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# DETERMINING

## THE MASS OF A METRE RULE

The centre of gravity is at the __________ cm mark

## Weight of rule Mass of

Obs. Weight W x y
= Wy / x metre rule
No. (gf) (cm) (cm)
(gf) (g)

1 40 10

2 50 10

3 60 10

Experiment 1

## APPARATUS : Metre rule, stand, thread, slotted weights

PROCEDURE :

1) Make a loop and suspend the metre rule from the stand using the loop till it balances.
2) Note the mark at which the metre rule balances. This is the position of the centre of gravity of
the mere rule.
3) Now, suspend the metre rule such that the fulcrum is 10 cm away from the position of centre of
gravity. For example, if the centre of gravity is at the 50 cm mark, the fulcrum should be placed
at the 40 cm mark.
4) Suspend slotted weights to a total of 40 gf on the left of the fulcrum such that the metre rule
balances.
5) Note the mark at which the metre rule balances.
6) Determine the distance y between this mark and the fulcrum.
7) Determine the weight of the metre rule using the formula
!!!
Weight of metre rule =
!

## where W is the total slotted weight suspended,

y is the distance between fulcrum and weight W
x is the distance between fulcrum and centre of gravity
8) Repeat steps 3 to 7 for W = 50 gf and W = 60 gf respectively.
9) Determine the mean weight of the metre rule in gf.
10) Now, determine the mass of the metre rule in grams and record it in the observation table.

INFERENCE : As per the observation table, the mass of the metre rule is ______________ g.

VERIFICATION OF OHM’S LAW

Range of voltmeter : ____________________ V

## Range of ammeter : ____________________ A

Least count of voltmeter : _____________________V
Least count of ammeter : _____________________A

ObsNo. R = (Ω)
(V) (A) 𝑰 (Ω)

Experiment 2

## To determine the resistance of the unknown resistor

APPARATUS : Battery, ammeter, voltmeter, rheostat, key, connecting wire, unknown resistance

PROCEDURE :
11) Connect the circuit as shown in the diagram.
12) Adjust the slider over the rheostat such that a definite amount of current flows through the
circuit.
13) Record the current I in the ammeter.
14) Record the potential difference V across the unknown resistor.
15) Calculate the resistance R of the unknown resistor using the formula R = V/I.
16) Repeat steps 2 to 5 for four different values of current.
17) Plot a graph of V against I.
18) Determine the slope of the graph.

INFERENCE : The graph of V against I is a straight line. Hence Ohm’s law is verified.
The resistance as determined by different methods is as follows.

## By calculating mean R = _______________________ (Ω)

By slope of graph = _______________________ (Ω)

RESISTANCE IN SERIES

Range of voltmeter : ____________________ V

## Range of ammeter : ____________________ A

Least count of voltmeter : _____________________V

## Least count of ammeter : _____________________A

e.m.f. of battery : _____________________V

RC = V I 𝑽 Mean R
ObsNo. R1 (Ω) R2 (Ω) RM = (Ω)
R1 + R2 (Ω) (V) (A) 𝑰 (Ω)

1 5 5 10 1

2 5 5 10 1.5

3 5 5 10 2

4 5 5 10 2.5

Experiment 3

## APPARATUS : Battery, ammeter, voltmeter, rheostat, key, connecting wire, 2 resistors of

5 Ω each

PROCEDURE :
19) Mark the resistors as R1 and R2.
20) Connect resistors R1 and R2 as shown in the circuit diagram.
21) Adjust the slider over the rheostat such that a definite amount of voltage from the battery is
available for both the resistors.
22) Record the current I in the ammeter.
23) Using the values of V and I obtained from the experiment, calculate the resistance RM using the
formula R = V/I.
24) Repeat steps 3 to 6 for three more value of voltage.

## Measured value equivalent resistance of RM = _______________________ (Ω)

Within limits of experimental accuracy, the combined resistance of resistors in series obtained is
equal to that stated by the law of combination of resistances in series (R = R1 + R2).

RESISTANCE IN PARALLEL

Range of voltmeter : ____________________ V
Range of ammeter : ____________________ A

## Least count of voltmeter : _____________________V

Least count of ammeter : _____________________A

## e.m.f. of battery : _____________________V

𝑹𝟏 𝑹𝟐
RC = V I 𝑽 Mean R
RM = (Ω)
𝑹𝟏 !𝑹𝟐
Obs No. R1 (Ω) R2 (Ω)
(V) (A) 𝑰 (Ω)
(Ω)

1 5 5 2.5 1

2 5 5 2.5 1.5

3 5 5 2.5 2

4 5 5 2.5 2.5

Experiment 4

## APPARATUS : Battery, ammeter, voltmeter, rheostat, key, connecting wire, 2 resistors of

5 Ω each

PROCEDURE :
25) Mark the resistors as R1 and R2.
26) Connect resistors R1 and R2 as shown in the circuit diagram.
27) Adjust the slider over the rheostat such that a definite amount of voltage from the battery is
available for both the resistors.
28) Record the current I in the ammeter.
29) Using the values of V and I obtained from the experiment, calculate the resistance RM using the
formula R = V/I.
30) Repeat steps 3 to 6 for three more values of voltage.

## INFERENCE : Calculated value of equivalent resistance Rc = _______________________ (Ω)

Measured value equivalent resistance of RM = _______________________ (Ω)

Within limits of experimental accuracy, the combined resistance of resistors in parallel obtained is
equal to that stated by the law of combination of resistances in parallel
! ! ! !
= + + + ⋯
! !! !! !!