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# Solutions Manual for Power System Analysis And Design 5th Edition by Glover

INSTRUCTOR'S SOLUTIONS MANUAL

TO ACCOMPANY

POWER SYSTEM

ANALYSIS AND DESIGN

FIFTH EDITION

J. DUNCAN GLOVER

MULUKUTLA S. SARMA

THOMAS J. OVERBYE

Contents

Chapter 2                  1

Chapter 3                  27

Chapter 4                  71

Chapter 5                  95

Chapter 6                   137

Chapter 7                           175

Chapter 8                          195

Chapter 9                             231

Chapter 10                           303

Chapter 11                  323

Chapter 12                  339

Chapter 13                  353

Chapter 14                  379

Chapter 2
Fundamentals

## ANSWERS TO MULTIPLE-CHOICE TYPE QUESTIONS

2.1 b 2.19 a
2.2 a 2.20 A. c
2.3 c B. a
2.4 a C. b
2.5 b 2.21 a
2.6 c 2.22 a
2.7 a 2.23 b
2.8 c 2.24 a
2.9 a 2.25 a
2.10 c 2.26 b
2.11 a 2.27 a
2.12 b 2.28 b
2.13 b 2.29 a
2.14 c 2.30 (i) c
2.15 a (ii) b
2.16 b (iii) a
2.17 A. a (iv) d
B. b 2.31 a
C. a 2.32 a
2.18 c

1
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2.1 (a) A1 = 5∠30° = 5 [ cos30° + j sin 30°] = 4.33 + j 2.5
4
(b) A2 = −3 + j 4 = 9 + 16 ∠ tan −1 = 5 ∠126.87° = 5e j126.87°
−3
(c) A3 = ( 4.33 + j 2.5 ) + ( −3 + j 4 ) = 1.33 + j 6.5 = 6.635∠78.44°
(d) A4 = ( 5∠30° )( 5 ∠126.87° ) = 25 ∠156.87° = −22.99 + j 9.821
(e) A5 = ( 5∠30° ) / ( 5∠ − 126.87° ) = 1∠156.87° = 1 e j156.87°

## 2.2 (a) I = 400∠ − 30° = 346.4 − j 200

(b) i(t ) = 5sin (ω t + 15° ) = 5cos (ω t + 15° − 90° ) = 5cos (ω t − 75° )

I = 5

## (c) I = ( 4 2 ) ∠ − 30° + 5∠ − 75° = ( 2.449 − j1.414 ) + (1.294 − j 4.83 )

= 3.743 − j 6.244 = 7.28∠ − 59.06°

## 2.3 (a) Vmax = 359.3V; I max = 100 A

(b) V = 359.3 2 = 254.1V; I = 100 2 = 70.71A
(c) V = 254.1∠15° V; I = 70.71 ∠ − 85° A

− j6 6∠ − 90°
2.4 (a) I1 = 10∠0° = 10 = 7.5∠ − 90° A
8 + j6 − j6 8
I 2 = I − I1 = 10∠0° − 7.3∠ − 90° = 10 + j 7.5 = 12.5∠36.87° A
V = I 2 ( − j 6 ) = (12.5∠36.87° ) ( 6∠ − 90° ) = 75∠ − 53.13° V
(b)

## 2.5 (a) υ (t ) = 277 2 cos (ω t + 30° ) = 391.7cos (ω t + 30° ) V

(b) I = V / 20 = 13.85∠30° A
i(t ) = 19.58cos (ω t + 30° ) A

2
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(c) Z = jω L = j ( 2π 60 ) (10 × 10 −3 ) = 3.771∠90° Ω
I = V Z = ( 277 ∠30° ) ( 3.771 ∠90° ) = 73.46 ∠ − 60° A
i(t ) = 73.46 2 cos (ω t − 60° ) =103.9cos (ω t − 60° ) A
(d) Z = − j 25 Ω
I = V Z = ( 277∠30° ) ( 25∠ − 90° ) = 11.08∠120° A
i(t ) = 11.08 2 cos (ω t + 120° ) = 15.67cos (ω t + 120° ) A

## 2.6 (a) V = 100 ( )

2 ∠ − 30°= 70.7∠ − 30° ; ω does not appear in the answer.

## (b) υ (t ) = 100 2 cos (ω t + 20° ) ; with ω = 377,

υ (t ) = 141.4 cos ( 377t + 20° )
(c) A = A∠α ; B = B∠β ; C = A + B
c(t ) = a(t ) + b(t ) = 2 Re Ce jωt 
The resultant has the same frequency ω.

## 2.7 (a) The circuit diagram is shown below:

(b) Z = 3 + j8 − j 4 = 3 + j 4 = 5∠53.1° Ω
(c) I = (100∠0° ) ( 5∠53.1° ) = 20∠ − 53.1° A
The current lags the source voltage by 53.1°
Power Factor = cos53.1° = 0.6 Lagging

## 2.8 Z LT = j ( 377 ) ( 30.6 × 10 −6 ) = j11.536 m Ω

Z LL = j ( 377 ) ( 5 × 10 −3 ) = j1.885 Ω
1
ZC = − j = − j 2.88 Ω
( 377 ) ( 921 × 10−6 )
120 2
V= ∠ − 30° V
2

3
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The circuit transformed to phasor domain is shown below:

## 2.9 KVL : 120∠0° = ( 60∠0° )( 0.1 + j 0.5 ) + VLOAD

∴ VLOAD = 120∠0° − ( 60∠0° )( 0.1 + j 0.5 )
= 114.1 − j 30.0 = 117.9∠ − 14.7° V ←

## 2.10 (a) p(t ) = υ (t )i(t ) = 359.3cos (ω t + 15° )  100 cos (ω t − 85° ) 

1
= ( 359.3)(100 ) cos100° + cos ( 2ω t − 70°) 
2
= −3120 + 1.797 × 10 4 cos ( 2ω t − 70° ) W
(b) P = VI cos (δ − β ) = ( 254.1)( 70.71) cos (15° + 85° )
= −3120 W Absorbed
= +3120 W Delivered
(c) Q = VI sin (δ − β ) = ( 254.1)( 70.71) sin100°
= 17.69 kVAR Absorbed
(d) The phasor current ( − I ) = 70.71∠ − 85° + 180° = 70.71 ∠ 95° A leaves the positive
terminal of the generator.
The generator power factor is then cos (15° − 95° ) = 0.1736 leading

## 2.11 (a) p(t ) = υ (t )i(t ) = 391.7 × 19.58cos2 (ω t + 30° )

1
= 0.7669 × 10 4   1 + cos ( 2ω t + 60° ) 
2
= 3.834 × 103 + 3.834 × 103 cos ( 2ω t + 60° ) W
P = VI cos (δ − β ) = 277 × 13.85cos0° = 3.836 kW
Q = VI sin (δ − β ) = 0 VAR
Source Power Factor = cos (δ − β ) = cos ( 30° − 30° ) = 1.0
(b) p(t ) = υ (t )i(t ) = 391.7 × 103.9cos (ω t + 30° ) cos (ω t − 60° )
1
= 4.07 × 10 4    cos90° + cos ( 2ω t − 30° ) 
2
= 2.035 × 10 cos ( 2ω t − 30° ) W
4

## P = VI cos (δ − β ) = 277 × 73.46 cos ( 30° + 60° ) = 0 W

4
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Q = VI sin (δ − β ) = 277 × 73.46 sin 90° = 20.35 kVAR
pf = cos (δ − β ) = 0 Lagging
(c) p(t ) = υ (t )i(t ) = 391.7 × 15.67 cos (ω t + 30° ) cos (ω t + 120° )
1
= 6.138 × 103   cos ( −90° ) + cos ( 2ω t + 150° )  = 3.069 × 103 cos ( 2ω t + 150° ) W
2
P = VI cos (δ − β ) = 277 × 11.08cos ( 30° − 120° ) = 0 W
Q = VI sin (δ − β ) = 277 × 11.08sin ( −90° )
= −3.069 kVAR Absorbed = +3.069 kVAR Delivered
pf = cos (δ − β ) = cos ( −90° ) = 0 Leading

## 2.12 (a) pR (t ) = ( 359.3cos ω t )( 35.93cos ω t )

= 6455 + 6455cos2ω t W
(b) px (t ) = ( 359.3cos ω t ) 14.37cos (ω t + 90° ) 
= 2582 cos ( 2cot + 90° )
= −2582sin 2ω t W

( 2)
2
(c) P = V 2 R = 359.3 10 = 6455 W Absorbed

X = ( 359.3 2 )
2
(d) Q = V 2 25 = 2582 VAR S Delivered

## (e) ( β − δ ) = tan −1 ( Q / P ) = tan −1 ( 2582 6455 ) = 21.8°

Power factor = cos (δ − β ) = cos ( 21.8° ) = 0.9285 Leading

## 2.13 Z = R − jxc = 10 − j 25 = 26.93 ∠ − 68.2° Ω

i(t ) = ( 359.3 / 26.93 ) cos (ω t + 68.2° )
= 13.34 cos (ω t + 68.2° ) A

## (a) pR (t ) = 13.34 cos (ω t + 68.2° )  133.4 cos (ω t + 68.2° ) 

= 889.8 + 889.8cos 2 (ω t + 68.2° )  W

## (b) px (t ) = 13.34 cos (ω t + 68.2° )  333.5cos (ω t + 68.2° − 90° ) 

= 2224sin  2 (ω t + 68.2° )  W

( 2 ) 10 = 889.8 W
2
(c) P = I 2 R = 13.34

2
2

## (e) pf = cos  tan −1 ( Q / P )  = cos  tan −1 (2224 / 889.8)

5
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2.14 (a) I = 4∠0° kA
V = Z I = ( 2∠ − 45° )( 4∠0° ) = 8∠ − 45° kV
υ (t ) = 8 2 cos (ω t − 45° ) kV
p(t ) = υ (t )i(t ) = 8 2 cos (ω t − 45° )   4 2 cos ω t 
  
1
= 64    cos ( −45° ) + cos ( 2ω t − 45° ) 
2
= 22.63 + 32 cos ( 2ω t − 45° ) MW
(b) P = VI cos (δ − β ) = 8 × 4 cos ( −45° − 0° ) = 22.63MW Delivered
(c) Q = VI sin (δ − β ) = 8 × 4sin ( −45° − 0° )
= −22.63 MVAR Delivered = + 22.63MVAR Absorbed
(d) pf = cos (δ − β ) = cos ( −45° − 0° ) = 0.707 Leading

2.15 (a) I =  4
 ( )
2 ∠60°

( 2∠30°) = 2 ∠30° A

## i(t ) = 2 cos (ω t + 30° ) A with ω = 377 rad/s

p(t ) = υ (t )i(t ) = 4 cos30° + cos ( 2ω t + 90° ) 
= 3.46 + 4 cos ( 2ω t + 90° ) W
(b) υ(t), i(t), and p(t) are plotted below: (See next page)
(c) The instantaneous power has an average value of 3.46 W, and the frequency is twice that
of the voltage or current.

6
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2.16 (a) Z = 10 + j 120 π × 0.04 = 10 + j15.1 = 18.1∠56.4° Ω
pf = cos56.4° = 0.553 Lagging
(b) V = 120 ∠0° V
The current supplied by the source is
I = (120 ∠0° ) (18.1∠56.4° ) = 6.63∠ − 56.4° A
The real power absorbed by the load is given by
P = 120 × 6.63 × cos56.4° = 440 W
which can be checked by I 2 R = ( 6.63 ) 10 = 440 W
2

## The reactive power absorbed by the load is

Q = 120 × 6.63 × sin 36.4° = 663VAR
(c) Peak Magnetic Energy = W = LI 2 = 0.04 ( 6.63 ) = 1.76 J
2

## Q = ωW = 377 × 1.76 = 663VAR is satisfied.

2
2.17 (a) S = V I * = Z I I * = Z I = jω LI 2
Q = Im[ S ] = ω LI 2 ←
di
(b) υ (t ) = L = − 2ω L I sin (ω t + θ )
dt
p(t ) = υ (t ) ⋅ i(t ) = −2ω L I 2 sin (ω t + θ ) cos (ω t + θ )
= −ω L I 2 sin 2 (ω t + θ ) ←
= − Q sin 2 (ω t + θ ) ←
Average real power P supplied to the inductor = 0 ←
Instantaneous power supplied (to sustain the changing energy in the magnetic field) has a
maximum value of Q. ←

2.18 (a) S = V I * = Z I I * = Re  Z I 2  + j Im  Z I 2 
= P + jQ
∴P = Z I 2 cos ∠Z ; Q = Z I 2 sin ∠Z ←
(b) Choosing i(t ) = 2 I cos ω t ,
Then υ (t ) = 2 Z I cos (ω t + ∠Z )
∴ p(t ) = υ (t ) ⋅ i(t ) = Z I 2 cos (ω t + ∠Z ) ⋅ cos ω t
= Z I 2 cos ∠Z + cos ( 2ω t + ∠Z ) 
= Z I 2 [ cos ∠Z + cos2ω t cos ∠Z − sin 2ω t sin ∠Z ]
= P (1 + cos2ω t ) − Q sin 2ω t ←

7
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1
(c) Z = R + jω L +
jωC
From part (a), P = RI 2 and Q = QL + QC
1 2
where QL = ω LI 2 and QC = − I
ωC
which are the reactive powers into L and C, respectively.
Thus p(t ) = P (1 + cos2ω t ) − QL sin 2ω t − QC sin 2ω t ←
If ω 2 LC = 1, QL + QC = Q = 0 
 ←
Then p(t ) = P (1 + cos2ω t ) 

*
 150  5 
2.19 (a) S = V I =  ∠10° 
*
∠ − 50°  = 375 ∠60°
 2  2 
= 187.5 + j 324.8
P = Re S = 187.5 W Absorbed
Q = Im S = 324.8 VAR SAbsorbed
(b) pf = cos ( 60° ) = 0.5 Lagging
(c) QS = P tan QS = 187.5 tan cos −1 0.9  = 90.81VAR S
QC = QL − QS = 324.8 − 90.81 = 234 VAR S

1 1
2.20 Y1 = = = 0.05∠ − 30° = ( 0.0433 − j 0.025 ) S = G1 − jB1
Z1 20∠30°
1 1
Y2 = = = 0.04∠ − 60° = ( 0.02 − j 0.03464 ) S = G2 + jB2
Z 2 25∠60°
P1 = V 2 G1 = (100 ) 0.0433 = 433 W Absorbed
2

2

2

## Q2 = V 2 B2 = (100 ) 0.03464 = 346.4 VAR SAbsorbed

2

8
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2.21 (a)

## φL = cos−1 0.6 = 53.13°

QL = P tan φL = 500 tan 53.13° = 666.7 kVAR
φS = cos−1 0.9 = 25.84°
QS = P tan φS = 500 tan 25.84° = 242.2 kVAR
QC = QL − QS = 666.7 − 242.2 = 424.5 kVAR
SC = QC = 424.5 kVA

## (b) The Synchronous motor absorbs Pm =

( 500 ) 0.746 = 414.4 kW and Q = 0 kVAR
m
0.9

## Source PF = cos  tan −1 ( 666.7 914.4 )  = 0.808 Lagging

1 1 1
2.22 (a) Y1 = = = = 0.2∠ − 53.13°
Z1 ( 3 + j 4 ) 5∠53.13°
= ( 0.12 − j 0.16 ) S
1 1
Y2 = = = 0.1S
Z 2 10
P 1100
P = V 2 ( G1 + G2 )  V = = = 70.71 V
G1 + G2 ( 0.12 + 0.1)
P1 = V 2 G1 = ( 70.71) 0.12 = 600 W
2

2

## (b) Yeq = Y1 + Y2 = ( 0.12 − j 0.16 ) + 0.1 = 0.22 − j 0.16

= 0.272∠ − 36.03° S
I S = V Yeq = 70.71( 0.272 ) = 19.23 A

9
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2.23 S = V I * = (120∠0° )(10∠ − 30° ) = 1200∠ − 30°
= 1039.2 − j 600
P = Re S = 1039.2 W Delivered
Q = Im S = −600 VAR S Delivered = +600 VAR SAbsorbed

## 2.24 S1 = P1 + jQ1 = 10 + j 0; S2 = 10∠ cos−1 0.9 = 9 + j 4.359

10 × 0.746
S3 = ∠ − cos−1 0.95 = 9.238∠ − 18.19° = 8.776 − j 2.885
0.85 × 0.95
SS = S1 + S2 + S3 = 27.78 + j1.474 = 27.82 ∠3.04°
PS = Re(SS ) = 27.78 kW
QS = Im(SS ) = 1.474 kVAR
SS = SS = 27.82 kVA

## 2.25 SR = VR I * = RI I * = I 2 R = (20)2 3 = 1200 + j 0

SL = VL I * = ( jX L I )I * = jX L I 2 = j8(20)2 = 0 + j 3200
SC = VC I * = (− jIXC )I * = − jX C I 2 = − j 4(20)2 = 0 − j1600

Power Triangle:

## Complex power delivered by the source is

SSOURCE = V I * = (100 ∠0° )( 20∠ − 53.1° ) = 2000∠53.1°
*

The complex power delivered by the source is equal to the total complex power absorbed by

## 2.26 (a) The problem is modeled as shown in figure below:

PL = 120 kW
pfL = 0.85Lagging
θ L = cos−1 0.85 = 31.79°

10
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QL = PL tan ( 31.79° )
SL = PL + jQL = 141.18∠31.79° kVA
I = SL / V = 141,180 / 480 = 294.13A = 74.364 kVAR

## Real power loss in the line is zero.

Reactive power loss in the line is QLINE = I 2 X LINE = ( 294.13 ) 1
2

= 86.512 kVAR
∴ SS = PS + jQS = 120 + j ( 74.364 + 86.512 ) = 200.7∠53.28° kVA
The input voltage is given by VS = SS / I = 682.4 V (rms)
The power factor at the input is cos53.28° = 0.6 Lagging
(b) Applying KVL, VS = 480 ∠0° + j1.0 ( 294.13∠ − 31.79° )
= 635 + j 250 = 682.4∠21.5° V (rms)
( pf )S = cos ( 21.5° + 31.79° ) = 0.6 Lagging

## 2.27 The circuit diagram is shown below:

Pold = 50 kW; cos−1 0.8 = 36.87° ; θOLD = 36.87°; Qold = Pold tan (θ old )
= 37.5 kVAR
∴ Sold = 50,000 + j 37,500

## θ new = cos−1 0.95 = 18.19°; Snew = 50,000 + j 50,000 tan (18.19° )

= 50,000 + j16, 430
Hence Scap = Snew − Sold = − j 21,070 VA
21,070
∴C = = 1155μ F ←
( 377 )( 220 )
2

11
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2.28 S1 = 12 + j 6.667
S2 = 4 ( 0.96 ) − j 4 sin ( cos −1 0.96 )  = 3.84 − j1.12
S3 = 15 + j 0
STOTAL = S1 + S2 + S3 = ( 30.84 + j 5.547 ) kVA
(i) Let Z be the impedance of a series combination of R and X
*
V  V2
Since S = V I * = V   = * , it follows that
Z  Z

( 240 )
2
V2
Z =*
= = (1.809 − j 0.3254) Ω
S ( 30.84 + j 5.547 )103
∴ Z = (1.809 + j 0.3254 ) Ω ←

## (ii) Let Z be the impedance of a parallel combination of R and X

( 240 )
2

Then R= = 1.8677 Ω
( 30.84 )103
( 240 )
2

X= = 10.3838 Ω
( 5.547 )103
∴ Z = (1.8677 j10.3838 ) Ω ←

2.29 Since complex powers satisfy KCL at each bus, it follows that
S13 = (1 + j1) − (1 − j1) − ( 0.4 + j 0.2 ) = −0.4 + j1.8 ←
S31 = −S13* = 0.4 + j1.8 ←

## 2.30 (a) For load 1: θ1 = cos−1 (0.28) = 73.74° Lagging

S1 = 125∠73.74° = 35 + j120
S2 = 10 − j 40
S3 = 15 + j 0
STOTAL = S1 + S2 + S3 = 60 + j80 = 100∠53.13° kVA = P + jQ
∴ PTOTAL = 60 kW; QTOTAL = 80 kVAR; kVA TOTAL = STOTAL = 100 kVA. ←
Supply pf = cos ( 53.13° ) = 0.6 Lagging ←
S * 100 × 103 ∠ − 53.13°
(b) ITOTAL = = = 100∠ − 53.13° A
V* 1000∠0°

12
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Solutions Manual for Power System Analysis And Design 5th Edition by Glover

At the new pf of 0.8 lagging, PTOTAL of 60kW results in the new reactive power Q′ , such
that
θ ′ = cos−1 ( 0.8 ) = 36.87°

## and Q′ = 60 tan ( 36.87° ) = 45 kVAR

∴ The required capacitor’s kVAR is QC = 80 − 45 = 35 kVAR ←

V 2 (1000 )
2

## It follows then XC = * = = − j 28.57 Ω

SC j 35000
106
and C= = 92.85μ F ←
2π ( 60 )( 28.57 )
S ′* 60,000 − j 45,000
The new current is I ′ = = = 60 − j 45 = 75∠ − 36.87° A
V* 1000∠0°
The supply current, in magnitude, is reduced from 100A to 75A ←

V1∠δ1 − V2 ∠δ 2  V1  V
2.31 (a) I12 = =  ∠δ1 − 90°  − 2 ∠δ 2 − 90°
X ∠90° X  X
V V 
Complex power S12 = V1 I12* = V1∠δ1  1 ∠90° − δ1 − 2 ∠90° − δ 2 
X X 
2
V1 V1V2
= ∠90° − ∠90° + δ1 − δ 2
X X
∴ The real and reactive power at the sending end are
V12 VV
P12 = cos90° − 1 2 cos ( 90° + δ1 − δ 2 )
X X
V1V2
= sin (δ1 − δ 2 ) ←
X
V12 VV
Q12 = sin 90° − 1 2 sin ( 90° + δ1 − δ 2 )
X X
V
= 1 V1 − V2 cos (δ1 − δ 2 )  ←
X
Note: If V1 leads V2 , δ = δ1 − δ 2 is positive and the real power flows from node 1 to
node 2. If V1 Lags V2 , δ is negative and power flows from node 2 to node 1.
(b) Maximum power transfer occurs when δ = 90° = δ1 − δ 2 ←
V1V2
PMAX = ←
X
2.32 4 Mvar minimizes the real power line losses, while 4.5 Mvar minimizes the MVA power flow
into the feeder.

13
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