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Soil Shear Parameters

To arrive at the soil strength parameters, following approach is adopted to arrive from
field SPT N values.

1.1. Angle of Internal friction

1.1.1. SPT N – Relative Density:

As per Foundation Design by W.C. Teng, the relation between SPT N and the Relative
density Dr (%) is as given below:

Dr (%) = 100 x {(N1)60/60}

Where, (N1)60 is SPT blow count normalize to 60% of theoretical maximum energy at
1tsf effective over burden stress

(N1)60 is calculated as based on the correction factors as below:

(N1)60 = Nmeas * CN * CE * CB * CS * CR

(N1)60 = Penetration resistance corrected for both rod energy and for
overburden pressure
Nmeas= Measured SPT ‘N’ value at site
CN= Overburden pressure correction

Nmeas* CN= Corrected SPT value as per IS 6403

CE = Correction factor for effect of energy

= 0.92 for 55% efficiency of donut hammer
CB = Correction factor for borehole diameter
= 1.05 for 150mm borehole diameter
CS = Correction factor for sampling method
= 1 for standard sampler

CR = Correction factor for rod length

= This value varies depending on the road length, 0.75 for 3-
4m,0.85 for 4-6m, 0.95 for 6-10m & 1 for 10->30m), a
distance of 1.5m is considered between ground level to anvil.

1.1.2. Relative Density – Angle of Internal friction:

Using above relative density, angle of internal friction () is calculated using the
Meyerhof, correlation

 = 25 + 0.15Dr (%) for granular soil with more than 5% fine sand and silt
 = 30 + 0.15Dr (%) for granular soil with less than 5% fine sand and silt

1.1.3. Angle of Internal friction from Laboratory results:

Angle of internal friction obtained from the laboratory test results considered, wherever
Design angle of internal friction considered based on the below criteria:

a. From the Laboratory test results

b. From Field SPT N values derived from section 5.1.2
c. Further to above based on the presence of fines and grain size
distribution the angle of internal friction is limited to 34 degrees for fine
sand and silt; In soils where SPT is refusal the limited angle of internal
friction is 36 degrees

Conservative value from above three considered for design angle of internal friction.

1.2. Cohesion

Based on the corrected N value as per section 5.1.1, the following relation given in Pile
Design and Construction Practice by Tomlinson is used to derive cohesion values
based on SPT N corrected and the Plasticity Index.

Figure 3: Relation between SPT N value, Plasticity Index and Cohesion value

However, the values from laboratory results obtained from the UDS sample testing
also considered for the cohesion value. However, the cohesion value is limited to
300kN/sqm for bearing capacity calculations.

Conservative values from above two are considered for designed cohesion value.

1.3. Deformation Modulus

1.3.1. Cohesionless soils

Deformation Modulus E for sands obtained from correlations with SPT ‘N’ as provided
in Foundation analysis and Design by JE Bowles. Following stiffness correlations
adopted based on in-situ density / consistency of soil and its grain size composition.
E= 320(N+15) kPa
Where, N corresponds to (N1)60.

1.3.2. Cohesive soil

The soils present in this stretch are over consolidated clays, hence only immediate
settlements are considered for the settlement estimations. For short-term immediate
settlements, Elastic modulus value has been obtained from the correlations given with
respect to cohesion value as per Foundation Analysis and Design by J E Bowles,

Normally consolidate clays,

Es = (200 to 500) C

Normally consolidated insensitive and lightly over consolidated clays,

Es = (750 to 1200) C

Heavily over consolidated clays,

Es = (1500 to 2000) C

Where C is cohesion value. However, the Es value limited to 500 C for the settlement
estimations and the maximum value limited to 50000kPa.

Modulus of volume compressibility for clays:

Modulus of volume compressibility obtained from the correlations with SPT ‘N’ as
provided in Pile Design and Construction Practice by M. Tomlinson as per the following
relation based on SPT N and laboratory consistency limits.

Figure 4: Relation between SPT N value, Plasticity Index and mv (m 2/MN)

1.4. Correlation for other soil parameters

1.4.1. Moisture content – dry density – bulk density:

Bulk density of soil derived based on water content and dry density
b= dry(1+w)

1.4.2. Bulk density – void ratio:

Void ratio is derived based on specific gravity (Gs), bulk density (b), density of
water (w) and water content of soil.
b=w Gs(1+w)/(1+e)
Where, S = 1 for 100% saturation
sub =sat-w