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India has been generating more than 1.50 lakh metric tonne (MT) of solid waste every
day.Approximately 90 per cent (1,35,000 MT per day) of the total amount is collected waste.

The importance of Waste Management and Recycling:

Planning the waste management and recycling for all of the waste produced in this country is an
enormous task which involves both logistical planning and scientific knowledge and understanding in
order to balance the impact on the environment and the cost effectiveness of the process.

Waste management and recycling companies are also feeling an extra pressure to perform their role in
the greenest ways possible. It is important to remember that the UK’s resources and landfill sites are
limited and this has a major bearing on the kind of activities that are carried out.

Waste collection and its disposal play an extremely important role in the global cleanliness and
sustainability drive, with people’s health and the conservation of resources being the responsibility of
every government. To ease the pressure on government agencies, numerous privately-managed
organisations also play a part in these waste management and recycling programs. In many cities it
means that local government agencies have been left with the responsibility of overseeing the work
done by these privately held organisations.

Thousands of years ago humans simply dug a hole and buried their refuse and waste. This was an
effective technique for these early people because their population was relatively small and they did
not produce waste on the same scale or with the levels of complexity that modern humans do. Burying
the rubbish helped to prevent bugs and rodents from spreading diseases.

In the modern world burying all of our waste is not a sustainable solution. While primitive humans
produced very little waste, and that which was produced would biodegrade quickly, modern humans
produce much larger amounts of waste, much of which is not biodegradable. Additionally, many types
of waste may be damaging to the soil, ground water and surrounding habitat.

The most important reason for waste collection is the protection of the environment and the health of
the population.

Waste can cause air and water pollution. Rotting garbage is also known to produce harmful gases that
mix with the air and can cause breathing problems in people. By inspecting the vegetation around
landfill sites carefully you can determine the damage that can be caused by garbage and waste if left
untreated in the open. To address this problem modern waste management professionals place
garbage in lined holes and use bacteria to help facilitate its rapid decomposition. Rotting garbage and
waste emanates a foul smell that can cause nausea among people who come into contact with it. It can
also be a source for waterborne diseases such as cholera and abdominal conditions and discomfort.
Since water sources need to be protected the role of waste disposal companies is very important.
These organisations should make it a priority to secure their landfill sites so that water bodies are not
affected by the garbage and waste collected from homes and commercial establishments.

Waste collection companies also sort the garbage into recyclable columns, as recycling the products
that leave our homes is of utmost importance. Recycling not only helps in conserving our natural
resources but also reduces the cost of production of many products. Products such as glass, oil,

plastic, paper can all be recycled which will ultimately put less pressure on the natural resources used
to manufacture these products.

Waste management and recycling collection can help conserve our planet’s natural beauty which can
be flawed by thoughtless disposal of waste, fly-tipping and littering. Landscapes can be ruined
through littering and places of tourist interest can lose their attraction; it is also a blight for those who
live in areas where waste collection and recycling is not managed effectively and responsibly. Natural
beauty is a legacy and a right for future generations and conserving it, as well as our natural resources,
for their benefit is our responsibility today.


There are many challenges facing the waste management and recycling industry but there is also a lot
of excellent work going on to ensure that this is an industry to be proud of and one that will continue
to secure effective, sustainable and ecologically sound waste management and recycling for many
years to come.

Nearly 15,000 MT of garbage remain exposed every day, resulting in almost 55 lakh MT of solid
waste disposed in open areas each year, which leads to "severe" pollution level. Of the total collected
waste, only 20 per cent (27,000 MT per day) is processed and the remaining 80 per cent (1,08,000 MT
per day) is dumped in landfill sites.

At times the "highly polluting" unprocessed solid waste in the dump sites reaches 3 crore MT. The
solid waste in landfill sites and the uncollected trash - of the total 5.4 crore MT of solid waste
generated annually - 4.5 crore MT are unprocessed. The Ministry of Environment, Forests and
Climate Change (MoEFCC) provided the details of the ever-growing garbage citing a 2016-17 report
by the Ministry of Housing and Urban Affairs.

In the Parliament, Minister of State of the MoEFCC, Babul Supriyo, said that after conducting a study
across 60 major cities of the country the Central Pollution Control Board (CPCB) had estimated that
these metropolitan areas generate around 4,059 tonne plastic waste per day.

Figures show that India generates nearly 26,000 MT of plastic waste on a daily basis and 94 lakh
tonne trash every year. In 2005, India's pollution board had estimated that the country had churned out
around 1.47 lakh tonne e-waste from across the country.

In 2010-11, the Capital generated 6,800 tonne of municipal waste daily, out of which 690 tonne of
trash was plastic - the highest in the country. According to a 2016 United Nations report, The Global
E-Waste Monitor 2017, India had produced 20 lakh tonne of e-waste.

Also, in 2016-17, India generated 7.17 million tonne of "hazardous" waste, out of which 3.68 million
tonne or 49.46% was recycled.Gujarat, with its huge chemical belt, contributes nearly 2.8 million MT
of "hazardous" waste.Toxicologists say that the toxic character of barely 5% hazardous chemicals is
known to humans and that is why a quick intervention is much needed.Maharashtra generates the
maximum amount of solid waste - 8,238,050 MT, but processes only 44% of the total amount.
Meanwhile, West Bengal needs to clean up its landfill sites as it produces 2,810,500 MT of trash and
processes only 5% of it. Chandigarh is "the model city" as it generates 1,72,280 MT of waste and also
processes 85% of the total amount. In comparison, Delhi-NCR creates some 38,32,500 MT but
processes just 55% of it.

Of the estimated 20 lakh tonne of e-waste, the CPCB said, only 69,414 MT of garbage was collected,
dismantled and recycled between 2017 and 2018. This amounted to barely 0.7% of the total e-waste
being processed.

While the Digital India is taking giant strides with over 58 crore mobile users and 100 crore handsets,
there is no nationwide inventory of the e-waste generation yet. Only six states - Goa, Jammu and
Kashmir, Himachal Pradesh, Madhya Pradesh, Chhattisgarh and Punjab - have completed the e-waste
generation inventory.


 To study the current practices related to the various waste management initiatives taken in
India for human wellbeing and suggest a future action plan for 2030.
 The other purpose is to provide some suggestions and recommendations to improve the waste
management practices in India emphasizing on Visakhapatnam city.
 This paper is based on secondary research. Existing reports related to waste management and
recommendations of planners/government accountability agencies/key industry experts/ for
improving the system are studied.
 It offers deep knowledge about the various waste management initiatives in India and find out
the scope for improvement in the management of waste for the welfare of the society.
 The paper attempts to understand the important role played by the formal sector engaged in
waste management in our country.
 To analyse population projections for 2030 with respect to the amountof waste genarated.
 Recommendation of innovative technologies like IOT(Internet of Things) and Bigdata on
waste management for smart city development are provided


• Opportunity identification in India till 2030 under industrial solid waste management

• Examining the opportunity outlook of plastic recycling in India

• Identifying the waste management service opportunity in India

• Region wise parametric evaluation for filtering best states offering potential business case to value
chain players

• Examining the opportunity outlook for metal recycling in India

• Unleashing the business opportunity for managing construction waste in India

• Examining business opportunity for managing food waste in India

• Examining business opportunity for managing manufacturing waste/ scrap in India


NTPC to set up about 100 waste-to-energy pollution free plants across the country

• India has a potential to generate approximately 3 GW of electricity from waste by 2050

• About 1,00,000 Metric Tonnes of waste is generated in India per day

• Central government has been implementing Swachh Bharat Abhiyan , emphasizing waste
management at different stages of generation, collection and disposal

• Municipal solid waste management sector in India is projected to see capital and O&M requirement
of close to USD 65 Billion by 2030

• India has a potential to generate approximately 90 Million Tonnes/ Year of waste by 2030-2032

• High population growth an changing lifestyles to increase the waste volumes in India

Solid waste may be defined as generation of undesirable substances which is left after they are used
once. They cannot be reused directly by the society for its welfare because some of them may be
hazardous for human health. Covering of various vegetables, fruits and cooked material facilitate
proliferation of various group of microbial flora, which may be pathogens. Since the beginning,
human kind has been generating waste, the bones and other parts of animals they slaughter fortheir
food or the wood cut to make their carts with the progress of civilization, the waste generated become
a more complex nature.

By the end of nineteenth century, Industrial development has shown a progressive trend in the world
consumers. Presently not only the air but also earth itself becomes more and more polluted specially
with generation of non-biodegradable substances (solid waste). Generation of solid waste is a natural
phenomenon up to certain extent as all living organism are excreting solid waste after digestion of
food material. The amount of solid waste generation is directly proportion to population. Less
population means fewer excreta while large population growth will enhance excreta in natural
condition. Besides this, utilization of other natural resources for various causes has been considered as
human generated solid waste.

Since the last five decades due to urbanization, industrialization and change in the habits as well
attitude to life has resulted uncontrolled exploitation of different kinds of natural resources and finally
generation of large amount of solid waste having more compl- exity, some of them can not be
degraded by micro-organisms and need genetically engineered microbial population for them.
Besides this some of them may cause injurious health effect on human beings. Both biodegradable
and non-biodegra dable solid wastes are also associated with air pollution in atmosphere in form of
inorganic particles and foul odour.

Data of solid waste production from domestic and industrial sectors from different countries of the
world is very alarming. Therefore under these circumstances it would be more advisable that waste
products of one industry should be investigated with objective to use this one as raw material for other
industry to get desired product. Albeit it would need more funds for research and development but it
would be yield safer economic development. Since the nature of solid waste generated from different
resources has significant variation in the components therefore it is much obvious that their
toxicity/hazards ability will be of different level. Industrial and hospital waste generate powerful haza
rdous toxic substances. These wastes could be highly toxic to man, animal as well as plants. India
generates about several million tones of hazardous waste. Hazardous waste generation in India has
direct proportion in term of development and progress of the state/cities and showed significant
variation among the Indian cities. The solid waste amount is expected to increase significantly in the
near future as the country strives to attain an industrializes nation status by the year 2030.


Environmental Outlook to 2030 is based on projections of economic and environmental trends to
2030. The key environmental challenges for the future are presented according to a “traffic light”
system. The Outlook also presents simulations of policy actions to address the key challenges,
including their potential environmental, economic and social impacts.

The consequences of environmental policy inaction :
If no new policy actions are taken, within the next few decades we risk irreversibly altering the
environmental basis for sustained economic prosperity. To avoid that, urgent actions are needed to
address in particular the “red light” issues of climate change, biodiversity loss, water scarcity and
health impacts of pollution and hazardous chemicals (Table 1).

Without further policies, by 2030,:

• Global emissions of greenhouse gases are projected to grow by a further 37%, and 52% to 2050.
This could result in an increase in global temperature over pre-industrial levels in the range of 1.7-
2.4° Celsius by 2050, leading to increased heat waves, droughts, storms and floods, resulting in severe
damage to key infrastructure and crops.

• Water scarcity will worsen due to unsustainable use and management of the resource as well as
climate change; the number of people living in areas affected by severe water stress is expected to
increase by another 1 billion to over 3.9 billion.

• Health impacts of air pollution will increase worldwide, with the number of premature deaths linked
to ground-level ozone quadrupling and those linked to particulate matter more than doubling.
Chemical production volumes in non-OECD countries are rapidly increasing, and there is insufficient
information to fully assess the risks of chemicals in the environment and in products.

The environmental threats associated with the burning of household waste in open piles across rural
communities with a focus on rural areas in India of uncontrolled waste disposal practice. This option
derived from the lack of efficient municipal waste collection schemes, and on the other hand, it is a
traditional disposal route for agricultural wastes besides open dumping on the surroundings. The
potential amounts of household waste uncollected by formal waste management services to be burnt
by rural communities related to regional waste management features and how such bad practice
interacts with geographical conditions. The quantitative analysis of waste indicators and makes
estimations on consequent environmental impact focusing on inventorying air pollutants. The spatial
analysis provides an appropriate cartographic representation of the analyzed phenomenon. The study
converge towards two main ideas:

1) open burning of mixed household waste could be a significant air pollution source at the local

2) better rural waste management practices are needed to be implemented in the study area to mitigate
environmental and public health threats.

Recent Scenario of Solid Waste Management in India:
Developing countries like India records large number of population. Rapid increase in urbanization
and per capita income lead to high rate of municipal solid waste generation. In recent times, E-waste
and plastic waste also contribute considerably to total waste stream due to utilization of electronic and
other items. These wastes may cause a potential hazard to human health or environment if any of the
aspects of solid waste management is not managed effectively. In India, approach towards Solid waste
management is still unscientific. Solid Waste collection efficiency in India is around 70% , while
same is almost 100% in the developed countries. Even today, large portion of solid waste is dumped
indiscriminately on outskirts of towns or cities without any prior treatment. This leads to groundwater
contamination and increase in air pollution due to leachate percolation and release of gases
respectively. Various study reveals that out of total solid waste, 80% can be utilized again either by
recycling or reusing. Proper waste segregation and other factors have high chnaces to lead recycling
sector to work on advanced technology. However, plastic and paper recycling have been especially
growing due to continuous increasing consumption of both the commodities. This study describes
about current status of municipal solid waste management in different zones of visakhapatnam in
India. It further summarizes a collective, systematic effort which improves implementation of legal
frameworks, institutional arrangements, financial provisions, technology, operations management,
human resource development, and public participation and awareness of Integrated SWM systems.

As per World Scientific Records basis India is sharing only 5% of world’s area accounting 3,185,263
km2. Out of total population, 68% lives in rural areas, while 32% lives in urban areas .Developing
countries like India is in industrialization phase, which also contribute to urbanization. In terms of
GDP, India is one of the fastest growing economy in the world with 7.30% GDP. It is expected that
by 2030 India will be growing with GDP of 10%. Over-population, Rapid industrialization.
Uncontrolled urbanization thereby lead to increased rate of per capita waste generation.

Government of Andhra Pradesh (GoAP) has proposed to strengthen the Municipal Solid Waste
Management sy tem covering collection, segregation, recycling, transportation, processing and
disposal with option for composting, waste to energy, disposal in all 110 urban local bodies (ULBs) in
Andhra Pradesh, which is in line with national objective of SWATCH BHARATH MISSION, a
prestigious project of Govt of India.

The GoAP intends to institutionalize a holistic Integrated, sustainable enviro friendly Municipal Solid
waste Management System in the urban s (ULBs) of the state. In view of this, Government has
appointed APUFIDC a government entity and nodal agency for the development of projects in Urban
Infrastructure. APUFIDC will be responsible for preparation of d tailed project reports for 110 ULB’s
in the state of Andhra Pradesh. As part of the process, all the 110 ULB’s have been divided in to 5
zones and APUFIDC Request for Proposal (RFP) from empanelled consultants to prepare D tailed
Project Report for Municipal solid waste management, in co with MSW rules 2000 under the aegis of
the Environment (Protection) Act 1986 and the guidelines issued there under from time to time.

After the bidding process, the work of five zones has been awarded to 5 different empanelled
consultants. The consortium of Feedback Infra Pvt Ltd & Ec save Systems (P) Ltd have been
awarded with work of preparation of DPR of 1 consisting of 14 ULB’s in three districts viz.
Visakhapatnam Vizianagaram and Srikakulam.

the project is to prepare a holistic, integrated, sustainable, e vironment friendly and executable
municipal solid waste management system which is in line with objective of the prestigious mission

SWACH BHARATH ABHIYAN and to meet the following requirements to impl ment the Solid
Waste Management in the ULB’s of A.P.

• Analyze the quantity and types of Municipal solid waste generated per ca ita per day, in the ULB’s
for different sources and type

• Appraise the current mechanism for Primary and Secondary collection of data.

treatment of solid waste which is matter of great concern. With rapid urbaniz tion and improving in
standard of living of the people, the waste generation is increasing day by day. Dumped waste and
unscientific disposal of solid waste will ultimately lead to health hazard and pollution to environment.

Management Information System of SWM:

Effective management is the key for effective implementation and success of Solid Waste
Management. This requires collection of critical information which is not keeping the records up to-
date but used effectively for taking corrective measures as well as proper planning for future. Existing
information has to be collected to have an overall idea of the prevalent situation and develop an e
fective management system for the future. Information that highlights any def ciency in the existing
system can be used in taking corrective measures and such information has to be collected at regular
intervals to monitor the system.

Geographic Information System (GIS) and MIS has to be integrated into the SWM system. Similarly,
citizen interface could be maintained by frequently seeking their feedback and suggestions.

Information that needs to be recorded and studied includes relevant information of the department for
planning process.

Occupational Health, Safety and associated risks:

• The organization hazards and the associated risk on ongoing basis, to facilitate setting of OHS
objective and targets, control risk and to keep this

Occupational Health, Safety and associated risks:

The organization shall identify the occupational health and safety (OHS) hazards and the associated
risk on ongoing basis, to facilitate setting of OHS objective and targets, control risk and to keep this
information up to

While identifying occupational health and safety (OH&S) hazards and risk during initial OH&S
review the following criteria should be considered.

All activities where previous records of Incidents, Accident occurred.

Inputs from regular Plant visit and meetings.

All activities routine and non-routine, where substantial hazards and risks are involved including
contracted & company own activities / facilities.

Evaluation of feedback from investigation of previous incidents/accidents

Examination of all existing OH&S procedure and practice.

entifying significant OH&S risks consideration shall also be given

Chemical hazards.

Physical hazards, Biological hazards. o Monotonous work.

Hazard Due to layout and design deficiency.

Prepare a Register of OH&S hazards and associated risks, which s clude the departments &Facility
layout chart.

EHS & Social Roles and Responsibility:

Define and communicate role, responsibilities and authority for effective fun tioning of EHS & Social
management systems:

Organization shall comply with the relevant applicable policies such as environmental, quality and
fund standard guidelines.

Shall define roles, responsibilities and authorities w.r.t EHS and applicable social guidelines from
statutory bodies.

Monitoring of effective implementation, Compliance to rules/acts.

Initial training needs to be addressed and provide awareness and competence.


The project area awarded to M/s. Feedback is ZONE 1, which covers ULB’s of , Vizianagaram and
Srikakulam districts. The proposed area Visakhapatnam Municipal Corporation” falls under the
district of The present report gives the information on Visakhapatnam District comprising of two

Visakhapatnam Municipal Corporation (GVMC) Narsipatnam Yelamanchali

Figure : Project Area

A team of technical experts from Feedback Infra Pvt. Ltd met the officials of the GVMC and
discussed regarding the existing solid waste management system in GVMC. The photographs with the
officials and field visits carried in PHOTO PLATE - 1.

The objective of the project is to prepare a holistic, integrated, sustainable, e vironment friendly and
executable municipal solid waste management system which is in line with objective of the
prestigious mission of Govt of In SWACH BHARATH ABHIYAN and to meet the following
requirements to impl ment the Solid Waste Management in the ULB’s of A.P.

Dumped waste and unscientific disposal of solid waste:

ZONE 1, which covers ULB’s of , Vizianagaram and Srikakulam districts. The proposed area
Municipal Corporation” falls under the district of Visakhapatnam

A team of technical experts from Feedback Infra Pvt. Ltd met the officials of the GVMC and
discussed regarding the existing solid waste management system in GVMC.

Analyze the quantity and types of Municipal solid waste generated per capes of waste generated
Appraise the current mechanism for Primary and Secondary collection of solid waste, including
details of physical infrastructure such as Waste bins, Collection points, Road length covered, number
of Sanitary workers employed and type of vehicles used, etc

• Study the adequacy of existing infrastructure facilities for collection, tran portation and disposal of
solid waste and list and quantify the deficiency based on the various available normative standards

• Appraise the daily collection made by Vehicles, Carrying capacity, distance treatment and disposal

• Optimization of transport routes and location of transfer stations for cost effective transportation

• Existing tie up and arrangements of the Council, with Private operators, for collection,
transportation, treatment and disposal of solid waste.

• Assess the present mode of disposal of solid waste such as burning, co posting, landfills and any
other m pliance within regulatory framework. Provisions in the existing system, if any, for segregation

of solid waste and recycling. Details of existing dum ing yards/compost yard such as area, facilities
available, adequacy cilities for any waste processing / treatment exist, details such as plant size,
capacity, maintenance expenses, etc.

• Evaluate the existing solid waste management expenditure incurred by the council with a view to
determine efficiency of operati per ton of waste, cost per capita and other operating parameters as

• Feasibility & Evaluation of the proposed landfill sites

• Suggestions for Institutional strengthening, staff requirement and training

• Amendments in laws if any.

Based on the studies carried out and deficiencies noted prepare Detailed proposal for improving the
solid waste management practices in the Town, which may meet the requirements of law and yet be
cost effective and impl mentable in the urban loc (DPR) shall suggest improvements to fulfill the
requirements laid down in MSW Rules 2000, notified by the MOEF, Govt of India.

Currently, 1,50,000 metric tons per day of municipal solid waste is being generated due to
various household activities and other commercial & institutional activities (CPCB, 2019).
Approximately1,35,000Million Tons per day of the total amount is collected waste. 80% of 1.5 lakh
metric tonne daily garbage remains untreated.Municipal waste and certain industrial waste have
comparatively significant impact on environment. A substantial amount of these wastes is extremely
dangerous to the living organisms including human beings. It may downgrade groundwater quality by
leachate percolation and also cause air pollution by emission of greenhouse gases through various
course of treatment. Nowadays, E-waste and nuclear waste are other waste streams which are
requiring attention due to fastest growing electronics & nuclear sector. To overcome this problem,
effective solid waste management must be implemented. The objectives of solid waste management
are to control, collect, process, utilize and dispose of solid wastes in such an economical way which
protects health of human being and natural environment and the objectives of those served by the
system. In this regard, in 1989, the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (U.S. EPA) adopted
hierarchy of waste management practices . The elements of hierarchy are:

-Source reduction

-Recycling of materials


Landfilling :
In India, initially there has not been much awareness about solid waste management and its hierarchy.
However, since last few years, the scenario of solid waste management has been changing
continuously. Still, there is a long way to implement an effective solid waste management practices.
Even today, only few portion of solid waste generated is disposed through proper treatment. Lack of
waste segregation is the biggest obstacle in implementing effective solid waste management. Though,
Plastic and paper recycling sector is growing due to huge market demand for these commodities but
lack of transportation in some areas, lack of advancements in treatment technologies, financial
shortage in municipalities are other factors for poor solid waste management practices. It is important

to recognize the fact that there are varying degrees of hazards associated with different waste streams
and there are economic advantage for ranking wastes according to the level of hazards they present .
In this study, comprehensive review of MSW of Visakhapatnam in India has been provided to
elaborate current status and to identify problems of municipal solid waste management. It also
summarizes future trends to make MSW effective. However, it covers brief discussion of other

Solid waste can be defined as waste not transported by water; that has been rejected for further use. It
includes industrial, mining, municipal and agricultural wastes. It mainly consists of a large organic
matter, ash and fine earth, paper and plastic, glass and metals. Composition of solid waste however
varies depending on various factors such as weather, living standards etc. Table-1 classifies solid
waste on basis of its source.

Solid waste can be classified in many ways according to its source, composition, phase, treatment
required etc. Table - 1 describes type of wastes on basis of its source. It includes residential,
municipal, mining, agricultural, industrial etc.

Type of Industrial Waste:

Further municipal solid waste can be classified into putrescible solid wastes as garbage and
nonputrescible wastes . Rubbish may include variety of materials which may be combustible (paper,
plastic etc.) or noncombustible (glass, metal etc.). There are special wastes such as construction
debris, leaves and street litter, abandoned automobiles, and old appliances that are collected and
managed separately. It consists of organic matter (51%), recyclables (17.5%) and others i.e. inert
(31%) . It should be noted that actual composition may differ due to informal separation of recycling
wastes at source.

Waste quantification has been carried out for Visakhapatnam from the following sources:

 Residential /Individual houses

 Slums
 Market yards
 Road /Street sweepings
 Hotels & Restaurants
 Shops/Office/Institutions
 Hospitals/Nursing Homes/Pathological Laboratories
 Marriage/Function halls
 Construction waste
 Residential and commercial area

Residential and commercial area:

The residential and commercial areas are major sources of generation of solid waste. Based on the
average per capita generation of municipal solid waste, it can be estimated that the waste generation
from the households is about 635 MT. The commercial areas like CMR central, RTC Bus stand, Purna
Market, Nehru Bazaar, Beach Road, Madhurawada Junction generates high quantity of

The average per capita waste generation of solid waste in Visakhapatnam was 0.47 kg/per capita/day.
It is noticed that the waste generatedfrom higher income groups was found to be 0.40 – 0.45 kg/day
and from the low-income groups between 0.35 sweepings also contribute for increase of the per capita
waste generation for the city of Visakhapatnam.

It is noticed that the per capita waste generation is in the range of 0.45 0.47kg/per capita/day which
falls under middle Income roup as per the pa terns of composition characteristics and quantities
mentioned in the Municipal Solid Waste CPHEEO manual.

The quantity of waste generation based on per patnam is estimated at site considering various ward
wise activities which i cludes residential, commercial and street sweeping activities. For the present
DPR the per capita wa kg/capita/day with data generated at site during site survey. The estimated
quantity is also matched with the CPCB document on MSW.

The reason for the higher per material in Visakhapatnam and due to commercial establishments. The
ratio of residential, commercial and street sweeping is found to be around 32:57:11 which indicate the
higher commercial waste generation. A detailed survey work has been carried out as per the MSW
rules 2000 collecting the waste samples from individual identified residences, commercial areas from
different wards. However data generated in the previous age old data is also collected as seco dary
data from each wards and compiled waste generation.

It is noticed that the per capita waste generation is in the range of 0.45 0.47kg/per capita/day which
falls under middle Income roup as per the patterns of composition characteristics and quantities
mentioned in the Municipal Solid Waste CPHEEO manual.

The quantity of waste generation based on per capita population of Visakh patnam is estimated at site
considering various ward wise activities which i cludes residential, commercial and street sweeping
activities. For the present DPR the per capita waste generation from Visakhapatnam is considered
0.48 kg/capita/day with data generated at site during site survey. The estimated quantity is also
matched with the CPCB document on MSW.

The reason for the higher per capita waste generation is due to the packing food material in
Visakhapatnam and due to commercial establishments. The ratio of residential, commercial and street
sweeping is found to be around 32:57:11 which indicate the higher commercial waste generation. A
detailed survey work out as per the MSW rules 2000 collecting the waste samples from individual
identified residences, commercial areas from different wards. However data generated in the previous
age old data is also collected as secondary data from each wards and compiled with the present
quantified waste 1 kg/day.

There are more than 600 slums in the Visakhapatnam city. Haphazard Distrib tion of slums within the
City is observed with outer fringe areas of the City ha ing major concentrations of slum population
relatively overcrowded dwellings; therefore, slum distribution is marginal in this area.

The quality of life in each of the slums is appalling with low level of municipal facilities. Unlike the
town wards, in the slum not possible, therefore, large size wheeled community dustbin is placed on
the outer boundary of each slum. These dustbins can be directly taken to the waste processing and
disposal site. The total waste generation con holds waste.

Market Waste
Next to household waste, one of the major contributors of municipal solid waste quantity is the market
waste. The four main vegetable & Fish / Meat markets are Purna Market and other small and medium
markets. from these markets was observed to daily, by-weekly and weekly markets found in
residential areas of the city. These markets produce wastes, which are ideal for production of

There are more than 600 slums in the Visakhapatnam city. Haphazard Distribution of slums within the
City is observed with outer fringe areas of the City having major concentrations of slum population.
In zone I, ward number 1, 2, 3 has relatively overcrowded dwellings; therefore, slum distribution is
marginal in this area.

The quality of life in each of the slums is appalling with low level of municipal facilities. Unlike the
town wards, in the slum areas door step waste collection is not possible, therefore, large size wheeled
community dustbin is placed on the outer boundary of each slum. These dustbins can be directly
taken to the waste processing and disposal site. The total waste generation contributes in Household

Daily sweeping of public roads, streets, lanes, and by where there is habitation of commercial activity
on one or both sides of the streets isolated pockets or roads. Street sweeping comprising of dust, sand
and stones. This waste also contains litter, and animal waste. Currently, most of the waste generated
in the City is collected as street sweeping, since wastes from majority of residential and commercial
ments are discarded on and along the roads.

It is therefore not possible to accurately assess the waste generation rate from street sweeping.
However based on the discussion with the sweepers and san tary staff it was estimated that this waste
is for 4 lane roads, 40 kg/km/day for double roads and 30 kg/km/day for single roads. For the total
2825 km of road length in Visakhapatnam it is estimated that 65 MT of street sweeping wastes are
generated generated through drain cleaning was observed to be 50 the waste generation is a
continuous process, waste collection, transportation and disposal is required to be done daily. There
can therefore be no holiday in street sweeping primary collection, transportation, processing and
disposal of waste.

Drain cleanings are the major components of waste in urban areas. A major portion of sanitary
worker’s time goes for the cleaning of streets and drains. Most of the waste generation and rubber.
Drains can be cleaned and the waste will be thrown on the road side.

It is therefore not possible to accurately assess the waste generation rate from street sweeping.
However based on the discussion with the sweepers and san tary staff it was estimated that this waste
is in the range of 60-65 kg/km/day for 4 lane roads, 40 kg/km/day for double roads and 30 kg/km/day
for single roads. For the total 2825 km of road length in Visakhapatnam it is estimated that 65 MT of
street sweeping wastes are generated per day. The total generated through drain cleaning was
observed to be 50-54 tons/day. Since the waste generation is a continuous process, waste collection,
transportation and disposal is required to be done daily. There can therefore be no holiday in primary
collection, transportation, processing and disposal.

Drain cleanings are the major components of waste in urban areas. A major portion of sanitary
worker’s time goes for the cleaning of streets and drains.

Hotels and Restaurants:

There are around 600 to 650 hotels, star hotels, Bar and restaurants in Visak patnam City. The waste
generation from these hotels and restaurants is o served to be 18-21 tons/day. All of them are storing
their waste o tic containers. Dry and wet waste may be stored separately. In case of restau rants,
waste may be stored in smaller containers or plastic bags.

Marriage/ Function halls in Visakapatnam :

These are places where large quantity of waste is genera ally during functions/marriages and other
social gatherings. Waste generated from the function halls comprise of mainly organic waste such as
food waste, flowers and leaves. Number of function halls in the city is about 160. The maximum
quantity of waste generation from these halls was observed to be 0.08-0.09/kgpercapita/perday.

Commercial establishments:
The waste from the commercial establishments lik e shops and offices, whol sale and retail stores,
Paint shops, Jewellery shops and general stores have been considered in this category. The number of
commercial establishments is about 80,000. In order to assess the waste visits and field assessment
surveys were carried out in the major commercial areas of Visakhapatnam. About 40 to 42 MT of
waste is generated from commercial establishments.

Hospitals/Health centers (BIO-MEDICAL WASTE):

About 664 Clinics, 50 hospitals and 66 nursing homes are present in different areas of Visakapatnam
city. Two types of waste are generated from these esta lishments, one is municipal refuse and other is
bio-medical waste. These two types of waste may be stored separately. About 2-3 MT of waste is
generated by the Hospitals. Municipal waste may stored in black ploythene bag or in black colored
buckets. Biomedical waste may be stored separately. The municipal vehicles will collect the waste
and dump at Kapuluppada Dump site.

Construction and demolition waste is generated whenever any constru tion/demolition activity takes
place, such as, building roads, remodeling etc. It sts mostly of inert and non-biodegradable material
such as concrete, plastic etc.

Quantification for this category was done based on the survey, seating capacity and average
occupancy days in a year. The maximum quantity of waste 0.09 Kg/ per capita/day. Waste generated
from the function halls will be around 14 TPD. The peak waste generation is during certain auspicious

The commercial establishments lik e shops and offices, wholesale and retail stores, Paint shops,
Jewellery shops and general stores have been considered in this category. The number of commercial
establishments is about e generated by these establishments, field visits and field assessment surveys
were carried out in the major areas.

Discussions were also held, with the shop owners on the amount of waste gensal practices. Hence,
based on the survey the waste generation factor will be around 0.63 kg per unit. This quantity is
observed to be very high.

Waste generated from parks and gardens mainly comprise of organic waste such as leaves, grass and
bush cuttings. The waste quantification for this category was done based on the discussions with the
Forest officers, gardeners and sweepers involved in waste collection and were estimated as 500
kg/unit for large parks like VUDA, Tenneti, Kailasagiri, Thotlakonda park etc., and for small parks
waste generation factor was estimated to 120 kg/unit per day.

The total parks under recreational and open space are around 40. At this rate the total solid waste
generated from parks in the Visakhapatnam works out to be 5-6TPD.

Visakhapatnam is one of the important educational centers in Andhra Pradesh. One of the famous
Universities in India is Andhra University in Visakhapatnam. The City has approximately 180
Primary Schools,45 Secondary Schools and 15Colleges. Garbage generation from this category was
done based on the size of the school or institution. The activities of these institutions generally do not
contribute much to the solid waste of the city. Waste generation factor is also assumed based on the

capacity of the school. A quantity of about 4 construction and demolition waste reaches the dump site
every day.

Temples :
Most of the waste from temples will be food waste, plastic, paper, leave ers. Waste Quantification for
this category can be done based on the bins provided in theApproximately 5 Average waste
generation per unit can be estimated as 12 kg/unit for medium and small temples and 108 kg/unit for
big temples. At this rate quantity of waste generation from the temples are estimated to 5.0 MT.

Waste from Chicken, Beef, Mutton and Fish Stalls:

Waste quantification of this category was done based on the field visit and fi assessment survey team,
discussions with the vendors and the officials of the Municipal Corporation of Visakhapatnam. Waste
generation factor can be est mated as 0.4 - 20 kg/unit. The total waste generation from the Chicken,
Beef, Mutton and Fish Stalls are about 3-4 tons per day.

Slaughter House :

There are two slaughter houses located in Hanumanthavagu, for sheep & goats and another is in
Chengalrao peta for Beef only. It is estimated that 1,00,375 numbers of medium animals slaughtered
per annum in th Slaughter house and 3650 numbers of big animals slaughtered per annum in the
Chengalraopeta slaughter house. Waste quantification was done based on the CPHEEO manual, waste
generation from the slaughter houses is 2.4 ton per day. The total waste generated from the slaughter
house is about 2.5 day.

Cinema Halls:

Most of the waste generation from this category was paper, food, plastic, bottles. Waste
Quantification of this category was done by the general assessment and seating capacity. Waste
generation factor is 6 kg/unit. There are 35 cinema theatres in the Visakhapatnam city and waste
quantification was works out to be around 0.8 to 1.0 Tons per day.

The average daily waste generation estimated i tons. At this rate the gross per capita generation of
solid waste in GVMC area work outs to 500-950 gm/capita/day eration from various sources and
waste generated.

Summary of Waste Generation

The average daily waste generation estimated in Visakhapatnam is around 920 tons. At this rate the
gross per capita generation of solid waste in GVMC area work outs to 470 gm/capita/day.

Table gives the breakdown of waste ge eration from various sources

Storage of waste at the source is the first important step of solid waste ma agement. Every household,
shops establishments, market yards etc., generate solid waste on day-to day basis.

The waste should normally stored at the source of waste generation till collected for disposal.
Generally it is observed that no bins for storag use bins, shops and establishments, institutions etc.
normally do not have waste storage bins. As a result most of the waste from the domestic places, instit
tions and even from hospitals comes on to th patnam is no different and more over with open drainage
system, it is observed that the surface drains are clogged with wastes especially plastic bags etc. The
situation in slum areas is further worse, the drains being com waste.

Seasonal variations in the waste quantity arise from factors with respect to both climate, cultural, and
religious events. During monsoon, the waste b comes wet and heavy and total tonnage increases.
Climate affects the gener tion of vegetative waste and at the end of the autumn season leaves may co
prise a significant proportion of the street sweepings. The wastes from ma riage halls are generally
more during the marriage season. About 15 spoilage is anticipated in summer mato, cauliflower etc.,
so these factors does have bearing on the waste generation.

Source segregation of recyclables and biodegradables (organic waste) will not only provide an
efficient way for resource recover reduce the pressure and pollution at Landfill sites. It is understood

that impl mentation of such practices takes time and requires significant cooperation from the public.
However, initiation should be made and efforts shoul verted to progressively increase the segregation
practices. Community Partic pation indicates various actions that could be taken by GVMC to
increase the public participation for the management of MSW. The sections below deal with issues
that need to be considered for source segregation and various options available to GVMC to
implement the system.

Individual houses
Mixed waste is stored in various containers like plastic bins, cartons, plastic carry bags etc by
households. Source segregation is not patnam. Domestic waste will be collected by push carts
followed by streets bins. In most of the wards door to door collection is in practice, some types of rece
tacles presently used for storage by Visakhapatnam households are:

• Buckets

• Plastic Bins

• Polythene bags/containers.

TheHospitals/Nursing Homes/Pathological Laboratories

Two types of waste are generated from these establishments, one is municipal refuse and other is bio-
medical waste and are stored separately in hospital premises. The municipal vehicles carry the waste
to the dump site.

Construction waste

This waste should be stored within the site with a proper screen around prevent scattering of the
waste. The owner may request for providing appr priate skips/containers for storing their waste on
payment basis.

--Existing collection and transportation system by GVMC(MSW VAUE CHAIN):

Every link in the waste management value chain indicated above is interrelated and the success of
each stage depends upon the successful implementation of the previous one—hence, the analysis of
value chain becomes very important.

a) Primary Collection System: Door to Door Collection

Transportation of waste from secondary collection points at regular intervals is one of the essential
jobs in MSW Management. Presently segregation and Door to-Door garbage collection is being
carried and Bheemli. Waste is collected from the Households and recyclables sold a way by the
workers and the Organic waste is collected into the plastic baskets in the trolley. In-Organic Waste
particularly thin plastic carry bags not purchased are separately collected into Gunny Bags.

Waste collection by push Carts

Push Carts ( Total 800 Nos) a each one handled by 2 to 3 workers covering 200 to 250 houses for
both collection and segregation. Presently 4 are being covered in 45 Sanitary Divisions. In the
remaining Households rec clables are segregated through Rickshaws (720 Nos).In most of the wards
door to door collection is in practice.

b) Secondary Waste Collection:

The collection and transportation of waste is practiced on all the days of the year including the public
holidays by GVMC. In GVMC, waste stored in open spaces is either loaded manually or with the help
of loaders (in case of huge a cumulations) in trucks. The vehicles involved in the solid waste
transportation in Visakhapatnam include dumper ,placers, tractors, mini vans, tippers (big & small).
Dumper placers will carry the bin and unload the waste at the transfer station and will perform on an
average of 4-5 trips per day. Mini tippers transport the waste from the open secondary collection
points to transfer stations. Dumper placers deployed with a capacity of 4.5 cum for carrying the waste
from Secondary collection point to the Kapuluppada .

75 Dumper placers, 132 TATA Acres, 64 Small Tippers transport the garbage from storage point to
transfer station and windows compost. 10 Big Tippers (Taras) Transport waste from transfer station to

Man Power:
1313 permanent workers, 3919 Out Sourcing workers, 30 Permanent Drivers, and 200 Out Sourcing
Drivers are working.

Scientific processing of Waste:

GVMC by following Solid Waste management handling rules 2000 selected one of the least
expensive and less capital intensive, but approved method of win rows composting. The windrows
composting is decentralized covering the entire city as follows:

Transfer station :
Being area of Visakhapatnam city is city, transfer station is established to transfer the waste from
dumper placers & trucks. The transfer station is located at town road. The collection vehicles i cluding
dumper placers, tippers and tractors will secondary open collection points & dumper bins and transfer
of waste directly in the transfer stations.

A ramp facility is also provided to facilitate unloading of vehicles or dumper placer containers,
directly into large container trucks at transfer station Waste is weighed at Weigh Bridge at the
entrance gate, a record is being maintained for in time, out time, weight of the solid waste disposing in
to the transfer st tion and vehicle number. The big Tarus vehicle (20 ton capacity) transport the waste
to disposal site located at Kapuluppada which is 25 kms away from the city.

Treatment and disposal of Waste:
The collected waste from Households will be deposited into the concrete/mild steel bins located in
respective wards by nicipal corporation lifts waste from the bins, at a frequency of once in a day. The
waste from the road side bins and street sweepings is collected regularly and transported to the
disposal yard.

The waste generated from all the wards will be disposed at the dump site located near Kapuluppada.
Currently, GVMC disposes the entire waste generated at Kapuluppada disposal site. This site is
operating for the last 7 years with about 80 acres. Three JCBs and one bulldozer are employed by
GVMCforsolid waste disposal management, including the operation of the waste disposal site.

The existing waste disposal site where crude open dumping is practiced with no leachate collection
and treatment system and d quirements of the MSW 2000 Rules. Open burning of waste,
indiscriminate di posal, presence of stray animals & rag pickers at the disposal site and leachate
migration into the subsurface are common occurrences.

The total quantity of waste generation and the quantity reaching the dump yard may not be same. The
total waste dumped at Kapuluppada dump site is about 600-650 TPD, where as the total waste
generation is about 920 TPD.

M/s. Maridi Eco Industries Pvt. Ltd plant in 5 acres within the Kapuluppada disposal site.

Compost Plant:
There is a small compost plant in the Visakhapatnam city which is located in ward no. 10 behind
Eenadu office. It was established on pilot 2001 with coordination of NGO Ex acres and is receiving a
total solid waste of 5 to 6 Tons per day. There are 27 members working for this compost plant to
segregate the recyclables and bi degradable, and compost plant maintenance. There are 3 dumper bins
provided in this compost plant to carry the inert material and disposes it in the Kapulu pada disposal
site. Composting is done in the aerobic process which is in presence of oxygen.

Institutional Aspects:
The Chief Medical Health Officer has the responsibility for overall SWM management assisted by a
team of Assistant Medical Health Officers, Sanitary Supervisors, Sanitary Inspectors, Engineers,
Ward Officers, Sanitary Officials and Workers. At the central level there is an Executive Engineer
assisted by Deputy Engineers, drivers and helpers.

For the ease of management, entire Visakhapatnam City is divided into 6 sanitary zones. The zone
wise distribution of sanitary workers is done in accordance with the population density of the division
and length of roads.

Key Concerns in the Existing System:

• Secondary storage points are in very poor condition

• Rag pickers who are taking out most of the recyclables which is having high calorific value.

• Drain silt and Municipal solid waste is getting mixed

•Transfer station maintenance is not good and waste is being dumped at kapuluppada without any
treatment and no scientific landfill.

• No scientific disposal, w treatment and No scientific landfill.

Deficiency Analysis / Compliance of MSW Rules 2000:

The below table shows the deficiency analysis in the MSW management system existing currently.

Quantification of municipal waste generated was carried out by Pvt. Ltd from 10th April to 30 th May
2015 separately for different sources of generation such as residential, commercial, institutional, street
sweeping and drain cleaning, markets, slaughter houses, function halls, cinema halls, etc. Waste
composition, characteristics and quantities of solid waste is essential for:

• It provides the basic data on which the management system is planned, designed and operated.

• The changes/trend in composition and quantity of waste over a period of time are

• known which help in future planning.

• It provides the information for the selection of equipment and appropriate technology.

• It indicates the amount and type of material suitable for processing, recovery and

• recycling.

• The forecast trends assist designers and manufacturers in the production of vehicles and equipment
suitable for the future needs.

• The waste generation rates have been worked out on the basis of field surveys, waste sampling and
discussion with the different waste generators and the officials of the Visakhapatnam Municipal
Corporation. The results of the study are set out in this section.

a) Sources of waste generation:

A waste characterization study for Greater Visakhapatnam was carried on 22 May to 30th May 2015,
to analyze the physical and chemical characteristics of waste samples. The sources of waste
generation from GVMC are as follows.

 Residential /Individual houses

 Slums
 Market yards
 Road /Street sweepings
 Hotels & Restaurants
 Shops/Office/Institutions
 Hospitals/Nursing Homes/Pathological Laboratories
 Marriage/Function halls
 Contruction waste.

--Methodology for waste quantification and characterization:

Information on the nature of wastes, its composition, physical and chemical characteristics and the
quantities generated are basic requirements for devising solid waste management plans. For the
purpose of solid waste management, it is important to look into the properties of the waste material
apart from their origin. Accordingly, they may be classified as:

• Biodegradable: Organic materials, which can be degraded by biological agents, e.g., microbes are
known as biodegradable. Examples are food m terial, fruit and vegetable waste, garden waste (plant
waste) etc.

• Recyclables: Plastic, Paper, metal

• Combustibles: Relatively dry material having a high calorific value, such as paper, plastic, rags,
cardboard, etc. are known as combustibles.

• Hazardous: Certain items which are hazardous for human or animal health and detrimental for the
environmental genic nature, are classified as hazardous waste e.g., hospital waste, certain industrial

The environmental threats associated with the burning of household waste in open piles across rural
communities with a focus of uncontrolled waste disposal practice. This option derived from the lack
of efficient municipal waste collection schemes, and on the other hand, it is a traditional disposal
route for agricultural wastes besides open dumping on the surroundings. This study estimates the
potential amounts of household waste uncollected by formal waste management services to be burnt
by rural communities related to regional waste management features and how such bad practice
interacts with geographical conditions. The paper performs a quantitative analysis of waste indicators
and makes estimations on consequent environmental impact focusing on inventorying air pollutants.
The spatial analysis provides an appropriate cartographic representation of the analyzed phenomenon.
The conclusions converge towards two main ideas:

1) open burning of mixed household waste could be a significant air pollution source at the local
scale, and

2) better rural waste management practices are needed to be implemented in the study area to

mitigate environmental and public health threat

• Inert: Dust, cinder, grit and other debris are known as inerts.

Faster obsolescence and subsequent up-gradation of electronics product, are forcing consumers to
discard old products, which in turn accumulate huge e-waste to the solid waste stream. E-waste is
growing in India at the rate of 10%. Major recycling of e-waste is carried out in the non-formal sector
using primitive and hazardous methods. Adequate legislative measures and cost-effective,
environmental friendly, technological solution would be needed to address the issue. This article
provides the basic information on electronic waste management in India.

Authorized dismantlers/ recyclers, registered with CPCB

During the collection of municipal solid waste samples the major collection sites are identified which
are covering a larger size of population. Based on the type of area such as residential, commercial,
industrial, market, slum etc. sa pling points are distributed uniformly all over the study area. The
sampling points are further classified based on economic status of population such as high, middle
and low income group.

About 10 kg of Municipal Solid Waste (MSW) is collected from ten points outside and inside of the
solid waste heap of city. The total quantity of waste collected is thoroughly mixed and then reduced
by method of quartering till a sample of such a size is obtained which can be handled personally. The
sample so obtained is subjected to physical analysis.

The methodology adopted for collecting MSW samples at city is as per CPHEEO manual based on
the type of area such as residential, commercial, industrial, market and slum etc.

The Physical Characteristics like moisture content, density, percentage of different components such
as, paper, plastic, glass metal,organic matter and sand,soil,bricks,stone etc. were analysed.

The Chemical Characteristics like pH, percentage of Nitrogen, Potassium and phosphorus, total
carbon and C/N ratio were analyzed and represented in the report. Calorific value of the MSW in Kilo
Calories Toxic characteristics were also analyzed and given in the report.

The information on the quantity of wastes generated and its composition are the basic needs for the
planning of a solid waste management system. Quantity and characteristics of solid waste generated
varies with income, socio economic conditions, social developments and cultural practices.

In high income countries the waste generated is more compared to that of low income countries
whereas the density of wast tries and high in low income countries indicating that more volumes of
wastes are generated in high income as compared to low income.

The characteristics of solid wastes There have been tremendous changes with time, and these changes
are expected to continue.

The information on the quantity of wastes generated and the basic needs for the planning of a solid
waste management system. Quantity and characteristics of solid waste generated varies with income,
socio economic conditions, social developments and cultural practices. The chara teristics and
quantity of waste generated based on the income pattern is pr sented in the Table 4.2 generated is
more comp sity of waste is low from high tries indicating that more volumes are generated in high
compared to low income.

Review of National Statistics - Waste Quantification:
Historically it is observed that the quantity of waste generated has been i creasing with improvement
in life style. However, India still remains to be on a very low per capita generation of municipal solid
waste. From the solid waste quantities generated in various Indian cities.

MSW Survey:
The quantity of waste generation is estimated and considered by using the following in the city.

-Secondary sources

- Primary survey results

Secondary Data Collection

As per municipal records quantity of waste generation in Visakhapatnam is about 1090 MT/day. The
sources of waste contributing to the total tonnage are given in the following.

Primary Survey results

The methodology adopted for collecting MSW samples at Visakhapatnam is as per CPHEEO manual
based on the type of area such as residential, commercial, industrial, market and slum etc.

To assess the waste generation levels primary survey was also carried out in s lected wards of
Visakhapatnam City. Around six typical wards were selected and data related to number of persons in
each ward, the waste generation in terms of residential, commercial and street sweeping waste details
were co lected on day to day basis. Waste Characterization was also carried during the survey.

The primary survey carried by Feedback is shown in Photographs. The wards of Visakhapatnam
identified for survey purpose are 31, 18, 40, 54, 62 and 71. The survey was conducted on three
consequent days and waste contributing levels of each of the ward was assesed in kgs.

The per capita waste generation is estimated based on the total municipal waste generation to the
corresponding population for each ward and extrap lated to arrive at the suggested waste generation
from the whole of the Visakhapatnam city.

From the above table it’s seen that the average per capita generation for Visakhapatnam city is about
0.47 kg/capita/day. The survey continued for other identified wards of Visakhapatnam the respective
wards identified are 3, 16, 33, 52, 68 and 71. The survey conducted for three consequent days and
waste contributing levels from each ward was assessed in kgs

Apart from the above, waste generation was also assessed based on the capa ity of each vehicle and
the number of trips made in a day to the dumpsite. The necessary details were collected and the waste
quantity reaching the dumpsite is found to be 600-700 tons per day which translates to about 0.45
kg/capita/day to 0.47 kg/capita/day.

Waste Quantification:
Waste Quantities depend on the population. the municipality is estimated based on the population of
the town and the per capita waste generation. The future waste generation from each of the towns is

also been predicted. The Future Generation Trends of Waste have been carried out by population
forecasting methods.

For the present report, the geometric progression method has been considered for arriving at
population projections for the year 2012 as well for the year en ing i.e 2030 year. The projected tables
were presented below:

The necessary details were collected and the waste quantity reaching the dumpsite is found to be
about 600-700tons per day which transaates to about 0.45 kg/capita/day to 0.47 kg/capita/day.
However it should be noted that the quantity of waste reaching the dumpsite is about 75-80% of the
generation quantities only.

Collection and Transportation Plan:

This plan provides Solid Waste Management Plan (SWMP) for primary and secondary waste
collection system and transportation system for Visakhapatnam City. This includes the planning,
infrastructure requirements, quantities, and corresponding cost estimates for the collection and
transportation systems were made in the end of the system is broadly based on 4R Environmental
Protection Rules (Reduce, Rec cle, Reuse, and Recove primary aspects of the proposed plan include
the following:

1. Compliance with Municipal Solid Waste Management & Handling Rules of 2000.

2. Compulsory segregation at the source.

3. Provision of segregation transportation.

4. Waste to be covered at all stages of handling.

5. Reduction of manual handling of waste by providing of proper PPEs to the workers.

6. 100% collection and transportation of the generated waste

7. Maximum recovery of resources by segregation of recyclables and biod gradable waste.

8. Advocate 4R’s i.e. reduce, recycle, reuse, and recover materials in MSW management

9. Promote information, education and communication across the stak holders to ensure system
efficiency and sustainability.

10. Ensure economic sustainability of the proposed system by introducing public private partnership
in MSW management

11. Adequate health and safety provisions for workers at all stages of waste handling

12. Regular environmental monitoring a cilities

13. Have robust complaint

14. Conduct regular internal and external independent audits on the eff ciency of entire SWM system.

Recommended C&T Plan :

The suggestions are mainly for:

• Promotion of the two bins-for biodegradable waste and another for recyclable waste, so as to
facilitate an organised and hierarchical system of waste collection and disposal, without letting the
waste to reach the secondary collection stages.

• Organization of door to door collection with community participation on cost recovery basis and
minimize the multiple handling of waste, improvement in the productivity of labour and equipment

• Containerized secondary storage facilities phasing out open storage

• Daily transportation of waste to the integrated MSW disposal facility.

• Container transportation using simple hydraulic system mounted vehicles.

• Awareness creation for source segregation and storag

• Monitoring system to increase the productivity

Based on the existing Collection and transportation system, the comprehensive collection and
transportation plan depicted above:

Identification of MSW processing technology:

The most important objective of municipal waste management is a safe disposal of the waste,
generated daily. This would involve the following activities:

• Separation of recyclable fractions and recycling the same

• Beneficial utilization of organic fraction of the waste

• Disposal of inerts into a scientifically designed landfill

The disposal of waste involves processing or separate or utilize the waste fractions organic and
inorganic, of which the recyclables are sent for recycling areas the organics which dominate the
proportion go to aerobic composting, vermi-composting or waste to energy conversion. These
different options require many inputs for decision making processes and would involve different
capital investments. A careful consideration of waste quantity generated is also an important part of
this decision making.

In the following sections the processing techniques and methodologies in use are explained,
subsequently an optimum model of waste processing and disposal for the GVMC is arrived.


There are several MSW processing technologies which are being followed in various parts of the
world. Further, it is to mention that out of the various processing technologies, the technologies which
are b use in Indian conditions are: (i) Composting, (ii) Anaerobic digestion to recover biogas and
electricity, (iii) Refuse Derived Fuel and (iv) Pyrolysis, as below under different technical groups

Waste generated (Tons per Annum)
During 2004-05, CPCB conducted survey through NEERI in 59 cities and estimated 39,031 TPD
MSW generation .Municipal solid waste generation in year 2010-11 is about 1,27,486 Tons per day.
The same was about 1,00,000 TPD (Tons Per day) in year 2000 as per report (May, 2000) of Ministry
of Urban Development (MoUD), Government of India. In year 2010-11, survey was again conducted
by CIPET at the instance of CPCB and estimated 50.592 MSW generation.

The above data accounts for proper scientific waste disposal, this amount can be very large in actual.
Per capita waste generation varies between 0.2 to 0.6 kg per capita per day depending upon
population size, living standards etc. It is estimated to increase at 1.33% annually. Industrial sector
generates 100 million tons/year of no-hazardous solid waste consisting coal ash more than 70 million
tons/year. About 8 million tons/year of hazardous waste is generated in each year out of 4.8 million
tons is recyclable.People still throw household waste without following proper waste management
channel, few industries dumping their wastes illegally and lack of awareness is still there related to
agricultural waste disposal. Electronics industry is one of those sectors which is rapidly growing in
the world. Extensive use of electronic items and their short life causes the disastrous proportions of E-
waste. Apart from these, nuclear waste is of prior importance due to its adverse environment impacts.

Until 1980, there was not much data available about solid waste generation and solid waste
management was paid very little attention. But, implementation of Hazardous Waste Management
Rules (1989) under Environment Protection Act - 1986 has changed the attitude of government and
local authorities.

According to Municipal Waste Management Rules (2000), it is the responsibility of municipalities to

prohibit littering of solid waste in cities, towns and in urban areas notified by governments. To
facilitate compliance, municipal authority organized house to house collection through the following

- Community bin collection

-House to house collection

Collection on regular time interval (which must be pre-informed)

Scheduling by using bell ringing of musical vehicle (without exceeding the noise levels)

To increase collection efficiency, the integration of these methods is required. The transportation of
municipal solid waste is generally carried out twice in a week or weekly basis by container carriers.
However,open trucks, dumper trucks are used for waste collection.

Waste collection efficiency has increased remarkably in few rural areas. Since collection costs are 50-
70% of solid waste budget, it is the most significant area for cost reductions. Interrelated variables
such as labor costs, crew size, union restrictions, collection frequency, distance (travel time) to
disposal and performance and annual costs of equipment must be considered during planning stage.

Scenario of MSW Collection in India many local bodies has taken initiative for efficient waste
collection alongwith certain NGOs having expertize in this sector of Solid Waste Management. It has
been observed that waste collection is much greater urban areas as compared to that of rural areas.
States like Gujarat, Maharashtra, Andhra Pradesh, Delhi, Tripura has taken initiatives to increase
collection efficiency.

Basic principles of Solid Waste Management :

4Rs: Refuse, Reduce, Reuse & Recycle :

• Refuse: Do not buy anything which we do not really need.
• Reduce - Reduce the amount of garbage generated. Alter our lifestyle so that
minimum garbage is generated.
• Reuse - Reuse everything to its maximum after properly cleaning it. Make secondary
use of different articles.
• Recycle – Keep things which can be recycled to be given to rag pickers or waste
pickers (Kabadiwallahs).Convert the recyclable garbage into manures or other useful

Waste segregation is the biggest obstacle for effective solid waste management. It is common in
developed countries like U.S., Europe and Japan; but countries like India most often collect MSW in a
mixed form. Our local bodies GVMC(Greater Visakhapatnam Muncipal Corporation) took
initiativemeasures toseparate collection of solid wastes like difeerentiating trash bins using parameters
like color coding.

Blue ---



India still need to adapt to the advancements in source separation techniques. However, paper and
certain type of plastics are separately collected at source level by waste pickers or waste buyers.
Source separation increases recycling efficiency. It also improves performance of waste treatment
units due to good quality of feed and lesser amount of impurities.

3R Concept Reduce: The term ‘Reduce’ can be defined as a reduction in the amount and/or toxicity
of waste entering the waste stream. Use of green elements as raw materials, extension of product life
cycle, optimum process design, reducing energy and heat losses, replacing raw materials by lighter
material can help to reduce the amount of waste generation. ‘Reduce’ is the top ranking component of
solid waste management hierarchy because it represents most effective means of reducing economical
costs and environmental impacts associated with handling waste (Henry & Heinke). Life cycle
assessment is very important for effective source reduction of waste.

Reuse: The term ‘Reuse’ means usage (or utilization) of a product in the same application for which it
was originally used. For example, a plastic bag can carry groceries home from the market over and
over again, a tin can be used as a multi-purpose container. A product can also be reused for some
other purpose, such as occurs when glass jars are reused in a workshop to hold small objects such as
screws or nails. Remanufacturing is often used in this regard which means restoring a product to like
new condition. It involves disassembling the product, cleaning and refurbishing the useful parts and
stocking those parts in inventory. While repair means only those parts that have failed are replaced.

Recycling: The recovery of materials for recycling is given second highest priority in the solid waste
management hierarchy after source reduction. ‘Recycling’ simply means use of waste as raw
materials for other products. It includes collection and separation of recyclables and processing them
to useful raw materials for other products. It can be classified as preconsumer and postconsumer
recyclable materials. Preconsumer materials consist of scrap that is recycled back into manufacturing
process without having been turned into a useful product. Postconsumer recyclables are products that
have been used by consumers, such as newspaper or plastic bottles. Glass, aluminium, heavy metals,
construction and demolition debris are another example of recyclables. An example of resource
recovery system for mixed solid waste is shownbelow.

The energy content of MSW depends on its composition and moisture content. It is reported that
MSW can yield an average of 95 m3 CH4/tonne, having 19.43 MJ/m3 calorific value. If we consider
conversion efficiency 25% and overall generator efficiency 80%, energy cab be produced at a rate of
12.98·105 KWh/year. Bomb calorimeter is used to determine the energy content of waste. It involves
complete burning of a sample and then measuring the rise in temperature of a surrounding water bath .
This value is known as higher heating value (HHV). The heating value of MSW in industrialized area
is higher than other areas due to higher percentage of manufactured materials such as paper, metals,
plastics etc.have developed an equation that predict heating values based on paper and food fractions,
plus a term that accounts for plastic, leather and rubber. However, this equation must be verified for
solid waste of India.

HHV (kJ/kg) = 53.5 (F + 3.6 CP) + 372 PLR

where, F is food, CP is cardboard and paper, and PLR is plastic, leather and rubber, all expressed as
mass percentages . However, certain energy of HHV is lost to vaporize moisture, therefore lower
heating value (LLV) should be considered which is also known as net energy.


• Evaluating the waste to energy potential in India from urban and industrial waste

• Tracking the on/off grid development of waste to energy in India

• Examining the quantity & characteristics implications on effective waste management

• In depth study of region wise growth enablers for waste to energy in India

• Examining the decision support matrix for waste to energy plants factoring risks & intermittent

• Evaluating the sources of revenue generation by waste to energy projects in India

• Analyzing the opportunity sizing for value chain players till 2025 under municipal solid waste


BOOT and DBO Contracts for Treatment of Waste: Generally, municipal authorities in our

towns and cities are not equipped to handle treatment and disposal of waste, which are highly

technical operations. Private sector participation is preferred and is generally picking up. BOT

and BOOT are the most common models of concession agreements in vogue in the country

today. Cities such as Kolkata, Hyderabad, Vijayawada, Ahmedabad, Trivandum, Thane and

Jaipur are examples of such contracts for the construction of compost plants or waste to energy.

Privatization of disposal of Waste: In case of disposal of waste, Management contracts and

DBFOT Models are the emerging Models. The concept of tipping fee is gaining acceptance

with a beginning made by Municipal Corporation of Bangalore.

Integrated solid waste Management on PPP basis being done in Asansol Durgapur, West

Bengal, Coimbatore City Municipal Corporation,Guwahati Municipal Corporation, Hyderabad

Municipal Corporation,Mudurai Municipal Corporation are generally on BOOT or its variant.

The remaining final solid waste is disposed in landfills after necessary treatment to decreasethe
adverse environmental impacts. The objective of treatment is to improve physical and/or chemical
characteristics of waste, reduce toxicity and reduce its final volume . In India, different treatment
methods are practiced depending on the type of waste. They are characterized by their capacity to
treat specific type of waste, residues generation, cost, risk associated, safety and other environmental
aspects . The various treatment methods practiced for MSW and other similar type of waste are :
Composting, landfills, Thermal processes (incineration, pyrolysis) etc. However, the same is not
effective for hazardous industrial waste. There must be separate consideration to handle hazardous
waste. Common methods which are adopted for hazardous waste are chemical fixation, volume
reduction, detoxification, degradation, encapsulation etc.

Hazardous-Waste Treatment Approaches:

Composting is a biological process of decomposition and stabilization of organic matter of solid
waste by microbes either in presence or absence of oxygen. Depending on availability of oxygen, it is
further classified as aerobic composting and anaerobic composting also known as biomethanation. It
can also be classified as open or window, mechanical or closed etc. depending upon operating
condition and design of plant. In India, large amount of waste is treated by this method for which
efficiency depends on temperature .

Anaerobic Digestion:
In Anaerobic Digestion biodegradable material is converted by a series of ba terial groups into
methane and CO lecules into small units like sugar this step is referred to as hydrolysis, another
group of bacteria converts the resulting smaller molecules into volatile fatty acids mainly acetate, but
also hydrogen (H2 and CO2) and this process is called acidification. The last group of Bacteria the

methane prodicers produce biogas. In addition to biogas, anaerobic bioconversion consisting of
inorganic, non ble, and bacterial biomass. If the feedstock entering the process is sufficiently free of
objectionable materials like colorful plastic, this residue can have market value as compost. Anaerobic
Digestion process is also referred to as Bio methanization process. A pictorial representation of this
process is as below:

Bio Reactor Landfill:

A bioreactor landfill is a wet land fill designed and operated with the o of converting and stabilizing
biodegradable organic components of the waste within a reasonable time frame by enhancing the
microbiological decompos tion processes. The technology significantly increases the extent of waste d
composition, conversion rates and process effectiveness over what would ot erwise occur in a
conventional wet landfill. Stabilization in this context means that landfill gas and leachate emissions
are managed within one generation (twenty to thirty years) and that any failure this time would not
result in environmental pollution. There is better energy recovery including increased total gas
available for energy use and increased green house reduction from reduced emissions and increase in
fossil sets. These factors lead to increased community acceptance of this waste processing technology.
Management of a bioreactor landfill requires a different operating protocol to conventional landfills.
Liquid addition and recirculation is the single most important operational variable to enhance the
microbiological decomposition processes. Other strategies can also be used to optimize the st
bilization process, including waste shredding, pH adjustment, nutrient addition and temperature

Thermal processing technologies:

Thermal technologies are those technologies that operate at temperature greater than 2000C and have
higher reaction rates. They typically operate in a temperatures greater than 200degrees celsius to 5500
degrees celsius. Thermal technologies include advanced thermal recycling a state of the form of waste
to energy facilities) and thermal conversion (a process that converts the organic carbon based portion
of the MSW waste stream into a synthetic gas which is subsequently used to produce products such as
electricity , chemicals , or green fuels). The calorific value of garbage will help to identify the
treatment technologies like Waste Energy and other thermal processes. These technologies are briefly
described below:

Aerobic Digestion:
Aerobic composting means bacterial conversion of organics in presence of air. It yields compost as
final product which is extensively used as fertilizer. Final product is free from odour and pathogens. It
can reduce waste volume to 50-85%. Mechanical controlled plants are being installed in metropolitan
cities, while manually control plants are set in relatively smaller urban township. During 1975- 1980,
large scale composting plants were installed in cities like Bangalore, Baroda, Mumbai, Calcutta,

Delhi, Jaipur, Kanpur and Indore having capacity of 150 to 300 tonne/day. But due to poor
performance and no usefulness in soil enrichment, plants were shut down. After that the first large
scale plant was set up in Mumbai in 1992 with 500 t/day capacity of MSW followed by Vijaywada,
Delhi, Bangalore, Ahmedabad, Hyderabad, Bhopal, Luknow and Gwalior.

Installed capacity of compost plants state wise statitics

It is the process of conversion of organic matter into stable, inert residue by microorganisms in the
oxygen-free environment. It yields methane-rich biogas which can be used for electricity, cooking and
inert residue which can be used as manure. Microorganisms used in this process are known as
methanogens. The biggest advantage of biomethanation is that it can reduce the release amount of
methane – a powerful greenhouse gas and simultaneously generates electricity. Another important
aspect of this technology is its relevant use in rural areas for cooking.

Incineration :
Incineration is a combustion process which simply means drying and burning of waste. The final
product of the process is CO2, H2O in vapor form and ash with a large amount of heat. It requires
high temperature ranging between 980 to 2000 °C.Incineration reduces the final waste upto 75%
approximately. This process releases large amount of heat which if recovered properly can turn out to
be a potential source of energy generation . Bio-medical waste and certain toxic industrial waste are
also treated by this method having small capacity incinerators

In most of the Indian cities, incineration is less common due to solid waste composition i.e. high
organic matter (40% to 60%), high moisture content (40% to 60%) and presence of inert material
(30% to 50%) and low calorific value (800 to 1100 kcal/kg).

Calorific value must fall between 1200-1400 kcal/kg for energy generation. Modification in design of
incinerator and scientific waste management leads to avail large scope of this technology in recent
times. Delhi was the first city to have MSW incineration plant.

In 1987, the plant was constructed at Timarpur, New Delhi with a capacity of 300 t/day costing Rs.
250 million by Miljotecknik volunteer, Denmark. But, its poor performance led to shut down of plant
after 6 month of operation. The disadvantage with this process is that it releases compounds

containing sulphur, nitrogen and halogens deteriorating air quality. To overcome the problem,
scrubbing, filtering are used to dilute concentrations to acceptable level prior to release into
atmosphere. It also forms poisonous soluble metal oxides which must be controlled by

The major component of a mass burn facility include:

1.Reception of Refuse, handling and storage systems;

2. Combination and Steam generation System (a boiler);

3. Flue gas cleaning system;

4. Power generation equipment (steam turbine and generator);

5. Condenser cooling water system and

6. Residue hauling and Storage syste

Pyrolysis is an effective waste-to-energy concept refers to destructive distillation of the solid waste to
recover its constituents and energy. It is a thermal degradation process in absence of air which yields
recyclable products such as char, oil/wax and combustible gase. It is generally preferred for treatment
of waste having less moisture content like paper, cloth, plastic, yard wastes etc. as waste containing
high moisture content require more heat supply. In this process, the solid waste is heated in a
pyrolysis reactor at 600-1000 °C which yields oil phase i.e. methanol, acetone, acetic acid etc;
gaseous phase i.e. H2, CH4, CO, CO2 etc. and solid phase i.e. carbon char and inert materials.
Various reactors employed for pyrolysis are fixed bed reactor, rotary kiln, fluidized bed reactor and
other innovative reactors. The total heat can be further divided into three types based on its
consumption. Q1 is amount of heat which is required for moisture vaporization, Q2 refers to calorific
requirement of pyrolysis, while Q3 is the radiation loss during the process. It depends on various
factors such as temperature, heating rate, residence time in reactor zone, material size etc.The biggest
advantage of pyrolysis over incineration is very little effect to environment in terms of air pollution.
Though, high initial cost and operation cost make this process difficult to emerge as commercially
sound practice.

In India like many developing countries, waste is disposed in an open area without any precautions.
In most of the indian cities, waste is thrown outskirts of the city area without any prior treatment
which leads to environmental deterioration. Open dumping of solid waste leads percolation of
leachate to underground water and gas emissions resulting into excessive air pollution. It also disturbs
aesthetic surrounding by its odorus environment. Various study reported that groundwater of
residential areas near landfills is significantly contaminated by leachate percolation it is reported that
only 25-30% gas can be recovered in the absence of base liner and top covering.

To overcome this problem, secure and sanitary landfill must be included in landfilling practices. The
term ‘Secure landfill’ refers sites allocated for managing hazardous wastes and term ‘Sanitary
Landfill’ refers to sites allocated for managing municipal solid wastes . There are many landfill sites

operating in India, but their efficiency towards pollution reduction is still need to be concerned. Due
to increasing waste generation, the land requirement will increase in coming years in urban areas.
Contrary, due to rapid industrialization and urbanization, the land availability is decreasing day by
day. Therefore, before ultimate disposal through landfilling volume and toxicity of solid waste must
be reduced by other treatment options. As secure landfilling is expected to be the ultimate disposal
option which receives residues remained after other treatments, further improvements in its design
and planning are necessary. Landfill should be provided composite liners to restrict leachate
percolation to underground water level. It must be equipped with proper collecting and ventilating
system in order to recover gas produced. Under the MSW rules, Government of India has made it
mandatory to install Land Fill Gas (LFG) control system. LFG should be used either for energy
generation or direct recovery of heat or should be flared to avoid air quality degradation.Moisture is
an important factor which needs to be considered while designing a landfill.


The basic steps essential for the landfill designs are:

• Landfill sizing

• Site layout

• Landfill layout

• Leachate management

• Landfill gas management

MoEF guidelines for Landfill Design:

Main aspects covering the landfill Design & Construction are:

• To minimize the possibility of contaminating surface and ground water.

• To have control over gaseous emissions.

• To maximize resource productivity

Physical processing technologies:
Physical technologies involve altering the physical characteristics of the MSW feedstock. The MSW
is subjected to various physical processes that reduce the quantity of total feedstock and increase its
heating value. Palletized into homogeneous fuel pellets and transported and combusted as a
supplementary fuel in utility boiler. These technologies are briefly described below:

Refused Derived Fuel:

The RDF process typically includes through pre shredding, drying and densification to make a
product that is easily handled. Glass and plastics are removed through manual picking and by
commercially available separation devices. This is followed by shredding to reduce the size the
remaining feedstock to about eight inches or less for further processing and handling. Magnetic
separator is used to remove ferrous metals. Eddy separators are used for aluminum and other non
material contains mostly food wastes non cyclable and non-recyclable) green wastes wood and other
materials. Drying to less 12% moisture is typically accomplished through the use of forced air. Add
tional sieving and classification equipme moval of contaminations. After drying, the material often
undergoes densific tion processing such as palletizing to produce a pellet that can be handled with
typical conveying equipment and fed through bunkers and feede can be immediately combusted on
site or transported to another facility for burning along or with other fuels. The densification is even
more important when RDF is transported off being transported. RDF is often used in waste to energy

plant as the primary or supplemental feedstock or co cement plants, and with other fuels for industrial
steam production.

Mechanical Separation :
Mechanical separation is utilized for removing specific material or contaminants from the inlet MSW
stream as a part of the pre treatment process. Contaminants may include construction and demolition
(C&D) debris, tyres, dirt wet paper, coarse materials and fine materi ing sites is non segregated mixed
waste containing C&D debris and other contaminants. Therefore it is essential to remove these
contaminants from the incoming MSW by mechanical separation before proceeding the waste further
by either biological physical and thermal technologies (except Plasma Arc Tech nology).

Most of the rural towns it is seen that C&D debris (more than 90%) is reused and the rag pickers take
away most of the recyclable material at the collection points only. Therefore the MSW reaching the
dumping ground does not require the elaborate mechanical separation process. This MSW has high
organic content fit to be directly used for various technologies after manual sorting only.

Size Reduction:
Size reduction is often required to allow for more efficient and easier handling of materials
particularly when the fees stream is be used in follow on processes. Sizing processes include passive
moving and vibrating screens and trammels. In order to reduce the size of equipment such as
shredders is utilized. This allows for other physical processes such as dryers magnetic and eddy
current separators and densific tion equipment to work more efficiently. Magnetic and eddy current
separators may be installed both up and down stream of shredders to increase the recovery of metals.


The final functional elem and disposal. The present practice is to dispose of wastes by land filling or u
controlled dumping at the disposal yard (termed as compost yard). The proposed disposal system has
been devised synchronizing primary collection and taking into account also MSW (Mgmt &
Handling) Rules’2000.

Disposal of Waste:
The MSW rules 2000 laid down the criteria for disposal of waste as under.

Land filling shall be restricted to non wastes those are not suitable either for recycling or for
biological processing. Land filling shall also be carried out for residues of waste processing facilities
as well as pre-processing rejects from waste processing facilities. mixed waste shall be avoided unless
the same is found unsuitable for waste processing. Under unavoidable circumstances or till
installation of alternate f cilities, land filling shall be done following proper norms. Landfill sites
shall meet the specifications as given in Schedule III of the above rules.

Land fill:

Ultimate solution for Waste Disposal is Sanitary Land Fill operation. All efforts done by way of
processing and recovery of recyclables are aimed at reducing landfill burden as well as for reducing
pollution characteristics of the waste sent to Landfill.

Sources of Leachate generation from the project are as follows:

• Processing unit (Waste receiving platform & Windrow platform)

• Landfill

Leachate generated from the landfill areas has been calculated and shall be treated to meet standards
of disposal into public sewers.

Leachate Management

The alternatives to be considered for leachate management are;

• Discharge to Lined Drains: This option is usually not feasible. It can only be adopted if the
leachate quality is shown to satisfy all waste water discharge standards for lined drains, consistently
for a period of several years.

• Re-circulation: One of the methods for treatment of leachate i circulate it through the landfill. This
has two beneficial effects:

(i) the process of landfill stabilization is accelerated and

(ii) the constituents of the leachate are attenuated by the biological, chemical and physical changes
occurring with the design of a distribution system to ensure that the leachate passes uniformly
throughout the entire waste. Since gas generation is faster in such a process, the landfill should be
equipped with a well designed gas recovery system.

• Evaporation of Leachate: One of the techniques used to manage leachate is to spray it in lined
leachate ponds and allow the leachate to evaporate. Such ponds have to be covered with
geomembranes during the high rainfall periods. The leachate is exposed during the summer months to
allow evaporation. Odour control has to be exercised at such ponds. As a stand by, this proposal
envisages construction of leachate evaporation ponds as a buffer.

• Treatment of Leachate: The type of treatm upon the leachate characteristics. Typically, treatment
may be required to reduce the concentration of the following prior to discharge: degradable and non-
degradable organic materials, specific hazardous constituents, ammonia and nitrate ions, sulphides,
odorous compounds and suspended solids. Treatment processes may be biological processes (such as
act vated sludge, aeration, nitrification (de (such as oxidation, neutralization) and phys stripping,
activated adsorption, ultra filtration etc).

• Discharge to Wastewater Treatment System: For landfills close to wast water treatment plant,
leachate may be sent to such a plant after some pretreatment. Reduction is or treatment. The leachate
will be treated to meet the standards of disposal into public sewer.


The criteria for screening the potential technologies which meet the objectives and goals

Discharge to Wastewater Treatment System: For landfills close to wast water

treatment plant, leachate may be sent to such a plant after some pretreatment. Reduction is organic
content is usually required as a pr treatment. The leachate will be treated to meet the standards of
disposal into public sewer.


The criteria for screening the potential technologies which meet the objectives and goals.

a) Technology Reliability Criteria

Technologies that are proven internationally for large scale application of MSW could be considered
without reservations for Visakhapatnam District.

b) Environmental and Social Acceptability Criteria

Technologies that have minimum environmental and social impacts and co form to the regulatory
requirements (MSW Rules, 2000)

c) Waste sustainability Criteria

Technologies those are suitable for MSW characteristics of Visakhapatnam District. A schematic
representation of technology selectionis given below:

Governing factors for choice of Technology:

The decision to implement any particular technology needs to be based on its techno – economic
viability, sustainability, as well as environmental implic tions keeping in view the local conditions and
the available physical and financial resources. The key factors are

• The origin and the quality of the MSW

• Quantity of Waste generated

• Distances between the various municipalities falling in the particular zone/cluster

• Market for the finals products power

• Commercial fertilizer Prices Prevailing

• Land Price, Capital and labour cost

• Capabilities and experience of the technology provider.

It needs to be ensured that the proposed facility should fully comply with the environmental
regulations laid down in the MSW Rules 2000 issued by MOEF, New Delhi and MSW Rules 2016
and may be amended from time to time.

--Selection of the most suitable technology for GVMC:

The composition of urban waste has rapidly undergone a radical change in the fast few years in the
country in tune with the growth of the economy resulting in the increasing use of packaging material
comprising of paper and plastics. At Present about 1100 TPD of wast is being generated only from
Visakhapatnam zone which consists of huge quantities of compostable and combustible materials.

The organic component of waste can be converted into useful recyclables can be effectively recycled
through a suitable technological option depending on the composition of the waste.

Considering the waste characteristics and quantity of waste being generated the following
treatment technologies are proposed for Visakhapatnam District:

• Anaerobic Windrow Composting

• Refuse Derived fuel( RDF) used to generate Power (WTE)

• Scientific landfilling

It is pertinent to mention that, recently State Government has also expressed its interest in setting up
of a W design concepts of these proposed treatment facilities are explained in the su sequent chapters.

The treatment plant at Vishakhapatnam zone is called as Treatment plant (CWTP) chapter.

It is pertinent to mention that, recently State Government has also expressed its interest in setting up
of a Waste to Energy plant (WTE) in Vishakapatnam. The design concepts of these proposed
treatment facilities are explained in further chapter.

The treatment plant at Vishakhapatnam zone is called as Centralized Waste Treatment plant (CWTP)
with cluster approach.



This facility can be established as a Facility servicing other ULBs nearby which are planned in the
cluster, as a cluster approach. Each of the options i.e. stand alone and cluster approach have its own
merits and demerits.Integrated waste management facilities essentially consists of processing plant
and plant for disposal i.e. of the major features of Integrated Solid Waste Management can be listed as

• Holistic approach to the waste streams thus maximizing synergetic ben fits in collection, recycling,
treatment & disposal

• Maximize the opportunities for resource recovery at all stages eration to final disposal

• Accommodate aspirations of all stakeholders waste management and service providers

• Facilitate life cycle view of products and materials; er resource use efficiency

• Integrate different response functions such as technical, managerial, financial, policy etc.

• Greater local ownership & responsibilities/participation through a consultative approach

The concept of Regional individual waste processing or disposal facilities as far as possible. If
individual urban local body set up their facilities, it will result in mushrooming of many / innumerable
facilities within the ever, a bigger city / district may set up its own facility to avoid long distance
transportation of garbage.

Here both the facilities i.e. processing and disposal or alternatively the processing alone can take place
in each ULB/Muncipality the common facility could be only for safe disposal of waste i.e. an
engineered landfill.

Criteria for Cluster facility:

The following criteria have been suggested in the cluster facility are:

‘Action Plan for Management of Municipal Solid Waste’ Control Board in compliance to the Hon’ble
National Green Tribunal Order dated 05.02.2015 in the matter of OA No.199 of 2014. These criteria

may be considered for adopting cluster based approach for setting common waste processing and
disposal facilities;

i) A detailed survey of State / UT with positioning of city / town / village and distance between them.

ii) Based on local condition, fixing of criteria by the local body to transport the waste for common
disposal point without causing traffic hurdles. An indicative distance of say upto 50 km for each local
body may be feasible. However smaller local bodies may difficult to a range transportation on daily
basis. For such villages / towns, alternative options can be worked out.

iii) An adequate size of land will have to be acquired which should be free from public objection.
Common facility should not have settlement atleast 3-5 km from its periphery.

iv) Common facility perhaps should not be designed for handling waste say less than 3000-5000 tons
per day and this will be depending upon nu ber of towns/villages covered and corresponding to waste
generation. Common facility should consider giving some value back in terms of end product and also
to be sustainable.

v) Common facility should be ‘integrated’ with facilities for sorting, compost, RDF and energy plant
and followed by inert recycling / reuse. Only a fra tion of inert waste should go for land

vi) Bigger cities generating more than 1000 tons/day should adopt combin tion of waste processing
technologies which may include; composting, RDF, waste-to-energy (anaerobic or thermal). Such
facilities should meet existing environmental standards and even be designed with latest state of-the-
art technologies to meet stricter no should provide proper incentives so that such plants can be
sustained and techno-economically viable.

vii) Smaller town, say generating < 1000 tonnes can go for composting, RDF. In further smaller town,
where waste generation is less tonnes per day, they can compost and produce RDF and send it to co
mon facility for power generation. Even at District and sub divisional le el, centralized RDF /
Compost facility can be set up.

Planning of integrated MSW facility:

Andhra Pradesh is one of the fore approach’ for the MSW based Integrated Waste to Energy plants on
PPP basis by grouping the then 124 ULB’s into 19 clusters in the year 2004. Accordingly in the
similar lines the state has Waste Management Strategy bing the municipalities accompanied by
regional cooperation and fair cost sha ing arrangements is emphasized.

Likewise for the present zone considering the following aspects, this approach minimizes the scope of
public objections, facilitates construction of large landfill which can be managed pr fessionally in a
cost effective manner

• The Waste would be processed and disposed of as per the characteriz tion and quantity of waste in
the respective cluster / municipality.

• Transportation Costs

• Availability of area for setting up Integrated Solid Waste Management Facility

• Not In My Back Yard (NIMBY)

• Ownership of Common Facility

• Form in which waste is to be transported jects

Three clusters are proposed in this zone district wise as

i. Vishakapatnam cluster

ii. Vizianagaram cluster

iii. Srikakulam cluster

The Processing technology for ea waste and waste characterization in each cluster. For selection of
suitable processing technology several parameters are considered namely Indian exp rience, quantity
and quality of waste, capital investments, curring expenditure, environmental impact etc.

Aspects under the Cluster Approach:

Waste Quantities

If the waste quantities generated from each of the municipality are equal i.e. all in the same range than
having a common facility ties would not yield any major impact on the costs for other municipalities
as cumulatively the waste quantities would not be of such a big quantity/volume which would result
in reducing capital costs. And also associated with it is the cost towards transportation of waste from
other municipalities to this facility would also be high and may not get circumvented with the
reduction of capital costs in view of the lesser cumulative over all capacity of the plant.

Normally common facilities are located in the municipality which generates highest waste quantity for
that particular cluster. However in the event that the waste quantities in two municipalities are very
high than also location of common facility could be a problem as it w costs to the other municipality
which need to transport waste.

Transportation of Waste:

Cluster approach is best designed when the relative distance between muncipalities is less than or
equal to 30 km. Any distances gr not result in any major cost benefits. Capital costs may come lower
but the operation costs would be higher and may not get circumvented with the lower capital costs.
Secondly transportation of waste over large distances require good planning and command in
operations as municipal waste is generated on daily basis and any delays /breakdown in the system
would bring in big crisis to the municipalities. Fleet Management would become critical in such cases.

Area Availability

Common facilities would require more areas for establishing the integrated waste management
facilities. It would become the responsibility of the munic pality where the common facility is created
to ensure that adequate areas are catered to this purpose and also for future expansions.


“Not In My Back Yard” commonly known as NIMBY syndrome is very much prevalent for waste
management facilities. It’s witnessed that people do not a cept any waste management facility in the
vicinity for wastes generated by them. And now for a cluster approach where common facilities are
created waste from other municipalities would reach this facility getting public acce tability is a

matter of concern. Even if the project is established, operations essentially transportation of w quently
due to obstructions from the people during operations phase. This a pect also needs to be considered
while planning common facilities.

Ownership of Common Facility

Common facility serves various municipal ty is also a matter of concern even though the project is
operated by a private entity.

Form of waste being transported:

• Both processing and disposal units together i.e. integrated facility (Or)

• Only for disposal unit.

In the former case it requires waste to be transported in raw form i.e. garbage while in the latter case
waste will be inert i.e. rej operations. It’s a known fact that raw waste occupies very high volume (no
mally has a density of 0.45 to 0.5 kg/m3) and would require higher number of vehicles for
transportation which would have a very big bearing on the tran portation costs.

While if the waste is processed at individual municipalities where the waste is generated and only
inerts sent to common facility than the quantity to be tran ported also gets reduced and thereby the
transportation costs also get reduced drastically. Moreover in this case delayed transportation of waste
will not i pact the operations of the municipality as it’s inert and has no odour hassles.

In view of the above the benefits associated with cluster approach are both technical and financial can
be summarized as below


This gives greater access to technical resources and professional expertise of different ULB’s

Use of large and sophisticated equipment (e.g. compactors)

Stacking of waste up to greater heights that provides larger al capacity per acre of land.

Cost savings in disposal and treatment.

Proper planning and development of the site will help reduce the public opposition and NIMBY

Increased distances require the use of transfer stations to increase ficiency of the transportation

Most importantly share the ULB’s and consequently help in provision of scientific collection, ma

agement, processing and disposal of MSW in an efficient manner within respective zone.

Furthermore, they facilitate the monitoring of environmental outcomes and performance due to a
reduced number of sites. The approach enables smaller ULBs to achieve compliance with minimal
financial burden.


 Reduction in the fixed costs per unit of waste
 Cost saving due to sharing of O&M cost
 Cost Sharing of professional management
 Improved bargaining power to buy better equipment and systems at lower cost

Concept planning:

In view of the above factors, a cluster approach is devised with the following proposed processing
facilities and disposal plan for Vishakhapatnam zone. A centralized waste treatment facility is
proposed at Visakhapatnambased on the waste quantification and characterization.

Each muncipality should establish processing facilities in their respective municipalities • Transport
rejects / inerts arising from the processing facility to the co mon treatment facility. For this purpose
required logistic support needs to be established.

• Common facility for Waste disposal in the form secured engineered landfill in the municipality
generating the highest quantity of waste for the cluster under consideration, in this case at
Visakapatnam as stated above.

• MOU between the participating ULB’s withcost sharing arrangements (comprising of fixed O&M
cost, creation of ESCROW account, revision of tariff suitability from time to time).

Visakhapatnam Cluster # 1:

This cluster consists of a Centralized Waste Treatment Facility (CWTF) including processing &
disposal at Kapuluppada in Visakhapatnam District. This will consist of the following facilities:

i. Composting,

ii. Refuse Derived Fuel (RDF)

iii. Waste to Energy (WTE) plant

iv. Secured Landfill Facility (SLF)

In this cluster the 3 ULB’s of Visakhapatnam district i.e Yellamanchili, Narsipatnam and
Visakhapatnam Muncipal Corporation are proposed to be involved. The entire waste being generated
from these 2 ULB’s along with GVMC waste would be processed and disposed at this CWTF, at
Kapulluppada, Visakhapatnam which is 48km and 70km respectively.

In Vizianagaram and Srikakulam ULB’s composting, RDF and SLF facilities are proposed.
Subsequently, the RDF generated post processing here would reach Vizag CWTF and is stored along
with the RDF of GV for this RDF will be 67km and 115km respectively, on daily basis. This entire
RDF should be disposed in the WTE plant proposed here.

The inert’s / rejects generated from the processing of MSW in this cluster will be disposed in the
Engineered Secured Land Fill proposed here at CWTF. A pictorial representation of this cluster is
illustrated in the above figure.

Vizianagaram Cluster # 2

The waste generation from the ULB’s in Vizianagaram ranges from 12TPD to 117 TPD hence these
ULB’s are aggregated to form Cluster # 2, comprising of Nellimarla, Salur, Bobbili, Parvathipuram
and Vizianagaram. The Centralized Waste Treatment Facility (CWTF) which is the major
municipality amongst all, consisting of following facilities,

i. Composting,

ii. Refuse Derived Fuel (RDF)

iii. Secured Landfill Facility (SLF)

The waste generated at Parvathipuram is transported to Bobilli which is 15km, here the organic
wastes of both ULB’s are treated by composting and the ino ganic waste is transported to
Vizianagaram RDF plant, at a distance of 61km. The raw garbage from Salur and Nellimarla are sent
directly to CWTF, which are 57km and 11km respectively.

The RDF generated post processing here would reach WTE plant at Vizag C in Cluster # 1. Inert’s /
rejects are disposed in the engineered SLF at Vizianag ram CWTF. A pictorial representation of this
cluster is illustrated in the above vizianagaram cluster.

Srikakulam Cluster # 3:

This cluster comprises of the ULB’s in Srikakulam District wherei generation varies from 9TPD to 70
TPD in Rajam, Amadalavalasa, Palakonda, Ichapuram, Palasa Kasibugga and Srikakulam. Most of
the ULB’s are small with only 1 major municipality being Srikakulam; hence the Centralized Waste
Treatment Facility (CWTF) in this cluster is proposed here, consisting of following facilities,


ii. Refuse Derived Fuel (RDF)

The total waste being generated in Rajam, Amadalavalasa, Palakonda is pr posed to be sent to the
CWTF for processing and disposal travelling 14km, 41km respectively. However the organic MSW of
Ichapuram and Palasa Kasibugga are processed by composting in the respective ULB’s and only the r
jects & inorganic waste are sent to CWTF for further processing and which is at a distance of 131km
and 82km respectively.

The RDF generated post processing here would reach WTE plant at Vizag CWTF in Cluster # 1.
Inert’s / rejects are disposed in the engineered SLF at Srikakulam CWTF. A pictorial representation of
the cluster is shown below:

The participating municipalities should establish a cluster / zonal management organization. This
management organization serves two key purposes a. It serves as the formal managem b. It
implements the planned project, providing the necessary authority for financing, operating and
monitoring the SWM activities.

Different types of cluster / zonal management structures are currently in use. The type of structure
chosen depends on such factors as available financing, applicable laws and existing government
bodies or district organizations, like

a. Inter-municipal Agreements

b. Authorities, Trusts and Special Districts

c. Non-profit Public Corporation

d. Regional council

e. Private sector participation

Attributes of a Cluster Approach:

It is constituted specifically to provide a solid waste processing and disposal f cility for the three
districts (14 ULB’s). It should be governed by a board of d rectors, a council, authority or some
similar executive over sighted body, unique to the organization. It is usually not dependent on taxes
for funding, but raises funds through service charges (or tipping fees) paid by its customers i.e. the
partnering local bodies. It may or may not involve the participation of private sector service provider.
It often requires special legislation and ordinances for its establishment,applicable laws and existing
government bodies or district organizations, like

 Municipal Agreements
 Authorities, Trusts and Special Districts
 profit Public Corporation

 Private sector participation


GVMC is generating approximately 920 tons of municipal solid waste (MSW) per day, which is
mainly disposed in the open dumpsite near Kapuluppada which spreads in an area of 73 acres.
Currently, GVMC disposes the entire waste generated at Kapuluppada disposal site. This site is
operating for the last 7 years. Three JCBs and one bulldozer are employed by GVMC for solid waste
di posal management, including the operation of the waste disposal site. This site is still operating and
receiving waste from all over GVMC area.

 The present dump site falls under the category of uncontrolled solid waste disposal facility.
Due to this scenario, anaerobic decomposition of organic content of the waste is leading to
landfill gas generation, comprising mainly of methane. e is not scientifically managed, there
is no control over the escape of the landfill gas into the atmosphere.
 Out of total area of 73 Acres, about 60% of the land is filled with waste. As per our proposal
we shall close the existing waste for land reclamation to create space for construction of
integrated treatment Facility.
 The proposed site for integrated treatment Facility is located at Kapuluppada in Bhimlipatnam
Mandal. The total area of the site is around 73 acres and the site under survey No. 314 of
Kapuluppada Village. The land is situated on the down hills of three hillocks which form the
boundary of the North, East and southeast side of the plot. The land is steeply sloping from
North & East directions. The site is 24kms far from Airport and 0.5 kms from the NH5.
 The site steeply sloping from the North to South & East to west direction with a contour
variation from 60 m to 30 m (30 m height difference between lowest point to highest point).
According to GVMC officials, garbage is being dumped in the site for the last 7 years. A
power line with transformer feeding to the bi medical waste plant is situated at the edge of the
plot. M/s. Maridi Eco Indu tries Pvt. Ltd is operating a biomedical waste treatment plant in 5
acres. A weighbridge is situated near the entrance to the biomedical plant, which is cu rently
weighing the garbage lorries.
 The land is located on the down hills of three hillocks which form the boundary of North,
East and Southeast side of the disposal site. Map of the site location is provided in the Figure
10.1. The average height of ground level at the proposed site is about 30 m above mean sea
level. The proposed integrated treatment F cility site is plain to undulating terrain due foot hill
area. Area within radius around the site is mixed type of hill and plain land.


As per the proposal, we shall propose Integrated Waste Treatment facility at Kapulupada dump site.
Below is the area statement broadly showing the area of each main facility at the integrated facility.

Scientific landfill for inerts shall be proposed at new site identified by the GVMC at Tanguddipalli,
with approx far from kapuluppada dump site and 40kms far from city.


Disposal of Legacy Waste (Old Municipal Solid Waste):

There are two major challenges of solid waste management in our cities/towns:

(1) managing the continuous flow of solid waste on a daily basis, and

(2) dealing with the legacy of neglect which has resulted in garbage heaps having been built up at
dumpsites that were meant for waste processing and landfills.

Over the years, generation of dry waste, especially plastic waste and packaging, has increased at a
tremendous rate. This is because of:

i. Rapid increase in e-commerce industry from shopping to ordering food.

ii. Many brand owners have shifted from larger SKU (Stock Keeping Unit) size to smaller SKU size
due to changing market scenario.

iii. Shifting of public consumer preferences to daily use plastic products like bottles, food containers,
etc. iv. GST on recyclables making it uneconomical for waste-pickers and kabadiwalas to collect low-
value waste

Schematic representation of Bio-mining through Tractor Tiller by Windrows

Treatment Process:

Processing of accumulated waste shall be done in following manner as given below:

1. Local Body (LB) shall make a time bound plan to execute the bio-mining process to clear the old

2. Volume of waste to be determined through contour survey (Total Station Survey) and site
measurements. Drone mapping of heap volumes at different stages is most cost-effective and fast.

Weighment of heaps is difficult and problematic as payment would be collected for heavy fractions,
leaving behind the more pollution-prone lighter fractions.

3. Initial Contour level survey of the site shall be done on start of work and Final Contour level survey
shall be done on final completion of the work.

4 Do an initial baseline survey of surface and subsurface soils and waters and also leachate present, to
check for heavy metals and toxics if any. Samples should be drawn by an NABL or MOEF certified
lab, also at the final stage.

4. Sprinkle the newly exposed surfaces with a composting bio culture solution or a dilute solution of
5% fresh cow dung in water. This will control smell and speed up decomposition. With the help of
Back Hoe loader, the waste in the demarcated area should be loosened up.

5. Usually the top layer has several materials in the active biological state. This layer shall be
stabilised through composting bio-cultures, as well as herbal/biological sanitizers if found necessary
for odour control.

6. Raking of garbage layers by a long spike harrow operating in cross directions may be done as
needed to pull out large rags, plastic, rubber, textiles etc.

7. Waste pickers or labour should manually pick out bulky waste like coconut shells, banana stems,
tyres and rocks prior to screening for bio-mining. Store in separate heaps for sale or use.

8. Turn these windrow heaps once a week until no more volume reduction is observed in the heaps
and no more heat is generated. If the garbage is stabilized, there will be no smell or leachate formation
and the material will be dry enough for sieving.

9. LB or its agency may deploy Trommels and/or Horizontal Screens or other types of screens for the
purpose of screening. Screen the stabilized waste in a rotary screen or gravity screens of different size
openings, preferably 35mm and 8mm. A fan can blow out the plastic fraction for use by recyclers.

10. Appropriate numbers of excavators, back hoe loaders and workers will be required to execute the

11. The recyclables recovered from the bio-mining process should be sent for recycling as per the
quality of the material, which should also be randomly sampled by an NABL lab and tested for heavy
metals, salinity/electrical conductivity and leachability to ensure no environmental harm during use.
FCO standards for pH and contaminants could be provisionally used as a benchmark.. Non-
Recyclable plastic material shall be sent for road making or to RDF units or cement plants. Initial
cleaning of recyclable waste shall be done before it is transported for sale or disposal.

12. The recovered earthy fines shall preferably be used for landscaping or gardening or road medians
within the Local Body or the site. The recovered soil can also be used as “Soil enricher” to develop
green areas or by farmers.

13. The recyclables like plastic, glass, metals, rags and cloth recovered from the waste during
screening shall be sorted out and preferably cleaned before sending to recycling industries or as RDF.

14. The heavy fractions may be sand and gravel usable for road shoulders or for plinth filling. Stones
and concrete if any can be used for road sub-grade, or for crushing. recycling and reuse in the

construction industry. The recovered construction and demolition waste recovered from the bio-
mining process may be sent to a C&D processing facility if suitable for production of building

15. In very old garbage layers with high debris content, most of the organic matter may have already
been decomposed. Do a seed germination test to ensure it is stabilised. Add biocultures to fully
stabilise it if heat is still generated in windrow heaps or volume reduction is observed. After 7-10
days of stabilization the waste can be taken up for screening.

16. Usually the finest fraction will be organic matter plus fine soil, called ‘bio-earth’, which can be
used as soil improver, especially for restoring alkaline or saline soils to fertility, or to grow some
vegetation for erosion control. It is also useful as a lawn subgrade cum drainage layer, or it can be
used as organic manure in tree pits. . The next coarser fraction will be gravel and coarse organics,
which can be used for road and railway embankments the coarsest fraction may have a lot of
combustibles (cloth etc.) which can be baled and supplied as Alternate Fuel Resources in cement kilns
or boilers.

17. There may be some (maximum 5-10% of total) left over waste including lumps of heterogeneous
nature. The waste may be soaked with leachate or hard and difficult to disintegrate. This waste can be
sent to scientific landfill for disposal (near zero residues).

18. The recovered land from the bio-mining process shall be utilized for any purpose deemed
appropriate. Ideally reclaimed space should be reused for waste processing, otherwise for alternate
non-habitation uses.

Process Management:

 Space Management
 Leachate Management
 Fire Control and Safety:
 Use of Recovered Space
 Bio-mining Below-Ground Waste
 Engineered Landfill and Capping
 Clearing vs. Capping of Legacy Waste

The focus of this plan is to stop uncontrolled dumping on the site, control fires and re-contour and
stabilize slopes so that a final cover can be installed. Reclaimation of land is a relatively new
approach used to expand municipal solid waste (MSW) capacity and avoid the high cost of acquiring
additional land. Once it gets filled, the landfill must be closed and no solid waste should be received
at the site.

To utilize the available space optimally Feed back after a detailed survey is proposing the reclamation
at Kapuluppada in a scientific manner at disposal yard. The existing features of dump site shown in
below figure:


Kapuluppada dump site is located at 20 km from the city and is in operation since 2007.The quantity
of existing waste in this dumpsite has been calculated by means of two methods.

From daily incoming waste data and

By existing physical nature of the dump site, i.e. height, area and waste quality.

As per our physical observation, we have adopted MethodII for closure of existing waste. Large
quantity of waste is degraded and most of recyclable from the dump has been removed by rag pickers
at site from many years. Total area en marked for closure of existing waste is 14.8 Acres.

Environmental Conditions of Dump site:

Presently the waste received, gets dumped without any treatment, which has resulted into huge
accumulation of waste as mentioned above. The main issues

pertaining to the environmental and aesthetic condition are as below:

• Leachate Pollution

• Air- Pollution- smoke, odor and others

• Flying of waste such as plastic

• Health hazards, breeding of flies and rodents

Besides these all three sites do not have any peripheral access or organized surface runoff
management/ drainages.

Reclamation and reuse plan:

Presently the dump is spread over the site of 70 Acres and part of this dump has to be relocated for
creating vacant land for establishing of new facilities. Area requirement for establishing processing
facilities is est around 50 Acres.. It is therefore, necessary to relocate existing waste over this area.
The proposed procedure to relocate this spread of MSW is as follows.

Identify and earmark the area required for establishing the new facilities on the 73 acres layout.

Identify the area where the excavated waste from the above site is to be tran ported and dumped. The
locations suggested by us are the valley portions b tween any two dumps and mass with slopes of 1:3.

Heap up the transported also over the existing dumps

Excavators and JCBs should be deployed to transfer excavated waste into trucks/conveyors. This
dumping of the transshipped material w dance to the finalized levels of both top and slopes. The
transshipped material shall also be subjected to a regular consolidation with spiked & vibratory

Relocated waste pertaining to the environmental and aesthetic condition are as below:

 smoke, odor and others

• Flying of waste such as plastic

• Health hazards, breeding of flies and rodents

Besides these all three sites do not have any peripheral access or organized su face runoff
management/ drainage system.

Reclamation and reuse plan:

Presently the dump is spread over the site of 70 Acres and part of this dump has to be relocated for
creating vacant land for establishing of new facilities. Area requirement for establishing processing
facilities is estimated to be around 50 Acres.. It is therefore, necessary to relocate existing waste over
this area. The proposed procedure to relocate this spread of MSW is as follows.

Identify and earmark the area required for establishing the new facilities on the

Identify the area where the excavated waste from the above site is to be tran ported and dumped. The
locations suggested by us are the valley portions b tween any two dumps and then profile the entire
dump into a single contagious opes of 1:3 the transported waste to as high as possible in the valley
portions and also over the existing dumps.

Excavators and JCBs should be deployed to transfer excavated waste into trucks/conveyors. This
dumping of the transshipped material will be in acco dance to the finalized levels of both top and
slopes. The transshipped material shall also be subjected to a regular consolidation with spiked &
vibratory compactors.

Once the total relocation of waste is completed, the dump will be brought to its final shape. Requisite
soil layer will be laid over the final profile. Above the soil covers vegetative soil will be laid to
support vegetation.

Gas collection and venting sy generated. If the gas quantities are large the same will be sent to the
power plant and if the quantities are less LFG will be vented out or connected to flaring system

The capped portions of this landfill eration period.

Handling of Fresh MSW (in Excess) over the first year of construction period:

This fresh waste should be allowed to be dumped at predetermined locations on the dump by diverting
/guiding these vehicles to the respective unloading places.

After sizeable quantity of about fresh waste trucks are unloaded on each of these location, leveling
operations in layers of not more than 500 mm thick and duly consolidated by spiked vibratory
compactor should be c process continues till the day’s quantity of 920 Tons is dumped, leveled and
compacted on each day. After this operation, a daily cover of soil will be spread on this leveled and
compacted area and again compacted.

Requisite soil layer and vegetative solid layer will be laid over the final profile. Gas collection and
venting system will also be provided to collect the LFG gas generated. If the gas quantities are large
the same will be sent to the power plant and if the quantities are les system. The capped portions of
this landfill should be maintained throughout the cooperation period.

This kind of multilocational operation requires proper hard passages for the free movement of
incoming tru ensure proper drainage of storm water to be ultimately discharged into drains after
ponding up for a short period without allowing any mix up with leachate.

Procedure of Reuse Plan:

After retrieving area’s required for establishing of new facilities and receiving fresh waste the balance
dump will be earmarked for partial closure. The completion of the partial closure of landfill by
relocating the waste dumped spread across the total site is the mos project because the area required
for the setting up of other facilities /components of the project is depending on the completion of the
component of partial closure.

The methodology for partial closure encompasses the following subtasks /activities:

Sub Task –1: Estimation of Waste Quantity

Sub Task –2: Relocation of waste

Sub Task –3: Provision of final cover system

Sub Task –4: Drill and provide gas collection bores and grid to collect Landfill gas for effective
flaring / Reuse to Power

Sub Task –5: Leachate extraction and collection net work

Sub Task-6 - The post closure maintenance of the partially closed dump site throughout the
cooperation period.

Each of the subtasks are explained in detail in the following sections:

Capping of existing waste lying in the site covered with a varied height shall be done by relocating
and consolidating the waste on a footprint of proposed ca ping area and shall be scientifically capped.

The methodology for partial closure encompasses the following sub tasks

Estimation of Waste Quantity

Relocation of waste

Provision of final cover system

Drill and provide gas collection bores and grid to collect Landfill flaring / Reuse to Power

Leachate extraction and collection net work

The post closure maintenance of the partially closed dump site throughout the cooperation period.

Each of the subtasks are explained in detail in the following sections

Capping of existing waste lying in the site covered with a varied height shall be done by relocating
and consolidating the waste on a footprint of proposed ca ping area and shall be scientifically capped.

Various tasks involves in capping work are as follows.

1 : Estimation of Waste Quantity:

Estimation of the quantities of waste lying in the site at different locations and assessment &
deployment of vehicles (earth moving machinery/bulldozers and tippers) for the relocation of the
waste to the area earmarked for the partial closure in accordance with the closure plan. If required
Approach road to this closure point to be constructed for hassle free movement of men and machinery
during the construction.

Relocation of waste:

Devising a plan of action for leveling, compaction and planned relocation of the existing waste (as
above) to the area earmarked for capping of the site. Lev ling, consolidation and reformulation of
slope and surfaces to planned levels s. The proposed procedure to relocate this spread of solid waste is
as follows:

Heap up the spread waste to as high as possible in the capping area.

Excavators should be deployed to transfer this heaped waste into trucks wh rever the land is more than
100 print area. This dumping of the transshipped material will be in accordance to the finalized levels
of both top and slopes. The transshipped material shall also be subjected to a regular consolidation
with spiked and vibratory compactors.

The closure activity of the dump will be initiated from one end and gradually extended to the top.

Equipment required relocated and leveled are:

JCB’s – for excavating of waste

Dumpers (10T) – for transportation of waste

Landfill compactors - the garbage can be dry rolled and compacted to a satisfa tory level.

Grader - this equipment will be employed to level area and the slopes to given gradient wherever and
whenever required.

Sub Task – 3: Provision of final cover system

A final capping cover is usually composed of several layers, each with a specific function. The
surface cover system must enhance surface drainage, minimise i filtration, support vegetation and
control the release of landfill gases. The ca ping cover to be adopted will depend on the gas
management system. The final cover system must consist of a vegetative layer supported by a
drainage layer over barrier layer and gas vent layer.

Capping of the landfill is taken up at the recommended slope and with the re ommended layers. This
capping is provided to ensure

Prevention of Infiltration of rain water into the landfill during post closure period.

To eliminate the possibility of explosions due to accumulated gases in the lan fill by suitably
providing for passive gas venting system.

The various steps to provide final capping to the dump site are as given below.

Level and compact the dump and bring it to final formation of the MSW. The slopes provided will be

Provide liner system comprises of combination of ba natural clay and amended soils. A drainage layer
and leachate collection system is placed over the composite liner system. The effectiveness of barrier
layer basically depends on the hydraulic conductivity of the clay/amended soil l The final cover
consists of the following components,

Top cover layer of 450mm thick comprising of 300mm thick top soil and 150mm of good
vegetation supporting soil

Drainage layer :

The landfill unit and to control the depth of the leachate above the liner. The leachate collection
system should be designed to meet the hydraulic performance standard of maintaining less than 30cm
depth of leachate or head ner, as suggested by USEPA Manual. Flow of leachate through imperfe
tions in the liner system increases with an increase in leachate head above the liner. Maintaining a low
leachate level above the liner helps to improve the pe formance of the composite liners.

The main components of leachate collection system are drainage layer and co veyance system.
Leachate conveyance system is a network of pipes by which the leachate is collected through
perforated HDPE pipes and collected in a sump. The drainage shall be provided as per the standards
recommended by MSW Rules, 2000. The other design parameter which governs the leachate co
lection is the spacing between the pipes.

As suggested by USEPA Manual, the pipe spacing may be determined as in the Mound Model, the
maximum height of fluid between two parallel drainage pipes is equals to

hmax = Maximum Hydraulic Depth (30 cm)

L = Distance between the Pipes

k = Permeability of Drainage Layer (0.01)

alculate the inflow rate basically Darcie’s equation would be used;

K = Permeability of Drainage Layer (0.01) I = Gradient (2% or 0.02)

Estimating inflow rate for unit area;

Q = (0.01) X (0.02) X (1 X1) = 0.002

C = 0.002 / 0.01 = 0.02

chate out of

Again applying this to Mound Model;

Thus applying other inputs also the equation solves for L = 5.12 m (adopt 5m)

Barrier layer with permeability less than 1 X 10 clay/GCL

Gravel Layer: This layer will be 20cm thick and made up of C & D debris or gr vel as the case may
be, both on top and slopes. This layer will be compacted with 5T roller. Light bull Dozer will be used
to obtain uniform thickness of the layer.

Top soil: Virgin and rich top soil will be conveyed to the site and spread in an uniform layer of 30cm.
This layer after uniformly spreading will be rammed i to place with powered earth rammer ensuring
moderate compacting for the easy penetration of roo layer will be suitably watered to maintain the
required moisture levels till pla tation takes place.

Shrubbery and lawns and pathways: Appropriate landscaping plan will be pr sented for approval. The
shrubs selected will be hardy and at the same time ornamental and flowering. The lawns will be
developed by transplanting with selected variety of dhoop grass or seeding

The paving will be with 25mm th bed of sand and cement jointed.

Dump Site. Lush greenery with extensively landscaped areas are set aside wit in the site, such as the
central commercial hub, entrance plaza, pocket parks and perimeter fringes to ensure that forested,
landscape areas achieved. These areas shall not be used for any use other than the prescribed use.
However these areas may be use lined with interlocking blocks to ensure percolation of rainwater and
such drains will only be used to convey rainwater runoff.

While linear planting is to be carried out along the roads, informal and ma plantings are proposed for
the large landscape areas.

The following guidelines are to be followed to achieve the nature of landscape envisaged.

To complement the network of roads, the roadside trees are very important. Large shade trees are
planted at ronment in the shortest possible time. These roadside trees not only provide shade, but
also, more importantly, soften facades of all the buildings.

The buffer zone would be densely planted with quick growing t forested effect. Here, function
screening is the main priority, thus heavy foliage and low branching trees are preferred. To create
identity, different areas should have different varieties planted one area for fragrance and one area for

To the extent possible only native species and locally available species of trees and plants should be

Sub Task – 4: Drill and provide gas collection bores and grid to collect Landfill gas for effective
flaring / Reuse to Power

Landfill gas is generated as a product of waste biodegradation. In landfill sites organic waste is broken
down by enzymes produced by bacteria in a manner comparable to food digestion. Considerable heat
is generated by these reac with methane, carbon dioxide, nitrogen, oxygen, hydrogen sulphite, carbon
dioxide and other gases as the principle gases produced with almost 50

When methane is present in the air in it is explosive. Landfills generate gases with a pressure
sufficient enough to damage the final cover and largely have impact on vegetative cover. Also, b
cause only limited amount of oxygen are present in a landfi concentration reach this critical level,
there is a little danger that the landfill will explode.

The quantity of gas generated from the landfill can be estimated. (Volume of Gas Generated, V = C
X W X [P/100] m3/year ; C = Coefficient of generation(6m3/ton/year) ; W = Weight of Waste ;P =

Percentage of Organic Component) or the SCSLMOP International LFG model that employs a first
tion identical to the algorithm in the U.S. EPA’s landfill gas emissions model (LandGEM) and
determined the potential LFG recovery rate for the landfill. The international LFG model is described
in detail below.

Gas management strategies would follow the following three plans,

• Controlled Passive Venting

• Uncontrolled Release

• Controlled Collection and Treatment

A gas venting system is proposed for the partial closure at Kapuluppada dump site. This gas will be
vented through gas vent pipes of 150mm diameter perf rated HDPE pipes. The landfill gas collection
is facilitated by installing perf rated HDPE pipes of 150 mm dia vertically down reaching about 80%
of the dump/fill depth site at 30 mtr center to center distance.

These vertical vent pipes are connected to the gas collection manifold placed at the top of the fill site
buried conveniently unde manifold is either flared or energy recovered depending on the quantities

The installation of the gas collection and flaring systems is installed simult neously with the laying of
the final cover.

With the help of blower gas through the pipes shall be collected and taken to flaring unit. The
collection system is a network of 150mm HDPE perforated pipes connected to flaring unit. The
flaring unit consists of collection chamber, blower, ignition mechanism, control valves and sensors.

Sub Task – 5: Leachate extraction and collection network

Normally its seen that for all old unlined dump sites /landfill there is a possibil ty of segregated
pondage of leachate in the closed dump site foot print area. In such a case if leachate evacuation if
attempted by gravity flow through pipelines from the sides may not be effective and may lead to large
quantities of leachate storage within the foot print area wherever the levels are irregular. To avoid this
situation it is expected that leachate be pumped out by locating leachate pumping wells within the foot
print area of the dump closure where the bottom of the dumpsite shows distinct d location of these
wells can be identified. Additional wells will also be provided at periphery if needed.

During the first year of reformation of slopes if there are any specific areas found from where leachate
suitable shallow wells will be constructed to remove leachate. All the leacahte

from the dump will be collected in leachate collection tanks from where it would be pumped to
leachate treatment plant for final treatment and disposal.

Sub Task -6: The post closure maintenance of the partially closed dump site throughout the
cooperation period:

As part of the post closure maintenance plan the following activities will be o served by the developer

Periodical inspection of the complete capped portions of the dump site atleast once in every three

• Monitor

• Land surface care

• Leachate collection

• Methane control by ways of flaring or reuse

• Maintain flaring equipment if provided

• Monitor Air quality

• On and within the capped dumpsite

• Surrounding areas

Air quality parameters particulate matter

Monitor ground water quality within the capped dumped site and areas

Under the post closure the various the frequency is given below:

Drainage System:

Surface water runoff is a significant component in a landfill design and shall be clearly designed. The
design includes a garland drainage system all around the landfill which shall be lined and shall be
connected to a storm water collection pond. Water collected in the pond shall be tested for storm
water quality p rameters and if it meets the discharge standards shall be discharged,otherwise the
same shall be considered as leachate and sent to the leachate treatment plant.

Artificial and natural features at the landfill site control surface water and ground water when
integrated , the artificial and natural features must be effective in controlling Run-on and run-off of
surface waters as well as preventing groundwater from penetrating the landfill liner. When the landfill
is closed, the drainage control system must be designed to function for th the site. Rainfall must be
removed from the final cover surface without soil er sion or excessive water infiltration. The greatest
risk to the site is from ponding of surface waters in areas of land subsidence.

The following features must be includedin the design of drainage control facilities:

(1) Collection and routing of surface waters off the landfill surface in the shortest possible distance;

(2) Selection of channel and drainage ways that will carry waters at adequate velocities to avoid

(3) Use of sufficient surface slopes to maximize the removal of surface runoff and at the same time
minimize surface scour; and

(4) Material specifications for the drainage features that allow repair and replacement as the landfill


Layout plan:

As per our estimates the total quantity of waste approximately 6 lakh tons shall be relocated and
capped to an area of 14 Acres as en marked in the below layout plan. Total height of the proposed
capping shall be 28 mtrs and shall maintained in a slope of 1:3. Detailed cross sections of the
drawings are a nexed for reference.


Designing any waste management facilities the following points to be taken into consideration

• Waste quantities generated,

• Design period,

• Waste characteristics of the proposed city.

The Treatment plant for Visakhapatnam city is proposed at the Kapuluppada, which is an existing
dump yard with area of 73 Acres .Out of total area about 60% of the land, is filled with waste. As per
our proposal we shall close the e isting waste for land reclamation to create space for treatment plant


The generated MSW in Visakhapatnam District and the waste reaching to the processing facility may
not be same. It will depend on the efficiency of collecting the waste. However by implementing the
good MSW practices in Visakhapa nam District the efficiency of collecting MSW may also increases.
As per the records the total MSW generated in Visakhapatnam city is around 920TPD.The plant is
designed for 951 TPD with cluster approach concept from yel manchali and Narsipatnam which is
explained in earlier chapters.

In this chapter, the design of recycling for the integrated waste management f cility is presented in
detail. The recyclable unit has been designed to process the recyclables into by products. The inerts
(rejects) would be disposed to the landfill whereas the organic material (compostable in nature) would
be sent to the compost plant and the light combustibles (RDF fluff) would be utilized to produce

The waste reaching the integrated waste management facility is mixed waste, hence, needs to be
segregated before its treatment to produce energy/compost. At present, mixed waste will be reaching

treatment facility but subsequently a ter implementing our proposed collection system of wet waste
and dry waste from households/commercials the load to the segregation unit will be reduced.


The waste receiving at the treatment plant will be unloaded into the Roofed RCC waste platform after
weighing and inspection of the waste. The bulky m terial like huge boulders, tyres, coconut trunks and
other heavy materials are sorted out manually. After this the waste is fed using cactus Crab to the
feed hopper of pre-processing section. The inclined coveyor belt below hopper takes the waste to
manual sorting stations.


Manual Screening is done to separate big objects which cannot be handled by the downstream
equipments and machinery. A team of people, in the Manual Pick-up Zone, would inspect and pick
out undesirable items from the belt (items of large-sized and/or harmful objects such as machinery
parts, lead acid batteries, dead animals, big stones, tyres etc.). The items picked up are dropped onto
gravity chutes for disposal appropriately. Large sized combustible objects like textiles, PET bottles,
tree cuttings, wooden logs/boxes, etc shall also be picked out manually and put in separate bins
provided for the purpose. Such Combustibles objects shall be cut into s arately to convert it to RDF.

Proposed 2 line of sorting stations

• Ascending conveyors

• Light weight steel construction which will provide space underneath for up to 3 collecting containers
for different fractions of valuables.

• The platform will have two staircases with handrails at the upstream end of the platform and two
security ladders at the othe end of the platform.

• Sorting platform will have sorting workplace, discharge chutes and provision of collecting

• Sorting Conveyor


Fractions after manual sorting belt shall be carried by a Belt Conveyor subjected to Magnetic
separation and Homogenized (size reduction) through a Shredder to reduce the particle size down to
less than 100 mm (the Magnetic Separator separates ferrous materials mixed with MSW).


Shredders are used to reduce the size of the waste down to 100mm. Size redu tion helps in easy bio
degradation and screening of waste. Also reduces the volume and load on to the pre sorting screens.

MSW Shredder


Waste after size reduction is fed into trammel with 50mm perforations. The under sized material
50mm) are mostly organic material and over size are inorganic and combustible materials. The
undersize is then transferred to compost plant for aerobic composting. The over size is further sent to
aeration & screening to convert into RDF.

Trommels shall be provided on each line of the process 50 TPH capacity.

• Diameter of the Trommel will be 1.5m dia x 10m length

• The Trommel will have 50mm perforated

• Power required will be 35 Hp with 960rpm.


The oversize material (+50mm) coming out of trommels shall be through Air dryers where wet MSW
is dried by injecting hot air into the system. The moisture content shall be brought down to 15%. The
hot air is generated in a fixed grate specially designed Hot Air Generator (HAG). Alternately the hot
air will be tapped from the power plant flue gas.


The Ballistic Separator is equipment designed to separate solid waste at the i let, depending on
characteristics of size, density and shape. The equipment co sists of an access ramp formed of longit
listic type movement as a result of their two crankshafts located transversally on the top and bottom
parts of the ramp. The inclination of the machine and the oscillatory movement of the paddles allows
for the separation of the inlet flow in 3 different fractions

• 3D: Rolling elements, heavy elements, stones, etc.

• Fine elements: Sand, remains of food, etc.

• 2D: Planar, lightweight elements, paper, chipped plastic etc


The output materials of the ballistic separator shall process as shown below

• 3D fraction which consists of heavy materials shall go to landfill

• Fines which consists of organic content shall go to composting plant

• 2D fraction which consists of lighter particles like paper, plastic etc..shall go to bailing for RDF


The 2D fractions from ballistic separators generally called Refuse Derived Fuel (RDF) Fluff. It will
have a calorific value in the range of 2000 with 15-20% moisture and 15 the Power Plant. RDF
produced shall be transported to the Power Plant through a Belt Conveyor for incineration or shall be
providing a go down for storage of RDF material for at least 15 days.


The Ministry of Environment and Forests (MoEF) is taking care of the issues related to solid waste
management together with Central and State Pollution Control Boards. There are various rules framed
under Environment Protection Act - 1986 for improving management of solid waste. SWM falls under
state list as it is considered as public health and sanitation as per Indian Constitution. Due to its local
nature, SWM is the responsibility of Urban Local Bodies (ULBs) (European Business and
Technology Centre).

1. Legislation Environment Protection Act – 1986

2. Hazardous Waste Management and Handling Rules – 1989
3. Manufacturing, Storage and Transportation of Hazardous Waste Rules – 1989
4. Bio-Medical Waste Management and Handling Rules – 1998
5. Municipal Solid Waste Management and Handling Rules – 2000
6. Plastic Waste (Management and Handling) Rules – 2011
7. E-Waste (Management and Handling) Rules – 2011

Municipal Solid Waste Management and Handling Rules – 2000 A PIL was filed by Almitra H. Patel
in Supreme Court based on allegations of failure of MSW management by GOI, State Governments
and Local Authorities. The Supreme Court then appointed an Expert committee which submitted its
report to Local authorities were asked to implement the recommendations given by Expert
committee. The major recommendations have been included in the Municipal Solid Waste
(Management and Handling Rules – 2000) notified by Ministry of Environment and Forest,

September 2000. These rules apply to every municipal authority responsible for collection,
segregation, storage, transportation, treatment and disposal of municipal solid waste.

Provisions of SWM Rules, 2016:

The Government of India has notified the Solid Waste Management Rules (SWM) Rules, 2016 for
proper and effective management of municipal solid waste (MSW). Under the SWM Rules, 2016,
following provisions have been made to manage old dumps of MSW.

1. Rule 15 - Duties and responsibilities of local authorities and village Panchayats of census towns
and urban agglomerations. - The local authorities and Panchayats shall,-
-- investigate and analyze all old open dumpsites and existing operational dumpsites for their
potential of bio-mining and bio-remediation and wheresoever feasible, take necessary actions to
bio-mine or bio-remediate the sites;

In absence of the potential of bio-mining and bio-remediation of dumpsite, it shall be scientifically

capped as per landfill capping norms to prevent further damage to the environment. The by-laws shall
apply to every urban local body, outgrowths in urban agglomerations, Cantonment boards, Panchayat,
Industrial and Institutional Townships, railways and defence establishments

Responsibility of Municipal Authority

The territorial area of the municipality, is responsible for the implementation of the provisions of
these rules, and for any infrastructure development for collection, storage, segregation, transportation,
processing and disposal of municipal solid wastes. The municipal authority or an operator of a
facility shall make an application in FormI, for grant of authorization for setting up waste processing
and disposal facility including landfills from the State Board or the Committee in order to comply
with the implementation programme laid down in Schedule I.

The municipal authority shall comply with these rules as per the implementation schedule laid down
in Schedule I. The municipal authority shall furnish its annual report in Form-II,

a. to the Secretary-incharge of the Department of Urban Development of the concerned State or as

the case may be of the Union territory, in case of a metropolitan city;

b. to the District Magistrate or the Deputy Commissioner concerned in case of all other towns and
cities, with a copy to the State Board or the Committee on or before the 30th day of June every year.

Responsibilty of State Government and The Union Territory

The Secretary-incharge of the Department of Urban Development of the concerned State or the
Union territory, as the case may be, shall have the overall responsibility for the enforcement of the
provisions of these rules in the metropolitan cities. The District Magistrate or the Deputy
Commissioner of the concerned district shall have the overall responsibility for the enforcement of the
provisions of these rules within the territorial limits of their jurisdiction.

Responsibility of Pollution Control Boards and Committees

The State Board or the Committee shall monitor the compliance of the standards regarding
ground water, ambient air, leachate quality and the compost quality including incineration
standards as specified under Schedules II, III and IV.
The State Board or the Committee, after the receipt of application from the municipal authority
or the operator of a facility in Form I, for grant of authorization for setting up waste processing
and disposal facility including landfills, shall examine the proposal taking into consideration the
views of other agencies like the State Urban Development Department, the Town and Country
Planning Department, Air Port or Air Base Authority, the Ground Water Board or any such other
agency prior to issuing the authorization.

The State Board or the Committee shall issue the authorization in Form-III to the municipal authority
or an operator of a facility within forty-five days stipulating compliance criteria and standards as
specified in Schedules II, III and IV including such other conditions, as may be necessary. The
authorization shall be valid for a given period and after the validity is over, a fresh authorization shall
be required.

The Central Pollution Control Board shall co-ordinate with the State Boards and the Committees with
particular reference to implementation and review of standards and guidelines and compilation of
monitoring data.

- Initiatives In 2000, CPHEEO developed a manual consisting of guidelines and procedures to

implement MSW Rules.

Under Electricity Act - 2003, provisions has been made for tariff by state regulators. In addition,
incentives are also provided in the form of relief in tax and other duties (i.e. exemption in Income
Tax, Custom & Excise Duties) Government of India, Ministry of Urban Development has set up
benchmark/targets for SWM such as:

In 2004, the MOEF had constituted an expert body to frame guidelines in religious cities in the

In 2005, a Technology Advisory Group which was constituted under the directions of High Court;
submitted its report considering the scope of improvement and implementation of new technologies
for effective SWM.

Swachh Bharat Mission extends 35% viability gap funding (VGF) to support MSWM component
subject to overall state wise funds envelope. Additional funds to a ceiling of total VGF of 40% (of the
project cost) from the State Government can be availed.

The following measures may be considered to be taken up in 0–5 years’ time frame (short-
/medium-term agenda) and timeframe > 5 years up to 10 years (for the long-term agenda):

There is an urgent need to implement the provisions of Municipal Solid Waste Rules2000 adequately.
Poor waste management practice must be shifted to scientific approach. Waste Collection and Waste
Segregation are two components of SWM which require prior attention and can open up market for
waste management sector. However, for source reduction, public awareness is equally important. The
amount of waste remaining after treatment should be disposed of in closed landfills. Not only in
Urban cities, Effective Solid Waste Management should be implemented to rural areas as well.
Government has taken various initiatives to improve waste management services, but there is still a
long journey to travel to achieve the objectives of effective municipal solid waste management.
However in recent years, government with support of local authorities has accelerated the
implementation of better waste management practices. Various NGOs play a vital role in spreading
awareness among public and involve citizens for better waste management practices. The most recent
initiative is ‘Swachchh Bharat Abhiyan’, also known as ‘Clean India Mission’. One of the objective of
this initiative is to aware citizens about the importance of proper waste management approach. It
aims to involve citizens in the campaign of Clean India & to clean urban cities and also rural areas
with public support. However, there is a need to ensure that all citizens are taken into confidence and
involved morally to this Clean India Mission. Government has also changed its policies to make waste
management sector open for private companies, Public Private Partenership (PPP) model has been
practiced for various services such as collection, transportation, treatment, development of landfill
sites, operation and maintenance of units etc. PPP model can help to generate and increase revenues
and eventually competency level which are essential for effective solid waste management. However,

lack of finance, institutional deficiency and lack of public support are main barriers to effective solid
waste management. 80-90% of total budget is being spent on collection and transportation only, there
is a need to allot more money to disposal and treatment of solid waste. Viability of existing business
model is still a matter of concern for this sector. The local bodies should be provided support in terms
of finance & involvement in decision making so that they can effectively decentralize their
responsibilities and develop business atmosphere among private sector.

Case Study: Information and Communication Technologies (ICT) in waste management Efficient
and innovative solutions The benefits of using ICT in waste management systems are:

• Tracking bin clearing efficiency

• Monitoring SWM disposal quantity

• Monitoring citizen complaints

• Monitoring trips by vehicles in km

• Real-time bin clearing status

• Viewing vehicles on duty

• Monitoring bins, vehicles and staff


A chance-constrained programming model based on fuzzy credibility theory is proposed for the multi-
trip capacitated arc routing problem to cope with the uncertain nature of waste amount generated in
urban areas with the aim of total cost minimization. To deal with the complexity of the problem and
solve it efficiently, a hybrid augmented ant colony optimization algorithm is developed based on an
improved max–min ant system with an innovative probability function and a simulated annealing
algorithm. The performance of hybrid augmented ant colony optimization is enhanced by using the
Taguchi parameter design method to adjust the parameters' values optimally. The overall efficiency of
the algorithm is evaluated against other similar algorithms using well-known benchmarks. Finally, the
applicability of the suggested methodology is tested on a real case study with a sensitivity analysis to
evolve the managerial insights and decision aids.

Municipal solid waste (MSW) management involves economic and technical aspects and regulatory
normative constraints. The selection of an optimal configuration for transportation routes, treatment
technologies, and disposal sites is of prime importance in MSW management. A mixed integer linear
optimization model is presented, taking into account uncertainty in waste quantity and the capacity of
waste treatment facilities. The MSW management was planned in order to reduce the total cost
involved in solid waste management, the total environmental risk due to treatment facilities, and the
volume of waste at the sources. A population-weighted vehicle routing (PWVR) optimization model
was used for locating optimized waste sources/centers. The analysis of single objectiveoptimization,
multiobjective optimization, and goal programming reveal that total costs very to some extent with the
varying of waste quantity and quality of incinerator. Uncertainty analysis for waste quantity (θ),
unrecovered waste (γ), and capacity of waste treatments/disposal facilities (λ) considered three cases.
In Case 1, the optimization model was run for different values of θ with increments of 0.1 keeping a
constant value of λ=1. In Case 2, the model was run for different values of λ with increments 0.1 and
a constant value of θ. Case 3 represented simultaneously changing values of θ and λ with increments

of 0.1. Uncertainty analysis revealed that waste quantity affect more on the planning of waste
management than the capacity of the treatment/disposal facilities. The total cost obtained in Case 2
was more dependent on the facilities than on the quantity of waste. The optimized value for total
environmental risk and waste volume reduction was obtained with Cases 2 and 3 only. Total cost
obtained using single objective optimization was lower, in general, than the value obtained by
multiobjective optimization and goal programming.

Many developed countries have employed effective e-waste management strategies and state-of-art
recycling technologies, such as integrated pyrometallurgical and hydrometallurgical smelters to
manage this waste stream sustainably and extract the maximum value components from this
secondary resource. This has not been the case in most of the developing countries and e-waste
management is still in its infancy. The value recovery operations have been informal and semi-formal
without incorporating required waste disposal strategies. Addressing this current socio-environmental
issue, especially in developing countries, has been significant to achieve some of the United Nation's
sustainable development goals (SDGs), such as clean water and sanitation (Goal 6), sustainable cities
and communities (Goal 11), responsible production and consumption (Goal 12), and life below water
(Goal 14), by 2030 (The United Nations: Sustainable development goals, 2018). Malaysia

Combining Unmanned Aerial Vehicles With Artificial-Intelligence Technology for Traffic-

Congestion Recognition: Electronic Eyes in the Skies to Spot Clogged Roads

Unmanned aerial vehicles (UAVs) are gradually becoming useful and common. In the consumer
electronics (CE) category, unmanned systems have changed the way monitoring by air is conducted in
such fields as transportation, the environment, and emergency rescue. This article examines how
UAVs combined with artificial-intelligence (AI) technology are used for recognizing traffic
congestion. Congested roadways cause traffic delays, which wastes fuel, adds to pollution, and invites
road rage. Society can benefit from technologies that help recognize and relieve traffic congestion.
We present a practical framework for using UAVs to recognize traffic problems. According to this
framework, images of traffic scenes are first captured by a UAV system based on route-planning
technology. Then the aerial images are further processed by using convolutional neural networks
(CNNs). Finally, the output is transferred to a traffic management center.

Shift of microbial diversity and function in high-efficiency performance biotrickling filter for
gaseous xylene treatment:

Xylene is the main component of many volatile industrial pollution sources, and the use of
biotechnology to remove volatile organic compounds (VOCs) has become a growing trend. A
biotrickling filter for gaseous xylene treatment was developed using activated sludge as raw material
to study the biodegradation process of xylene. Reaction conditions were optimized, and long-term
operation was performed. The optimal pH was 7.0, gas-liquid ratio was 15:1 (v/v), and temperature
was 25 °C. High-throughput sequencing technique was carried out to analyze microbial communities
in the top, middle, and bottom layers of the reactor. Characteristics of microbial diversity were
elucidated, and microbial functions were predicted. The result showed that the removal efficiency
(RE) was stable at 86%–91%, the maximum elimination capacity (EC) was 303.61 g·m−3·hr−1,
residence time was 33.75 sec, and the initial inlet xylene concentration was 3000 mg·m−3, which was
the highest known degradation concentration reported. Kinetic analysis of the xylene degradation
indicated that it was a very high-efficiency-activity bioprocess. The rmax was 1059.8 g·m−3·hr−1,
and Ks value was 4.78 g·m−3 in stationary phase. In addition, microbial community structures in the
bottom and top layers were significantly different: Pseudomonas was the dominant genus in the

bottom layer, whereas Sphingobium was dominant in the top layer. The results showed that
intermediate metabolites of xylene could affect the distribution of community structure. Pseudomonas
sp. can adapt to high concentration xylene–contaminated environments. Implications: We combined
domesticated active sludge and reinforced microbial agent on biotrickling filter. This system
performed continuously under a reduced residence time at 33.75 sec and high elimination capacity at
303.61 g·m−3·hr−1 in the biotrickling reactor for about 260 days. In this case, predomestication
combined with reinforcing of microorganisms was very important to obtaining high-efficiency results.
Analysis of microbial diversity and functional prediction indicated a gradient distribution along with
the concentration of xylene. This implied a rational design of microbial reagent and optimizing the
inoculation of different sites of reactor could reduce the preparation period of the technology.

Inhibition effect of polyurethane foam waste in dioxin formation:

The present work has been focused on studying the polychlorinated polychlorodibenzo-p-dioxin/furan
(PCDD/F) inhibition in the combustion process by prior addition of an inhibitor to the fuel. Three
different experiments of combustion were carried out at 850 °C in a laboratory-scale horizontal
tubular quartz reactor, and several compounds were analyzed from the flue gas obtained, such as
PCDD/Fs, dioxin-like polychlorinated biphenyls (dl-PCBs), NH3, HCN, NOx, HCl, Cl2,
chlorobenzenes (ClBzs), chlorophenols (ClPhs), polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs), volatile
and other semivolatile organic compounds. The fuel used was a synthetic waste which was composed
of sawdust and PVC (95 wt% and 5 wt%, respectively) and the inhibitors studied were polyurethane
foam (PUF) that can be found in mattress waste and gases from the oxidative pyrolysis of PUF. Due
to the high N content of PUF, a significant decrease of PCDD/F and dl-PCB formation has been
obtained in the experimental runs carried out with the inhibitors studied, particularly with the gases
from the oxidative pyrolysis of PUF. In addition, it must be noted that emissions of incomplete
combustion products have also decreased.

Application of hydrogeological and biological research for the lysimeter experiment

performance under simulated municipal landfill condition

Forecasting COD load in municipal sewage based on ARMA and VAR algorithms:

Due to different sources and the water using habits, the influent COD of municipal sewage fluctuates
sharply over time. To ensure the treatment quality of sewage, the wastewater treatment plants
(WWTP) often over-aerate the air and over-add the chemicals. This results in a waste of energy
consumption and increases the operation cost for WWTP. With the rapid expansion of
industrialization and urbanization, the quantity of municipal sewage has increased by years. Energy
saving and sustainable water management for municipal WWTP are becoming an urgent issue that
needs to be solved. This paper proposes a COD load forecasting model for municipal WWTP using
hybrid artificial intelligence algorithms. The auto-regressive moving average (ARMA) algorithm is
used for sewage inflow forecasting, and the vector auto-regression (VAR) algorithm is used for COD
forecasting. The real-time data from a municipal WWTP is collected for model verification. Besides
the proposed ARMA + VAR model, the BPNN, LSSVM, and GA-BPNN based COD load forecasting
models are also studied as the contrasting cases. The accuracy of the forecasting performance of the
ARMA + VAR model is as high as nearly 99%, which reveals its superior to the other forecasting
models for future application in the wastewater treatment plants.

Economic analysis of wet waste-to-energy resources:

Waste-to-energy (WTE) technologies provide opportunities to use waste materials beneficially in
producing power, transportation fuels, and chemicals. Using a suite of economic models, this study
estimates prices of four WTE resources: food waste; fats, oils, and greases (FOG); animal manure;
and sewage sludge. Some of these materials are commoditized (e.g. FOG) thus their price is
determined by market demand. For the materials regarded as waste, the study relates price to the
avoided cost of disposal through waste management alternatives such as landfilling. The significant
amounts of these feedstocks could be available at negative prices, meaning that a potential bioenergy
facility could receive these materials for free or be paid to accept them in some locations. It is
estimated that about 61% of sewage sludge, 27% of manure, and 7% of food waste may be available
at negative prices. These negative price feedstocks are not uniformly distributed and are most likely to
occur in areas with organic waste disposal bans, high population densities, and high landfill tipping
fees. This intends to open an initial discussion into how stakeholders view and value these materials,
and how this view is evolving as their potential as WTE feedstocks is realized.


Growing interest in green products, healthier lifestyles and growing concern to protect environment is
leading to a shift towards bio-plastics. Bio-plastics are plastics that contain bio-based content, are
biodegradable or both. Many polymers like PLA (Poly Lactic Acid), PHA (Poly Hydroxyalkanoates),
Bio PTT (Poly Trimethyl Terephthalate), Bio PDO (Propanediol) etc. are the part of this upcoming
trend. These plastics are significantly made of renewable materials like bio mass and save up to 40%
energy in production as compared to their petrochemical counterparts. They play a crucial role in
further advancement of the plastic industry and as result businesses are focusing on the adoption of
such ecofriendly products. Large numbers of companies are now looking for the development of
alternative feedstock and make use bio-based raw material for their production.

The market for this product is still in its infancy. High cost of bio-plastics, lack of clear understanding
and infrastructure, limited amount of funding available are acting as constraint to the evolution of this
segment. However, increasing stress on green chemistry is expected to bring down the cost, also
increasing environmental awareness, positive attitude from government, continuous R&D efforts and
shift in consumer preference towards environmental friendly option will lead to the evolution in
demand of this industry.

Detection of unauthorized waste dump sites using remote sensing:

To investigate the possibility of using wide access data of remote sensing of Earth and
geographic information technologies for operative detection of unauthorized waste dumps for the
further extraction of waste from the environment to turn them into biofuel. The topicality is
substantiated with the complexity of detection of unauthorized waste dumps due to their
multiplicity adjoined with unknown geographic and temporary dislocation. The universal
classification of the image does not allow detecting unauthorized waste dumps and determining
whether these wastes may be the source of potential raw materials for biofuel obtaining. The
research results show that the developed specialized model based on the exclusion of the low
hazard dumpsites allows distinguishing dump areas enriched with carbon-containing materials.

To develop a decisionalsystem for assessing the best MSWcollection and treatment.The objective is
to spread the recycling rate (RR) according to the requirements of the local Government and the

national regulation introducedin2016. For that purpose,sixscenarios were introduced and assessed
mainlyin threesteps:

1. Applying a MCDA by a questionnaire submitted to localexperts in the field of MSWM.

2. Quantifying the material recovery rate, the global warming potential (GWP) and the cost savings
due to the reduction in transportation and final disposal.

3. Comparing the questionnaire survey-MCDAwith

(1)the quantitative analysis of the impacts and

(2)the ranking obtained,adding some considerations about the prosandcons oftheprocedure.

Histograms of landfills with debris and rock masses: a – red channel of the mean value; b – green channel of the
mean value; c – blue channel of the mean value; d – blue channel of the dispersion value.

The Waste Avoidance and Resource Recovery Strategy of Western Australia: 2030 CASE

Western Australia’s strategy to move our State towards becoming a sustainable, lowcost, circular
economy in which human health and the environment are protected from the impacts of waste. It
encourages Western Australians to work towards three objectives – avoid, recover and protect – and
sets targets that underpin these objectives.

• Provide relevant local governments with written notice of the requirement to develop waste plans
and develop supporting model plans and guidance in consultation with local governments.

• Maintain, update and review the Own Your Impact initiative with a focus on achieving household
behaviour change.

• In consultation with relevant stakeholders, undertake a review of the scope and application of the
waste levy to ensure it meets the objectives of the waste strategy.

Priority actions for the 2018‑19 and 2019‑20 financial years include:

• Develop a plan for the roll out of Food Organics and Garden Organics (FOGO) systems in Perth and
Peel, and update the Better Bins funding program to support three bin FOGO adoption.

• Review the State Supply Commission’s Sustainable Procurement Policy and Disposal of Goods
Policy to reduce waste, increase recycling and increase use of recycled products through procurement.

• Pilot the use of 25,000 tonnes of recycled construction and demolition (C&D) waste as road base
under the Roads to Reuse trial and, subject to trial success and funding support, use over 100,000
tonnes of recycled C&D material on selected projects.Develop, release and implement a waste data

• Implement new waste data reporting requirements and guidance under amendments to the Waste
Avoidance and Resource Recovery Regulations 2008, and implement a supporting online reporting
system by 2020.

• Establish a recycling infrastructure support program and identify priority areas for funding to
support adoption of waste avoiding practices and/ or resource recovery.

• Identify, communicate and support better practice approaches to avoidance, recovery and disposal
covering all waste generators and streams

The action plan is organised according to the eight headline strategies included in this strategy.
These are:

1. Develop state-wide communications to support consistent messaging on waste avoidance, resource

recovery and appropriate waste disposal behaviours.

2. A consistent three bin kerbside collection system, which includes separation of food organics and
garden organics from other waste categories, to be provided by all local governments in the Perth and
Peel region by 2025 and supported by State Government through the application of financial

3. Implement sustainable government procurement practices that encourage greater use of recycled
products and support local market development.

4. Implement local government waste plans, which align local government waste planning processes
with the Waste Avoidance and Resource Recovery Strategy 2030.

5. Review the scope and application of the waste levy to ensure it meets the objectives of the Waste
Avoidance and Resource Recovery Strategy 2030 and establish a schedule of future waste levy rates
with the initial schedule providing a minimum five year horizon.

6. Undertake a strategic review of Western Australia’s waste infrastructure (including landfills) by

2020 to guide future infrastructure development.

7. Review and update data collection and reporting systems to allow waste generation, recovery and
disposal performance to be assessed in a timely manner.

8. Provide funding to promote the recovery of more value and resources from waste with an emphasis
on focus materials. Each headline strategy is associated with actions which represent specific
deliverables that have an associated delivery time frame.


APUFIDC Andhra Pradesh Urban Finance & Infrastructure Development Corpor tion

CPHEEO Central Public Health &

DPR Detailed Project Report

DTDC Door to door collection

GoAP Government of Andhra Pradesh

GVMC Greater Visakhapatnam

JNNURM Jawaharlal Nehru National Urban Renewal Mission

MSW Municipal Solid Waste

RDF Refuse Derived Fuel

ULB Urban Local body

W2E Waste to Energy

MTPD Metric Tonnes per Day

Key Definitions: Some of the important keywords are explained below:

i. "aerobic composting" means a controlled process involving microbial decomposition of organic

matter in the presence of oxygen;

ii. "biodegradable waste" means any organic material that can be degraded by microorganisms into
simpler stable compounds;

iii. "combustible waste" means non-biodegradable, non-recyclable, non-reusable, nonhazardous solid

waste having minimum calorific value exceeding 1500 kcal/kg and excluding chlorinated materials
like PVC plastic, woody waste etc.;

iv. "composting" means a controlled process involving microbial decomposition of organic matter;

v. "contractor" means a person or agency that undertakes a contract to provide materials or labor to
perform a service or do a job for a service-providing authority;

vi. "co-processing" means use of combustible waste as raw material or as a source of energy or both
to replace or supplement fossil fuels in industrial processes;

vii. "disposal" means the final and safe disposal of post -processed residual solid waste and inert street
sweepings and silt from surface drains on land as specified in Schedule I of SWM Rules, 2016 to
prevent contamination of ground water, surface water, ambient air and attraction of animals or birds;

viii. "dry waste" means waste other than bio-degradable waste and inerts and includes recyclable and
non-recyclable waste, combustible waste and sanitary napkin and diapers, etc.;

ix. "dump sites" means a land utilized by local body for open dumping to dispose of untreated solid
waste without following the principles of sanitary land filling;

x. "extended producer responsibility" (EPR) means responsibility of any producer and/or brand
manager of packaging products such as plastic, tin, glass and corrugated boxes, etc., for
environmentally sound management, till end-of-life of the packaging products;

xi. "inerts" means wastes which are not bio-degradable, recyclable or combustible and include debris,
construction and demolition wastes, street sweepings or dust and silt removed from the surface drains;

xii. "informal waste collector" includes individuals, associations, waste traders or agency involved in
collection, sorting, sale and purchase of waste and/or recyclable materials without valid authorization
from respective urban local body or pollution control board to comply with guidelines issued by
MoEF&CC under Environment (Protection) Act for waste handling, management, and disposal;

xiii. "leachate" means the dark smelly liquid that seeps through or is generated within solid waste and
has extracts of dissolved or suspended material from it;

xiv. "local body" for the purpose of these rules means and includes the municipal corporation, nagar
nigam, municipal council, nagarpalika, nagar palika parishad, municipal board, nagar panchayat and
town panchayat, census towns, notified areas and notified industrial townships by whatever name they
are called in different States and union territories in India;

xv. "materials recovery facility" (MRF, pronounced Merf) means a facility where non-compostable
solid waste can be temporarily stored by the local body or any other entity mentioned in rule 2 or any
person or agency authorized by any of them to facilitate segregation, sorting, recycling and/or
recovery of recyclables from various components of waste by authorized informal sector of waste
pickers, informal recyclers or any other work force engaged by the local body or entity mentioned in
rule 2 for the purpose before the waste is delivered or taken up for its processing or disposal;

xvi. "non-biodegradable waste" means any waste that cannot be degraded by microorganisms into
simpler stable compounds;

xvii. "processing" means any scientific process by which segregated solid waste is handled for the
purpose of reuse, recycling or transformation into new products;

xviii. "recycling" means the process of transforming segregated non-biodegradable, recyclable solid
waste into new material or product or as raw material for producing new products which may or may
not be similar to the original products;

xix. "refuse derived fuel"(RDF) means fuel derived from the combustible waste fraction of solid
waste like plastic, woody waste or organic waste, other than chlorinated materials, in the form of
pellets or fluff produced by drying, shredding and compacting of solid waste;

xx. "residual solid waste" means and includes the waste and rejects from solid waste processing
facilities which are not suitable for recycling or further processing or use;

xxi. "sanitary land filling " means the final and safe disposal of residual solid waste and inert wastes
on land in a facility designed with protective measures against pollution of ground water, surface
water and fugitive air dust, wind-blown litter, bad odor, fire hazard, animal menace, bird menace,
pests or rodents, greenhouse gas emissions, persistent organic pollutants, slope instability and erosion;

xxii. "segregation" means the unmixed and separate storage and management of various components
of solid waste namely biodegradable wastes including garden or agriculture and dairy waste, non-
biodegradable wastes including recyclable waste, non- recyclable combustible waste, sanitary waste
and non-recyclable inert waste, domestic hazardous wastes, and construction and demolition wastes;

xxiii. "solid waste" means and includes solid or semi-solid domestic waste, sanitarywaste, commercial
waste, institutional waste, catering and market waste and other non-residential wastes, street
sweepings, silt removed or collected from the surface drains, horticulture waste, agriculture and dairy
waste, treated bio-medical waste excluding hospital or industrial waste, e-waste, battery waste,
hazardous and radioactive waste generated in the area under the local authorities and other entities
mentioned in rule 2;

xxiv. "sorting" means separating various components and categories of recyclables such as paper,
plastic, card-board, metal, glass, etc., from mixed waste as may be appropriate to facilitate recycling
and recovery;

xxv. "stabilizing" means the biological decomposition of biodegradable wastes to a stable state where
it generates no leachate or offensive odors/gases or fire and is fit for application to farm land, soil
erosion control and soil remediation;

xxvi. "transportation" means conveyance of solid waste, either treated, partly treated or untreated from
a location to another location in an environmentally sound manner through specially designed and

covered transport system so as to prevent foul odor, littering, leachate dripping and unsightly

xxvii. "treatment" means the method, technique or process designed to modify physical, chemical or
biological characteristics or composition of any waste so as to reduce its volume and potential to
cause harm;

xxviii. "waste hierarchy" means the priority order in which the solid waste should be managed by
giving emphasis to waste prevention, reduction, reuse, recycling, recovery and disposal, with
prevention being the most preferred option and disposal at the landfill being the least preferred;

xxix. "Rag picker" means a person or groups of persons informally engaged in collection and recovery
of reusable and/or recyclable solid waste from the source of waste generation or from streets, bins,
material recovery facilities, processing and waste disposal facilities for sale to recyclers directly or
through intermediaries to earn their livelihood.


Despite the fact that Solid waste management practices has been improving in recent years, the pace
of improvement needs to be accelerated. Measures mentioned in MSW rules must be implemented.
Time has come to encourage technology based entreprenureship to achieve effective solid waste
management. NGOs should be involved in various components of waste management including
public awareness. Public involvement in management of solid waste is of significant importance.
Authorities must protect fundamental right of citizens by implementing best practices and citizens
must perform fundamental duties by their contribution to those practices.