies that have investigated occult bacteraemia are inconclusive. (The Lancet,
Vol. 350, p.84)

Si le référent est suffisamment clair, ces deux opérateurs peuvent se suffire à eux-mêmes :
Much has been written on the social aspects of depression but the neurobiological cause for
clinical depression remains hazy. (The Lancet, Vol. 349, p.915)

Emergency detoxification is to be carried out on 18 children living near gold-processing sites


in the Southern Philippines, after studies showed that they had been poisoned by
"unacceptable" concentrations of mercury and cyanide. Many live within 500 m of the Mount
Diwalwal gold-processing plants in Davao del None, Mindanao. (The Lancet, Vol. 349,
p.1304)

EACH & EVERY


Tous deux peuvent se traduire par CHAQUE ou TOUS en français et sont suivis par le
singulier.
EACH s’utilise dans le cas d’items EN NOMBRE LIMITE. EVERY partira d’une base
beaucoup PLUS VASTE.

Je n’ai que 3 patients mais chacun/tous présente/nt un cas très intéressant ð EACH

J’ai 150 patients et chacun/tous présente/nt un cas très intéressant ð EVERY

In the USA, HIV infection is the leading cause of death among individuals aged 25-44 years.
According to Holmberg, from the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC), most of
the 41 000 new HIV infections each year occur among injection drug users (IDUs) and their
sexual partners and children. (The Lancet, Vol. 349, p.604)

[...] cures for autoimmune diseases are still a decade away. [...] In the developed world, 2-
5% of the population suffer from autoimmune conditions, and many organs, and indeed lives,
are wasted every year because of transplant rejection. (The Lancet, Vol. 350, p.190)

ALL ET L'INTÉGRALITÉ
ALL est un opérateur qui renvoie à la notion d'intégralité.
An accurate idea of the criteria for the diagnosis of gastric carcinoma in Japan is essential
for all pathologists and clinicians to interpret correctly results from research on Japanese
patients with gastric cancer. (The Lancet, Vol. 349, p.1725)

32
Lung cancer is the most common cause of cancer death in the developed and the incidence is
rising steeply in the developing world. Non-small-cell lung cancer (NSCLC) accounts for
about three-quarters of all cases. (The Lancet, Vol. 350, p.161)

We interviewed 62 people with Konzo and found that they had all eaten cassava daily in the
months before disease onset. (The Lancet, Vol. 349, p.621)

CONFRONTATION DES DOSES

DOSE ÉGALE
« Alcohol is not as important as smoking, hypertension, and high cholesterol, but neither is
this a trivial association. Even if [the association] is less than anticipated, it could have real
implications for society as a whole». (The Lancet, Vol. 350, p.1148)

DOSE SUPÉRIEURE
HIV-1 infection has a greater impact, and a shorter incubation period in older individuals.
(The Lancet, Vol. 349, p.913)

The search for a possible genetic basis has involved families in which testicular cancer is six
to ten times commoner than in the normal population. (The Lancet, Vol. 349, p.1785)

Cardiovascular disease (CVD) is the most common complication of non-insulin-dependent


diabetes mellitus (NIDDM) 1 in Europeans, and accounts for at least 66% of deaths in
NIDDM patients. (The Lancet, Vol. 350, Supp, p.1)

Stress fractures in children are uncommon especially under 5 years; fractures of the tibia are
commonest, the usual site being the proximal followed by the distal shaft, followed by the
fibula. (The Lancet, Vol. 349, p.854)

Outbreaks of Konzo, an upper motor neurone disease, have been reported in rural African
populations exposed to cyanide from eating cassava. The prevalence of Konzo is highest
around Kikwit in the central Bandundu region of Zaire where bitter cassava roots that
contain high concentrations of cyanogenic glycosides are the staple food. (The Lancet, Vol.
349, p.621)

The more recent Ethiopian immigrants have ten times the per caput number of HIV carriers
than Israel's general population. Following international blood banking protocols, the Israeli
blood bank discarded all but the most rare blood donated by the Ethiopians. (The Lancet,
Vol. 349, p.1080)

DOSE INFÉRIEURE
Rhesus rotavirus (RRV) is less attenuated and more immunogenic for humans than are for
bovine rotaviruses. (The Lancet, Vol. 350, p.1205)

However commentators on these and other pertussis-vaccine trials take the view that most
acellular vaccines have similar protective efficacy, and that all acellular vaccines are less
effective than the best whole-cell vaccines. (The Lancet, Vol. 350, p.1569)

33
Il pourra intervenir sur les adverbes et être lui-même quantifié :
Mothers who have twins may be nearly a third less likely to develop breast cancer than other
parous women. (The Lancet, Vol. 349, p.856)

Smokers may be more concerned about the health effects of food additives than about the
dangers of tobacco, and heavy smokers acknowledge less health risk than light smokers do.
(The Lancet, Vol. 350, p.1164)

Over the years medicine has had more to offer in terms of both diagnosis and, to a lesser
degree, treatment. (The Lancet, Vol. 350, p.1159)
Traduction partielle : … et, dans un moindre degré

More patients would then be eligible for lumpectomy and fewer breast removals would be
necessary. (The Lancet, Vol. 350, p.35)

DOSES APPARIÉES
Intrapartum fevers occurred in 14.5% of women receiving epidurals; only 1% of the women
who did not receive an epidural had fevers. The longer the labour, the greater the risk of
fever development in women given an epidural. Only 7% of women with labours shorter than
6 hours developed a fever compared with 36% of women whose labours were longer than 18
hours.

MULTIPLICATION DES DOSES


When HIV-2 was discovered in 1985, the virus was believed to be non-pathogenic, but it has
since been shown that infection can lead to AIDS. In community studies with 1-3 years of
follow-up, HIV-2 infection in adults has been associated with four to five times higher
mortality than that in uninfected individuals. (The Lancet, Vol. 349, p.911)
Traduction : … un taux de mortalité quatre à cinq fois plus élevé…

This community study found a two-fold higher mortality rate among HIV-2-infected adults, as
compared with uninfected adults [...]. (The Lancet, Vol. 349, p.913)
Traduction : … un taux de mortalité trois fois plus élevé…

Of the babies born to women given epidurals, 34% needed sepsis evaluation, compared with
less than 10% of babies born to mothers not given an epidural. Babies whose mothers
received an epidural were four times more likely to be treated with antibiotics, but were no
more likely to have infections than babies whose mothers were not given epidural. (The
Lancet, Vol. 349, p.856)
Traduction : […] Les bébés dont les mères ont subi une péridurale ont une probabilité quatre
fois plus élevée d’être traités par antibiotiques.

34
Exercices d’application

I. LITTLE, FEW, A LITTLE, A FEW


Traduire les énoncés suivants :
1. Il y avait beaucoup de chercheurs.
2. Il y avait beaucoup de recherche.
3. Il y avait peu de résultats.
4. Il y avait peu de patience.
5. Il y avait très peu de résultats.
6. Apportez quelques instruments.
7. Nous avons très peu d’instruments.
8. Buvez autant de vin que vous voulez, c'est bon pour votre cœur.
9. Il y aura peu de patients ce week-end.
10. Je pars en vacances pour quelques jours.

II. SOME, MOST, BOTH, NEITHER, EITHER, ALL


Traduire les énoncés suivants :
1) Certains font médecine, d’autres de la biologie.
2) La plupart des médecins travaillent sur ordinateur.
3) Ils sont gallois tous les deux, mais ni l'un ni l'autre ne parle de gallois.
4) Tout le service est en grève.
5) Il était prêt à faire n'importe quel métier.
6) Ca, c'est un médecin !

III. ANY, NO, NONE, EITHER, NEITHER


Compléter les énoncés suivants :
1) They both practise medicine, but __________of them has specialised.
2) They all practise medicine, but__________ of them has specialised.
3) They have three patients. I don’t know__________ of them.
4) They have two patients. I don’t know__________ of them.
5) You can take__________ bus. They both go to King George’s.
6) He is prepared to do__________ job. He is desperate.
7) There isn’t __________ hope left.

IV. EACH, EVERY & ALL


Traduire les énoncés suivants :
1. Il a pris rendez-vous deux fois à mon cabinet, et chaque fois a annulé.
2. Tout patient est un être humain.
3. Toutes les quelques secondes, je vérifiais ma montre. Et chaque fois, une femme entrait
dans la salle d’attente.
4. Nous avons créé 2 médicaments cette année et chaque médicament a été testé.
5. Il y a environs 500 médecins à la Pitié et chaque médecin a bonne réputation.

V. COMPARATIF/SUPERLATIF
Traduire les énoncés suivants en anglais :
1. Il est plus gras que sa sœur qui est, elle-même, 2 fois plus grosse qu’un hippopotame.
2. Il y avait 3 fois plus de monde aux urgences le week-end que la semaine.
3. Plus il vieillit, plus il tremble.
4. C’est le médecin le plus imbu de lui-même que j’ai vu dans ma vie.
5. L’abstinence est encore le meilleur moyen d’éviter le sida.
6. Non seulement la patiente est obèse, mais en plus elle est couverte d’acné.

35
ANATOMIE/
ANATOMY

36
PPrriinncciipplleess ooff aannaattoom Haarrppeerr CCoolllliinnss
myy aanndd pphhyyssiioollooggyy,, TToorrttoorraa,, H

37
PPrriinncciipplleess ooff aannaattoom Haarrppeerr CCoolllliinnss
myy aanndd pphhyyssiioollooggyy,, TToorrttoorraa,, H

38
39
CARDIOLOGIE/
CARDIOLOGY

40
KKEEYY--W
WO ORRD
DSS
un cardiologue a cardiologist
le cœur the heart
le péricarde the pericardium
le feuillet pariétal the parietal layer
le liquide péricardique the pericardial fluid
la paroi the wall
le myocarde the myocardium [maiou]
le ventricule the ventricle
l’oreillette the atrium (pl. atria) [ei]
les valvules the valves
l’artère the artery
l’aorte aorta [eo :]
la veine cave vena cava [vi :n]
les artères coronaires the coronay arteries
le nœud sinusal sinoatrial node
diastole/systole diastole/systole
tension pressure
la circulation sanguine the blood stream
le flux sanguine the blood flow
refluer backflow
débit cardiaque cardiac output
fréquence cardiaque(FC) heart rate (HR)
battre/battement beat
remplissage filling
(se) relâcher relax
palpiter throb
pomper pump
foyer area
apport sanguin blood supply
être cardiaque have heart trouble
Accident vasculaire cérébral(AVC) stroke/cerebrovascular accident
crise cardiaque heart attack
athérosclérose atherosclerosis
un embole an embolus
un caillot a blood clot
tachycardie tachycardia
douleur thoracique chest pain
souffle systolique systolic murmur
le pouls the pulse
maladie coronarienne coronary artery disease
infarctus du myocarde myocardial infarction

41
42
I. Describe what you can see on the picture below.

I. What is the most likely diagnosis?

II. Give a brief definition of the disease.

III. What are the risk-factors?

IV. How is it treated?

43
Revisions

I. Give the anatomic part corresponding to the definition:


1) a triple-layered sac that surrounds and protects the heart : _______________________
2) the superior chambers of the heart: ________________
3) the inferior chambers of the heart: ________________
4) the big vessels that transport oxygenated blood to the heart: ________________
5) a big vein that brings blood from all parts of the body to the heart:
_____________________

II. Fill in the gaps :


Most heart problems result from faulty c______________ (1) circulation due to
b__________ c__________ (2), or fatty a____________ p________________ (3).
Reduction of blood flow is called i_____________________ (4). A_____________
p_____________ (5), literally meaning “strangled chest”, is a severe pain that usually
accompanies myocardial blood flow reduction. More serious is m_______________
i______________ (6), commonly called a heart attack..
A____________________(7) is a general term that refers to an abnormality or irregularity
in the heart rhythm. V___________ f________________ (8) is the most ominous of them
and indicates imminent death.
In cases where the heart suddenly stops beating, cardiopulmonary r________________ (9)
saves lives by keeping oxygenated blood circulating until the heart can be restarted.
C___________ artery b___________________ (10) is one way of increasing the blood
supply to the heart surgically in using a blood vessel from another part of the body.

III. Give the cardiac terms corresponding to the definition:


6) The death of part of the heart muscle after coronary thrombosis :
________________________
7) A condition in which deposits of fats and minerals form on the wall of an artery and
prevent blood from flowing easily: ______________________
8) A sound produced during systole which indicates an unusual condition of a heart
valve: _____________________
9) A mass of material which blocks a blood vessel: _______________
10) A sudden blocking of or bleeding from a blood vessel in the brain resulting in
temporary or permanent paralysis or death: ___________________________

V. Translate into English:


1) Le péricarde ð
2) L’oreillette ð
3) La tension ð
4) La fréquence cardiaque ð
5) Infarctus du myocarde ð

44
APPAREIL RESPIRATOIRE/
RESPIRATORY SYSTEM

45
KKEEYY--W
WOORRD
DSS
pneumologie pneumology [niu :]
le nez the nose
le pharynx the pharynx
le larynx the larynx
les amygdales tonsils
le voile du palais the soft palate
l’épiglotte the epiglottis
les cordes vocales the vocal cords
la trachée the trachea
une bronche a bronchus (pl. bronchi)
les bronchioles the bronchioles
les côtes the ribs
la cage thoracique the rib cage
la plèvre the pleura
les poumons the lungs
le hile the hilus
les lobes the lobes
les scissures the fissures
les canaux the ducts
la respiration breathing
inspirer/expirer breathe in/out
essoufflé breathless
apnée apnoea
retenir son souffle hold one’s breath
tousser cough [k? f]
éternuer sneeze
sifflements wheezing
essoufflement shortness of breath (SOB)
expectoration sputum/phlegm
radio pulmonaire chest X ray
bronchoscopie bronchoscopy
écho-doppler doppler ultrasound
épreuves fonctionnelles respiratoires lung function tests
asthme asthma
broncho-pneumopathie obstructive chronique (BPCO)
chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD)
oxygénothérapie oxygenotherapy
cancer des poumons lung cancer/carcinoma
pneumonie pneumonia
tuberculose tuberculosis (TB)

46
47
((Test your professional English, Penguin)

48
Descri
be what you can see on the above X ray. What is the most likely diagnosis?

49
Revisions

I. Translate into English:

1) amygdales ð ___________________

2) trachée ð ____________________

3) bronches ð ___________________

4) plèvre ð ____________________

5) alvéoles ð ____________________

II. Give the respiratory disease corresponding to the definition:


1) Inflammation of the lungs with exudation and consolidation :
_________________________
2) Inflammation of the pleura: ________________________
3) Pneumoconiosis due to inhalation of the dust of stone containing silica:
______________
4) Infectious disease marked by tubercles: ___________________
5) A hereditary disorder of infants with widespread dysfunction of exocrine
glands: _______________________

III. Fill the following gaps:


It is commonly observed that smoking may cause a person to become
b____________(1) when exercising. Nicotine constricts terminal
b____________ (2). As a result g_________ (3) exchange is less efficient.
Some smokers may develop a________ (4) which is a chronic inflammatory
disorder that produces narrowing of airways. Symptoms include periods of
c__________(5) and w___________(6). There is a test called l_______
f_________ test. (7)
Moreover cigarette smoking remains the leading cause of chronic
b___________ (8), an inflammation of the b____________ (9) characterized by
hypertrophy and hyperplasia of the glands and cells lining the bronchial airways.
The result is an increase in secretions which are also called s_________ (10).

50
NEUROLOGIE/
NEUROLOGY

51
KKEEYY--W
WOORRD
DSS
les récepteurs the receptors
la gaine de myéline the myelin sheath
les nœuds the nodes
le système nerveux central the central nervous system (CNS)
le tronc cérébral the brain stem
le noyau the nucleus
le cerveau the cerebrum
le cervelet the cerebellum
la moelle épinière the spinal cord
les nerfs crâniens/ rachidiens the cranial/ spinal nerves
la sensibilité the sensory function
la motricité the motor function
un influx nerveux a nerve impulse
céphalée headache
la migraine migraine ['mi :grein]
crise seizure/ fit
tics tics
perte de connaissance loss of consciousness
un neurologue a neurologist
un psychiatre a psychiatrist [sai-]
comportement behaviour
dépression depression
paralysie palsy ['po :lsi]/ paralysis
myoclonie myoclonus
tremblement tremor
tonus tone
paresthésie paresthesia
perte d’équilibre loss of balance
hémiparésie hemiparesis
analyse du liquide céphalorachidien (LCR) cerebrospinal fluid analysis (CSF)
ponction lombaire lumbar puncture
méningite meningitis
vertige vertigo
épilepsie epilepsy
sclérose en plaques multiple sclerosis (MS)
un AVC a stroke
un traumatisme a trauma
une tumeur cérébrale a brain tumour
la maladie de Parkinson Parkinson’s (disease)

52
53
I. Describe what you can see on the picture below. What is the most likely
diagnosis?

II. Fill in the gaps in the text below:


Parkinson's disease is a progressive ________________disease which affects
movement or the control of movement, including ________________and "body
language". A number of conditions may mimic Parkinson's disease and are
properly ___________________________"Parkinsonism".
Prevalence: There are few _____________________data of global prevalence or
morbidity of Parkinson's disease, but it is ____________________to affect all
ethnic groups. The overall prevalence of Parkinson's disease in Europe, for
example, is ___________________to be 1.6 per 100 in persons over 65 years of
age. In 1990, worldwide there were an estimated 4 million people suffering from
the disease. It should be ____________________that more than one in ten
sufferers are diagnosed before the age of 50.
Cause: The cause of Parkinson's disease is__________________. What is
known is that it results from a _________________of the chemical messenger
dopamine, which is produced by the _____________________and influences
the initiation, planning and execution of movements. The symptoms of
Parkinson's disease appear when about 80% of dopamine is lost. An individual's
ability to produce ____________________controlled movements is affected by
this.

54
III. Comment on the graph below:

IV. Explain the treatment on the picture below:

55
Revisions

1. Give the neurological disease corresponding to the definition:

1) a disease marked by recurrent, uncontrollable, brief episodes of sleep :


___________________
2) A condition which includes involuntary movements, tics, use of foul
words and respiratory disorders: ________________________
3) a disease where a person experiences progressive dementia due to nerve
cell loss in specific brain areas: _________________________
4) A neurological disorder characterized by short, periodic attacks of motor,
sensory, or psychological malfunction : ________________
5) A progressive destruction of the myelin sheaths of neurons in the central
nervous system, short-circuiting conduction pathways: _____________
6) A progressive degeneration of the basal ganglia and substantia nigra of
the cerebrum resulting in decreased production of dopamine that leads to
tremor, slowing of voluntary movements, and muscle weakness:
____________________
7) Inflammation of the meninges: ____________________
8) Loss or impairment of motor function due to a lesion of nervous or
muscular origin: _______________________

2. Translate into English:


1) Cette patiente souffre de sclérose en plaques depuis juillet. La gaine de
myéline est endommagée, ce qui entraîne une paralysie progressive de ses
membres.

2) Il était neurologue depuis 6 ans lorsqu’il a commencé à se plaindre de


pertes d’équilibre, de conscience et de mémoire. S’il avait su, il aurait
choisi gynécologie…

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ANNALES D’EXAMEN

57
Anglais médical – PCEM2 Saint-Antoine
Jeudi 8 Juin 2006 /50

Durée de l’épreuve : 1h15


L’usage de tout document est interdit.
I/ Phonetics and Phonology
Write the following words in phonetics after having underlined the stressed syllable. /5

1) Diastole ð [_____________________________]
2) Atherosclerosis ð [_____________________________]
3) Tachycardia ð [_____________________________]
4) Myocardial ð [_____________________________]
5) Breathless ð [_____________________________]
6) Bronchoscopy ð [_____________________________]
7) Psychiatrist ð [_____________________________]
8) Seizure ð [_____________________________]
9) Neurosis ð [_____________________________]
10) Phobic ð [_____________________________]

II/ Grammar and Vocabulary

1. Put the verb in the correct form. /10

It was the first that I (operate) (1) on a patient and I (think) (2) it was fascinating. I (study)
(3) surgery for 2 years when I (be offered) (4) this position as a surgeon. For a time I
wished I (do) (5) a medical specialty but, on that day, I did not have any regrets anymore.
Maybe when my first patient (die) (6), I will change my mind but for the moment I just
(love) (7) it! Yet, I’d rather none of my patients (die) (8). I (prefer) (9) neurosurgery to
cardiac surgery since I (be) (10) an intern. And I still think neurosurgery is best.

1) ____________________
2) ____________________
3) ____________________
4) ____________________
5) ____________________
6) ____________________
7) ____________________
8) ____________________
9) ____________________
10) ____________________

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2. Translate into English. /10

1) Aucun des poumons ð ________________________________


2) Toute la plèvre ð ________________________________
3) Peu de sifflement ð ________________________________
4) Un peu de toux ð ________________________________
5) Les deux amygdales ð ________________________________
6) Les deux côtes ð ________________________________
7) La cardiologie ð ________________________________
8) La démence ð ________________________________
9) Le patient de la chambre 7 ð ________________________________
10) L’infarctus du myocarde ð ________________________________

III/ Written comprehension


Read the article and answer the questions.
Inside the autistic mind

New research, understanding lifting veil on mysterious condition

The road to Hannah's mind opened a few days before her 13th birthday.

Her parents, therapists, nutritionists and teachers had spent years preparing the way. They had
moved mountains to improve her sense of balance, her sensory perception and her overall
health. They sent in truckloads of occupational and physical therapy and emotional support.

Hannah, whose speech was limited to snatches of songs, echoed dialogue and unintelligible
utterances, is profoundly autistic, and doctors thought she was most likely retarded.

But on that October day, after she was introduced to the use of a specialized computer
keyboard, Hannah proved them wrong. "Is there anything you'd like to say, Hannah?" asked
Marilyn Chadwick, director of training at the Facilitated Communication Institute at Syracuse
University.With Chadwick helping to stabilize her right wrist and her mother watching, a girl
thought to be incapable of learning to read or write slowly typed, "I love Mom."More than 60
years after autism was first described by American psychiatrist Leo Kanner, there are still
more questions than answers about this complex disorder. But slowly, steadily, many myths
about autism are falling away, and researchers are finding some surprises.

Autism is almost certainly, like cancer, many diseases with many distinct causes. It's well
known that there's a wide range in the severity of symptoms --from profound disability to
milder forms like Asperger syndrome, in which intellectual ability is generally high but social
awareness is low.Indeed, doctors now prefer the term Autistic Spectrum Disorders (ASD).
But scientists suspect there are also distinct subtypes, including an early-onset type and a
regressive type that can strike as late as age 2.

59
Once thought to be mainly a disease of the cerebellum, a region in the back of the brain that
integrates sensory and motor activity, autism is increasingly seen as a pervasive problem with
the way the brain is wired.

The distribution of white matter, the nerve fibers that link diverse parts of the brain, is
abnormal, but it's not clear how much is the cause and how much the result of autism.

The immune system may play a critical role in the development of at least some types of
autism. This suggests some new avenues of prevention and treatment.

Many classic symptoms of autism -- spinning, head banging, endlessly repeating phrases --
appear to be coping mechanisms rather than hard-wired behaviors. Other classic symptoms --
a lack of emotion, an inability to love --can now be largely dismissed as artifacts of impaired
communication. The same may be true of the supposedly high incidence of mental
retardation.

The world of autism therapy continues to be bombarded by cure-of-the-day fads. But


therapists are beginning to sort out the best ways to intervene.And while autism is generally a
lifelong struggle, there are some reported cases in which kids who were identified as autistic
and treated at an early age no longer exhibit symptoms.

Indeed, most researchers believe autism arises from a combination of genetic vulnerabilities
and environmental triggers. An identical twin of a child with autism has a 60 percent to 90
percent chance of also being affected with the disorder. And the sibling of a child with autism
has about a 10 percent chance of also having it.

Luckily for Hannah, her voice and thoughts are being heard.

Since learning to type, she has begun to speak a few words reliably -- "yes," "no" and the key
word "I" -- to express her desires.

All this seems miraculous to her parents. "I was told to give up and get on with my life," says
her mother. Now she and her husband are thinking about saving for college. (Cnn)

1/ Say if the following statements are true or false. /5


1. There is only one form of autism.
¨ True
¨ False
2. Autism is a disease of the cerebellum
¨ True
¨ False
3. The immune system might be involved in certain types.
¨ True
¨ False
4. An autistic child might become normal.
¨ True
¨ False
5. Autism can be passed on to the next generation.
¨ True
¨ False

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2/ Choose the right sentence and give an example: /10
1) ¨ Autism is 100% genetic or
¨ Environment can lead to autism.
ð __________________________________________
2) ¨Autistic children are incapable of loving
¨ They can feel love
ð __________________________________________
3) ¨ Autistic children are profoundly retarded
¨ Autistic children can show intelligence
ð ____________________________________________
4) ¨ Asperger syndrome is a severe form of autism
¨ Asperger is not a severe form of autism
ð______________________________________________
5) ¨ An autistic parent runs the risk to give birth to an autistic child
¨ Autism cannot be inherited.
ð______________________________________________

3/ Translate the following parts of sentences into French. /10

1) to improve her sense of balance ð ______________________________________

2) lifting veil ð ______________________________________

3) snatches of songs and unintelligible utterances

ð ______________________________________

4) an early-onset type ð ______________________________________

5) the way the brain is wired ð ______________________________________

6) spinning, head banging ð ______________________________________

7) cure-of-the-day fads ð ______________________________________

8) sort out ð ______________________________________

9) sibling ð ______________________________________

10) speak a few words reliably ð ______________________________________

61