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Brushless DC Motor

Constructing the Model


Copyright © 2005 Magsoft Corporation

All rights reserved. No part of this work may be reproduced or used in any form or by any
means—graphic, electronic, or mechanical, including photocopying, recording, taping, Web
distribution or information storage and retrieval systems—without the written permission of the
publisher.

www.magsoft-flux.com

Cover illustration: Model with mesh of one pole of brushless DC permanent magnet motor
Contents

1 About Preflux 9.1 xi

The new Flux Supervisor · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · xii

The Preflux window · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · xiii

Interaction with the program · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · xiv

Dialog boxes · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · xiv

Format for user input · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · xvi

Activating commands · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · xvii

Using the icons in the toolbar · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · xvii

Using the menu · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · xviii

Using the data tree · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · xix

Selecting items from the graphics display · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · xx

Note to users · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · xxiv

1 Get started with Preflux 9.1 1

Start Flux 9.1 · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · 1

The Flux Supervisor · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · 2

Program manager · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · 3

Directory manager · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · 5

Project manager · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · 6

Flux2D version · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · 7

i
ii Contents

Open Preflux 9.1 · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · 8

Open a new project · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · 9

Using the icon in the toolbar· · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · 9

Using the menu · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · 9

Preflux 9.1 project window · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · 10

Graphics display · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · 10

Toolbar · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · 11

The data Tree · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · 12

Console window · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · 13

Command line · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · 14

Preflux 9.1 project commands and functions · · · · · · · · · · · · · 14

Windows menu commands · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · 14

Project menu · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · 15

Application Menu· · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · 15

View menu · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · 16

Display menu · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · 16

Select menu · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · 16

Geometry menu · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · 17

Mesh menu · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · 18

Physic menu · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · 18

Tools menu · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · 19

Help menu · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · 19

Take time to explore · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · 21

2 Create the motor parameters 23


Contents iii

The model of the motor · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · 23

Defining parameters· · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · 25

Attributes of parameters · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · 26

Parameters and measurement units · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · 26

Define the first parameter: NPOLES · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · 27

Open the New parameter dialog · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · 27


Using the icon in the toolbar . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 27
Using the menu . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 28

Enter the data for the NPOLES parameter · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · 29

Define the remaining parameters for the motor · · · · · · · · · · · 32

Save your problem· · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · 36

Using the icon in the toolbar · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · 36

Using the menu · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · 36

3 Add coordinate systems 39

Using coordinate systems · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · 39

Attributes of coordinate systems · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · 39

Data for the coordinate systems · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · 40

Add a global coordinate system for the motor · · · · · · · · · · · · 40

Open the New Coordinate System dialog · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · 40


Using the icon in the toolbar . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 40
Using the menu . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 41

Add the MAIN global coordinate system · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · 42

Add the local coordinate systems for the motor · · · · · · · · · · · 45

Add the ROTOR system · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · 46


iv Contents

Add the STATOR coordinate system· · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · 49

Save your problem· · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · 53


Using the icon in the toolbar . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 53
Using the menu . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 53

4 Create the rotor geometry 55

Notes on creating and displaying points · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · 55

Data for the rotor points · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · 56

Add points for the rotor · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · 56

Open the New Point dialog · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · 57


Using the icon in the toolbar . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 57
Using the menu . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 58

Add the first point · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · 59

Add the remaining rotor points · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · 62

Display the point labels (reference numbers) · · · · · · · · · · · · 64

Using the Edit command · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · 66

A note about selecting items · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · 69

The lines for the rotor · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · 70

Add the straight sides of the rotor and magnet · · · · · · · · · · · 71

Open the New Line dialog· · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · 71


Using the icon in the toolbar . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 71
Using the menu . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 71

Add Line 1 · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · 72

Add the other line segments · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · 75

Add arcs for curved sides (shaft, rotor, magnet) · · · · · · · · · · 76

Construct the faces of the rotor · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · 81


Contents v

Using the icon in the toolbar . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 81


Using the menu . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 81

Save your problem · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · 83


Using the icon in the toolbar . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 83
Using the menu . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 83

Change the Graphics display (optional) · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · 84

Change point (line) color · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · 84

Background color · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · 87

5 Begin the stator geometry 89

Add points for the stator’s outline · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · 89

Open the New Point dialog · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · 89


Using the icon in the toolbar . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 89
Using the menu . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 90

Add Point 12· · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · 91

Add points for half of the first stator slot · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · 94

Open the New Point dialog using the icon in the toolbar · · · · · · · · · · · 94

Add lines for the half stator slot· · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · 96

Open the New Line dialog with the icon in the toolbar · · · · · · · · · · · · 97

Add the line segments · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · 98

Save your problem· · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · 100

6 Complete the first stator slot 101

About transformations · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · 101

Add the SLOTMIRROR transformation · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · 102

Open the New Transformation dialog · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · 103


vi Contents

Using the icon in the toolbar . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 103


Using the menu . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 103

Add data for the SLOTMIRROR transformation · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · 104

Apply the SLOTMIRROR transformation · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · 106

Open the Propagate Lines dialog · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · 107


Using the icon in the toolbar . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 107
Using the menu . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 107

Select the lines to propagate · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · 109

Add lines to complete the stator slot · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · 112

Open the Add Line dialog with the icon in the toolbar· · · · · · · · · · · · 113

Add two small arcs to close the top of the slot · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · 114

Add the line segments for the wedge and the bottom of the slot · · · · 116

Build the faces of the first stator slot · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · 117

Save your problem· · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · 119

7 Complete the stator geometry 121

Add the SLOTDUPLI transformation · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · 121

Open the New Transformation dialog with the icon in the toolbar· · · · 121

Add the SLOTDUPLI transformation · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · 122

Apply the SLOTDUPLI transformation · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · 124

Open the Propagate Face dialog with the icon in the toolbar · · · · · · · 124

Propagate the first stator slot · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · 125

Add the first line of the stator’s inner boundary · · · · · · · · · · 129

Open the New Line dialog with the icon in the toolbar · · · · · · · · · · · 130

Add the line · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · 130

Propagate the inner boundary with SLOTDUPLI · · · · · · · · · · 131


Contents vii

Open the Propagate Lines dialog with the icon in the toolbar· · · · · · · 132

Propagate the line with SLOTDUPLI · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · 133

Complete the stator’s outer boundary· · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · 135

Open the New Line dialog (Segment) with the icon in the toolbar · · · 135

Add the straight lower and upper edges of the stator · · · · · · · · · · · · 135

Add the arc for the stator's outer boundary · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · 138

Close the half-teeth of the stator · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · 140

Complete the air gap · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · 145

Add line segments for the bottom and top edges of the air gap · · · · · 145

Add arcs of circle to create the 3-layer airgap · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · 148

Build the faces for the stator and airgap · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · 151

Save the completed geometry · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · 153

8 Add and assign regions for the faces 155

Add surface regions (region faces) · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · 155

Open the New Region Face dialog · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · 157


Using the icon in the toolbar . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 157
Using the menu . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 157

Add the regions· · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · 158

Assign regions to the faces · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · 161

Open the Assign Regions dialog· · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · 162


Using the icon in the toolbar . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 163
Using the menu . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 163

Assign the SHAFT region face · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · 164

Assign the rotor and magnet region faces· · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · 166

Assign the AIR region · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · 168


viii Contents

Assign the AIRGAP region· · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · 171

Assign the STATOR_AIR region · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · 172

Assign the WEDGE region · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · 173

Assign the stator region · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · 175

Assign the winding regions · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · 176

Save your problem· · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · 178

9 Control the mesh density with Mesh_Points 179

Change the display· · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · 180

Change to the Mesh context · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · 182

Mesh context toolbars · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · 183

Add the mesh points · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · 184

Open the New Mesh Point dialog · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · 184


Using the icon in the toolbar . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 184
Using the menu . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 185

Add the MGAP mesh point · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · 185

Add the other mesh points · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · 187

Assign the mesh points· · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · 188

Open the Assign Mesh Point dialog · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · 188


Using the icon in the toolbar . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 188
Open the Assign Mesh Points dialog using the menu . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 189

Assign the points of the shaft using the Relation feature · · · · · · · · · 189

Assign the MMAG mesh point · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · 194

Assign MGAP to the airgap points · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · 197

Assign MSLOTTOP to the top of the first stator slot · · · · · · · · · · · · · 201

Assign MSLOTBOT to the bottom of the first stator slot · · · · · · · · · · 203


Contents ix

Assign MSOR to the stator’s outer radius · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · 204

Save your problem· · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · 207

10 Generate, verify and save the mesh 209

Display the faces · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · 209

Generate the mesh · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · 211

Mesh the Lines · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · 211


Using the icon in the toolbar . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 211
Using the menu . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 211

Mesh the Faces · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · 212


Using the icon in the toolbar . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 212
Using the menu . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 213

Save your project with a new name · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · 216

11 Revise the geometry and mesh 219

Rename the 3-layer project file · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · 220

Delete the mesh · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · 222

Change to the Geometry context · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · 223

Modify the airgap · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · 223

Change the display of the model · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · 224

Delete the points that divide the airgap into 3 layers · · · · · · · · · · · · 224

Add the line segment to close the lower edge of the airgap· · · · · · · · 228

Delete the points at the upper edge of the airgap · · · · · · · · · · · · · · 230

Add the line segment to close the upper edge of the airgap · · · · · · · 233

Build the faces of the revised geometry · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · 234

Assign the airgap to the AIRGAP surface region · · · · · · · · · 236


x Contents

Change to the Mesh context · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · 238

Modify the MGAP mesh point · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · 238

Select the MGAP mesh point from the data Tree · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · 238

Modify the value of the MGAP mesh point · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · 240

Reassign the MGAP mesh point by Relation · · · · · · · · · · · · · 241

Display the faces · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · 245

Create the new mesh · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · 245

Save and close your project · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · 248

Save the revised mesh · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · 248

Close your project · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · 248

Close Preflux · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · 250

Close Flux2D · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · 251


Introduction

About Preflux 9.1


Welcome to Preflux 9.1, the completely redesigned preprocessor for Flux2D and Flux3D!

This document explains how to create the geometry and mesh for two models of a brushless DC
motor, with two different structures for the rotating airgap. For a description and diagrams of
the model, see Chapter 2 (page 23).

This chapter includes a brief introduction to Preflux, featuring a short description of the new
Flux Supervisor and the Preflux interface. For a discussion of the format used in this tutorial for
user input, see page xviii.

More detailed information about Preflux menus and commands is presented in Chapter 1.

xi
xii

The new Flux Supervisor


The new Supervisor for Flux 9.1 organizes all the modules for both Flux2D and Flux3D.

In addition, the Supervisor includes a directory manager and a project manager for all your Flux
project files, along with My programs, shortcuts to other programs.

New Flux Supervisor (for 2D and 3D)

See also the online User’s Guide for a complete description of the new Flux Supervisor, or
Chapter 1, “Supervisor”, in Volume 2 bis of the Flux 9.1 User’s Guide.

The new Flux Supervisor About Preflux 9.1


xiii

The Preflux window


The following figure shows the Preflux window.

Preflux window (with complete geometry and mesh)

You will be working exclusively with Preflux in this tutorial.

Preflux includes all the commands and functions to create the model geometry and the mesh.

About Preflux 9.1 The Preflux window


xiv

Interaction with the program


Flux is essentially an object-oriented relational database. To create a geometric model, therefore,
you add items (entities) to the database with which to build the model. These items may be
general tools such as parameters, coordinate systems, or transformations or specific items such as
points and lines, mesh points and mesh lines.

Dialog boxes

Preflux 9.1 features a revised, completely Windows-based interface, so most actions are
performed through input into dialog boxes.

The following figure, for example, shows the screen with the blank dialog box open and ready to
create the first parameter:

Ready to add a new parameter

Interaction with the program About Preflux 9.1


xv

The following figure shows only the dialog box with the data entered for the first parameter:

Dialog with input to create the first parameter (NPOLES)

After you click Ok to enter the data, most dialog boxes reopen automatically, for you to
continue adding the same kind of entity, and they reopen until you close them. The following
figure shows the new dialog box after the first parameter has been created:

New dialog, after creating first parameter

To close a dialog, click the button or choose Cancel:

Closing the New parameter dialog after adding the last


parameter

About Preflux 9.1 Interaction with the program


xvi

Format for user input

Interaction with the program is presented in the two-column format shown below.

Ÿ Prompts, dialog fields or responses from the program are shown in the first (shaded) column.
Ÿ The information you input or the actions you perform are shown in the right (white)
column.

For instance, the following command sequence shows what you input to create the first
parameter for the problem (NPOLES):

Program Input

Name of Parameter NPOLES


(PARAMETRE_GEOM1)

Comment total number of poles

Definition

Algebraic expression for the 4


parameter

Ok

Interaction with the program About Preflux 9.1


xvii

Activating commands
You can activate most commands in several ways. Most commands open dialog boxes, as
described previously. To activate commands (open dialog boxes), you can either

a use icons in the toolbar


b select commands from the menus, or
c use items in the data Tree.

Using the icons in the toolbar

You can activate most commands by selecting the appropriate icon from the toolbar. For
instance, the icons to add (create) new items all include a yellow * symbol, as shown below:

The first items to add for this model are geometric parameters. The New Geometric Parameter
dialog is opened with the fourth of the Add icons, the icon:

Program Input

click

About Preflux 9.1 Activating commands


xviii

Using the menu

All commands and dialog boxes can be activated from the menu.

For example, to open the New parameter dialog, choose Geometry, Geometric Parameter, New
from the menu:

Program Input

Geometry

Geometric Parameter
New

Activating commands About Preflux 9.1


xix

Using the data tree

Some commands can be activated by double-clicking items in the data Tree. You can also right
click items in the data tree to open context menus of commands most frequently used.

For instance, you can right click Geometric Parameter and choose New from the context menu,
as shown below:

Program Input

Right click Geometric Parameter

New

About Preflux 9.1 Activating commands


xx

Selecting items from the graphics display


All the items you add to the database are automatically numbered for reference. For example, the
NPOLES parameter is recorded by Flux as ParameterGeom(2). The default parameter, PI, is
ParameterGeom(1).

You can use these reference numbers to select items; for example, when you are creating a line,
you need to select and enter specific points. If you know the reference numbers of the points,
you can type those numbers into the dialog fields.

However, for most actions, you can select items from the graphics screen. The following figure
shows the new line dialog, with the Point field activated, that is, ready for the input of the
starting point. When a field is activated, it is filled with light blue, as shown:

Ready to enter the starting point of a line segment

Selecting items from the graphics display About Preflux 9.1


xxi

When a field is activated, you can select items from the graphics screen. The item number will
then appear in the field, as shown in the following figure:

Point 1 selected as starting point of first line

You can also type the item number (the point number, in this case) into the dialog field.

About Preflux 9.1 Selecting items from the graphics display


xxii

The creation of Line 1 is shown in the following dialog and command sequence:

Dialog to add Line 1

You enter or verify the information in the New Line dialog as follows:

Program Input

Type of Line Segment defined by Starting and


Ending Points

Points defining segment


Point

Starting Point 1

Ending Point 2

Selecting items from the graphics display About Preflux 9.1


xxiii

As soon as you choose or enter Point 2, the line is added and the dialog closes momentarily and
then reopens.

Ready to add Line 2

Like most dialogs, the New Line dialog reopens until you close it, as shown below.

Closing the New Line dialog to stop adding lines (segments)

About Preflux 9.1 Selecting items from the graphics display


xxiv

To stop adding lines, close the dialog with or Cancel.

Program Input

Starting Point Cancel

Note to users
If you are an experienced user of Flux, you may want to look carefully at Chapter 1, the
orientation to Flux 9.1, to see all the changes in the new release. The models of the motor are
exactly the same as those used with earlier versions of Flux, and their construction is similar,
with some added functionality.

If you are new to Flux, we recommend that you read and work through the complete text of the
chapters.

Allow about 1.5 hours to complete this tutorial.

When you finish, you will have constructed the geometry and mesh for two different models of
the brushless DC motor:

1 with a 3-layer airgap, for the calculation of the cogging torque, and
2 with a 1-layer airgap, for other calculations: the back emf, constant speed with torque ripples,
no load startup, and servo action.

Note to users About Preflux 9.1


Chapter 1

Get started with Preflux 9.1


Start Flux 9.1
Start Flux from your Windows Taskbar.

Starting Flux 9.1

1
2 The Flux Supervisor

Choose Start, Programs, Cedrat (or your Flux installation directory) and Flux 9.1:

Program Input

Start

Programs

Cedrat

Flux 9.1

The Flux Supervisor


The new Flux Supervisor opens, as shown in the following figure:

New Flux Supervisor 9

Chapter 1 Get started with Preflux 9.1


The Flux Supervisor 3

The Supervisor is organized into three basic areas:

Ÿ the Program manager


Ÿ the Directory manager
Ÿ the Project manager

Program manager

The Program manager both lists and launches all the Flux modules (Geometry, Circuit, etc.), as
well as a Dos shell and the Explorer (in the My programs panel at the bottom):

Program manager

Get started with Preflux 9.1 Chapter 1


4 The Flux Supervisor

You can start any module by double clicking its name in the program manager:

Starting the Circuit module from the


Program manager

You can switch from Flux2D to Flux3D or Flux for skewed applications by selecting the
appropriate tab at the bottom of the modules list:

In the My programs area, below the module tree, there are shortcuts to the Dos Shell and the
Explorer.

You can add shortcuts to other programs. Right click on System tools or anywhere inside the
area and choose Add a program…:

Adding shortcuts to My programs

Chapter 1 Get started with Preflux 9.1


The Flux Supervisor 5

Directory manager

The Directory manager shows your computer’s complete directory, and if a project is selected, a
preview of the geometry is displayed (in Flux2D only). If no project is selected, the “FluxView”
graphic is displayed.

Directory manager (no project selected)

Get started with Preflux 9.1 Chapter 1


6 The Flux Supervisor

Project manager

The project manager displays all your Flux projects.

Project manager with Flux projects in working directory

If this is your first use of Flux, the Project area is empty. If you have used Flux previously, your
projects from previous Flux versions are displayed.

Chapter 1 Get started with Preflux 9.1


The Flux Supervisor 7

Flux2D version

In the Program manager, check that the Flux2D tab is on top. If you are not sure, look at the top
of the Program manager:

2D Standard version (for general use)

Get started with Preflux 9.1 Chapter 1


8 Open Preflux 9.1

Open Preflux 9.1


To open Preflux 9.1, in the Program manager, double click Geometry & Physics.

Program Input

Double click Geometry & Physics

The main Preflux window opens.

Preflux window

Chapter 1 Get started with Preflux 9.1


Open a new project 9

In the Preflux window there are two menus, Project and Help, but to see the complete set of
Preflux Geometry and Mesh commands, you must open a new project.

Open a new project


You can open a new project either with the toolbar icon or the menu.

Using the icon in the toolbar

To open a new Flux project, click the icon in the toolbar:

Program Input

click

Using the menu

If you prefer, choose Project, New from the menu:

Program Input

Project
New

The Preflux 9.1 project window opens, as described in the following section.

F The Project window opens in the Geometry context by default. The Geometry icon
over the data Tree is depressed, as shown in the following figure.

Get started with Preflux 9.1 Chapter 1


10 Preflux 9.1 project window

Preflux 9.1 project window


The Preflux 9.1 project window, like those of other Flux modules, is divided into three main
areas.

Preflux 9.1 project window (showing complete geometry and mesh)

Ÿ Graphics display
Ÿ Problem data tree
Ÿ Console window

Graphics display

The largest is the Graphics display area, which (by default) occupies most of the screen.
However, you can resize the different areas of the screen and, if you wish, you can hide the data
tree, the command line, and/or the Console window.

Chapter 1 Get started with Preflux 9.1


Preflux 9.1 project window 11

Toolbar

The toolbar along the top includes project management icons (New, Open, Save), as well as
special icons for display, selection, creation, and manipulation of geometric and mesh entities.

The following figure shows the Project, Undo, Add, and Propagate icons available in the
Geometry context:

Toolbar (Geometry context):Project, Add, Propagate icons

The following figure shows the Calculate, View, Display, Select and other sets of icons:

Toolbar (Geometry context):Calculate, View, Display, Select icons

The following figures identify the toolbar icons in the Geometry context:

Get started with Preflux 9.1 Chapter 1


12 Preflux 9.1 project window

The data Tree

The data Tree, on the left, displays all the problem data in a tree structure. For example, to see
all the geometric parameters, click the next to Geometric Parameter.

Parameters list in problem data Tree

Chapter 1 Get started with Preflux 9.1


Preflux 9.1 project window 13

The Data tree displays the individual entries that are expanded using the key in the tree.

You can select multiple items from the Data tree. Click the first item, hold down the Shift key,
and select the other items.

Selecting Points 4-11 from the list in


the Data tree

Console window

Across the bottom of the screen is the Console or Text output window, which displays a text
record of data input and program responses. This record is saved as the “spy” file (Preflu2D.py),
as in earlier versions of Flux.

You can use spy files and Python commands to automate the execution of repetitive command
sequences, for example, to create and position sets of objects.

Get started with Preflux 9.1 Chapter 1


14 Preflux 9.1 project commands and functions

Command line

Directly below the graphics area and the console window status area is the Python bar or

command line. You must first click on the expansion arrow to reveal the command line.

You can run Flux by entering Python commands in this line:

Python command line revealed below console window

Preflux 9.1 project commands and functions


Below are brief descriptions of the commands and options shown in the Preflux project window.

Windows menu commands

The Windows menu commands are located in the menu bar across the very top of the Preflux
window.

Chapter 1 Get started with Preflux 9.1


Preflux 9.1 project commands and functions 15

Project menu

The Project menu is shown below. Within the Project menu are commands to manage projects,
spy files and command files.

Application Menu

With the Application menu, you can select the type of physical model you are building. In
previous versions of Flux, this was done in a separate application (prophy):

Get started with Preflux 9.1 Chapter 1


16 Preflux 9.1 project commands and functions

View menu

The View menu includes commands to enlarge the Graphics area or a selected area of the display,
as well as to shift the perspective of the graphics display.

Display menu

The Display menu allows you to select which elements of your model you would like to display.

Select menu

The Select menu allows you to choose which item of your model you want to “pick” using the
mouse.

Chapter 1 Get started with Preflux 9.1


Preflux 9.1 project commands and functions 17

Geometry menu

The Geometry menu is used to create, edit and delete the different elements of the model. For
example, new points and lines can be created. In addition, operations on the various elements can
be performed, such as transformations and extrusions:

Using the Geometry menu to add a new


Coordinate system.

Using the Geometry menu to propagate points

Get started with Preflux 9.1 Chapter 1


18 Preflux 9.1 project commands and functions

Mesh menu

Within the mesh menu are commands for managing the elements required for generating a mesh.
This includes creating and assigning mesh points, mesh lines and mesh generators.

Using the Mesh menu to create a mesh line

Physic menu

The physic menu contains operations required to define the physical model of the problem. This
includes defining the model symmetries and defining and assigning materials to the various
regions of the model.

Using the Physic menu to add a new material.

Chapter 1 Get started with Preflux 9.1


Preflux 9.1 project commands and functions 19

Tools menu

Included in the Tools menu is the Undo command, to revert the project to a previous state.
There are also commands to define and use custom colors in your model.

Help menu

The Help menu provides access to the online help for Flux, including a searchable index and
links to the complete User’s Guide and other manuals:

Get started with Preflux 9.1 Chapter 1


20 Preflux 9.1 project commands and functions

A selection from the online Help is shown here:

Chapter 1 Get started with Preflux 9.1


Take time to explore 21

Take time to explore


Take a few minutes now to look at the menus and the icons in the Preflux project window.

Preflux project window

For instance, as you move your mouse over the toolbar icons, you see labels that identify them:

Next, begin the model by creating parameters to define basic dimensions of the motor geometry.

Get started with Preflux 9.1 Chapter 1


Chapter 2

Create the motor parameters


The model of the motor
The motor is a DC brushless permanent magnet motor, with 4 poles, 3 phases, 24 slots and a
surface mounted radial magnet. Because of the motor's periodicities, the model is only ¼ of the
motor (1 pole), that is, 6 stator slots and one north magnet pole. The following figure is a
diagram of the model:

Model of 1 pole of the DC brushless motor

23
24 Defining parameters

The following figure shows the location of some of the parameters on the model.

Geometric parameters used to construct the model

This tutorial shows you how to construct the geometry and create the mesh for the one-pole
model of the motor.

Defining parameters
Parameters are used to represent various dimensions of the motor geometry.

There are several reasons to use parameters. First of all, parameters simplify the construction of
the geometry. Also, identifying dimensions with parameters makes modifications much easier.
For instance, entering the width of the airgap as a parameter means you can change the size of
the airgap in one step, in only a few seconds, and Preflux 9.1 automatically updates the entire
model. Without the airgap parameter, to change the width of the airgap would require redefining
the coordinates of every point in the airgap, redrawing every adjacent line, and so on. Parameters

Chapter 2 Create the motor parameters


Defining parameters 25

also allow you to modify the scale of a geometry through their relationship with coordinate
systems.

In this problem we use two groups of parameters, design parameters and working parameters.
Design parameters are, for example, the stator's outer diameter, the stator slot depth, and the
magnet length. For the design parameters, we use the same names used in the SPEED software.
Working parameters are defined within the problem to simplify an expression or to represent a
constant. For example, we use a working parameter for the number of degrees between slots,
SLTPITCH = 360/NSLOTS.

Attributes of parameters

Parameters are defined with three attributes:

1. name (an abbreviated label)


2. comment (an optional brief description), and
3. algebraic expression (a value or formula).

Parameter names may be up to 12 characters long but must begin with a letter. We suggest you
use short, easily remembered words or abbreviations for parameter names.

Comments describe briefly what the parameter represents and may be up to 80 characters long.
(Comments are optional, but they may be helpful when someone else refers to your work.)

For algebraic expression, the following are valid:

a. Constant
b. Arithmetic operators (+,-,*,/,**)
c. Arithmetic functions (SQRT, LOG, SIN, etc.)
d. Other parameters
e. Combinations of any of these

Parameters and measurement units

Please note that parameters are independent of any unit of measurement. In other words, the
numerical value entered for a parameter is not changed when the unit of measurement is changed.
Any measurement unit associated with a parameter derives from the coordinate system in which
the parameter is used.

For example, a parameter's value may be 10 in a coordinate system with millimeters as units. This
parameter's value is still 10 whether the coordinate system's units are changed to inches or meters
or kilometers or any other available unit. Thus, when you use parameters, you can also modify
the scale of a geometric feature without reentering each point or item.

Create the motor parameters Chapter 2


26 Define the first parameter: NPOLES

Define the first parameter: NPOLES


Your project window should be open in the Geometry context, as shown in the following figure:

Ready to add parameters

Open the New parameter dialog

To add the parameters, open the New parameter dialog, either with the toolbar icon or the menu.

Using the icon in the toolbar

Click the Add parameter icon in the toolbar:

Program Input

click

Chapter 2 Create the motor parameters


Define the first parameter: NPOLES 27

Using the menu

If you prefer, choose Geometry, Geometric Parameter, New from the menu:

Program Input

Geometry

Geometric Parameter
New

The New Geometric Parameter dialog opens:

New parameter dialog box

Create the motor parameters Chapter 2


28 Define the first parameter: NPOLES

Enter the data for the NPOLES parameter

Enter a name, a comment (if you wish) and the algebraic expression (or value) for the parameter.

The Name field shows the default parameter name, ParameterGeom_1. When you type in the
name, you can enter it with capital letters (NPOLES) or in lower case (npoles). It will be stored
internally in Flux, and displayed later, in all capital letters.

If you wish, you can use the TAB key to move from one field to the next, and then press the
ENTER key, or click Ok, to complete the data entry for the parameter.

The following figure shows the New parameter dialog with the information needed to define the
NPOLES parameter:

Adding the NPOLES parameter

Enter the information for the NPOLES parameter as follows:

Program Input

Name of Parameter NPOLES


(PARAMETRE_GEOM1)

Comment total number of poles

Definition

Algebraic expression for the 4


parameter

Ok

When you click Ok, the NPOLES parameter is added to the database and the dialog closes
momentarily.

Chapter 2 Create the motor parameters


Define the first parameter: NPOLES 29

Notice that the Console window displays a message confirming the creation of the NPOLES
parameter:

NPOLES created

Click the next to Geometric Parameter in the data Tree to see the parameters:

NPOLES parameter in data Tree

Create the motor parameters Chapter 2


30 Define the first parameter: NPOLES

The New parameters dialog opens again, ready for you to add another parameter. Your screen
should resemble the following figure:

Ready to add another parameter (full screen)

The dialog reopens with a new default parameter name, NPOLES_1.

Ready to add another parameter

Chapter 2 Create the motor parameters


Define the remaining parameters for the motor 31

Define the remaining parameters for the motor


Now define the other parameters for the motor. You may want to use the following table as a
guide to enter the information for the parameters. Each row of the table presents the information
to define one parameter. You have already defined the first parameter, NPOLES, so that row of
the table is cross-hatched.

Motor parameters

Number Name Comment Expression

2 NPOLES total number of poles 4

3 RADSH radius of shaft 9.003

4 RAD1 radius of rotor 25.154

5 GAP width of airgap 0.503

6 LM length of magnet 6.987

7 BETAM magnet pole arc 150


(electrical)

8 RAD3 outer radius of stator 48

9 NSLOTS number of stator slots 24

10 TW width of stator tooth 2.76

11 SLTDPTH depth of stator slot 12.07

12 SLTOPEN opening of stator slot 0.92

13 SLTODEPTH radial depth of tip of 0.7


stator tooth

14 SLTOANG angle of slot opening 40

15 SLTPITCH slot pitch 360/NSLOTS

16 ALPHA angle for tip of tooth SLTOANG+SLTPITCH/2-90

17 XP X coordinate of known RAD1+GAP+SLTODEPTH


point

18 YP Y coordinate of known -SLTOPEN/2


point

19 X1 X coordinate of 1st XP*COSD(SLTPITCH/2)+YP*


point COSD(SLTPITCH/2+90)

Create the motor parameters Chapter 2


32 Define the remaining parameters for the motor

Number Name Comment Expression

20 Y1 Y coordinate of 1st XP*SIND(SLTPITCH/2)+YP*


point SIND(SLTPITCH/2+90)

21 BETA Y1-TAN(alpha)X1 Y1-TAND(ALPHA)*X1

22 Y2 Y coordinate of 2nd TW/2


point

23 X2 (Y2-beta)/TAN(alpha) (Y2-BETA)/TAND(ALPHA)

F The algebraic expression for a parameter must not contain any spaces!

After entering the last parameter, when the New parameter dialog opens again, close it:

Closing the New parameter dialog

Click the button or choose Cancel.

Program Input

Name of Parameter (X2_1) Cancel

Chapter 2 Create the motor parameters


Define the remaining parameters for the motor 33

Your screen should resemble the following figure:

Screen after all parameters added

Create the motor parameters Chapter 2


34 Define the remaining parameters for the motor

Notice all the parameters listed in the data tree:

Parameters in data tree

Notice, too, that as you move your cursor over the parameter names, the comments are displayed
to help you identify the parameters.

Chapter 2 Create the motor parameters


Save your problem 35

Save your problem


Before you continue, save your problem, either with the toolbar icon or the menu.

Using the icon in the toolbar

Click the Save icon in the toolbar.

Program Input

click

Using the menu

If you prefer, choose Project, Save from the menu:

Program Input

Project

Save

Create the motor parameters Chapter 2


36 Save your problem

The "Save" project dialog opens.

To save a project

Your current project directory (working directory) is displayed in the first field at the top, “Save
In:” (for example, ours is called “Brushless_V9”).

If you want to save to another directory, click the button and browse to the directory you
wish. Then enter a name for your project and click Save. (Enter any name you wish. We show
brushless only as an example).

Saving problem (first save)

Chapter 2 Create the motor parameters


Save your problem 37

To save the problem to the directory you have chosen, proceed as follows:

Program Input

Save In: Brushless_V9 [or your working


directory]

Project brushless [your project name]

Save

The Console displays a message that your project has been saved:

Confirmation: Project saved

Create the motor parameters Chapter 2


Chapter 3

Add coordinate systems


Using coordinate systems
All geometric features must be defined in relation to a coordinate system, either the default XY1
system, or a user-defined coordinate system. With user-defined systems you can save time by
defining only small parts of the geometry and then duplicating and positioning these parts to
complete the model. This problem features a periodic structure, so through user-defined
coordinate systems, you can create most of the stator geometry by duplicating one stator slot.
You can also save time if you want to modify the geometry later, because several types of
changes can be made by modifying the coordinate system.

Attributes of coordinate systems


Coordinate systems are defined with the following attributes:

1. name (an abbreviated label)


2. comment (concise description—optional)
3. definition of system (global or local)
4. coordinate system of definition (for local systems)
5. type of coordinates (Cartesian, etc.)
6. the coordinates of the origin (values)
7. the orientation of the axes (values)
8. the unit of length (for global systems); and
9. the unit of angle (for global systems).

39
40 Data for the coordinate systems

Data for the coordinate systems


The following table summarizes the data for the three coordinate systems:

Name Comment Type Global/ Units Parent X, Y origins/


Local Z rotation

Main MILLI-
0 0
MAIN coordinate Cartesian Global METER
system 0
DEGREE

Working 0 0
Cylin-
ROTOR system for Local MAIN
drical 360/NPOLES/2
rotor

Working 0 0
STATOR system for Cartesian Local MAIN
stator SLTPITCH/2

Add a global coordinate system for the motor


Begin by defining a global coordinate system (MAIN) for the motor. This system establishes the
orientation of the motor as a whole.

A global coordinate system such as MAIN is independent; it is not defined within or dependent
on any other coordinate system. A local coordinate system, however, must be defined within an
existing system and therefore is dependent on the existing system. Local coordinate systems may
be defined within a global system or within other existing local coordinate systems.

Types of coordinates include Cartesian and cylindrical. (The ROTOR system uses cylindrical
coordinates.)

Open the New Coordinate System dialog

To add the coordinate systems, open the New Coordinate System dialog, either with the toolbar
icon or the menu.

Using the icon in the toolbar

Click the icon in the toolbar:

Program Input

click

Chapter 3 Add coordinate systems


Add a global coordinate system for the motor 41

Using the menu

If you prefer, choose Geometry, Coordinate System, New from the menu:

Program Input

Geometry

Coordinate System
New

Add coordinate systems Chapter 3


42 Add a global coordinate system for the motor

The New Coordinate System dialog opens:

New Coordinate System dialog

Add the MAIN global coordinate system

To add the MAIN coordinate system, enter or verify the information as follows:

Program Input

Name of Coordinate System MAIN


(CoordSys_1)

Comment main coordinate system

Definition

Type of Coordinate System Cartesian

Chapter 3 Add coordinate systems


Add a global coordinate system for the motor 43

Program Input

Defined with respect to the Global


Global or a Local Coordinate
System

After you select Global, the dialog displays different fields:

Adding the MAIN coordinate system

Enter or verify the information as follows:

Program Input

Length Unit MILLIMETER

Angle Unit DEGREE

Add coordinate systems Chapter 3


44 Add a global coordinate system for the motor

Program Input

Origin of Coordinate System


Formula or Value

Origin: first component 0

Origin: second component 0

Rotation Angle about Z axis 0


(Angle Unit of Coordinate
System)

Ok

When you click Ok, the MAIN coordinate system is added, and the dialog closes momentarily.

The confirmation is displayed in the Console window:

Confirmation: MAIN coordinate system created

Chapter 3 Add coordinate systems


Add the local coordinate systems for the motor 45

The New Coordinate System dialog opens again. Your screen should resemble the following
figure.

MAIN coordinate system added to the database

In order to choose cylindrical coordinates for the ROTOR system, close the New Coordinate
System dialog for now.

Program Input

Name of coordinate system Cancel


(MAIN_1)

Add the local coordinate systems for the motor


Use the global coordinate system (MAIN) to create the two local coordinate systems for the
motor geometry. The first is a local, working coordinate system in cylindrical coordinates for the
rotor, shifted by half of the magnet pole pitch from the MAIN coordinate system (the pole axis
is aligned with the phase A d-axis). The second local coordinate system, the stator slot
coordinate system (in Cartesian coordinates), is shifted by half the slot pitch from MAIN.

Add coordinate systems Chapter 3


46 Add the local coordinate systems for the motor

Add the ROTOR system

Now open the New Coordinate System dialog again with the icon in the toolbar.

Program Input

click

The dialog displays the “Type of Coordinate System” field.

After adding MAIN coordinate system

Chapter 3 Add coordinate systems


Add the local coordinate systems for the motor 47

Enter or verify the following:

Program Input

Name of Coordinate System ROTOR


(MAIN_1)

Comment working system for rotor

Definition

Type of Coordinate System Cylindrical

Defined with respect to the Local


Global or a Local Coordinate
System

Add coordinate systems Chapter 3


48 Add the local coordinate systems for the motor

When you choose Local, the dialog displays different fields:

To add the local ROTOR coordinate system

F Remember to choose Cylindrical coordinates for the ROTOR system.

Proceed as follows:

Program Input

Parent Coordinate System MAIN

Origin of Coordinate System


Formula or Value

Origin: first component 0

Origin: second component 0

Chapter 3 Add coordinate systems


Add the local coordinate systems for the motor 49

Program Input

Rotation Angle about Z axis 360/npoles/2


(Angle Unit of Coordinate
System)

Ok

When you click Ok, the ROTOR coordinate system is added and the dialog closes momentarily
and then opens again.

Add the STATOR coordinate system

Finally, add the STATOR coordinate system, which uses Cartesian coordinates.

The New Coordinate System dialog should still be open.

To add the STATOR coordinate system

Add coordinate systems Chapter 3


50 Add the local coordinate systems for the motor

Enter or verify the following:

Program Input

Name of Coordinate System STATOR


(ROTOR_1)

Comment working system for stator

Definition

Type of Coordinate System Cartesian

Defined with respect to the Local


Global or a Local Coordinate
System

Parent Coordinate System MAIN

Origin of Coordinate System


Formula or Value

Origin: first component 0

Origin: second component 0

Rotation Angle about Z axis sltpitch/2


(Angle Unit of Coordinate
System)

Ok

The STATOR coordinate system is added to the problem database. The confirmation is
displayed in the Console window:

Confirmation: STATOR coordinate system created

Chapter 3 Add coordinate systems


Add the local coordinate systems for the motor 51

The New Coordinate System dialog opens again.

Closing the New Coordinate System dialog

Close the dialog with the button or Cancel:

Program Input

Name of Coordinate System Cancel


(STATOR_1)

Add coordinate systems Chapter 3


52 Add the local coordinate systems for the motor

To see the list of coordinate systems, click the next to Coordinate Systems in the data tree:

Coordinate systems in data tree

Chapter 3 Add coordinate systems


Save your problem 53

Save your problem


Using the icon in the toolbar

Save your problem now (if you wish) by clicking the icon in the toolbar:

Program Input

click

Using the menu

If you prefer, choose Project, Save from the menu:

Program Input

Project

Save

Add coordinate systems Chapter 3


54 Save your problem

The confirmation is displayed in the Console window:

Project saved (with coordinate systems)

Creating the rotor geometry is next.

Chapter 3 Add coordinate systems


Chapter 4

Create the rotor geometry


Now you can use the coordinate systems and parameters to create the points and lines of the rotor
geometry.

Notes on creating and displaying points


A point can be created as a set of coordinates in a specified coordinate system, or as an image of an
existing point through a geometric transformation. The points of the rotor geometry use
cylindrical (Rho ®) and Theta (θ)) coordinates. The coordinates can be values, functions,
parameters, or any combination of these. You will use several of the parameters you defined as
coordinates for the points.

When points are entered, Preflux 9.1 automatically assigns a reference number to each point.
Reference numbers are assigned to all geometric items—in the order in which they are entered. For
instance, our first parameter is NPOLES, so it is ParameterGeom(2); the default parameter, PI, as
you may recall, is ParameterGeom(1).

You may notice that some of the reference numbers in our figures may not be the same as yours. If
you create points or lines in a different order than we use in the text, your reference numbers will
be different. Do not be alarmed at this difference. Items may be entered in any order you wish, but
it is the order that determines the reference number.

You may wish to use reference numbers to select items, for example, but the numbers are not
automatically displayed. To see the reference numbers on your screen, use the View command
from the Label menu. (You will see how to display the reference numbers later, after you have
entered the points.)

Finally, you may notice that as points are entered, you may not be able to see all the individual
points. Use the Zoom All icon whenever you want to see a view of the complete geometry.
Use the Zoom region icon to enlarge a selected area of the screen to see a specific point or
feature. Choose Zoom All again to restore the full display.

55
56 Data for the rotor points

Data for the rotor points


The following table shows the information to define the points of the rotor geometry. Use the
table to enter this information.

F If you enter the points exactly as they are listed, they will be numbered in this
order, and your screen displays will match those shown in this tutorial.

Coordinates of rotor points

Point Coordinate system First coordinate Second coordinate


of definition

1 ROTOR 0 0

2 ROTOR RADSH –(360/NPOLES/2)

3 ROTOR RADSH 360/NPOLES/2

4 ROTOR RAD1–LM –(360/NPOLES/2)

5 ROTOR RAD1–LM 360/NPOLES/2

6 ROTOR RAD1–LM –BETAM/4

7 ROTOR RAD1–LM BETAM/4

8 ROTOR RAD1 –(360/NPOLES/2)

9 ROTOR RAD1 360/NPOLES/2

10 ROTOR RAD1 –BETAM/4

11 ROTOR RAD1 BETAM/4

Add points for the rotor


Because of the periodicity of the motor, the model is only one pole (¼ of the motor). The rotor
geometry thus consists of the magnet pole, the shaft and the outline of the rotor. The rotor
geometry is defined in its own local cylindrical coordinate system (ROTOR).

Chapter 4 Create the rotor geometry


Add points for the rotor 57

The following figure is a drawing of the rotor parts to be constructed for the model.

Rotor geometry

Open the New Point dialog

To add the points for the rotor, open the New Point dialog, either with the toolbar icon or the
menu.

Using the icon in the toolbar

Click the icon in the toolbar.

Program Input

click

Create the rotor geometry Chapter 4


58 Add points for the rotor

Using the menu

If you prefer, choose Geometry, Point, New from the menu.

Program Input

Geometry

Point
New

The New Point dialog opens.

New point dialog—initial point

Chapter 4 Create the rotor geometry


Add points for the rotor 59

Add the first point

In the New Point dialog, make sure the "Geometric Definition" tab is on top. Then enter or
verify the following:

Program Input

Geometric Definition

Type of the Point Point defined by its Parametric


Coordinates

Coordinate System for ROTOR


definition

Local coordinates
Formula or Value

First coordinate 0

Second coordinate 0

Your dialog should resemble the following figure:

Information for Point 1

Click Ok to add the point.

Program Input

Ok

Create the rotor geometry Chapter 4


60 Add points for the rotor

The New point dialog closes and then reopens. Your screen should resemble the following
figure:

Screen after entry of point 1

F The default background color for the graphics display is gray, and the default color
for points and lines is white. To clarify the illustrations for this tutorial, we usually
show a white background, with black points and lines.

If you want to change your display, see the optional section at the end of this
chapter (page 84).

Chapter 4 Create the rotor geometry


Add points for the rotor 61

The confirmation message is displayed in the Console window.

Confirmation: Point 1 created

The New Point box should be open again.

New Point dialog—after creating Point 1

Notice that the dialog displays the coordinates of Point 1, and that the Formula or Value field for
the First coordinate is active. To add Point 2, you can simply enter the new coordinates and click
Ok or press Enter.

Create the rotor geometry Chapter 4


62 Add points for the rotor

Add the remaining rotor points

If necessary, click on the New Point dialog to activate it. Then, enter the remaining points for
the rotor from the following table. You have already defined the first point, so that row is
cross-hatched.

Point Coordinate system First coordinate Second coordinate


of definition

1 ROTOR 0 0

2 ROTOR RADSH –(360/NPOLES/2)

3 ROTOR RADSH 360/NPOLES/2

4 ROTOR RAD1–LM –(360/NPOLES/2)

5 ROTOR RAD1–LM 360/NPOLES/2

6 ROTOR RAD1–LM –BETAM/4

7 ROTOR RAD1–LM BETAM/4

8 ROTOR RAD1 –(360/NPOLES/2)

9 ROTOR RAD1 360/NPOLES/2

10 ROTOR RAD1 –BETAM/4

11 ROTOR RAD1 BETAM/4

Chapter 4 Create the rotor geometry


Add points for the rotor 63

After all points are added, and the New Point dialog reopens, close it.

Closing the New Point dialog to stop adding points

Click the button or choose Cancel.

Program Input

First coordinate Cancel

Create the rotor geometry Chapter 4


64 Display the point labels (reference numbers)

To see all the rotor points, click the (Zoom All) button:

Points for the rotor geometry

Display the point labels (reference numbers)


To display the reference numbers for the points, from the menu, choose Display, Display point
numbers:

Program Input

Display
Display point numbers

Chapter 4 Create the rotor geometry


Display the point labels (reference numbers) 65

The following figure shows the points and their labels:

Points labeled with reference numbers

Create the rotor geometry Chapter 4


66 Using the Edit command

Using the Edit command


If you want to see additional information about a specific point or any other geometric item, use
the Edit command from the Geometry menu.

Try it now. Choose Geometry, Point and Edit.

Program Input

Geometry

Point
Edit

The following dialog opens for you to select the point or points to edit or modify. (We chose
Point 1.)

Choosing Point 1 to edit

Chapter 4 Create the rotor geometry


Using the Edit command 67

The "Edit Point[1]" dialog opens.

Editing Point 1

Note that the title bar of this dialog includes the reference number of the point you are editing.

Within this dialog you can make several kinds of changes. You can

Ÿ change the coordinate system and coordinates of the point in the Geometric Definition tab
Ÿ see the values of the coordinates (in meters) and change the "nature" of the point in the
Geometric complements tab
Ÿ see the surface region (if any) to which the point is assigned in the Region tab
Ÿ check or modify the Mesh point (if any) assigned to this point in the Mesh tab, and
Ÿ change the color and "visibility" of the point in the Appearance tab.

Look at the other tabs and options in this dialog if you wish.

F Do not make any changes to Point 1 at this time.

Create the rotor geometry Chapter 4


68 Using the Edit command

When you are ready to proceed, close the Edit point dialog.

Closing the Edit Point dialog

Click the button or choose Cancel.

Program Input

Edit Point[1]
click or Cancel

Chapter 4 Create the rotor geometry


A note about selecting items 69

A note about selecting items


When you want to select geometric items from the graphics display, for example, to verify
reference numbers, you must indicate the type of item you want to select by choosing one of the
selection icons. These icons include an arrow symbol and are located in the second toolbar below
and to the right of the Help menu.

If you prefer, you can choose from the menu, for example, Select, Select points.

Program Input

Select

Select points

When Select Point is activated, points can be selected from the graphics screen. When the cursor
moves over a point on the screen, the point is highlighted and its reference number is displayed.

When you must select specific entities (such as selecting points to add lines), the appropriate
selection icon is depressed. (For example, when adding lines, the Select Point icon is depressed)

Create the rotor geometry Chapter 4


70 The lines for the rotor

The lines for the rotor


In Preflux 9.1, connecting lines may be drawn as straight segments or arcs of a circle.

Two types of line connections are used for the rotor geometry:

1 the straight line Segment defined by Starting and Ending points and
2 Arc defined by its radius, Starting and Ending points.

The following figure shows the lines of the rotor.

Rotor lines

Chapter 4 Create the rotor geometry


Add the straight sides of the rotor and magnet 71

Add the straight sides of the rotor and magnet


First, add the straight sides of the rotor and the magnet.

Open the New Line dialog

Open the New Line dialog, either with the toolbar icon or the menu.

Using the icon in the toolbar

Click the icon in the toolbar.

Program Input

click

Using the menu

If you prefer, choose Geometry, Line, New from the menu.

Program Input

Geometry

Line
New

Create the rotor geometry Chapter 4


72 Add the straight sides of the rotor and magnet

The New Line dialog opens.

New Line dialog

Add Line 1

Make sure the Geometric Definition tab is on top.

Then proceed as follows:

Program Input

Geometric Definition

Type of Line Segment defined by Starting and


Ending Points

Points defining segment


Point

Starting Point 1

To enter the starting and ending points, you can either type the point number into the field in
the dialog, or select the point from the Graphics display.

Chapter 4 Create the rotor geometry


Add the straight sides of the rotor and magnet 73

The following figure shows Point 1 being selected from the Graphics display.

Selecting the starting point (Point 1) for the first line

To complete the first line, select Point 2 as the ending point:

Program Input

Ending point 2

As soon as Point 2 is selected, the line is drawn in the Graphics display and the New Line dialog
closes momentarily.

Create the rotor geometry Chapter 4


74 Add the straight sides of the rotor and magnet

The following figure shows Line 1:

Line 1 (straight side of shaft)

The Console shows the confirmation message.

Confirmation: Line(1) created

Chapter 4 Create the rotor geometry


Add the straight sides of the rotor and magnet 75

The New Line dialog reopens, as shown below.

Ready to add Line 2

Add the other line segments

The following table shows the starting points and end points for the straight line segments of the
rotor. (You have already created Line 1, so that row of the table is crosshatched.)

Refer to the table to create the lines.

Rotor line segments

Line Segment Number Starting point Ending point

1 1 2

2 1 3

3 2 4

4 3 5

5 4 8

6 5 9

7 6 10

8 7 11

Create the rotor geometry Chapter 4


76 Add arcs for curved sides (shaft, rotor, magnet)

Add arcs for curved sides (shaft, rotor, magnet)


The next connecting lines for the rotor are arcs for the curved sides.

F Arcs must be created in a counterclockwise direction, so be sure to choose the


points in the proper sequence, i.e., 2 and then 3.

The following figure shows the information to add Line 9. Make sure you change the "Type of
line" to an "Arc defined by its Radius, Starting and Ending Points" before continuing.

Adding Line 9 (curved side of shaft)

Chapter 4 Create the rotor geometry


Add arcs for curved sides (shaft, rotor, magnet) 77

Enter or verify the following:

Program Input

Type of Line Arc defined by its radius,


Starting and Ending Points

System Coordinates which ROTOR


orients the arc around a Z axis

Arc Radius radsh

EXTREM_POINTS
Point

Starting point of the arc 2

Ending point of the arc 3

As soon as you select Point 3, you will see Line 9:

Line 9 (curved outline of shaft)

Create the rotor geometry Chapter 4


78 Add arcs for curved sides (shaft, rotor, magnet)

The New Line dialog closes and then reopens.

Ready for Line 10

Add the other arcs from the following table. You have already defined the first arc, so that row of
the table is cross-hatched.

Arcs for the shaft, rotor, and magnet

System Coordinates which Arc Radius Starting point Ending point of


orients the arc around a Z axis of the arc the arc

ROTOR radsh 2 3

ROTOR rad1-lm 4 6

ROTOR rad1-lm 6 7

ROTOR rad1-lm 7 5

ROTOR rad1 8 10

ROTOR rad1 10 11

ROTOR rad1 11 9

Chapter 4 Create the rotor geometry


Add arcs for curved sides (shaft, rotor, magnet) 79

When the New Line dialog reopens, close it.

Closing New Line dialog after adding Line 15

Click or choose Cancel.

Program Input

Starting point of the arc


click or Cancel

Create the rotor geometry Chapter 4


80 Add arcs for curved sides (shaft, rotor, magnet)

You should see the rotor lines as shown in the following figure:

Lines of the rotor

Chapter 4 Create the rotor geometry


Construct the faces of the rotor 81

Construct the faces of the rotor


Now that the outlines of the rotor geometry are complete, the "faces" of the rotor can be
generated. The faces represent the surface of the structure and must be constructed in order to
generate the mesh. Faces are automatically generated in Preflux.

You can generate the faces either with the toolbar icon or the menu.

Using the icon in the toolbar

Click the Build Faces icon in the toolbar.

Program Input

click

Using the menu

Or, if you prefer, choose Geometry, Face, Build Faces from the menu.

Program Input

Geometry

Face

Build Faces

Flux immediately constructs the 5 faces of the rotor geometry.

Create the rotor geometry Chapter 4


82 Construct the faces of the rotor

You should see the faces of the rotor, as shown below.

Faces of the rotor

The Console window displays a series of messages as the faces are constructed; a sample follows.

Text output for building the faces of the rotor

Chapter 4 Create the rotor geometry


Save your problem 83

Save your problem


Before you continue, save your problem, using either the toolbar icon or the menu.

Using the icon in the toolbar

Choose the button from the toolbar

Program Input

click

Using the menu

If you prefer, choose Project, Save from the menu.

Program Input

Project

Save

F If you would like to change your Graphics display to match our illustrations,
complete the optional section that begins on the next page.

Otherwise, continue with Chapter 5.

Create the rotor geometry Chapter 4


84 Change the Graphics display (optional)

Change the Graphics display (optional)


The default background color of the Preflux Graphics window is brown, and the points and lines
of the geometry are white.

You can copy the Graphics window into a PNG (Portable Network Graphics) file at any time
with Project, Print, Print View In File command. This file can then be used in reports and
presentations.

However, you may find that the default brown background does not always reproduce clearly.
For that reason, you may wish to experiment with different background or item colors. Most of
the figures in this tutorial show the background of the Graphics window as white and the points
and lines of the geometry as black.

The procedure to change the Graphics display is summarized below.

Change point (line) color

If you wish to modify the color of the points, for example, complete the following tasks:

Ÿ Click the icon or choose Select, Select Points from the menu.

Ÿ Click the key next to Point in the tree to expand all points

Chapter 4 Create the rotor geometry


Change the Graphics display (optional) 85

Ÿ Click the first point, hold down the Shift key, and select the last point; all points are selected.
(They are displayed shaded in the Graphics window when selected.)
Ÿ Right click to open the context menu.
Ÿ Choose Edit.

Ÿ In the Edit dialog, click the Appearance tab.

Ÿ Select the color you wish. (We chose Black.)

Create the rotor geometry Chapter 4


86 Change the Graphics display (optional)

Ÿ Click Ok to apply your changes and close the dialog.


The following figure shows the points in black.

Ÿ Click the Select Point icon again to deselect it.

Chapter 4 Create the rotor geometry


Change the Graphics display (optional) 87

Background color

If you wish to change the background color for your Graphics window to white, choose View,
Reverse video from the menu.

Select file name to save view

The following figure shows the Graphics window with the white background.

Create the rotor geometry Chapter 4


88 Change the Graphics display (optional)

Chapter 4 Create the rotor geometry


Chapter 5

Begin the stator geometry


In this chapter you create points and lines for the outline of the stator and the airgap and the
lower half of the first stator slot.

The points for the stator use Cartesian (X and Y) coordinates in the MAIN and STATOR
coordinate systems. Several of the parameters are used in the coordinates of the individual points.

Remember you can use the Zoom Region button in the toolbar to enlarge a selected area of
the screen to display a specific point or feature. After using Zoom Region, choose Zoom All
to display a full view of everything you have entered so far.

Add points for the stator’s outline


First, create points to form the outline of the whole stator and the three layers of the airgap.

F The 3-layer airgap model is used only for the cogging torque simulation. Later you
will modify the geometry to create a model with a 1-layer airgap.

Open the New Point dialog

To add points, open the New Point dialog, using either the toolbar icon or the menu.

Using the icon in the toolbar

Click the button in the toolbar.

Program Input

click

89
90 Add points for the stator’s outline

Using the menu

If you prefer, choose Geometry, Point, New from the menu.

Program Input

Geometry

Point
New

The New Point dialog opens.

Dialog to add Point 12

Chapter 5 Begin the stator geometry


Add points for the stator’s outline 91

Add Point 12

Make sure the Geometric Definition tab is on top. Then enter or verify the following:

Program Input

Geometric Definition

Type of the Point Point defined by its Parametric


Coordinates

Coordinate System for MAIN


Definition

Local coordinates
Formula or Value

First coordinate rad1+gap

Second coordinate 0

Ok

When you click Ok, Point 12 is added. The New Point dialog reopens.

After adding Point 12

Begin the stator geometry Chapter 5


92 Add points for the stator’s outline

The table below lists the coordinates for the stator outline and airgap points. Each row contains
the information to define one point. Use the table to enter the information.

You have already added Point 12, so that row of the table is cross-hatched.
Points for stator outline and 3-layer airgap

Point Coordinate System X coordinate Y coordinate

P12 MAIN RAD1+GAP 0

P13 MAIN 0 RAD1+GAP

P14 MAIN RAD3 0

P15 MAIN 0 RAD3

P16 MAIN RAD1+GAP/3 0

P17 MAIN RAD1+(2*GAP/3) 0

P18 MAIN 0 RAD1+GAP/3

P19 MAIN 0 RAD1+(2*GAP/3)

After the last point is entered, and the New Point dialog reopens, close it.

Closing the New Point dialog (after adding Point 19)

Click the button, or choose Cancel.

Program Input

First coordinate Cancel

Chapter 5 Begin the stator geometry


Add points for the stator’s outline 93

You may need to choose the Zoom All icon from the toolbar. You should then see the new
points on your graphics screen.

Points for the stator outline and 3-layer airgap

To see the points for the airgap, choose the Zoom Region icon from the toolbar and enlarge
the area at the bottom of the model, just to the right of the rotor. The points for the lower edge
of the airgap are shown in the following figure:

Points for the lower edge of the airgap

Begin the stator geometry Chapter 5


94 Add points for half of the first stator slot

Add points for half of the first stator slot


The points for the lower half of the stator slot are defined as follows:

Ÿ Two points (on the stator tooth) are entered as a set of coordinates in the MAIN coordinate
system.
Ÿ Three points (one symmetry point and two for the slot opening) are entered as a set of
coordinates in the STATOR coordinate system. Notice that all the points are defined using
parameters.

Open the New Point dialog using the icon in the toolbar

Open the New Point dialog with the icon.

Program Input

click

The table below lists the coordinates for the five points comprising the lower half of the stator
slot. Each row contains the information to define one point. (Note that points 22, 23, and 24 are
defined within the STATOR coordinate system.)

Use the table to enter the information for each point.

F Be sure to change the coordinate system to STATOR after entry of point #21.

Point Coordinate System X coordinate Y coordinate

P20 MAIN X2 Y2

P21 MAIN RAD1+GAP+SLTDPTH Y2

P22 STATOR RAD1+GAP 0

P23 STATOR SQRT((RAD1+GAP)**2- –SLTOPEN/2


(SLTOPEN/2)**2)

P24 STATOR SQRT((RAD1+GAP+SLTODEPTH) –SLTOPEN/2


**2-(SLTOPEN/2)**2)

Chapter 5 Begin the stator geometry


Add points for half of the first stator slot 95

After entry of the last point, when the New Point dialog reopens, close it.

Closing the New Point dialog after adding Point 24

Click the button or choose Cancel.

Program Input

First coordinate Cancel

Begin the stator geometry Chapter 5


96 Add lines for the half stator slot

Enlarge the display of points 20, 21, 22, 23, and 24, as shown here.

Points for bottom half of stator slot

These points define the lower half of the stator slot. The points P1 (not shown above) and P22
form the line of symmetry for the slot.

Add lines for the half stator slot


Make the first three line connections for the stator slot now: straight line segments between
points P23 and P24; P24 and P20; and P20 and P21.

Line segment number Starting point End point

16 23 24

17 24 20

18 20 21

Chapter 5 Begin the stator geometry


Add lines for the half stator slot 97

Open the New Line dialog with the icon in the toolbar

Open the New Line dialog by clicking the icon in the toolbar.

Program Input

click

The New Line dialog opens.

Ready to add lines for half stator slot

Begin the stator geometry Chapter 5


98 Add lines for the half stator slot

Add the line segments

In the New Line dialog, make sure the Geometric Definition tab is on top. Then enter or verify
the following:

Program Input

Geometric Definition

Type of Line Segment defined by Starting and


Ending Points

Points defining segment


Point

Starting Point 23

Ending Point 24

As soon as you choose Point 24, the line is added and the New Line dialog reopens.

Line 16 added (lower half of stator slot)

Chapter 5 Begin the stator geometry


Add lines for the half stator slot 99

Add the other line segments as follows:

Program Input

Starting Point 24

Ending Point 20

Starting Point 20

Ending Point 21

When the New Line dialog reopens, close it.

Closing New Line dialog

Click the button or choose Cancel.

Program Input

Starting Point Cancel

Begin the stator geometry Chapter 5


100 Save your problem

Your screen display should resemble the following figure.

Lines for lower half of stator slot

Save your problem


Save your problem now. Use the icon or choose Project, Save from the menu.

Program Input

Project

Save

Next, you will create a geometric transformation to make a mirror image of this half stator slot
and complete the first stator slot.

Chapter 5 Begin the stator geometry


Chapter 6

Complete the first stator slot


In this chapter you create and apply a geometric transformation to complete the first stator slot.
Later you will duplicate the first slot to create the remaining stator slots for the model.

Geometric transformations are especially useful for a repetitive geometry, such as stator slots in
this model. A transformation can duplicate individual geometric features such as lines, points, or
faces. New features in Preflux 9.1 can also duplicate mesh information and create surface regions
at the same time.

About transformations
Transformations are created in much the same way as parameters or coordinate systems. A
transformation is defined with the following data:

1. name
2. comment (optional)
3. type of transformation (e.g., "Affine Transformation…"), and
4. elements defining the transformation, such as center of rotation, vector of translation,
angle of rotation, or line of symmetry.

As you may recall, the periodicities of the stator slots enable us to simplify the construction of
the geometry. To complete the first stator slot, you define a transformation to create a mirror
image of Lines 16, 17, and 18, the lower half of the slot.

101
102 Add the SLOTMIRROR transformation

Add the SLOTMIRROR transformation


To create a mirror image of the lower half of the stator slot, you must designate a line of
symmetry between the center (0,0), or point P1, and the point in the middle of the slot opening,
P22. The following figure shows the approximate location of the line of symmetry for the stator
slot. This line will not be drawn, but the points must be entered to define the Affine
transformation.

Approximate location of the line of symmetry for the stator slot

Please note that because this line is not actually drawn, it may be easier to type in the reference
numbers of the two points rather than to select the points from the screen. In the command
dialog below, we show the point numbers typed into the dialog box.

Chapter 6 Complete the first stator slot


Add the SLOTMIRROR transformation 103

Open the New Transformation dialog

To add the transformation, open the New Transformation dialog, either with the toolbar icon or
the menu.

Using the icon in the toolbar

Click the icon in the toolbar.

Program Input

click

Using the menu

If you prefer, choose Geometry, Transformation, New from the menu.

Program Input

Geometry

Transformation
New

Complete the first stator slot Chapter 6


104 Add the SLOTMIRROR transformation

The New Transformation dialog opens.

New Transformation dialog—to add SLOTMIRROR

Add data for the SLOTMIRROR transformation

In the New Transformation dialog, enter or verify the following:

Program Input

Name of Geometric SLOTMIRROR


Transformation

Comment mirror image of half stator


slot

Type of Geometric Affine Transformation with


Transformation respect to a line defined by 2
points

Points for definition of


affinity line
Point

First point of straight line 1

Second point of straight line 22

Chapter 6 Complete the first stator slot


Add the SLOTMIRROR transformation 105

Program Input

Scaling factor (Example: -1 = -1


line symmetry)

Ok

When you click Ok, the SLOTMIRROR transformation is added; the confirmation is displayed
in the Console window:

Confirmation for SLOTMIRROR transformation

The New Transformation dialog closes and then reopens.

Closing New Transformation dialog

Complete the first stator slot Chapter 6


106 Apply the SLOTMIRROR transformation

Close the New Transformation dialog with the button or with Cancel.

Program Input

Name of Geometric Cancel


Transformation (SLOTMIRROR_1)

Apply the SLOTMIRROR transformation


To apply the SLOTMIRROR transformation, you will need to select lines 16, 17 and 18. You can
also enter the line numbers in the dialog, if you prefer.

The following figure shows these three lines:

Lines to be propagated with SLOTMIRROR transformation

Chapter 6 Complete the first stator slot


Apply the SLOTMIRROR transformation 107

Open the Propagate Lines dialog

To apply the SLOTMIRROR transformation, open the Propagate Lines dialog, either with the
toolbar icon or the menu.

Using the icon in the toolbar

Click the icon from the toolbar.

Program Input

click

Using the menu

If you prefer, choose Geometry, Propagate,, Propagate Lines from the menu.

Program Input

Geometry

Propagate
Propagate Lines

Complete the first stator slot Chapter 6


108 Apply the SLOTMIRROR transformation

The Propagate Lines dialog opens.

To propagate the lines of the stator slot

Chapter 6 Complete the first stator slot


Apply the SLOTMIRROR transformation 109

Select the lines to propagate

If you select the lines from the screen, remember to hold down the Ctrl key to select all three
lines together.

The following figure shows the lines being selected.

Selecting lines to propagate

Complete the first stator slot Chapter 6


110 Apply the SLOTMIRROR transformation

The following figure shows the Propagate Lines dialog.

To propagate lines of the half stator slot

In the Propagate Lines dialog, enter or verify the following:

Program Input

Lines to propagate
Lines

16

17 + Ctrl

18 + Ctrl

Transformation for propagation SLOTMIRROR

Number of times to apply the 1


transformation

Ok

Chapter 6 Complete the first stator slot


Apply the SLOTMIRROR transformation 111

When you click Ok, the new lines are added.

Lines 19, 20, and 21 propagated with SLOTMIRROR transformation

If necessary, use the Zoom All or Zoom region icons in the toolbar so that you can see
the new lines.

Complete the first stator slot Chapter 6


112 Add lines to complete the stator slot

When the Propagate Lines dialog reopens, close it.

Closing the Propagate Lines dialog

Click the button or Cancel.

Program Input

Lines to propagate Cancel


Lines

Add lines to complete the stator slot


Next, add lines to complete the stator slot.

The first two lines, to close the top of the stator slot, are very small arcs based on the inner radius
of the stator. Remember, an arc must be entered in the counterclockwise direction, so be sure to
select the points in the proper order.

The third line is a straight line segment to close the bottom of the stator slot by connecting
points 21 and 28.

The fourth line is a line segment that separates the wedge region and the winding region by
connecting point 20 to 27. You may want to enlarge your display to choose the individual points,
or you can enter the point numbers with the keyboard.

Chapter 6 Complete the first stator slot


Add lines to complete the stator slot 113

Open the Add Line dialog with the icon in the toolbar

Open the Add Line dialog with the icon in the toolbar.

Program Input

click

The New Line Dialog opens. The following figure shows point numbers for the first stator slot.

Lines and point numbers for first stator slot

Complete the first stator slot Chapter 6


114 Add lines to complete the stator slot

Add two small arcs to close the top of the slot

The figure below shows the points being selected for the first small arc.

Adding first arc at top of stator slot

In the New Line dialog, enter or verify the following:

Program Input

Geometric Definition

Type of Line Arc defined by its Radius,


Starting and Ending Points

System Coordinates which STATOR


orients the arc around a Z axis

Arc radius rad1+gap

EXTREM_POINTS

Point

Starting point of the arc 23

Ending point of the arc 22

Chapter 6 Complete the first stator slot


Add lines to complete the stator slot 115

Program Input

Starting point of the arc 22

Ending point of the arc 25

Your screen should resemble the following figure:

Top of slot closed

Complete the first stator slot Chapter 6


116 Add lines to complete the stator slot

The other lines are line segments. Make sure you change the "Type of line" to a "Segment
defined by Starting and Ending Points" before continuing.

Ready to add Line 24

Add the line segments for the wedge and the bottom of the slot

In the New Line dialog, enter or verify the following:

Program Input

Type of Line Segment defined by Starting and


Ending Points

Points defining segment


Point

Starting Point 20

Ending Point 27

Starting Point 21

Ending Point 28

Chapter 6 Complete the first stator slot


Build the faces of the first stator slot 117

When the New line dialog reopens, close it.

Program Input

Starting Point Cancel

The outline of the first stator slot is now complete.

Outline of first stator slot

Build the faces of the first stator slot


Now that the stator slot is closed, the faces of the slot can be generated. You may recall that the
faces must be constructed in order to generate the mesh.

Click the Build Faces icon in the toolbar.

Program Input

click

Complete the first stator slot Chapter 6


118 Build the faces of the first stator slot

The Console window displays a confirmation message.

Confirmation: Slot face added

The faces of the first stator slot are shown (enlarged) in the following figure:

Faces of the first stator slot

Chapter 6 Complete the first stator slot


Save your problem 119

Save your problem


Save your problem now. Click the icon in the toolbar, or choose Project, Save from the
menu.

Program Input

Project

Save

In the next chapter you will complete the stator geometry.

Complete the first stator slot Chapter 6


Chapter 7

Complete the stator geometry


To complete the stator geometry, add another geometric transformation and apply it two times:

1 to duplicate the stator slots, and


2 to complete the stator’s inner outline.

Add the SLOTDUPLI transformation


The transformation to duplicate the slot rotates each successive slot pitch 15 degrees relative to
the previous slot. You may recall that the stator slot was created within the STATOR local
coordinate system. This system is used to define the transformation.

Open the New Transformation dialog with the icon in the toolbar

Open the New Transformation dialog with the icon in the toolbar.

Program Input

click

121
122 Add the SLOTDUPLI transformation

The New Transformation dialog opens.

To add the SLOTDUPLI transformation

Add the SLOTDUPLI transformation

In the New Transformation dialog, enter or verify the following:

Program Input

Name of Geometric SLOTDUPLI


Transformation

Comment duplicate first stator slot

Type of Geometric Rotation defined by Angles and


Transformation pivot point coordinates

Coordinate System for STATOR


definition

Coordinates of the pivot point


Formula or Value

1st coordinate 0

2nd coordinate 0

Chapter 7 Complete the stator geometry


Add the SLOTDUPLI transformation 123

Program Input

Rotation Angle about Z axis 360/nslots


(Angle Unit of Coordinate
System)

Ok

When you click Ok, the transformation is added. The Console window displays a confirmation
message:

Confirmation for SLOTDUPLI transformation

When the New Transformation dialog reopens, close it.

Closing the New Transformation dialog

Complete the stator geometry Chapter 7


124 Apply the SLOTDUPLI transformation

Apply the SLOTDUPLI transformation


Apply the SLOTDUPLI transformation to create duplicates of the first stator slot and place
them in their proper positions along the inner outline of the stator. The two faces of the original
stator slot, the wedge and the winding, are propagated. To select the faces to be propagated, click
each face of the stator slot, as shown in the following figure:

Selecting wedge and winding faces of first stator slot for propagation with SLOTDUPLI

Open the Propagate Face dialog with the icon in the toolbar

To apply the transformation, open the Propagate Faces dialog with the icon in the toolbar.

Program Input

click

Chapter 7 Complete the stator geometry


Apply the SLOTDUPLI transformation 125

The Propagate Faces dialog opens.

To propagate the first stator slot

Propagate the first stator slot

To select both of the slot faces at the same time, after you select the wedge area, press and hold
the Ctrl key. Then select the winding area of the slot.

In the Propagate Faces dialog, enter or verify the following:

Program Input

Faces to propagate
Faces

6 [wedge]

7 [winding] + Ctrl

Transformation for propagation SLOTDUPLI

Complete the stator geometry Chapter 7


126 Apply the SLOTDUPLI transformation

Program Input

Number of times to apply the 5


transformation

Building options for Add Faces and associated Linked


propagation Mesh Generator

Regions propagation None

Ok

After you click Ok, you will see some of the faces of the other slots.

Stator slot faces propagated with SLOTDUPLI transformation

You will also see the confirmation in the Console window.

Confirmation: Stator slots created

Chapter 7 Complete the stator geometry


Apply the SLOTDUPLI transformation 127

Click the Zoom All icon in the toolbar.

Program Input

click

You should then be able to see all six stator slots on your screen.

Stator slot faces completed

Complete the stator geometry Chapter 7


128 Apply the SLOTDUPLI transformation

When the Propagate Faces dialog reopens, close it.

Closing Propagate Faces dialog

Program Input

Faces to propagate Cancel


Faces

Chapter 7 Complete the stator geometry


Add the first line of the stator’s inner boundary 129

Add the first line of the stator’s inner boundary


Next, create the first section of the inner boundary for the stator, an arc between the first and
second stator slots. The stator slot openings lie along this inner boundary, which also defines the
outer edge of the airgap.

You can then use the SLOTDUPLI transformation to create other sections of the stator’s inner
boundary.

You will be choosing points 25 and 29 to create the arc. Enlarge the area around the first stator
slot so you can see these points clearly.

Points to select for first part of stator’s inner boundary

F Remember, an arc of circle must be defined in the counterclockwise direction, so


be sure to select Point 25 first.

Complete the stator geometry Chapter 7


130 Add the first line of the stator’s inner boundary

Open the New Line dialog with the icon in the toolbar

Open the New Line dialog with the icon in the toolbar.

Program Input

click

The New Line dialog opens.

To add first section of stator's inner boundary

Add the line

In the New Line dialog, enter or verify the following:

Program Input

Geometric Definition

Type of Line Arc defined by its Radius,


Starting and Ending Points

Chapter 7 Complete the stator geometry


Propagate the inner boundary with SLOTDUPLI 131

Program Input

System Coordinates which STATOR


orients the arc around a Z axis

Arc Radius rad1+gap

EXTREM_POINTS
Point

Starting point of the arc 25

Ending point of the arc 29

As soon as you choose Point 29, you will see the new line:

First part of stator's inner boundary (Line 76)

When the New Line dialog reopens, close it with Cancel.

Program Input

Starting point of the arc Cancel

Propagate the inner boundary with SLOTDUPLI


Now propagate Line 76 with the SLOTDUPLI transformation.

Complete the stator geometry Chapter 7


132 Propagate the inner boundary with SLOTDUPLI

Open the Propagate Lines dialog with the icon in the toolbar

Open the Propagate Lines dialog with the icon in the toolbar.

Program Input

click

The Propagate Lines dialog opens.

To propagate Line 76 (stator's inner boundary)

Chapter 7 Complete the stator geometry


Propagate the inner boundary with SLOTDUPLI 133

Propagate the line with SLOTDUPLI

In the Propagate Lines dialog, enter or verify the following:

Program Input

Lines to propagate
Lines

76

Transformation for propagation SLOTDUPLI

Number of times to apply the 4


transformation

Ok

When you choose Ok, the new lines are added to connect the six slots along the inner boundary
of the stator. The last line to be added is Line 80, as shown in the Console window:

Confirmation: Lines of stator's inner boundary added by propagation

Complete the stator geometry Chapter 7


134 Propagate the inner boundary with SLOTDUPLI

The following figure shows a slightly enlarged view of the stator slots and the inner boundary.

Propagated lines of the stator's inner boundary

When the Propagate Lines dialog reopens, close it.

Program Input

Lines to propagate Cancel


Lines

Chapter 7 Complete the stator geometry


Complete the stator’s outer boundary 135

Complete the stator’s outer boundary


Next, create the outer edges of the stator. First, add the straight bottom edge of the stator’s
outline, and then add the upper left edge. Instead of trying to select individual points from the
graphics screen, you may prefer to create these lines by entering the point numbers. We will
show this method in the following sequence.

Open the New Line dialog (Segment) with the icon in the toolbar

Open the New Line dialog with the icon in the toolbar.

Program Input

click

The New Line dialog opens.

Add the straight lower and upper edges of the stator

The following figures show the points to be connected for the lower and upper straight edges of
the stator.

Points 12 and 14 (Lower edge of stator)

Complete the stator geometry Chapter 7


136 Complete the stator’s outer boundary

Points 13 and 15 (upper edge of stator)

Add a line segment for the lower edge of the stator as follows:

Program Input

Geometric Definition

Type of Line Segment defined by Starting and


Ending Points

Points defining segment


Point

Starting Point 12

Ending Point 14

As soon as you enter Point 14, the line is added.

When the New Line dialog reopens, proceed as follows:

Program Input

Starting Point 13

Ending Point 15

Chapter 7 Complete the stator geometry


Complete the stator’s outer boundary 137

The following figure shows both of these lines:

Straight lower and upper edges of the stator

Before you add the next line, display the complete geometry. Click the Zoom All icon in the
toolbar.

Program Input

click

Complete the stator geometry Chapter 7


138 Complete the stator’s outer boundary

Add the arc for the stator's outer boundary

Now create the stator’s outer boundary by connecting point 14 to point 15 with an arc of radius
RAD3.

Points to select for stator's outer boundary

F Remember that arcs must be created in a counterclockwise direction, so be careful


to choose the points in the order shown below—14 and then 15.

In the New Line dialog, enter or verify the following (make sure you change the "Type of line" to
an "Arc defined by its Radius, Starting and Ending Points" before continuing ):

Program Input

Geometric Definition

Type of line Arc defined by its Radius,


Starting and Ending Points

System Coordinates which STATOR


orients the arc around a Z axis

Arc Radius rad3

EXTREM_POINTS
Point

Chapter 7 Complete the stator geometry


Complete the stator’s outer boundary 139

Program Input

Geometric Definition

Starting point of the arc 14

Ending point of the arc 15

As soon as you select or enter Point 15, you will see the line.

Outer arc of stator (Line 83)

Complete the stator geometry Chapter 7


140 Close the half-teeth of the stator

Close the half-teeth of the stator


In order to complete the model, you must close the bottom half tooth and the upper half tooth
of the stator, as well as all sides of the air gap.

First, close the two half-teeth by creating arcs of radius RAD1+GAP from point 12 to point 23
and then from point 62 to point 13.

Enlarge the area around the bottom of the first stator slot.

Points to select to close bottom half tooth

Chapter 7 Complete the stator geometry


Close the half-teeth of the stator 141

The New Line dialog should still be open.

Ready to enter data for Line 84

F Remember, an arc of circle must be defined in the counterclockwise direction, so


be sure to choose point 12 first.

Also, be sure to change the radius to RAD1+GAP.

Enter or verify the following:

Program Input

Geometric Definition

Type of Line Arc defined by its Radius,


Starting and Ending Points

System Coordinates which STATOR


orients the line around a Z
axis

Arc Radius rad1+gap

EXTREM_Points
Point

Complete the stator geometry Chapter 7


142 Close the half-teeth of the stator

Program Input

Starting point of the arc 12

Ending point of the arc 23

You will see Line 84, as shown (enlarged) in the following figure.

Line (L84) closing lower stator half tooth

Chapter 7 Complete the stator geometry


Close the half-teeth of the stator 143

Now enlarge the area around the top of the stator.

Points to select to close upper half tooth of stator

When the New Line dialog reopens, enter or verify the following:

Program Input

Starting point of the arc 62

Ending point of the arc 13

Complete the stator geometry Chapter 7


144 Close the half-teeth of the stator

The following figure shows Line 85 (enlarged).

Line (L85) closing upper stator half tooth

Chapter 7 Complete the stator geometry


Complete the air gap 145

Complete the air gap


Next, complete the air gap with small line segments for the upper and lower edges, and arcs to
separate the 3 layers.

Enlarge the area at the lower edge of the airgap.

Add line segments for the bottom and top edges of the air gap

The following figure shows the points to connect at the lower edge of the airgap:

Points at lower edge of airgap

The New Line dialog should still be open. Make sure you change the "Type of line" to an
"Segment defined by Starting and Ending Points" before continuing. Enter or verify the
following for all three of these small line segments:

Program Input

Geometric definition

Type of line Segment defined by Starting and


Ending Points

Complete the stator geometry Chapter 7


146 Complete the air gap

Program Input

Points defining segment


Point

Starting Point 8

Ending Point 16

Starting Point 16

Ending Point 17

Starting Point 17

Ending Point 12

You will see the three new lines as shown here.

Lines closing bottom edge of airgap

Chapter 7 Complete the stator geometry


Complete the air gap 147

Now enlarge the area at the upper edge of the airgap.

Points at upper edge of airgap

The New Line dialog should still be open. Add the three lines for the upper edge now:

Program Input

Starting Point 9

Ending Point 18

Starting Point 18

Ending Point 19

Starting Point 19

Ending Point 13

Complete the stator geometry Chapter 7


148 Complete the air gap

The following figure shows the upper straight edges of the airgap.

Lines closing upper edge of airgap

Add arcs of circle to create the 3-layer airgap

Finally, construct two large arcs to separate the airgap into 3 layers. These arcs connect points 16
and 18 and points 17 and 19. The New Line dialog should still be open. Make sure you change
the "Type of line" to an "Arc defined by its Radius, Starting and Ending Points" before
continuing.

In the New Line dialog, enter or verify the following:

Program Input

Geometric Definition

Type of Line Arc defined by its Radius,


Starting and Ending Points

System Coordinates which STATOR


orients the arc around a Z axis

Arc Radius rad1+gap/3

Chapter 7 Complete the stator geometry


Complete the air gap 149

Program Input

EXTREM_POINTS
Point

Starting point of the arc 16

Ending point of the arc 18

F The Arc Radius is different for the next line.

The New Line dialog reopens. Enter or verify the following for the last line.

Program Input

System Coordinates which STATOR


orients the arc around a Z axis

Arc Radius rad1+(2*gap/3)

Starting point of the arc 17

Ending point of the arc 19

When the New Line dialog reopens, cancel it.

Program Input

Starting point of the arc Cancel

Complete the stator geometry Chapter 7


150 Complete the air gap

The following figures show enlargements of these lines, at the upper and lower edges of the
airgap.

Upper edge of 3-layer airgap

Chapter 7 Complete the stator geometry


Build the faces for the stator and airgap 151

The outline of the stator and airgap is complete, as shown (slightly enlarged) in the following
figure.

Lower edge of 3-layer airgap

Outline of stator and airgap completed

Build the faces for the stator and airgap


To build the faces for the stator and airgap, click the Build Faces icon in the toolbar.

Program Input

click

Complete the stator geometry Chapter 7


152 Build the faces for the stator and airgap

You should see the complete geometry with the 21 faces constructed.

Model faces created

The Console window confirms the creation of the final 4 faces (21 in all).

Confirmation: 21 faces created

Chapter 7 Complete the stator geometry


Save the completed geometry 153

Save the completed geometry


Before you continue, save your work. Click the Save icon in the toolbar.

Program Input

click

The next task is to define and assign surface regions for the geometry.

Complete the stator geometry Chapter 7


Chapter 8

Add and assign regions for the faces


In this chapter you create regions to represent different parts of the motor. To make calculations
later, you assign material and/or source properties to these regions (such as MAGNET for the
magnet, or PA, "plus A," for the first stator winding).

Add surface regions (region faces)


Surface regions are created by entering names, comments (reflecting the material or source
properties, in this case) and colors. For instance, the region for the shaft area of the model is
named SHAFT, identified as "non-magnetic" in material, and assigned the color turquoise. A
surface region may be made up of more than one surface area. The MC surface region, for
instance, is made up of two stator windings.

Creating surface regions is similar to creating parameters or coordinate systems. You will not see
any changes in the model display on your graphics screen while you enter the information to
create the region faces. You will see confirmation messages in the Console window, however.

The following table indicates the name, comment and color to be entered for each surface region
of the model. Use the table to help you enter the information, or work through the program
sequence in the text below.

Surface regions

Number Name Comment Color

1 Shaft Non magnetic Turquoise


2 Rotor Nonlinear steel Cyan
3 Magnet Permanent Magnet Magenta
4 Air Air Turquoise
5 Airgap Moving airgap Yellow
6 Stator_Air Non-moving air in airgap Green

155
156 Add surface regions (region faces)

Number Name Comment Color

7 Wedge Modeled like air Turquoise


8 Stator Nonlinear steel Cyan
9 PA Plus A Red
10 MA Minus A Red
11 MC Minus C, 2 slots Green
12 PB Plus B, 2 slots Magenta

The diagram below shows which features of the geometry are assigned to each surface region.

Surface region names

Notice that several surface regions, AIR, MC and PB, are each made up of at least two different
faces, while WEDGE includes the wedge areas of all six stator slots.

Chapter 8 Add and assign regions for the faces


Add surface regions (region faces) 157

Open the New Region Face dialog

To add the region faces, open the New Region Face dialog, either with the toolbar icon or the
menu.

Using the icon in the toolbar

Click the icon in the toolbar.

Program Input

click

Using the menu

If you prefer, choose Physic, Face Region, New from the menu.

Program Input

Physic

Face Region
New

Add and assign regions for the faces Chapter 8


158 Add surface regions (region faces)

The New Region Face dialog opens, as shown in the following figure.

To add SHAFT region

Add the regions

Enter or verify the following:

Program Input

Name of the region SHAFT

Comment non magnetic

Color Turquoise

Visibility VISIBLE

Ok

The confirmation is displayed in the Console window:

SHAFT region created

Chapter 8 Add and assign regions for the faces


Add surface regions (region faces) 159

The New Region Face dialog reopens.

After adding SHAFT region face

Add and assign regions for the faces Chapter 8


160 Add surface regions (region faces)

Enter the information to add the other regions from the following table. You have already added
the first region, so that row of the table is cross-hatched:

Number Name Comment Color

1 Shaft Non magnetic Turquoise


2 Rotor Nonlinear steel Cyan
3 Magnet Permanent Magnet Magenta
4 Air Air Turquoise
5 Airgap Moving airgap Yellow
6 Stator_Air Non-moving air in airgap Green

7 Wedge Modeled like air Turquoise


8 Stator Nonlinear steel Cyan
9 PA Plus A Red
10 MA Minus A Red
11 MC Minus C, 2 slots Green
12 PB Plus B, 2 slots Magenta

After adding all the regions, when the New Region Face dialog reopens, close it.

Closing the New Region Face dialog

Chapter 8 Add and assign regions for the faces


Assign regions to the faces 161

Program Input

Name of the region for faces Cancel


(PB_1)

Assign regions to the faces


Now assign the surface regions to a geometric face or faces.

When you select a face to assign it to a named region, the face is highlighted, and in the dialog,
the program displays the automatically assigned face number (such as 1, for the shaft; see below).

For example, the following figure shows the shaft face being selected for assignment.

Selecting the shaft face to assign to region face SHAFT

Add and assign regions for the faces Chapter 8


162 Assign regions to the faces

After you choose the region face name from the menu list, the face you have assigned changes
color, and you will see a confirmation message in the Console window.

Confirmation: Region face SHAFT assigned

For example, the following figure shows the screen after region face SHAFT has been assigned.

Shaft face assigned to region face SHAFT

Now you are ready to assign the region faces.

Open the Assign Regions dialog

To assign the region faces, open the Assign Regions dialog, either with the toolbar icon or with
the menu.

Chapter 8 Add and assign regions for the faces


Assign regions to the faces 163

Using the icon in the toolbar

Click the icon in the toolbar.

Program Input

click

Using the menu

If you prefer, choose Geometry, Assign regions to geometric entities, Assign Region to Faces
(completion mode) from the menu.

Program Input

Geometry

Assign regions to
geometric entities

Assign Region to
Faces (completion
mode)

Add and assign regions for the faces Chapter 8


164 Assign regions to the faces

The Assign Region to Faces dialog opens.

Assigning SHAFT region face to shaft (Face 1)

Assign the SHAFT region face

Assign the SHAFT region face as follows:

Program Input

List of Faces
Face

1 [shaft face]

Region Face for Faces SHAFT

Ok

Chapter 8 Add and assign regions for the faces


Assign regions to the faces 165

The shaft surface is then displayed as shown in the following figure. (Labels of adjacent region
names have been added to this figure for your reference.)

SHAFT region face assigned

Add and assign regions for the faces Chapter 8


166 Assign regions to the faces

Assign the rotor and magnet region faces

The Assign Region Face dialog reopens. Assign the ROTOR and MAGNET regions as follows:

Program Input

2 [rotor face]

ROTOR
Ok

5 [magnet face]

MAGNET
Ok

Chapter 8 Add and assign regions for the faces


Assign regions to the faces 167

Your screen should resemble the following figure.

ROTOR and MAGNET surface regions assigned

Add and assign regions for the faces Chapter 8


168 Assign regions to the faces

Assign the AIR region

The AIR region is composed of the two faces above and below the magnet, and the "layer" of the
air gap next to the rotor. Enlarge your graphics display so that you can select these three
surfaces.

Faces to select for the AIR surface region

Chapter 8 Add and assign regions for the faces


Assign regions to the faces 169

The following figure shows Face 18, the left "layer" of the airgap, being selected.

Selecting left inner "layer" of the airgap to assign to the AIR region

Proceed as follows:

Program Input

4 [face below magnet]


3 [face above magnet]
18 [left of airgap]

AIR
Ok

Add and assign regions for the faces Chapter 8


170 Assign regions to the faces

Your screen should resemble the following figure.

AIR region face assigned

Chapter 8 Add and assign regions for the faces


Assign regions to the faces 171

Assign the AIRGAP region

Next, select the air gap and assign it to the AIRGAP region. The following figure shows the
airgap being selected.

Selecting the airgap to assign to the AIRGAP region

Add and assign regions for the faces Chapter 8


172 Assign regions to the faces

Proceed as follows.

Program Input

21 [airgap face]

AIRGAP
Ok

Assign the STATOR_AIR region

Next, select the right "layer" of the airgap and assign it to the STATOR_AIR region. The
following figure shows Face 20, the right "layer" being selected

Selecting right outer "layer" of the airgap to assign to the STATOR_AIR region

Chapter 8 Add and assign regions for the faces


Assign regions to the faces 173

Proceed as follows.

Program Input

20 [right of airgap]

STATOR_AIR
Ok

Assign the WEDGE region

Next, select each of the six wedge areas to assign them to the WEDGE surface region.

Program Input

6 [wedge 1]
8 [wedge 2]
9 [wedge 3]
10 [wedge 4]
11 [wedge 5]
12 [wedge 6]

WEDGE
Ok

Add and assign regions for the faces Chapter 8


174 Assign regions to the faces

The following figure shows the screen after the WEDGE surface region has been assigned.

WEDGE surface region assigned

Chapter 8 Add and assign regions for the faces


Assign regions to the faces 175

Assign the stator region

Next, select the stator (the stator itself, not one of the slots). Click anywhere inside the
boundary of the stator.

Program Input

19 [stator face]

STATOR
Ok

The following figure shows the remaining regions to assign (the windings—labels have been
added to this figure for your reference):

Winding regions: PA. MA, MC, PB

Add and assign regions for the faces Chapter 8


176 Assign regions to the faces

Assign the winding regions

Assign the winding regions of the stator slots as follows:

Program Input

7 [slot 1]

PA
Ok

17 [slot 6]

MA
Ok

13 [slot 2]
14 [slot 3]

MC
Ok

Chapter 8 Add and assign regions for the faces


Assign regions to the faces 177

Program Input

15 [slot 4]
16 [slot 5]

PB
Ok

You should see the regions in solid color, as shown in the following figure:

Surface regions assigned (opaque visibility)

Add and assign regions for the faces Chapter 8


178 Save your problem

Enlarge the area around the first stator slot to see the three layers of the airgap.

Three-layer airgap (enlarged)

Save your problem


Save your problem now by clicking the icon in the toolbar.

Program Input

click

Next, you will define mesh points to control the mesh on the faces.

Chapter 8 Add and assign regions for the faces


Chapter 9

Control the mesh density with


Mesh_Points
Mesh elements are created by the automatic mesh generator in Preflux 9.1, and the default mesh
is usually satisfactory in terms of quality, accuracy and size (number of nodes and elements).
However, because the automatic mesh generator is controlled by predefined mesh weights, it
may not be appropriate in every case. You can control the density of the mesh through custom
mesh points. With the Mesh_Points option, Preflux 9.1 automatically adjusts the distribution of
nodes between two geometric points. In this chapter you create custom mesh points and apply
them to points on the stator slots, the magnet, the shaft, the airgap, and the stator's outer
diameter.

For instance, mesh points with parameterized values are used for both the top and the bottom of
the stator slots.

Preflux 9.1 includes a feature with which you can propagate a face and its mesh at the same time.
You may recall that we used this feature when we duplicated the stator slots (see page 126). Now
when you assign the mesh points to the first stator slot, the same mesh is produced for all the
slots. If you decide to make changes to the mesh points for the first stator slot, the mesh is
updated for the other slots also.

179
180 Change the display

The following figure shows the top and bottom of the first stator slot.

Top and bottom of stator slot (faces not displayed)

F “Bottom” refers to the edges of the stator slot that are farthest away from the
airgap. “Top” refers to the sides adjacent to the airgap (the wedge area).

Change the display


Notice that the view in the figure above displays only the geometry’s points and lines. When you
are selecting individual points to assign to the mesh points you create, you may find it easier to
use this display. You can cancel the display of the faces and the surface regions (in solid color) by
clicking the icon in the toolbar.

Program Input

click

Chapter 9 Control the mesh density with Mesh_Points


Change the display 181

To label the points with their reference numbers, choose Display, Display point numbers from
the menu.

Program Input

Display

Display point numbers

You should then see the model geometry with the points numbered, as shown here:

Geometry display with points labeled

Control the mesh density with Mesh_Points Chapter 9


182 Change to the Mesh context

Change to the Mesh context


The Mesh commands are available only in the Mesh context. The following figure shows the
Mesh context button selected.

At the top of the data Tree, click the button to change to the Mesh context.

Program Input

click

Chapter 9 Control the mesh density with Mesh_Points


Mesh context toolbars 183

The Mesh context screen is shown in the following figure.

Project window: Mesh context

Mesh context toolbars


The Mesh context includes some of the same of the same icons and commands as the Geometry
context. Most of the Display and Select icons are the same, and you can add parameters and
transformations in the Mesh context.

The following figures show the Mesh toolbar icons:

Mesh toolbar icons: Add-Check

Mesh toolbar icons: Display-Select

The following figures identify the Mesh toolbar icons:

Control the mesh density with Mesh_Points Chapter 9


184 Add the mesh points

Add the mesh points


Mesh points are defined with names, comments, values and colors. The following table contains
information to define the six mesh points. The GAP and TW parameters are used to create a
parameterized mesh.

Mesh points

Comment
Name Unit Value Color
(optional)

MGAP Airgap MILLIMETER gap/3 Yellow

MSOR Outer radius MILLIMETER 6 Cyan


of stator

MRIR Inner radius MILLIMETER 2 Cyan


or rotor

Chapter 9 Control the mesh density with Mesh_Points


Add the mesh points 185

Comment
Name Unit Value Color
(optional)

MMAG Bottom of MILLIMETER 1 Magenta


magnet

MSLOTTOP Top of stator MILLIMETER tw/3 Turquoise


slot

MSLOTBOT Bottom of MILLIMETER tw/2 Turquoise


stator slot

Open the New Mesh Point dialog

To add the mesh points, open the New mesh Point dialog, either with the toolbar icon or the
menu.

Using the icon in the toolbar

Click the icon in the toolbar.

Program Input

click

Control the mesh density with Mesh_Points Chapter 9


186 Add the mesh points

Using the menu

If you prefer, choose Mesh, Mesh Point, New from the menu.

Program Input

Mesh

Mesh Point
New

The New Mesh Point dialog opens.

To add MGAP mesh point

Add the MGAP mesh point

In the New Mesh Point dialog, enter or verify the following:

Program Input

Name of the Mesh Point MGAP

Comment airgap

Chapter 9 Control the mesh density with Mesh_Points


Add the mesh points 187

Program Input

Definition

Associated Length Unit MILLIMETER

Value of the Mesh Point gap/3


(Length of elements)

Now change to the Appearance tab. Your dialog should look like the one shown in the following
figure:

Setting the color for the MGAP mesh point

Proceed as follows:

Program Input

Appearance

Mesh Point Color Yellow

Ok

Control the mesh density with Mesh_Points Chapter 9


188 Add the mesh points

When you click Ok, the MGAP mesh point is added. The Console window shows the
confirmation message.

Confirmation: MGAP mesh point created

Add the other mesh points

When the New Mesh Point dialog reopens, add the other mesh points from the following table.
You have already added the first Mesh Point, so that row of the table is cross-hatched::

Comment
Name Unit Value Color
(optional)

MGAP Airgap MILLIMETER gap/3 Yellow

MSOR Outer radius MILLIMETER 6 Cyan


or stator

MRIR Inner radius MILLIMETER 2 Cyan


of rotor

MMAG Bottom of MILLIMETER 1 Magenta


magnet

MSLOTTOP Top of stator MILLIMETER tw/3 Turquoise


slot

MSLOTBOT Bottom of MILLIMETER tw/2 Turquoise


stator slot

Chapter 9 Control the mesh density with Mesh_Points


Assign the mesh points 189

After entering all the Mesh Points, when the New Mesh Point dialog reopens, cancel it.

Closing the Mesh Point dialog

Program Input

Name of the Mesh Point Cancel


(MSLOTBOT_1)

Assign the mesh points


Now assign the mesh points to the geometry. Remember that you can use the Zoom Region
button to enlarge your display. The Zoom All button restores the full display.

Open the Assign Mesh Point dialog

Open the Assign Mesh Point dialog, either with the toolbar icon or with the menu.

Using the icon in the toolbar

Click the button in the toolbar.

Program Input

click

Control the mesh density with Mesh_Points Chapter 9


190 Assign the mesh points

Open the Assign Mesh Points dialog using the menu

If you prefer, choose Mesh, Assign mesh information, Assign Mesh Point to Points from the
menu.

Program Input

Mesh

Assign mesh information


Assign Mesh Point to
Points

The Assign Mesh Point to Points dialog opens.

Assign Mesh Point dialog

Assign the points of the shaft using the Relation feature

First, assign the MRIR mesh point to the 3 points of the SHAFT region face. You can select all
three points at the same time using the Relation feature.

Click the Details button at the right of the dialog to open the selection context menu.

Chapter 9 Control the mesh density with Mesh_Points


Assign the mesh points 191

Program Input

List of Points
click
Points

The following figure shows the selection submenu.

Selection options for assigning Mesh Points

Choose Selection by surfacic region:

Program Input

Relation

Selection by surfacic region

Control the mesh density with Mesh_Points Chapter 9


192 Assign the mesh points

The Selection by surfacic region dialog opens. When you choose the shaft region, it is
highlighted, as shown in the following figure.

SHAFT region being selected to assign Mesh Points by relation

The figure below shows the selection dialog.

Selecting the SHAFT region as the region for selection by relation

Choose the SHAFT region.

Chapter 9 Control the mesh density with Mesh_Points


Assign the mesh points 193

Program Input

Surfacic region of selection

Surfacic region of selection SHAFT

Add

When you click Add, the Assign dialog is displayed again. Notice that the shaft points are now
listed for selection.

Assigning MRIR mesh point to points of the SHAFT surface region

Control the mesh density with Mesh_Points Chapter 9


194 Assign the mesh points

Proceed as follows:

Program Input

List of Points
Points

1
3
2

Mesh point to assign to Points MRIR

Ok

Your screen should resemble the following figure.

MRIR mesh point assigned to points of the SHAFT region

The three points assigned the MRIR mesh point are colored blue ("Cyan").

The Assign Mesh Point dialog should still be open.

Chapter 9 Control the mesh density with Mesh_Points


Assign the mesh points 195

Assign the MMAG mesh point

Next, assign the MMAG mesh point to the top of the rotor iron and the bottom of the magnet.

You may need to enlarge your graphics display so that you can select these four points (4, 6, 7,
and 5) individually:

Selecting points for MMAG mesh point

Control the mesh density with Mesh_Points Chapter 9


196 Assign the mesh points

The Assign Mesh Point dialog should still be open.

Assigning the MMAG mesh point

F Remember to hold down the Ctrl key to select all the points at the same time.

Enter or verify the following:

Program Input

List of Points
Points

6 + Ctrl

7 + Ctrl

5 + Ctrl

Mesh point to assign to Points MMAG

Ok

Chapter 9 Control the mesh density with Mesh_Points


Assign the mesh points 197

The MMAG points are colored magenta.

MMAG mesh point assigned (marked in magenta)

Control the mesh density with Mesh_Points Chapter 9


198 Assign the mesh points

Assign MGAP to the airgap points

Now enlarge the area around the lower airgap and assign the MGAP mesh point to the points of
the three faces of the airgap. The Assign Mesh Point dialog should still be open.

Assign Mesh Point dialog

Click the Details button at the right of the dialog to open the selection context menu.

Program Input

List of Points
click
Points

Chapter 9 Control the mesh density with Mesh_Points


Assign the mesh points 199

The following figure shows the selection submenu.

Selection of mesh points by face

Choose Selection by face:

Program Input

Relation
Selection by face

The Selection by face dialog opens.

Selection of mesh points by face

Control the mesh density with Mesh_Points Chapter 9


200 Assign the mesh points

Graphically, select the three faces of the airgap. Make sure to hold down the Ctrl key when
making the selections.

Right face of airgap being selected to assign Mesh points by relation

After the last face is selected, click Add.

Chapter 9 Control the mesh density with Mesh_Points


Assign the mesh points 201

When you click Add, the Assign dialog is displayed containing all the airgap points.

All points of the 3 airgap faces selected for MGAP

Proceed as follows:

Program Input

Points
8
9
10
.........

Mesh point to assign to Points MGAP

OK

Control the mesh density with Mesh_Points Chapter 9


202 Assign the mesh points

Assign MSLOTTOP to the top of the first stator slot

Next assign the MSLOTTOP mesh point to the top (the wedge area) of the stator slot. Enlarge
the area around the first stator slot now.

For the MSLOTTOP mesh point, select these 4 points: points 24, 26, 27, and 20.

Selecting points for MSSLOTTOP mesh point

Chapter 9 Control the mesh density with Mesh_Points


Assign the mesh points 203

The Assign Mesh Points dialog should still be open.

Assigning MSLOTTOP mesh point to points at top of first stator slot

Enter or verify the following:

Program Input

List of Points
Points

24

26 + Ctrl

27 + Ctrl

20 + Ctrl

Mesh point to assign to Points MSLOTTOP

Ok

Control the mesh density with Mesh_Points Chapter 9


204 Assign the mesh points

Assign MSLOTBOT to the bottom of the first stator slot

Assign the MSLOTBOT mesh point to points 21 and 28:

Selecting points for MSLOTBOT mesh point

The Assign Mesh Point dialog should still be open.

Assigning the MSLOTBOT mesh point to the bottom of the first stator slot

Chapter 9 Control the mesh density with Mesh_Points


Assign the mesh points 205

Enter or verify the following:

Program Input

List of points
Points

21

28 + Ctrl

Mesh point to assign to Points MSLOTBOT

Ok

Assign MSOR to the stator’s outer radius

For the final mesh point, the stator’s outer radius, select points 14 and 15. Click the Zoom All
icon to display these points on your screen.

Selecting points for MSOR mesh point

Control the mesh density with Mesh_Points Chapter 9


206 Assign the mesh points

The Assign Mesh Point dialog should still be open.

Assigning MSOR mesh point to stator's outer radius

Enter or verify the following:

Program Input

List of Points
Points

14

15 + Ctrl

Mesh point to assign to Points MSOR

Ok

Chapter 9 Control the mesh density with Mesh_Points


Assign the mesh points 207

The Assign Mesh Points dialog should still be open.

Closing the Assign Mesh Point to Points dialog

Close the dialog with Cancel.

Program Input

List of Points Cancel


Points

Control the mesh density with Mesh_Points Chapter 9


208 Save your problem

You should now see all the mesh points on your screen:

Mesh points assigned

Save your problem


Save your problem by clicking the icon in the toolbar.

Program Input

click

Next you will generate and save the mesh to complete the 3-layer airgap model.

Chapter 9 Control the mesh density with Mesh_Points


Chapter 10

Generate, verify and save the mesh


In this chapter you complete the mesh for the geometry. The Preflux automatic mesh generator
creates the nodes and surface elements, constructs 2nd order elements, and verifies the mesh.

Display the faces


In order to see the mesh elements, display the faces of the geometry. Click the Display Face icon
in the toolbar.

Program Input

click

209
210 Display the faces

Your screen should resemble the following figure:

Ready for the mesh (faces displayed)

Chapter 10 Generate, verify and save the mesh


Generate the mesh 211

Generate the mesh


The mesh is generated first on the lines and then on the faces of the model.

Mesh the Lines

To mesh the lines, use either the toolbar icon or the menu.

Using the icon in the toolbar

Click the icon in the toolbar.

Program Input

click

Using the menu

If you prefer, choose Mesh, Mesh, Mesh Lines from the menu.

Program Input

Mesh

Mesh
Mesh Lines

Generate, verify and save the mesh Chapter 10


212 Generate the mesh

In your graphics display, you should see many more points displayed. These are the nodes on the
lines.

Output from Mesh_Lines

Mesh the Faces

Now mesh the faces, that is, generate the surface elements of the mesh, with either the toolbar
icon or the menu.

Using the icon in the toolbar

Click the icon in the toolbar.

Program Input

click

Chapter 10 Generate, verify and save the mesh


Generate the mesh 213

Using the menu

If you prefer, choose Mesh, Mesh, Mesh Faces from the menu.

Program Input

Mesh

Mesh
Mesh Faces

It may take several seconds for the program to generate the mesh. Both nodes and surface
elements are shown in the following figure:

Output from Mesh_Faces (nodes and surface elements displayed)

Generate, verify and save the mesh Chapter 10


214 Generate the mesh

You will also see the program's verification of the mesh quality in the Console window.

Mesh verification

If you want to see the mesh elements more clearly, turn off the display of the nodes by clicking
the icon in the toolbar.

Program Input

click

Chapter 10 Generate, verify and save the mesh


Generate the mesh 215

Your display should resemble the following:

Mesh (surface elements only)

Generate, verify and save the mesh Chapter 10


216 Save your project with a new name

Enlarge the area around the top of the first stator slot to see the mesh in the 3-layer airgap.

Three-layer airgap (for cogging torque computation)

Save your project with a new name


Save your project now with a specific name to indicate that this file includes the 3-layer airgap.

To save your project with a new name, choose Project, Save As… from the menu.

Program Input

Project

Save As…

Chapter 10 Generate, verify and save the mesh


Save your project with a new name 217

The Select flux project dialog opens.

Saving file with 3-layer airgap

Enter or verify the following:

Program Input

Save in: Brushless_V9 [your working


directory]

File Name: brushless_3layer [your name]

Save

You will see a confirmation message in the Console window.

Saving the 3-layer airgap model

Next you will modify the geometry and mesh for the transient calculations.

Generate, verify and save the mesh Chapter 10


Chapter 11

Revise the geometry and mesh


The geometry and mesh with the three-layer airgap that you have just constructed is needed only
for the cogging torque calculation (see Chapter 2 of the second tutorial in this series, Brushless
Permanent Magnet Motor: Calculations). The cogging torque calculation requires a particularly
fine mesh of the airgap region and uses the 3-layer airgap in order to evenly subdivide the moving
airgap boundary.

For most other calculations, however, a single-layer airgap is sufficient, and the single-layer
geometry and mesh greatly reduces the number of elements, and thus the computation times.

This chapter shows one way to revise the geometry and mesh to create a single-layer airgap
meshed with a single layer of triangular elements. The revised mesh has only about 5,000
elements—allowing for much faster calculations.

219
220 Rename the 3-layer project file

Rename the 3-layer project file


Your screen should resemble the following.

Model with 3-layer airgap saved. Ready to begin the changes in the geometry

Before you make the changes in the geometry, save the three-layer file under a new name.

Chapter 11 Revise the geometry and mesh


Rename the 3-layer project file 221

Choose Project, Save As from the menu.

Program Input

Project

Save As

The Select Flux project dialog opens.

Saving project under new name (for 1-layer airgap model)

Enter or verify the following:

Program Input

Save In: Brushless_v9 [working directory]

File Name: brushless_1layer [your name]

Save

Revise the geometry and mesh Chapter 11


222 Delete the mesh

You will see the confirmation in the Console window.

Confirmation: Project saved for 1-layer airgap model

Delete the mesh


You will be deleting the lines and points that divide the airgap into 3 layers. Before you can delete
these lines and points, however, you must delete the mesh.

Click the icon in the toolbar.

Program Input

click

The confirmation is displayed in the Console window.

Confirmation: Mesh deleted

Chapter 11 Revise the geometry and mesh


Change to the Geometry context 223

Your screen should resemble the following figure.

Mesh deleted

Change to the Geometry context


Change now to the Geometry context in order to revise the geometry. Click the Geometry icon
above the data Tree.

Program Input

click

Modify the airgap


Now you can delete the lines and points that make up the 3-layer airgap and add two new line
segments to close the airgap at its lower and upper edges.

Revise the geometry and mesh Chapter 11


224 Modify the airgap

Change the display of the model

You may find it easier to select the points to delete if the faces are not displayed. You can hide
the faces with the Display Faces icon in the toolbar. The icon is depressed while the faces are
displayed; click the icon to release it and hide the faces.

Program Input

click

Delete the points that divide the airgap into 3 layers

Enlarge the area around the bottom of the airgap, as shown in the following figure:

Lines at lower part of airgap

Chapter 11 Revise the geometry and mesh


Modify the airgap 225

Deleting the 2 points inside the 3 layer airgap will delete the faces and lines associated with the
points also. Because deleting these points will also delete other entities of the model, you will
need to use the Delete Force command to delete them. Choose Geometry, Point, Force Delete
from the menu.

Program Input

Geometry

Point

Force Delete

The following dialog opens.

Selection of Point to delete dialog

Revise the geometry and mesh Chapter 11


226 Modify the airgap

The following figure shows both points selected for deletion:

Points 16 & 17 (points inside the 3-layer airgap) selected for deletion

Proceed as follows:

Program Input

Selection of Point to Delete

16

17 + Ctrl

Ok

Chapter 11 Revise the geometry and mesh


Modify the airgap 227

When you choose Ok, the Confirmation dialog will open.

Confirming "force" deletion of points 16 & 17

Click Yes to confirm the deletion:

Program Input

Do you really want to force the Yes


delete process of 2 Points?

Your screen should resemble the following.

3-layer lines and points deleted (lower edge of airgap)

Revise the geometry and mesh Chapter 11


228 Modify the airgap

Add the line segment to close the lower edge of the airgap

Close the lower edge of the airgap with a single line segment.

Open the New Line dialog by clicking the icon in the toolbar.

Program Input

click

The New Line dialog opens.

Enter or verify the following:

Program Input

Type of Line Segment defined by Starting and


Ending Points

Starting point 8

Ending point 12

Chapter 11 Revise the geometry and mesh


Modify the airgap 229

As soon as you choose Point 12, you will see the new line:

New Line 86, closing the lower edge of the airgap

When the New Line dialog reopens, cancel it.

Program Input

Starting Point Cancel

Revise the geometry and mesh Chapter 11


230 Modify the airgap

Delete the points at the upper edge of the airgap

Now enlarge the upper part of the airgap to delete the two remaining points of the 3 layer airgap.
The following figure shows these points:

Choose Geometry, Point, Force Delete from the menu:

Program Input

Geometry

Point

Force Delete

Chapter 11 Revise the geometry and mesh


Modify the airgap 231

The following figure shows both points selected for deletion.

Deleting points 18 & 19 at upper edge of airgap

Enter or verify the following:

Program Input

Selection of Point to Delete

18

19 + Ctrl

Ok

Revise the geometry and mesh Chapter 11


232 Modify the airgap

When you choose Ok, the Confirmation dialog will open.

Confirming "force" deletion of points 18 & 19

Click Yes to confirm the deletion:

Program Input

Do you really want to force the Yes


delete process of 2 Points?

Your screen should resemble the following.

Chapter 11 Revise the geometry and mesh


Modify the airgap 233

Add the line segment to close the upper edge of the airgap

Close the upper edge of the airgap with a single line segment.

Open the New Line dialog by clicking the icon in the toolbar.

Program Input

click

The New Line dialog opens.

Enter or verify the following:

Program Input

Type of Line Segment defined by Starting and


Ending Points

Starting point 9

Ending point 13

Revise the geometry and mesh Chapter 11


234 Build the faces of the revised geometry

As soon as you choose Point 13, you will see the new line:

New Line 87, closing the upper edge of the airgap

When the New Line dialog reopens, cancel it.

Program Input

Starting Point Cancel

Build the faces of the revised geometry


Build the faces of the revised geometry. Click the icon in the toolbar.

Program Input

click

Chapter 11 Revise the geometry and mesh


Build the faces of the revised geometry 235

The confirmation is displayed in the Console window.

Airgap face reconstructed in single layer: 19 faces total

The new face for the single-layer airgap becomes Face(18). There are now 19 faces in all.

You should see the single-layer geometry as shown (slightly enlarged) in the following figure:

New geometry with single layer airgap (19 faces)

Revise the geometry and mesh Chapter 11


236 Assign the airgap to the AIRGAP surface region

Assign the airgap to the AIRGAP surface region


Assign the revised airgap face to the AIRGAP surface region.

Open the Assign Region dialog with the icon in the toolbar.

Program Input

click

The Assign Region dialog opens. Your screen should resemble the following figure.

Ready to assign the airgap to the AIRGAP surface region

Chapter 11 Revise the geometry and mesh


Assign the airgap to the AIRGAP surface region 237

Enter or verify the following:

Program Input

List of Faces
Face

18 [airgap face]

Region Face for Faces AIRGAP

Ok

You should see the geometry with the regions assigned and shown in opaque visibility, as shown
in the following figure:

Regions assigned for single-layer airgap model

Revise the geometry and mesh Chapter 11


238 Change to the Mesh context

Change to the Mesh context


Because the 1-layer airgap is wider than the 3-layer airgap, the value of the MGAP mesh point
must also be modified, in order to maintain a single layer of elements in the airgap region.

Change to the Mesh context now by clicking the icon over the data Tree.

Program Input

click

Modify the MGAP mesh point


You must be working in the Mesh context before you can modify the MGAP mesh point.

Select the MGAP mesh point from the data Tree

Click the next to Mesh Points in the data Tree to display all the mesh points.

Mesh points listed in data Tree

Chapter 11 Revise the geometry and mesh


Modify the MGAP mesh point 239

Right click MGAP and choose Edit from the Context menu.

Program Input

Right click MGAP


Edit

Revise the geometry and mesh Chapter 11


240 Modify the MGAP mesh point

The Edit Mesh Point dialog opens.

Modifying the value of the MGAP mesh point

Modify the value of the MGAP mesh point

In the Edit/Modify dialog, enter or verify the following:

Program Input

Name of the Mesh Point MGAP

Comment AIRGAP

Definition

Associated Length Unit MILLIMETER

Value of the Mesh Point (Length GAP


of elements)

Ok

The Console window shows the confirmation.

Confirmation: MGAP (MeshPoint(4)) modified

Chapter 11 Revise the geometry and mesh


Reassign the MGAP mesh point by Relation 241

Reassign the MGAP mesh point by Relation


Now reassign the MGAP mesh point to the points of the airgap. You can use the RELATION
feature to select all the points of the airgap.

Open the Assign Mesh point dialog by choosing Mesh, Assign mesh information, Assign Mesh
Point to Points from the menu.

Program Input

Mesh

Assign mesh
information

Assign Mesh Point to


Points

The Assign Mesh Point to Points dialog opens.

Assign Mesh Point to Points dialog

Revise the geometry and mesh Chapter 11


242 Reassign the MGAP mesh point by Relation

Click the Detail button on the right to access the selection options:

Program Input

List of points
click
Points

The Selection menu opens.

To select points by surface region

Choose Relation, Selection by surfacic region:

Program Input

Relation

Selection by surfacic region

Chapter 11 Revise the geometry and mesh


Reassign the MGAP mesh point by Relation 243

The Selection by surfacic region dialog opens:

Choosing the AIRGAP region to select points by relation

Choose AIRGAP as the region for the selection of points by relation.

Program Input

Surfacic region of selection AIRGAP


Surfacic region of selection

Add

The list of points is displayed in the Assign Mesh Point to Points dialog:

Assigning MGAP to airgap region points

Revise the geometry and mesh Chapter 11


244 Reassign the MGAP mesh point by Relation

Enter or verify the following:

Program Input

List of Points [all points of AIRGAP region]


Points

Mesh point to assign to Points MGAP

Ok

When the Assign Mesh Points to Points dialog reappears, close the dialog with or Cancel.

Program Input

List of Points Cancel


Points

The following figure shows the screen after the AIRGAP points have been assigned:

MGAP mesh point reassigned by relation

Chapter 11 Revise the geometry and mesh


Display the faces 245

Display the faces


You may recall that faces must be displayed in order to see the surface elements of the mesh.
Display the faces of the model now by clicking the icon in the toolbar.

Program Input

click

Create the new mesh


Now you can mesh the new geometry.

Click the Mesh Lines icon in the toolbar.

Program Input

click

The program displays the nodes on the lines.

To mesh the faces, click the Mesh Faces icon in the toolbar.

Program Input

click

The surface mesh is created. Turn off the display of the nodes with the icon.

Revise the geometry and mesh Chapter 11


246 Create the new mesh

Program Input

click

Your screen should resemble the following figure:

Mesh for 1-layer airgap

Chapter 11 Revise the geometry and mesh


Create the new mesh 247

The verification of the mesh in the Console window indicates the mesh is satisfactory.

Confirmation: Mesh is satisfactory

Note the single layer of elements in the airgap, as shown (enlarged) in the following figure:

Mesh in single-layer airgap

Revise the geometry and mesh Chapter 11


248 Save and close your project

Save and close your project


The 1-layer model is now complete, so you should save your project.

Save the revised mesh

Choose Project, Save from the menu.

Program Input

Project

Save

Close your project

Then close your project by choosing Project, Close from the menu.

Project Input

Project

Close

Chapter 11 Revise the geometry and mesh


Save and close your project 249

The main Preflux window is displayed.

Preflux main window: project closed

Revise the geometry and mesh Chapter 11


250 Close Preflux

Close Preflux
To close Preflux, choose Project, Exit from the menu.

Program Input

Project

Exit

The Flux2D Supervisor is displayed.

Closing Flux2D

Chapter 11 Revise the geometry and mesh


Close Flux2D 251

Close Flux2D
Finally, choose File, Quit to close Flux2D.

Program Input

File
Quit

Congratulations! You have successfully created two models to complete this tutorial.

To perform a variety of computations with the models you have created, use the second tutorial
in this series, Brushless DC Motor: Calculations.

Revise the geometry and mesh Chapter 11

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