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Chapter 2

Review of Related Literature

Foreign Literature

The last serious sports victory achieved by Goris residents was in 1993
when the local Zangezour football team won the Armenian championship.
Today, Goris school students take gym 2-3 times a week. Even though the
schools have gymnasiums, due to a lack of proper financing, the sports
equipment is either lacking or on the verge of disrepair. According to Vrezh
Davtyan, there is no supervision when it comes to sports education in
schools; either from the Ministry of Education and Science or on a regional
level. “The students not only do not attend gym classes, but they have no
basic knowledge on the subject,” he says. The Goris Municipality runs two
sports related facilities: the Goris Youth Sports School, the Albert Ordyan
Chess School (Matevosyan, 2014).

Foreign Literature

Gulhane (2014) mainly exposed the problems and of facilities and

equipment in physical education colleges. The objective of this article is to
study the problems for facilities and equipment available in physical
education colleges and to focus on the goal for improving the quality of
teaching and learning in physical education. It also discussed the poor
maintenance culture of facilities, and equipment. Based on the data analysis
and discussion, it was concluded that improvisation is very necessary
because of the growing number of enrolment of students, the reduced
amount spent on facilities and equipment in PE colleges and Recruitment of
qualified faculties. Also equipment such as balls, nets, javelin, rackets,
hockey sticks, bats, gymnastic and athletic (track and field) materials,
requires either purchasing, replacement or repairs either purchasing,
replacement or repairs.
Foreign Literature

According to Rajitha (2016) It is not easy. But with extreme dedication,

para-athletes have made the country proud at the 2016 Summer Paralympic
Games held in Rio de Janeiro, Brazil. While para-athletes are vocal about the
lack of support, resources and funds, special schools have a different set of
problems. Though children with special needs show enthusiasm and signs of
development while at play, lack of facilities is a major hurdle before them. Sai
Baba Goud, chairman of Devnar Foundation for the Blind here, said that, lack
of a proper ground facility makes training a difficult job. He also said that they
do this to encourage children. They are also enthusiastic about swimming
and running races, among others. But for them to regularly pursue such
activities is a problem because they do not have a proper playground.

Foreign Literature

In the report of Giliard (2018), Machipi Primary School in Ifakara Town

Council, in Morogoro Region, During break time, pupils are sitting under a
tree instead of playing. Although they were supposed to be at ground,
playing, their tale is vice-versa. Most of male pupils said that they don’t have
jerseys and balls to play, and also female pupils also have similar story that
told when asked why they are not participating in any sports and games.
Some pupils loves netball, but not playing the game, because school lacks
facilities including a ground and ball. The Sports and Game Master, said that
pupils are not participating actively in any sports. Despite the fact that the
government released some funds to cater for various school expenses
including learning and teaching materials. Despite receiving capitation grants
in time and reliably, lack of sports equipment and facilities is their common
problem and features also in other Primary Schools in Kilombero and Ifakara
Foreign Literature

In addition, Maqsood (2018) wrote a news about the importance of

extra-curricular activities such as sports in schools goes beyond the physical
exercise aspect. Many sports help teach discipline and perseverance.
Continuously being taught in a classroom can take a toll on students’ mental
well being, so sports provide them a much needed break while also
providing them with added skills. It is important for schools to ensure that
they have sport facilities. Government Boys Middle School in Singanisar,
Turbat, lacks sports facilities. As a student of the school, He had requested
the principal to provide them with facilities for sports and games. He replied
a school exists to provide education and it is not supposed to be a place for
sports. Every year funds are allocated specifically to provide them with sport
facilities. This raises the question where are these funds being used? The
school also doesn’t have a playground where they can play. The
management has promised time and again to provide them with a
playground but it never materials.
Foreign Study
In recent years, Bamidele et al. (2016) The study assessed the lack of
sports equipment as constraints to the teaching and learning of physical
education in secondary schools in Kogi state, Nigeria. The study revealed
that the lack of sports equipment is a significant constraint to the teaching
and learning of physical education in secondary schools in Kogi State,
Nigeria. The result also revealed that the lack of sports equipment
significantly influences the teaching and learning of physical education in the
secondary schools in Kogi State. The study recommends that the Kogi State
Sports Council should be well equipped with the standard sports equipment
so that secondary schools can purchase from them basic sporting
equipment’s needed to teach the physical education at a reasonable price. e
population of the study consisted of schools principals, teachers and the
games masters/mistresses in Kogi State.

Foreign Study
The study conducted by Sanni et al. (2018) presents the results of a
survey that provides insights on the effect of inadequate sporting facilities and
equipment on the development of sports in primary schools in Bwari Area
Council, FCT-Abuja, Nigeria. The study identifies the factors that influence
non-participation of schools in this Area council in sport competitions. The
results from the study show that the pupils’ interest and performance in sports
depend largely on the availability of sports equipment. The findings from this
study reveal that the poor performance of the pupils in sports can be
traceable to the inadequate sports equipment in various schools. There is
therefore, a need for the Area Council to ensure that the basic or required
sports equipment are put in place in primary schools, to help enhance the
performance of pupils socially, mentally and academically.

Foreign Study
The study of D Metri and Patil (2016) is to find out sports facilities in the
aided and government high schools. The study is restricted to Koppal taluk
only to find out the sports facilities, survey method was used to collect the
data. The study investigate physical education and sports facilities available
in Government and aided high schools of Koppal taluka. The finding of the
study indicate that none of the high schools have got full staff members,
teaching as well as physical, ground men, and librarian. All high schools are
lacking with physical education books, magazines and journals. Very few high
schools have got well qualified few staff members for teaching. The physical
education teachers are having CP.Ed and BP.Ed and MP.Ed qualifications. In
connection with equipment’s, none of the high schools have got enough
playing equipment’s and they do not have sufficient facilities for play grounds.
All most all the high schools do not have the enough equipment facilities. This
is due to the fact that lack of money and lack of well qualified staff members.
To improve the physical education and sports programs government must
provide sufficient funds and should appoint qualified staff.

Foreign Study
The paper of Nkosi (2015) explores the gendered implications of the
South African University student teachers’ experiences in teaching Physical
Education in grade ten of Curriculum and Assessment Policy Statement
(CAPS) in Pinetown District, South Africa. The study was conducted with
eight grade ten Life Orientation teachers who are teaching PE in schools
within Pinetown district in KwaZulu-Natal, South Africa. Study revealed that
SA University student teachers experienced a myriad of challenges in
teaching Physical Education which is part of Life Orientation in grade ten of
(CAPS). One of the findings of the study revealed that research participants
indicated that the biggest challenge that they were faced with was the lack of
sporting equipment such as a variety of sporting fields to cater for the variety
of sport’s codes to mention a few netball ground, soccer field, swimming pool,
rugby field, hockey, tennis court etc. Although most of the student teachers
mentioned that the University teaches them strategies to improvise where
there is a lack of resources, but still they mentioned that they still found it very
difficult to cope with such a challenge.

Foreign Study
The study of Weldeslassiea (2017) is to compare the management
challenges such as lack of facilities, equipment and Finance in the youth and
sport offices of Mekelle and Central Zones. The purpose of this study was to
compare the management challenges such as lack of facilities, equipment
and finance in the youth and sport offices of Mekelle and Central Zones.
Central Zone showed significantly better result than Mekelle Zone in relation
to their sport facilities. The result and finding of this study was supported by
Christopher et al., (2015) concluded that facilities/equipment is a predictor of
sports development. The study revealed that the status of spots development
was low due to inadequate facilities. Central Zone showed significantly better
result than Mekelle Zone in relation to their sports equipment. Based on the
data collected using interview, 100% of the interviewees responded as there
was lack of good quality and quantities of sports equipment in Mekelle zone.
Whereas most of the interviewees (80%) in the youth and sport offices of
Central Zone responded as there was no shortage of sport equipment but
there was a problem on the qualities.
Local Literature

Binaohan and Ocampo (2010) Physical education (PE) is one of the

most anticipated subjects by students since it helps relieve stress from the
usual school grind of projects and papers. But how can the students enjoy PE
if their school lacks sports facilities because of fund shortage? According to
Chief Engineer Oliver Hernandez of the Department of Education ( DepEd)-
Physical Facilities and School’s Engineering Division ( PFSED), the
government focuses more on building infrastructure and classrooms for
academic purposes, which he said are not even adequate in some parts of
the country. Hernandez said that there’s not enough budget. the budget is
solely for classroom education, nothing for sports development. Even if
there’s an urge to make sports facilities a priority, if they lack the budget, it is
Local Literature

Local Literature

Local Literature

Local Literature
Local Study

The descriptive study of Warlen Alejandria aimed to assess the common

problems encountered by athletes at John B. Lacson Foundation Maritime
University-Molo. The athletes of different sports such as basketball, sepak
takraw, swimming, volleyball and table tennis were the respondents of this
study. The common problems in terms of sports facilities used by athletes in
JBLFMU-Molo were the subject of the evaluation. There was “slightly serious
problem” in terms of common problems on sports facilities as perceived by
the athletes. The results of the study showed that among the common
problems, the area of concern that was rated as “very serious problem” is no
lockers for athletes’. The common problems rated as “not a problem” were
incomplete playing equipment, substandard equipment, there are
sharp/dangerous objects at the area, too old facilities and equipment, and
damaged floor/tiles. (n.p.,n.d.)

Local study
(Mendoza and Ona Jr.,2019) The study aimed to assess the activities on
team sports for MAPEH in selected junior high schools in Rosario District.
Specifically, the study focused the extent of conduct of physical education
activities as assessed by teacher respondents and the problems encountered
in teaching physical education activities. The findings showed that physical
activities under team sports were conducted to a moderate extent with only
futsal activities were conducted to the least extent and the most pressing
issue of the respondents in teaching physical activities was the lack of
equipment and insufficient facilities. The study found out the lack of materials
for sports competition, insufficient facilities and equipment. And lack of
training and seminars related to sports was also an issue. Therefore it was
clear that there were limited materials or equipment for sports which could be
attributed to the limited budget provided among schools. On the other hand,
the study recommended that physical education teachers should work
together to provide innovative and supplemental activities in team sports that
can be applied and implemented in the public schools located in Rosario
Local Study
This research endeavors to assess the physical education program of
state universities in Isabela. In the light of the foregoing findings, these
conclusions were drawn: The guideline on the faculty recruitment was not
implemented since there are only two faculty members out of the 34
completed their Master of Arts in Education with Specialization in Physical
Education. This was further confirmed by the alternative solutions presented
when the respondent gave the qualitative description of Urgent on this
aspect. The strength of the program in physical education was on methods
and styles of teaching while the weakest aspect was on the lack inadequacy
of facilities and equipment. Another strong point was on the objectives of
intramurals when they rated all items with verbal interpretation of always
Since the most neglected aspect of CSPE is on facilities and equipment,
school administrators should increase the budget allocated for the installation
of the same and procurement of equipment and supplies.

Local Study

Local Study

Foreign Literature

Gulhane, T. F. 2014.”Need For Advanced Facilities and Equipments in

Physical Education Colleges.” IOSR Journal of Sports and Physical
Education. www.iosrjournal.org

Giliard, S. 13 December 2018. “Hats Off For Timely Capitation Grants, But
Sports Underfunded. https://dailynews.co.tz/assets/news/img/dailynewz.png

Matevosyan, M. February 2014.”Goris Sports Schools: Inadequate Facilities

and Lack of Resources Lead to Dropping Enrollment.”

Maqsood, M. November 16, 2018. “Lack of sport facilities”. The Express

Tribune. https://tribune.com.pk/

Rajitha, S. “Lack of sports facilities a hurdle for special schools”. September

2016. Express News Service.
Foreign Study

Bamidele, B. B., Bamidele, O. B., & Obaseki, S. J. 2016. Assessment of the

Lack of Sports Equipment as Constraint to the Teaching and Learning of
Physical Education in the Secondary Schools in Kogi state, Nigeria.
International Journal of Scientific Research in Education.

Caleb Ede, Fashina, A. A., and Sanni, D. M. 2018. A study on the effects of
inadequate sport equipment and facilities on sports development and
academic performance in primary schools: a case study of Bwari area council
of Abuja-Nigeria. SPC Journal of Education.

Mondal, S. SHasranib, S. Weldeslassiea, S. 2017. Comparative Study On

Management Challenges In Youth And Sport Offices Of Mekelle And Central
Zones In Tigrai Regional State. International Journal of Health, Physical
Education and Computer Science in Sports.

Nkosi, M. 2015. Student Teachers’ Experiences of Teaching Physical

Education of Curriculum and Assessment Policy Statement (CAPS):
Exploring the Gendered Implications. Internatinal Journal Educational

Patil, S. and D Metri, V. 2016. A Survey Of Physical Education And Sports

Facilities And Achievement In Government And Aided High Schools At
Koppal Taluk. International Journal of Applied Research.
Local Literature

Binaohan, K. B. R. and Ocampo, M. K. J. 11 June 2010. “Public Schools

Lack Facilities For Sports”. www.pressreader.com
Republic of the Philippines
Caraga Administrative Region
Division of Surigao del Sur
Cortes II District
Burgos, Cortes, Surigao del Sur

Local Study

Alejandria, W. R. Common Problems Encountered By Athletes In The

Utilization Of Sports Facilities And Equipment Of John B. Lacson Foundation
Maritime University-Molo, Philippines.

Mendoza, D. M. and Ona, Jr. M. M. 2019. Team Sports Activities for MAPEH
in Selected Junior High Schools in Rosario District. International Journal of
Recent Innovations in Academic Research.

Cariaga, J. N. 2014. The Physical Education Program of State Universities in

Isabela: An Assessment. Research Journal of Physical Education Sciences.