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AI Bio Works

Ian Beardsley

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AI Bio Works

By Ian Beardsley

Copyright © 2019 by Ian Beardsley


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The moon as seen from the earth perfectly covers the Sun. When we look up and
see this it penetrates to deep within our being speaking to us of a Mystical Force
that brought us and the Universe into being. As such, the connection between the
materials produced by Nature that we found on this planet to make Artificial
Intelligence so we could figure out how to go to the stars to the materials from
which we, biological life, is made, imparts the same feeling of the same Mystical
Force that produced the proportions of the Sun and Moon.

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Table of Contents

HNCO and CHNOPS…………………………………………………5

Amino Acids…………………………………………………………..10

DNA…………………………………………………………………….13

Bone……………………………………………………………………16

Male and Female Sex Hormones……………………………………22

The Nervous System………………………………………………….24

Earth, Air, Water……………………………………………………….26

Combining Equations…………………………………………………33

Amino Acids and Bone…………………………………………….…37

The Polynomial and the Sextic………………………………………41

The Activation of Life………………………………………………….45

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HNCO and CHNOPS



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In order for one aspect of Nature to be connected to one thing without losing its connection to
another requires extraordinary design. For instance if carbon, the core element of biological life,
is to be be connected through the regular octagon to silicon, the core element of artificial
intelligence (AI), through the regular dodecagon, by radius, while being connected to phi, the
golden ratio conjugate, in the ratios of the biological elements C, N, O, H to the AI elements P,
B, Si, by molar mass, then all of these elements must have certain masses to make that work,
masses which depend on the laws of nuclear synthesis by the stars that make them. My first
paper, Dynamic Structure thoroughly treated the connection of biological life to AI and resulted
in showing a common structure between the two. Why such a connection was required of the
mystical force that gave rise to the Universe and Life is not known, but the author believes the
study of the interconnectedness between all things is key to solving the mystery of creation
and, that, that there must be a good reason for such a connection. Like a Rubik’s Cube to put
one color on one side without losing one already there requires ingenuity.

We guess that artificial intelligence (AI) has the golden ratio, or its conjugate in its means
geometric, harmonic, and arithmetic by molar mass by taking these means between doping
agents phosphorus (P) and boron (B) divided by semiconductor material silicon (Si) :

PB (30.97)(10.81)
= = 0.65

Si 28.09
2PB 1 2(30.97)(10.81) 1
= = 0.57

P + B Si 30.97 + 10.81 28.09


0.65 + 0.57
= 0.61 ≈ ϕ

2
Which can be written

PB(P + B) + 2PB
≈ ϕ

2(P + B)Si
We see that the biological elements, H, N, C, O compared to the AI elements P, B, Si is the
golden ratio conjugate (phi) as well:

C+N+O+H
≈ ϕ

P + B + Si
So we can now establish the connection between artificial intelligence and biological life:

PB(P + B) + 2PB
(P + B + Si ) ≈ (C + N + O + H )

2(P + B)Si
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Which can be written:

[ Si Si ] P + B [ Si Si ]
P B 2PB P B
PB + +1 + + + 1 ≈ 2HCNO

Where HNCO is isocyanic acid, the most basic organic compound. We write in the arithmetic
mean:

[ 2 ][ Si Si ]
2PB P+B P B
PB + + + + 1 ≈ 3HNCO

P+B
Which is nice because we can write in the second first generation semiconductor as well
(germanium) and the doping agents gallium (Ga) and arsenic (As):

[ 2 ][ Si Si ] [ Ge Ge ]
2PB P+B P B Ga As
PB + + + + 1 ≈ HNCO + +1

P+B
Where

[ Si + + 1]
P B
Zn Si

[ Ge + + 1]
Se Ga As
Ge

Where ZnSe is zinc selenide, an intrinsic semiconductor used in AI, meaning it doesn’t require
doping agents. We now have:

( Se ) P + B ( Se ) 2 ( Se )
Zn 2PB Z n P + B Zn
PB + + ≈ HNCO

A similar thing can be done with germanium, Ge, and gallium, Ga, and arsenic, As, this time
using CHNOPS the most abundant biological elements by mass:

[ ] [ Ge Ge ] [ Si ]
2Ga As Ga + As Ga As Ga As
Ga As + + + + 1 ≈ CHNOPS + +1

Ga + As 2 Si

( S ) Ga + As ( S ) (S)
O 2Ga As O Ga + As O
+ + ≈ CHNOPS

[ Ge + Ge + 1]
Ga As
O

[ Si + Si + 1]
S Ga As

Ga As(Ga + As) + 2Ga As


≈ 1

Ga + As + Ge
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C+H+N+O+P+S 1

Ga + As + Ge 2
The factor by which our equation has near perfect equality uses H2O (water) CH4 (methane)
and NH3 (ammonia) the primordial precursors to amino acids,..

[ 2 ][ Si Si ] [ CH4 CH4 ]
2PB P+B P B H O NH3
PB + + + + 1 ≈ HNCO 2 + + 1 We find there is
P+B
equivalence in the primordial precursors to artificial intelligence by way of the tungsten filament
(W) encased in a glass (SiO2) vacuum tube to make the first primitive switches to the primordial
precursors to the building blocks of biological life, the amino acids:

SiO2 [ CH4 CH4 ]


W H2O NH3
≈ + +1

Air is approximately 75% nitrogen gas (N2) and 25% oxygen gas (O2) giving it an accepted
molar mass of 29.0 g/mol:

0.25(2 x 14.01) + 0.75(2 x 16.00) = 29.0 g/mol this says that H2O/air~phi. Thus,…

PB(P + B) + 2PB HNCO


air ≈ H2O and air ≈ H2O

2(P + B)Si P + B + Si
We can also make a construct for silicon doped with gallium and phosphorus:

2(Ga + P)Si
(C + N + O + H ) ≈ (P + B + Si )

Ga P(Ga + P) + 2Ga P

2(Ga + P)Si
HNCO ≈ (P + B + Si )

(Ga + P)[ Ga P + Ga + P ]
2GaP

2(P + B + Si )Si
HNCO ≈ 2GaP

Ga P + Ga + P

And for germanium doped with gallium and phosphorus:

Ga P(Ga + P) + 2Ga P
≈ ϕ

2(Ga + P)Ge
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[ 2 ][ Ge Ge Ge ] [ Ge Ge ]
2Ga P Ga + P P B Si Ga As
Ga P + + + + ≈ HNCO + +1

Ga + P

( S ) Ga + P ( S ) 2 (S)
B 2Ga P B Ga + P B
Ga P + + ≈ HNCO

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Amino Acids

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I processed the 20 genetically encoded amino acids according to the following scheme:

a minogroup
(RGroup)

acidgroup
In hopes of finding a connection between artificial intelligence and the biological. The result
was that two of the amino acids were equal to to elements in the periodic table of the elements
and they were perfectly carbon (C) the core element of biological life, and silicon (Si) the core
element of of artificial intelligence. The amino acids are the building blocks of life, synthesized
into proteins by DNA. The two amino acids were serine and glutamine as follows,…

H3 N
(CH2 + OH ) = C

COO
H3 N
(2CH2 + CO + NH2) = Si

COO

H3 N 5−1
= (1 − ϕ) ϕ=

COO 2
Si
(1 − ϕ) =

Ge
Si
(CH2 + OH ) = C

Ge
C
(CH2 + OH ) = Ge

Si
Si
(2CH2 + CO + NH2) = Si

Ge
(2CH2 + CO + NH2) = Ge

Ge is the other core semiconductor element.

(CH2 + OH ) C
=

(2CH2 + CO + NH2) Si
(CH2 + OH )
C= Si

(2CH2 + CO + NH2)
These equation are nearly 100% accurate. 

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CH2+OH=12.01+2(1.01)+16,00+1.01=14.03+17.01=31.04 g/mol

Si/Ge=28.09/72.61=0.38686

(0.38686)(31.04)=12.008

C=12.01

12.008
100 = 99.98%

12.01
2CH2=2(12.01+2.02)=28.06

CO=12.01+16.00=28.01

NH2=14.01+2.02=16.03

28.06+28.01+16.03=72.1

Ge=72.61

72.1
100 = 99.2976%

72.61
The idea is to try to understand biological life, in particular its origins, by looking at something
we understand, artificial intelligence.

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DNA

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In order to have DNA and RNA we need the sugars deoxyribose and ribose. But sugars are
polymers of CH2O which itself is not a sugar but has the same structure as a sugar which is
(CH2O)n. When we consider the Miller-Urey experiment where Miller and Urey produced from
the hypothesized primordial earth composition of NH3 (ammonia), CH4 (methane) and H2O
(water) some of the 20 genetically encoded amino acids that are the building blocks of life, then
it is interesting that these are equal to the ancient, “primordial” artificial intelligence which were
switches made of tungsten filaments (W) encased in glass (SiO2):

SiO2 [ CH4 CH4 ]


W H2O NH3
≈ + +1

Because the monomer from which sugars were surely made as DNA came into existence on
the primordial earth has it equivalence in

SiO2
=2

CH2O

[ + 1]
Ga As
Si
+ Si
≈ 2

[ Ge + 1]
Ga As
+ Ge

So that,…

[ + 1]
Ga As
Si
+ Si
CH2O ≈ SiO2

[ Ge + 1]
Ga As
+ Ge

Where Ga and Ge are gallium and arsenic, doping agents for germanium (Ge) and silicon (Si)
the first and second generation semiconductors, respectively.

And indeed DNA consists of the sugar deoxyribose, but it is made as well of the nitrogenous
bases adenine, guanine, cytosine, and thymine. These are:

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Adenine=C5H5N5=135.13 g/mol

Guanine=C5H5N5O=151.13 g/mol

Cytosine=C5H4N3O=111.1 g/mol

Thymine=C5H6N2O2=126.113 g/mol

And we have the sum of their ratios is pi, the ratio of the circumference of a circle to its
diameter:

C5 H5 N5 CHNO CHNO
+ 5 5 5 + 5 4 3 ≈ π

C5 H6 N2O2 C5 H6 N2O2 C5 H6 N2O2


And that,…

C5 H5 N5 CHNO CHNO Ga As
+ 5 5 5 + 5 4 3 ≈ + + 1

C5 H6 N2O2 C5 H6 N2O2 C5 H6 N2O2 Ge Ge


And we have to consider its phosphate backbone, H3PO4

Se H3PO4

Zn C5 H6 N2O2
Where ZnSe is zinc selenide, an intrinsic semiconductor.

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Bone

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Germanium and Silicon are compared as the mineral components of the skeleton of
artificial intelligence to the mineral component of the skeleton of biological life which is
hydroxyapatite. Germanium is mainly obtained from the minerals argyrodite, brikartite,
germanite, and renierite. Silica, silicate, and aluminosilicate minerals make up about
95% of the Earth’s crust. We show here that the properties of the AI skeletal elements
are in their connection to the biological skeletal minerals through the harmonic mean.
This is interesting from a mathematical standpoint as well because the solution is in an
interesting sextic equation.

The biological skeleton is hydroxyapatite dispersed throughout a collagen matrix.


Hydroxyapatite, also called hydroxylapatite or calcium hydroxide phosphate by
systemic name is the mineral component of bone and collagen is the organic
component. Hydroxyapatite (HA) has chemical formula Ca5(PO4)3OH and collagen
has the chemical formula C57 H91N19O16. We have

Ca5(PO4)3OH 502.32
= = 0.386795722

C57 H91N19O16 1298.67


In contrast the skeleton of artificial intelligence (AI) has mineral components silicon (Si)
and/or germanium (Ge) usually doped with either boron (B) or gallium (Ga) to make p-
type (positive) silicon or either phosphorus (P) or arsenic (As) to make n-type silicon or
germanium. n-type is joined with p-type to make diodes or is joined n-p-n or p-n-p to
make transistors (three lead diodes) and in turn all of these are combined to make
series of switches that are either on or off to encode in binary: a 0 is a bit (switch off)
and a 1 is a bit (switch on) and eight bits make a byte. 8 bits provides in binary
28 = 256 ascii codes for encoding the character on a keyboard.

Thus we compare the mineral component of the biological skeleton Ca5(PO4)3OH


with the skeleton of artificial intelligence Si/Ge=(28.09 g/mol)/(30.97 g/mol)~(1 − ϕ)
where ϕ is the golden ratio conjugate, the solution of the quadratic

(b)
2
a a a b
− − 1 = 0 that meets the conditions = and a=b+c

b b c

a 5−1 1
Where Φ = and ϕ = , ϕ= .

b 2 Φ
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Thus we have

2(Si)(Ge)
≈ HA

Si + Ge
(HA)(Si)
+ HA ≈ 2Si

Ge
And

[ HA ]
Si Si
(Si) + 1 − (Ge) ≈ HA

HA

[ HA ]
1 2 Ge Ge
Si − Si + − 1 = 0

HA 2 HA 2

1 Ge 2 Ge
Si = Ge ± − 4 +4

2 HA 2 HA

Si ≈ Ge − HA

5.323-3.00=2.323 is correct.

We now want to write out the equations for atomic radius, density, and molar mass as
these are the components upon which the properties of the elements should rely.

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P_R Radius Phosphorus 100 pm

B_R Radius Boron 85 pm

Si_R Radius Silicon 110 pm

Ga_R Radius Gallium 130 pm

As_R Radius Arsenic 115 pm

Ge_R Radius Germanium 125 pm

P_M Molar Mas Phosphorus 30.97 g/mol

B_M Molar Mass Boron 10.81 g/mol

Si_M Molar Mass Silicon 28.09 g/mol

You will find:

[ GeR GeR ] [ SiR SiR ]


GaR As PR B
+ R +1 ≈π and + R ≈ Φ

Or,…

PR + BR SiR
≈Φ Or,…. ≈ ϕ

SiR PR + BR
We now subscript the elements with M for molar mass and find:

PM BM (PM + BM ) + 2PM BM
≈ ϕ

2(PM + BM )SiM

Which can be written,…

2PM BM
PM BM + (PM + BM )
≈ ϕ

2SiM
Which yields,…

2SiR 2PM BM
Si ≈ PM BM +

PR + BR M PM + BM
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And, by density,…

[ HA ]
Si Si
(Si) + 1 − (Ge) ≈ HA

HA
2(Si)(Ge)
≈ HA

Si + Ge
Which is the sextic,…

x 2(x + y)4 − x y(x + y)4 + 2x y 2(x + y)3 − 4x 2 y 2(x + y)2 = 0

Where x=Si and y=Ge

This can be solved using the online engine Wolfram alpha which draws upon the
Mathematica software and has solutions,…

x=0, y=-x, y=x, …

x 1
= ,…

y 2+1

And we are interesting in the last because 2 ≈ Φ so,…

1
≈ (1 − ϕ)

2+1

Thus,…

Si 1

Ge 2+1

And,…

Si
≈ (1 − ϕ)

Ge
The first is 93.397% accurate, the second 98.73597684% accurate.

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Ca5(PO4)3OH Si

C57 H91N19O16 Ge
Is 99.98% accurate.

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Male and Female Sex Hormones



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We consider the female sex hormone estradiol (estrogen , E):

C18 H24O2 = 272.38g/m ol

And the male sex hormone testosterone (T):

C19 H28O2 = 288.42g/m ol

And, cholesterol (Ch) from which both are made:

C27 H46O = 386.65g/m ol

And notice,…

Ch + T
= 2.5

E
And we consider the semiconductor materials used to make AI:

Ge
= 2.6

Si
And write,…

Ch + T Ge
=

E Si
Ge Si
T= E − Ch E= (T + Ch)

Si Ge

( Ge ) ( Si ) ( Ge )
Si Ge Si
T 1− +E 1− = Ch −1

We notice that the masculine (T) is in inverse relation to the feminine (E), but that the two add
up to on whole (Ch) in that the masculine has coefficient 1-Si/Ge and the feminine has
coefficient 1-Ge/Si. This expresses the inverse relationships between man and woman.

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The Nervous System



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The nervous system of AI would be the conductive metals used to make the wires that carry
signals between loads and switches. Most used is copper (Cu) because it is abundant and has
a high conductivity. However, silver (Ag) is used as well and gold (Au) because they are the
most conductive; silver the highest at and around room temperature and gold at extreme
temperatures. Skin would be the insulators made of plastic which in its most simple form is
C2H4. We have

Ag
≈ 3

Cu
ϕ 3 ≈ 1

Ga As(Ga + As) + 2Ga As Ag PB(P + B) + 2PB


2(Ga + As)Ge Cu 2(P + B)Si


Se Ag
≈ ϕ

Z n Au
Se Ag HO
≈ 2

Z n Au Air
C2 H4 = Si

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Earth, Air, Water



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In the course of my research I stumbled upon something interesting. I am very much interested
in mixtures of 25% one thing 75% the other. That is mixtures of 1/4 parts one thing with 3/4 the
other. It is in fact interesting in what these parts are:

0.25O2 + 0.75N2 ≈ air

By molar mass. (Molar mass of O is 16.00 and of N is 14.01)

0.25Ge + 0.75Si ≈ H A

By density. (Density of Ge is 5.323 g/cm^3 and of Si is 2.33 g/cm^3)

H A = hydrox yapat ite = Ca5(PO4)3OH

Where O2 is oxygen gas and N2 is nitrogen gas, the primary constituents of air as a mixture
(not a compound).

And, Ge is germanium and Si is silicon, the primary semiconductor materials used to make
artificial intelligence (AI).

Hydroxyapatite is the mineral component of bone in biological skeletons. We notice that

air 5+1
≈Φ Φ=

H2O 2

C 12.01 H 1.01
= =

O 16.00 He 4.00
Thus we have

CM HM
OM
(NM )2 + HeM
(OM )2 2(PM + BM )SiM

(HM )2OM PM BM (PM + BM ) + 2PM BM

Where we have subscripted the elements with M to denote molar mass. Subscripted P and B
are phosphorus and boron, primary doping agents for semiconducting materials, and
subscripted C, and O are carbon and oxygen, primary elements of biological life and,
subscripted H and He are hydrogen and helium, the most abundant elements in the universe
and the first elements in the synthesis of the heavier elements that succeed them.

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Thus we have,…

0.25Ge + 0.75Si ≈ H A

By density.

0.75N2 + 0.25O2 ≈ air

By molar mass. Subscripting to distinguish between molar mass (M) and density (rho),…

HM C
Geρ + M Siρ ≈ H Aρ

HeM OM
HM C
O2 + M N2 ≈ airM

HeM OM
HM
If we want to factor out we have

HeM

0.25[Geρ + 3Siρ] ≈ H Aρ

0.25[(OM )2 + 3(NM )2] ≈ airM

Or,…

[ MgM Siρ + Geρ]


GeM
H Aρ

[ MgM (NM )2 + (OM )2]


GeM airM

HM GeM
And in factoring we have lost and gained in its place ≈ 3.

HeM MgM
Where Ge is germanium and Mg is magnesium.

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If we factor out 0.75 instead of 0.25, we have…

0.25Ge + 0.75Si ≈ H A

0.75N2 + 0.25O2 ≈ air

[ ]
1
0.75 Siρ + Geρ ≈ H Aρ

[ ]
1
0.75 (NM )2 + (OM )2 ≈ airM

3
1 C
≈ M

3 ClM

[Siρ + Geρ]
CM
ClM H Aρ

[(NM )2 + (OM )2]


CM airM
ClM

Thus instead of Ge/Mg a core semiconductor element (Ge) over magnesium (Mg) a component
of a salt MgCl2 we have the core the core biological element carbon (C) over the chlorine
component (Cl) of salts, such as NaCl. That is,…

[ MgM Siρ + Geρ]


GeM
H Aρ

[ MgM (NM )2 + (OM )2]


GeM airM

[Siρ + Geρ]
CM
ClM H Aρ

[(NM )2 + (OM )2]


CM airM
ClM
30 of 48

We can now write,…

[ MgM Siρ + Geρ]


GeM
2(PM + BM )Si
H2O ≈ H Aρ

[ MgM (NM )2 + (OM )2]


GeM
PM BM (PM + BM ) + 2PM BM

[Siρ + Geρ]
CM
ClM 2(PM + BM )Si
H2O ≈ H Aρ

[(NM )2 + (OM )2]


CM
PM BM (PM + BM ) + 2PM BM
ClM

Where if we don’t subscript H2O then it means we are referring to its molar mass.

But when we consider

1 3
O2 + N2 ≈ air

4 4
1 3
Ge + Si ≈ H A

4 4
We are looking at the fractions

1 3
=1−

4 4
I find 1/4 coupled with 3/4 is recurrent throughout Nature and that where there is (1/4, 3/4)
there is (1/3, 2/3) where 1/3 = 1- 2/3. An example of this would be in Mendelian genetics. 3/4
of the off spring express a recessive trait. This is because while the male has XY sex
chromosomes the female has XX sex chromosomes. Thus,…

XY + XX = 3X + Y or 1Y: 3X=>1/3 and 1-1/3=2/3

But we can say,…

XY + XX = X + X + X + Y = 4 elements

And,…

Y 1
= elem ents

X+X+X+Y 4
And, 1-1/4=3/4.

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This is how (1/4, 3/4) is coupled with (1/3, 2/3)

Thus if we consider

1 3
O2 + N2 ≈ air

4 4
Then we should consider sea water, or ocean:

Thus we have,…

NaCl = 58.44 g/m ol an d H2O = 18.02 g/m ol

1 2
NaCl ≈ H2O an d H2O ≈ Carbon (C ) 12.01 g/m ol

3 3
2 H2O + NaCl 1 H2O
+ ≈1

3 NaCl 3 NaCl

The Ancient Greeks categorized Nature by 4 elements they called Earth, Air, Water, and Fire. In
a sense this was a way of saying solid, gas, liquid, energy. The Earth crust is highest in oxygen,
mainly because a lot of that is in water (hydrogen combined with oxygen). We have

Oxygen (O) = 467,100 ppm

Silicon (Si) = 276,900 ppm

Aluminum (Al) = 80,700 ppm

Iron (Fe) = 50,500 ppm

If we say metal is Al +Fe = 131,200 and dirt is 276,900 then metal+dirt=408,100.

Dirt= 276,900/408,100 = 67.85%

Metal = 131200/408,100 = 32%

Thus,…

0.67(dirt) + 0.33(metal) = earth or

1 2
m etal + dir t ≈ ear th

3 3
Is (1/3, 2/3) by parts.

1 3
O2 + N2 ≈ air

4 4
32 of 48

Is (1/4, 3/4) by molar mass.

2 H2O + NaCl 1 H2O


+ ≈ 1

3 NaCl 3 NaCl
For Sea or ocean water by molar mass.

33 of 48

Combining Equations

34 of 48

Core AI Elements: Ge, Si

ρGe = 5.323 g/cm 3 Ge = 72.62 g/m ol

C = 12.01 g/m ol ρH2O = 1.00 g/cm 3

C 12.01
ρGe = (5.323) = 0.880

Ge 72.62
C
Φ ρ ≈ 2ρH2O

Ge Ge
air = 29.0 g/m ol H2O = 2(1.01) + 16.00 = 18.02 g/m ol

air
≈Φ Ga = 69.72 g/m ol As = 74.92 g/m ol

H2O
Ga and As are semiconductor doping agents,…

Ga 69.72 Ga air
= = 0.93 3 ≈Φ Φ≈

As 74.92 As H2O
C Ga C
Φ ρGe ≈ 2ρH2O 3 ρGe ≈ 2ρH2O

Ge As Ge

Ga C
3 ρGe − 2ρH2O ≈ 0

As Ge

Ga C air
3 ρGe − 2ρH2O + ΦρH2O ≈ ρH2O

As Ge H2O
Ga C air
− 2ρH2O + ΦρH2O + 3 ρGe ≈ ρH2O

As Ge H2O

Ga C ρGe Zn 65.39
3 = 0.80 = = 0.828

As Ge ρH2O Se 78.96

(4) (5) ( 6 ) ( Se ) H2O


π π π Zn air
−2cos + 2cos + 2cos ≈

(4) (5) (6)


π π π
Because: 2cos = 2, 2cos = Φ, 2cos = 3

35 of 48

We notice:

[ Si Si ] [ Ge Ge ]
P B PB(P + B) + 2PB Ga As
+ +1 + ≈ + +1

2(P + B)Si
This can be written:

[ Ge Ge ]
Ga As P 2 + 3PB + B 2 PB
+ +1 ≈ +

(P + B)Si 2Si

Completing the square on x 2 + 3x + 1 = 0

(2)
2
2 3 9 9 9
x + 3x + 1 = 0 = x 2 + 3x + = − 1

4 4 4

( 2)
2
9 5 3 5 3 5
2
x + 3x + = x+ = x =− ±

4 4 4 2 2

5−3 5−3
x1 = = − 0.382, x2 = − = − 2.618

2 2
−x1 = 1 − ϕ, − x 2 = 1 + Φ

Thus,…

[P + (1 − ϕ)B] [P + (1 + Φ)B]
[ Ge Ge ]
Ga As PB
+ +1 ≈ +

(P + B)Si 2Si
We notice,..

[P + (1 − ϕ)B] [P + (1 + Φ)B]
=

(P + B)Si

[30.97 + 0.382(10.81)] [30.97 + 2.618(10.81)]


= 1.627 ≈ Φ

(30.97 + 10.81)(28.09)
air P + B + Si
Since ≈ Φ and. ≈ Φ

H2O C+N+O+H
We have,…

36 of 48

[P + (1 − ϕ)B] [P + (1 + )B]
air
H2O P + B + Si
≈ 

(P + B)Si C+N+O+H
37 of 48

Amino Acids and Bone



38 of 48

Amino Acids

H3 N
. ≈ (1 − ϕ)
COO

Bone

Ca5(PO4)3OH
. ≈ (1 − ϕ)
C57 H91N19O16

AI

Si
. ≈ (1 − ϕ)
Ge

The Equation

H3 N Ca5(PO4)3OH
. ≈
COO C57 H91N19O16

Processing

H
. 3 N = 1.01 + 1.01 + 1.01 + 14.01 = 17.04

COO
. = 12.01 + 16.00 + 16.00 = 44.01

H3 N 17.04
. = = 0.3865
COO 44.01
Ca5(PO4)3OH 502.31
. = = 0.38565
C57 H91N19O16 1302.488

0.38565
. 100 = 99.78% accuracy
0.3865
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We have said

Si
. ≈ (1 − ϕ)
Ge
Si 1
. ≈
Ge 2+1

The exact value is somewhere between the two and is close to the means between them:

[ 2+1 ][ ]
1 3− 5
2
2ab 2
. = =
a+b 1 3− 5
+ 2
2+1

2(3 − 5)
. = 0.397
5− 10 + 3 2 − 5

[ 2 + 1][ ]
1 3− 5
. ab = =
2

3− 5
. = 0.39776
2 2+2

Si 28.0855
. = = 0.3866
Ge 72.630

[ COO ] [ Ca5(PO4)3OH ]
H3 N C57 H91N19O16 Si
. (1 − ϕ) ≈ 

Ge
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The sextic works for both molar mass and density because

Siρ SiM
. ≈
Geρ GeM

But, is most accurate in terms of the way it was derived, by density:

2.33 g/cm 3
. = 0.4379699
5.323 g/cm3
1
. = 0.41421356
2+1

0.41421356
. 100 = 94.5758% accuracy
0.4379699

Thus we write

SiM 1
. − ϕ) <
(1 <
GeM 2+1

5−1 3− 5
ϕ
. = an d (1 − ϕ) =
2 2

[ 2+1 ][ ]
1 3− 5
2 2 2(3 − 5)
. =.
1
+
3− 5 5− 10 + 3 2 − 5
2+1 2

SiM 2(3 − 5)
. ≈
GeM 5− 10 + 3 2 − 5

Siρ 1 SiM
. ≈ and . ≈ (1 − ϕ)
Geρ 2+1 GeM

SiM Siρ
. ≈ 

GeM Geρ
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The Polynomial and the Sextic



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In so far as we have

PB(P + B) + 2PB
. ≈ϕ
2(P + B)Si

Ga P(Ga + P) + 2Ga P
. ≈ϕ
2(Ga + P)Ge

We have

PB(P + B) + 2PB Ga P(Ga + P) + 2Ga P


. ≈
2(P + B)Si 2(Ga + P)Ge

Which means

PB(P + B) + 2PB
2(P + B)Si
. ≈1
GaP(Ga + P) + 2GaP
2(Ga + P)Ge

But since

Ga As(Ga + As) + 2Ga As


. ≈1
2(Ga + As)Ge

We have

[2(Ga + P)Ge] [ PB(P + B) + 2PB] Ga As(Ga + As) + 2Ga As


. ≈
[2(P + B)Si] [ Ga P(Ga + P) + 2Ga P]
2(Ga + As)Ge

We can write it

[(Ga + P)Ge] [ PB(P + B) + 2PB] 1 Ga As(Ga + As) + 2Ga As


. ≈
[(P + B)Si] [ Ga P(Ga + P) + 2Ga P]
2 (Ga + As)Ge

But
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C+H+N+O+P+S 1
. ≈
Ga + As + Ge 2

So,…

[(Ga + As)Ge] [(Ga + P)Ge] [ PB(P + B) + 2PB]


[. Ga + As + Ge]
[ Ga As(Ga + As) + 2Ga A] [(P + B)Si] [ Ga P(Ga + P) + 2Ga P]

. ≈C+H+N+O+P+S

Remember that

O 1
. ≈ 0.5 =
S 2

And that

[ Ge + + 1]
Ga As
Ge O
. ≈
[ + 1]
Ga
+
As S
Si Si

So that

O
.[Ga + As + Ge] ≈ CHNOPS
S

And

[ Ge + + 1]
Ga As
Ge
.[Ga + As + Ge] ≈ CHNOPS
[ Si + 1]
Ga As
+ Si

This is

[Ga + As + Ge] Si
2

. ≈ CHNOPS
[Ga + As + Si ] Ge

And can be written


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Ga 2 Si As 2 Si
. + +
Ge(Ga + As + Si ) Ge(Ga + As + Si )
2Ga AsSi SiGe
. + +
Ge(Ga + As + Si ) Ga + As + Si
2GaSi 2AsSi
. + ≈ CHNOPS
Ga + As + Si Ga + As + Si

Thus we have a sextic and six term polynomial that embody everything:

.Si 2(Si + Ge)4 − SiGe(Si + Ge)4 + 2SiGe 2(Si + Ge)3 − 4Si 2Ge 2(Si + Ge)2 = 0

And,…

Ga 2 Si As 2 Si
. + +
Ge(Ga + As + Si ) Ge(Ga + As + Si )

2Ga AsSi SiGe


. + +
Ge(Ga + As + Si ) Ga + As + Si
2GaSi 2AsSi
. + ≈ CHNOPS
Ga + As + Si Ga + As + Si
45 of 48

The Activation of Life



46 of 48

I would like to suggest that the prebiotic chemistry might have been passed through an
activation function that disappeared after life was on its way to evolving.

The problem, then, of answering the question of how life began is one of finding the activation
function and its mechanism by which it takes prebiotic chemistry and activates it (makes it alive)
so it can now self-replicate, and evolve. We assume that as this mechanism activates the
molecules, its mechanism depletes as it activates from what is available. In this sense the
mechanism is a limiting reactant, so it determines how much material is activated before it
depletes completely.

Logically, the way to determine what this mechanism is, and how it serves as an activation
function is to look for the by products of the reaction that are left over, and from that, deduce its
nature.

To do this, we have to look for that thing in our knowledge of the Earth’s history that does not
make sense. This would be in the faint young star paradox. We know that five billion years ago,
when the Earth and Sun first formed, that the sun was 0.7 times its present output and so, the
Earth should have been frozen over, yet, we know it was not. That it had water in its liquid
phase. Thus something was there that is not present today. That something must have been the
mechanism for the activation function that “turned on” prebiotic chemistry.

I have presented it like this because 1) Life has not been created in the laboratory from scratch
2) New life does not seem to be originating on earth in present times. Therefore, the activation
function is probably not present on Earth today and more than likely disappeared, or depleted
after activating prebiotic chemistry. Life exists, yet we do not know how prebiotic substances
organize into self-replicating systems that evolve. Therefore, we must look for something
concerning the Earth that does not make sense. I suggest that would be the young star
paradox. If the Earth had water in its liquid phase when it should have been frozen over, then
something could have existed then that was a limiting reactant, or something like it, that
activated prebiotic substances, in that it was responsible for warming the earth (perhaps a heat
retaining substance).

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The Author

Ian Beardsley studied physics at The


University of Oregon and worked in
astronomy for four years at The State
Observatory Pine Mountain
Observatory in the high desert East of
Bend, Oregon. His name appears on
several papers in The Astrophysical
Journal.

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